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Lemon juice antioxidant activity against oxidative stress

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This study is conducted to evaluate the therapeutic and antioxidant effect of lemon juice on some hematological and biochemical parameters. Thirty female mice used in this study were exposed to oxidative stress through giving them hydrogen peroxide in drinking water for 30 days. Animals randomly distributed over 3 groups, each group contained 10 animals and treated as follows: T1 control group (drinking distilled water only), T2 (0.75% hydrogen peroxide in drinking water) and T3 (0.75% hydrogen peroxide in drinking water with daily drenching with 1 mL lemon juice). At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from animals for evaluating the following hematological and biochemical parameters: Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cells count (RBC), white blood cells count (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet count (PLT), level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total protein. The results showed that T3 exhibited an enhancement in RBC count, Hb concentration, WBC, lymphocyte and total protein and reduction in the level of AST and ALT compared to T2. These findings clearly revealed the advance protective and antioxidant features of lemon juice on hematological and biochemical parameters of the oxidatively stressed female mice.
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Open Access Baghdad Science Journal P-ISSN: 2078-8665
2020, 17(1) Supplement (March):207-213 E-ISSN: 2411-7986
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DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.21123/bsj.2020.17.1(Suppl.).0207
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Lemon juice antioxidant activity against oxidative stress
Safaa H. Ali 1* Qayssar A. Obaid 2 Khairi G. Awaid 3
Received 5/2/2019, Accepted 19/8/2019, Published 18/3/2020
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Abstract:
This study is conducted to evaluate the therapeutic and antioxidant effect of lemon juice on some
hematological and biochemical parameters. Thirty female mice used in this study were exposed to oxidative
stress through giving them hydrogen peroxide in drinking water for 30 days. Animals randomly distributed
over 3 groups, each group contained 10 animals and treated as follows: T1 control group (drinking distilled
water only), T2 (0.75% hydrogen peroxide in drinking water) and T3 (0.75% hydrogen peroxide in drinking
water with daily drenching with 1 mL lemon juice). At the end of the experiment, blood samples were
collected from animals for evaluating the following hematological and biochemical parameters:
Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cells count (RBC), white blood cells count (WBC), packed cell
volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular
hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet count (PLT), level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine
aminotransferase (ALT) and total protein. The results showed that T3 exhibited an enhancement in RBC
count, Hb concentration, WBC, lymphocyte and total protein and reduction in the level of AST and ALT
compared to T2. These findings clearly revealed the advance protective and antioxidant features of lemon
juice on hematological and biochemical parameters of the oxidatively stressed female mice.
Key words: Antioxidants, Biochemical, Hematological, Lemon juice, Oxidative Stress.
Introduction:
Oxidative stress is an imbalance between
oxidants and antioxidants levels in biological
systems (1). Highly reactive atoms or molecules
such as free radicals and reactive oxygen species
(ROS) are the main cause of oxidative stress. These
reactive species can be formed when oxygen
interacts with certain molecules and when a cellular
macromolecule accepting or losing a single electron
therefore, behaving as oxidants or reductants and
subsequently cause cellular damage (2-4). Modern
lifestyle and eating habits are the most common
oxidative stress inducers. Thus, researchers become
more interested in rich antioxidants foods such as
fruits and vegetables in particularly lemon juice that
is showing highly protective features for human
health against oxidative-stress related diseases (5,
6).
1 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Thi-Qar,
Al-Shatrah, Thi-Qar, 64007 Iraq,
2 College of Agriculture, University of Sumer, Al-Rifaee,
Thi-Qar, 6400 Iraq,
3Al-Shatrah Technical Institute, Southern Technical
University, Al-Shatrah, Thi-Qar, 64007 Iraq
* Corresponding author: safaa.ali@stu.edu.iq
*ORCID ID: 0000-0003-4924-7453
Fruit extracts that are rich in antioxidants
such as lemon juice were used as an effective agent
in decreasing intracellular ROS concentration and
protecting lipid, DNA and mitochondrial
functionality from the damage induced by free
radicals (7-9). Lemon fruit is the most important
field crop as it can be used in a wide array of
functions (10). For example, fresh consumption,
producing juicing, decorating dishes, culinary
products, preservatives to maintain food stability
(11-14). Moreover, it is showing various health
benefits, such as anticancer effect, antimicrobial
effect, lipid-lowering effect, protective effect
against cardiovascular diseases and antifungal
activity (5, 15, 16). Furthermore, it is utilised for the
treatment of stomach problem, constipation, teeth
problems, memory loss, fever, bleeding,
rheumatism, burns, breathing disorders, cholera,
atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, treating liver
ailments, promotes digestion and prevent urinary
tract infections (17-21). In addition, there are much
more applications such as cleaning agents and for
hair and skin care (11, 16).
Lemon juice has several important chemical
components with therapeutic features such as citric
acid (Vitamin C, 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-
propanetricarboxylic acid). Lemon juice also
Open Access Baghdad Science Journal P-ISSN: 2078-8665
2020, 17(1) Supplement (March):207-213 E-ISSN: 2411-7986
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contains high concentrations of polyphenols
including: rutin, hesperidin, flavonoids, tannins,
coumarins, quercitrin, quercetin, eriocitrin,
narirutin, didymin, naringin, neohesperidin,
chlorogenic acid, luteolin, kaempferol, monoterpene
hydrocarbons, γ-terpinene, β-pinene, sabinene, α-
pinene, and myrcene (10, 22-24). Micronutrients
such as magnesium, potassium, folic acid,
limonoids, xanthoxyletin, acids, volatile oils,
carotenoids, and glycosides have also been reported
in lemon juice. Moreover, a trace amount of waxes
are also present in lemon juice (24, 25). These
antioxidant are well-known in their elimination
effect for free radicals and prevent diseases
occurrence due to stress factors by alkalizing body
through their acidic nature (15, 26-29).
Therapeutic features of lemon juice belongs
to its component of citric acid. Around 5% of lemon
juice is citric acid (Vitamin C), which gives lemon a
sour taste (14, 30). Citric acid is classified as a weak
organic acid formed naturally in many fruits,
partially in citrus fruits, also found as a trivalent
anion in animal fluids and tissues. Citrate salts have
the ability to deliver minerals in biological systems
(31). The largest amount of citric acid in vivo is
related to ATP production in the citric acid cycle
(32). Citric acid has a strong inhibitory effect and an
efficient scavenger of reactive oxygen species
because it has ability to diffuse between the
membrane and exterior wall of the bacterial cell. As
a result the acid will accumulate in the cell
cytoplasm, and consequently acidification of the
cytoplasm, disruption of the proton motive force,
and inhibition of substrate transport (10, 26).
The present study is designed as a part of
the therapeutic approach to evaluate the antioxidant
effect of lemon juice in vivo on reduction of the
deleterious effect of oxidative stress induced by
hydrogen peroxide on some hematological and
biochemical parameters in female mice. Results of
this study could supply valuable information for our
society that promotes lemon juice as an essential
nutrient in the daily life.
Material and Methods:
Lemon juice preparation
Fresh Iraqi lemon fruits were brought from
the local market in Al-Rifaee town, Thi-Qar
province and washed with distilled water. Peels
were manually separated and pulps deseeded. Juice
was prepared by squashing the lemon pulps in a
blender to extract the juice, and then the juice was
filtered through a Whatman Filter Paper 42. Filtered
juice was collected in a dark high-density PVC
bottles (500 mL capacity) and kept overnight in the
refrigerator before use at (4 oC).
Animals management
Thirty adult Swiss white female mice, aged
10-16 weeks old (initial weight 20-25 g) were
brought from the animal house in College of
Science-Thi-Qar University for the experiment.
They were acclimatized for two weeks in plastic
cages with sawdust bedding in a quiet room and
given access to pelleted diet and water ad libitum.
The room temperature was controlled (20 ± 2 C),
and lights were on between 06:00 AM and 06:00
PM (12:12 h light: dark cycle). The mice were
divided randomly into three groups; each group
comprised of 10 animals. The study was conducted
in the animal house in the College of Agriculture,
University of Sumer and continued for 30 days from
20/3/2017 to 20/4/2017. The experimental protocol
was approved by the Ethics Review Committee for
Animal Experimentation of Sumer University.
Lemon juice and peroxide administration plan
The experiment was designed to have three
treatments for 30 days.
T1: drinking water without any addition (Control
group).
T2: 0.75% hydrogen peroxide in drinking water for
30 days.
T3: 0.75% hydrogen peroxide in drinking water and
daily drenching with 1 mL lemon juice for 30 days
from 20/3/2017 to 20/4/2017.
Blood samples collection
Sample collection and animal handling
were approved in accordance with the CLSI
guideline H21-A5 (33). At the end of the
experiment (day 31 of experiment on Friday
21/04/2017), the mice were anesthetized with
chloroform and the blood collected directly from
the heart using syringes and needles. The collected
blood samples (1 ml) were divided equally into two
parts, the first was kept in well labelled (Tubes
numbered 1-10 for group T1, 11-20 for group T2
and 21-30 for group T3) ethylenediamine tetra-
acetic acid (EDTA) test tubes for hematological
traits evaluation Hb, RBC, WBC, PCV, MCV,
MCH, MCHC, PLT and the second part of blood
was placed in normal labelled test tubes (Tubes
numbered 31-40 for group T1, 41-50 for group T2
and 51-60 for group T3) for the separation of serum
by using centrifuge machine at 1500 rpm for 15
minutes, while the blood cells were discarded. The
serum was taken to the laboratory for the
assessment of biochemical traits (level of AST,
ALT and total protein).
Open Access Baghdad Science Journal P-ISSN: 2078-8665
2020, 17(1) Supplement (March):207-213 E-ISSN: 2411-7986
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Hematological investigation
The hematological parameters were
measured by a fully automatic hemocytometer
(MythicTM18 (Ringelsan CO. Turkey) in private
hematological laboratory (Al-Noor for
hematological and biochemical analysis). This
hematological analyser performed complete blood
count (CBC) on EDTA anticoagulated blood (34)
for counting the cellular blood components, the
MythicTM18 uses the impedance technique only.
The analysis then was completed within a few
minutes and the results printed directly from the
machine. Haemoglobin measured
spectrophotometrically (Cyanide-free method) by
the formation of oxyhemoglobin at 555 nm.
Hematocrit was measured by volume integration.
Biochemical analytical techniques
Liver function analyses were carried out to
determine the serum concentrations of total protein,
and the activities of liver enzymes AST and ALT.
Spectrophotometric method was employed to
determine these biochemical traits using a Helios
gamma UV visible spectrophotometer, Thermo
spectronic UK, by using diagnostic kits from
(Quimica Clinica Applicada, S. A. Spain). Total
protein was determined by the Biuret method (35).
Alanine and aspartate aminotransferases were
determined based on the colourimetric measurement
of hydrazone formed with 2,4-dinitrophenyl
hydrazine (36), alkaline phosphatase was
determined according to the phenolphthalein
monophosphate method (37) as manufacturer
instructions.
Statistical analysis
The collected data are analysed according
to statistical calculations of the mean value,
standard deviations (SD), standard errors (SE) of
the mean value and variability coefficient using
SPSS software version 21. Student’s t-test is
employed to check the significant difference among
results, and statistical significance is taken to be
indicated by P<0.05 while, P>0.05 considered non-
significant.
Results:
The results in Table 1 show no significant
differences between control group and T2 group in
the following traits: RBCs (8.78±0.14 and
8.36±0.21 vs. 7.34±0.15 respectively), Hb
(13.00±0.51 and 12.28±0.34 vs. 10.80±0.24
respectively), PCV% (41.74±0.58 and 41.10±0.38
vs. 37.50±0.32 respectively), while T1 group
showed significant decrease (P<0.05) compared to
control group and T2 group for the same
parameters.
Table 1. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and lemon juice on some hematological parameters.
Parameters
Mean ± SD*
T1
T2
T3
RBCs x106/mL
8.78±0.14a
7.34±0.15b
8.36±0.21a
Hb gm/Dl
13.00±0.50a
10.80±0.24b
12.28±0.34a
PCV%
41.74±0.58a
37.50±0.32b
41.10±0.38a
*Mean ± SD for 3 reduplications.
Mean values are preceded by different letters in same row indicate (P<0.05) probability as a significant difference.
T1 group exhibits significant increase
(P<0.05) (Table 2) compared to control group in
MCV (51.10±0.93 vs. 48.08±0.4), but no significant
difference can be found when compared to T2
(49.20±0.89). However, no significant difference
can be noticed among treatment in MCH (Table 2).
T1 group has decreased significantly in MCHC
compared to the control group (28.76 ± 0.48 vs.
31.06±0.95), but it shows non-significant difference
compared to T2 (29.82±0.60) (Table 2). Platelet
count in T1 shows significant increase (P<0.05)
compared to control and T2 groups (650.20±25.25
vs. 428.20±10.30 and 515.60±8.07 respectively)
(Table 2).
Table 2. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and lemon juice on some hematological parameters.
Parameters
T1
T2
T3
MCV
48.08±0.40b
51.10±0.93a
49.20±0.89ab
MCH
15.02±0.46a
14.68±0.29a
14.64±0.12a
MCHC
31.06±0.95a
28.76±0.48b
29.82±0.60ab
Platelet x103/mL
428.20±10.30c
650.20±25.25a
515.60±8.07b
*Mean ± SD for 3 reduplications.
Mean values are preceded by different letters in same row indicate (P<0.05) probability as a significant difference.
Open Access Baghdad Science Journal P-ISSN: 2078-8665
2020, 17(1) Supplement (March):207-213 E-ISSN: 2411-7986
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Results in Table 3 reveal significant decrease
in T1 group compared to control and T2 for WBCs
(4.80±0.26 vs. 7.46±0.29 and 7.28±0.26
respectively) and lymphocyte (70.08±0.54vs.
76.80±0.92 and 74.98±0.45 respectively) while,
granulocyte count shows significant increase
(P<0.05) among T1 group compared to control and
T2 (15.78±0.38 vs. 10.00±0.32 and 10.82±0.35
respectively). However, monocyte count did not
affect in all treatment groups and no significant
difference can be find among treatments (Table 3).
Table 3. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and lemon juice on WBCs and differential WBCs count.
Parameters
Mean ± SD*
T1
T2
T3
WBCs
7.46±0.29a
4.80±0.26b
7.28±0.26a
Lymphocyte
76.80±0.92a
70.08±0.54b
74.98±0.45a
Monocyte
13.20±0.70a
13.94±0.57a
13.80±0.34a
Granulocyte
10.00±0.32b
15.78±0.38a
10.82±0.35b
*Mean ± SD for 3 reduplications.
Mean values are preceded by different letters in same column indicate (P<0.05) probability as a significant difference.
The results in Table 4 reveal a significant
increase (P<0.05) in AST and ALT levels of T1
compared to control and T2 (89.18±2.60 vs.
41.76±0.88 and 47.93±1.31 respectively)
(106.10±2.23 vs. 51.60±0.99 and 56.81±1.32
respectively). While, total protein concentration for
T1 decreased significantly compared to control and
T2 (4.08±0.09 vs. 6.06±0.14 and 5.81±0.17
respectively).
Table 4. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and lemon juice on AST, ALT and total protein levels.
Parameters
Mean ± SD*
T1
T2
T3
AST U/L
41.76±0.88c
89.18±2.60a
47.93±1.31b
ALT U/L
51.60±0.99c
106.10±2.23a
56.81±1.32b
Total protein gm/DL
6.06±0.14a
4.08±0.09b
5.81±0.17a
*Mean ± SD for 3 reduplications.
Mean values are preceded by different letters in same row indicate (P<0.05) probability as a significant difference.
Discussion:
Effect of H2O2 and lemon juice on hematological
traits
The results presented above have clearly
showed treatment with hydrogen peroxide causes
deterioration in hematological parameters. Because
it causes oxidative stress due to liberation of
hydroxyl ion which has harmful effect on the
plasma membrane of RBCs causing aging and
deformities and finally death of cells (38). In
addition, free radicals combine with heme molecule
leading to a reduction in its concentration in RBCs
(39). Platelets count increment in mice treated with
H2O2 alone may refer to the fact that free radicals
cause enhancement in the count and activity of
platelets (40), while lemon juice inhibits clotting
and reduces activity of platelets (41). Addition of
lemon juice with hydrogen peroxide led to reduce
deterioration in blood parameters which
approximately returned to the normal values.
Improvement in hematological traits belongs to the
high content of natural antioxidant in lemon juice
such as Vit. C, flavonoids and alkaloid which
scavenge free radicals and reduce their harmful
effect on the body (42). Hemoglobin oxidation was
inhibited easily by flavonoids through the direct
binding to hemoglobin. In addition to flavonoids,
lemon juice exhibits therapeutic features by
improving erythrocytes levels (43). Phytochemical
components of lemon juice have played rules to
protect hemoglobin from oxidizing agents as a
result hemoglobin levels increased in the current
study. Increasing levels of hematocrit may be
related to the decrease in the destruction of RBC. It
is well known lemon juice has a high concentration
of antioxidants such as vitamin C that play ruled in
reducing destruction effect on RBC (44).
Effect of H2O2 and lemon juice on WBCs and
differential count
Results in Table 3 show exposing to H2O2
led to inhibit immunity through reducing WBCs and
lymphocyte count. This result is in agreement with
finding of (45). This reduction in WBCs and
lymphocyte count may be due to the damage of
DNA and cell membrane of WBCs, in addition
oxidative stress causes enhancement of cortisone
secretion which is considered as
immunosuppressive (46). This decrease in
immunity cell count was reversed to the normal
number by treatment with lemon juice due to its
content of natural antioxidants such as citrate, Vit.
Open Access Baghdad Science Journal P-ISSN: 2078-8665
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C, Vit. E and flavonoid (44). Functions of vitamin C
related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a
potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of
biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin
C contributes to immune defense by supporting
various cellular functions of both the innate and
adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports
epithelial barrier function against pathogens and
promotes the oxidant scavenging activity. Vitamin
C accumulates in phagocytic cells, such as
neutrophils, and can enhance chemotaxis,
phagocytosis. The role of vitamin C in lymphocytes
has been shown to enhance differentiation and
proliferation of cells likely due to its gene
regulating effects (47).
Effect of H2O2 and lemon juice on AST, ALT
and total protein
Our results exhibit significance increase in
the level of AST and ALT and reduction in the level
of total protein after H2O2 exposure which refers to
the liver damage caused by free radicals (hydroxyl
ion) and reduction in its function specially protein
formation (48, 49). Lemon juice reduces this
harmful effect of H2O2. Liver enzymes such as
ALT, AST, and ALP are known marker enzymes
for the assessment of the functional integrity of the
liver cells (50). These enzymes are usually raised in
acute hepatotoxicity or mild hepatocellular injury,
vitamins C and E have hepatoprotective effect
against hepatotoxicity due to the adverse effects of
generated free radicals (51). Similar findings were
reported by (52, 53) found that lemon juice has
therapeutic property in case of liver damage due to
alcohol drinking that is lemon juice improves liver
function through scavenge of free radicals which
lead to raise the level of total protein and reduction
in the levels of AST and ALT in serum. In
conclusion H2O2 has a deleterious effect on
hematological and biochemical parameters in
female mice while supplementation with lemon
juice reduces these negative effects and improve
liver function.
Conclusions:
Lemon juice is a rich antioxidants source
that can be used as a safe, cheap and acceptable
drink at different concentrations. It has shown
significance protection effect for a wide range of
hematological and biochemical traits covered in this
study.
Acknowledgments:
We gratefully acknowledge technical
support from Sumer University, Southern Technical
University and Thi-Qar University. Part of this
research was undertaken at the Animals Production
Department, Al-Shatrah Technical Institute,
Southern Technical University. Thi-Qar University
was also provided some research facilities.
Ethical approval:
Animals were used in this study according
to institutional, national and international guidelines
for the care and use of animals. Also, all ethical
standards of Sumer University employed carefully
in studies involved animals.
Conflicts of Interest: None.
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
... • T1 treated group: Ten male mice drank 0.75% H 2 O 2 in drinking water daily for 30 days. 16 • T2 treated group: Ten male mice drank 0.75% H 2 O 2 in drinking water and were daily given an aqueous extract of Kiwi fruit (250 mg/Kg) orally for 30 days. ...
... H 2 O 2 induces oxidative stress, which led to hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. 16 Increase of these enzymes in blood result from rupture of the plasma membrane of hepatic cell and cellular injury led to release these enzymes. 25 Therefore, they were released into the blood following cellular injury; serum ALT and AST were indicators in the diagnosis of liver damage. ...
... 37 In the present study, chronic exposure to H 2 O 2 induced a significant decrease in total WBCs and lymphocytes and an increase in monocytes resulting from oxidative stress induced by H 2 O 2 . 16 This effect caused a reduction WBCs count. This decrease in WBC and lymphocyte count could be related to WBC DNA and cell membrane damage; also, oxidative stress increases cortisol release, which is considered immunosuppressive. ...
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Kiwi fruit is among the most valued fruits in the world due to its flavor and health advantages. This study is carried out to assess the anti-oxidant and beneficial effect of kiwi fruit on some biochemical and blood parameters in male mice exposed to oxidative stress. Thirty (30) male mice were randomly distributed into three groups (group contained ten mice). The first group was considered as a control group (C), second group T1 [0.75% hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2)] received in drinking water for 30 days, and the third group T2 treated with oral administration with 250 mg/kg aqueous extract of kiwi fruit and received H 2 O 2 (0.75%) in drinking water daily for 30 days. The results clarified that male mice received H 2 O 2 induced oxidative stress causes significant (p < 0.05) elevation alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, urea, and bilirubin, while a reduction in glucose level and total protein on biochemical parameters. In addition, it has a deleterious effect on hematological parameters through reduction of red blood corpuscle (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and white blood cell (WBC). The result clarified the anti-oxidant effect of kiwi fruit in group T2 manifested by enhancement biochemical and hematological parameters compared to T1. It could be concluded that kiwi fruit possessed anti-oxidant and protective activity on a biochemical and hematological parameter of the oxidative stressed male mice.
... The provision feeding diet with additives containing antioxidant and anti-stress substances are very relevant with the aim to increase immune-related blood parameter (Surai et al., 2019;Marimuthu et al., 2020). A suitable natural additive that is locally available as an antioxidant and anti-stress is lime juice which is rich in vitamin C (Elwan et al., 2019;Ali, 2020). Shrestha et al. (2012) reported that the content of vitamin C in lime juice is equal to 118.2 -140.8 mg per 100 g. ...
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Pelung chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a typical Indonesian local breed originating from West Java. Pelung chicken breeding, especially male bird, was initially used as a hobby livestock because they have tunable voice. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding lime (Citrus aurantifolia) juice as a source of vitamin C on blood parameter and performance of male pelung chickens. The experimental birds were 64 male pelung chicken aged 12 weeks, divided into 4 weight groups namely group 1: 740 - 910 g, group 2: 910 - 1,080 g, group 3: 1,080 - 1,250 g, and group 4: 1,250 - 1,420. The treatments applied were T0: formulated diet; FD, T1: FD+ lime juice 1%, T2: FD + lime juice 2%, and T3: FD + lime juice 3%. The present experiment was assigned in body weight-based randomized block design. Measured parameters were heterophile, lymphocyte, heterophile-lymphocyte ratio (H/L), total plasma protein, the relative weight of lymphoid organs (spleen and bursa of fabricius) and performance (feed intake, daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio) of birds. The results showed that the feeding diet added with 1-3% lime juice significant on heterophile, H/L ratio, the relative weight of spleen, total plasma protein, daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio, but not significant on lymphocyte, the relative weight of bursa of fabricius and feed intake. Male pelung chicken fed diet added with 3% lime juice (T3) indicates better blood parameter stability (H/L ratio and lymphoid organs), total plasma protein and performance.
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Aluminum is presents in many manufactured foods, medicines and is also added to drinking water for purification purposes. Therefore, the present study included the investigation of the protective effect of vitamin C and vitamin E in hematological parameters, and preventing oxidative stress induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl 3), with dose of 40 mg/Kg of body weight, orally by a gavage tube to male albino rats Rattus norvegicus, aged (3-4) months, weighing (200-250) g. Thirty male rats were randomly divided into five groups (6 rats / group), treated orally daily for 30 days as follows: The first group was given distilled water considered as control (untreated group). The second group was treated with 40 mg/Kg B.W. AlCl 3 only. Third and fourth groups were treated with 40 mg/Kg AlCl 3 plus vitamin C or vitamin E with dose of 400 mg/Kg B.W. respectively. The fifth group was treated with AlCl 3 plus combination of vitamin C and vitamin E at the same previously used concentrations. All these groups were given a standard forage and tap water ad libitum. The results showed that treating with AlCl 3 caused a significant decrease at (P ≤ 0. 05) in the hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and packed cell volume (PCV), but a significant increase in total white blood cells count (WBCs) and lymphocytes in the blood of male rats treated as compared with control group. The results also showed a significant decrease in the concentration of glutathione (GSH) and albumin, but a significant increase at (P ≤ 0. 05) in the concentration of each of malondialdehyde (MDA), uric acid, bilirubin, creatinine, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), [which have a role as non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants], alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) [liver function enzymes] activities in blood serum of treated rats as compared with control group. A significant decrease in the level of the GSH, increase in the level of MDA in brain tissue were observed which indicates the ability of aluminum to induce oxidative stress in albino rats. The results also showed that treatment with AlCl 3 plus vitamin C or vitamin E and their combination caused a significant increase in GSH level and a significant decrease in MDA level in serum and brain tissue compared with control group. In addition to positive effect on some hematological and biochemical parameters. In conclusion, vitamin C and E had prophylactic capacity that would remove any oxidative stress and toxic effects caused by AlCl 3 .
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Introduction: Phytochemicals are frequently used in chemotherapeutic treatment or may be used as chemo preventive agents with chemoprevention. The study report the quantification of phytochemical constituents and vitamin C contents from ethanol extracts of Solanum torvum fruits. Method:The main objective for this research was to use standard procedures to determine phytochemical and vitamin C content. Results: The estimated alkaloids found in mature fruits were 6.32 ± 0.12 mg/g and 16.94 ± 2.3 mg/g in the immature fruits. Total saponins in mature and immature fruits were 8.60 ± 2.6 mg/g and 16.90 ± 9.4 mg/g respectively. Total flavonoids in mature and immature fruits were 21.14 ± 4.4 mg/g and 14.24 ± 1.8 mg/g respectively. Also vitamin C contents were 11.79 ± 2.0 mg/g in mature fruits and 8.70 ± 0.26 mg/g in immature fruits. With the exception of alkaloids whose difference in the mature and immature was significant, other differences obtained were not significant. Conclusion: The study showed that the extracts contain diversity of phytochemicals in appreciable amount that can expertly keep the body against oxidative stress triggered by free radicals and therefore be used as a source of potent natural products.
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Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity of the skin, thereby potentially protecting against environmental oxidative stress. Vitamin C accumulates in phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, and can enhance chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and ultimately microbial killing. It is also needed for apoptosis and clearance of the spent neutrophils from sites of infection by macrophages, thereby decreasing necrosis/NETosis and potential tissue damage. The role of vitamin C in lymphocytes is less clear, but it has been shown to enhance differentiation and proliferation of B- and T-cells, likely due to its gene regulating effects. Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infections. In turn, infections significantly impact on vitamin C levels due to enhanced inflammation and metabolic requirements. Furthermore, supplementation with vitamin C appears to be able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections. Prophylactic prevention of infection requires dietary vitamin C intakes that provide at least adequate, if not saturating plasma levels (i.e., 100–200 mg/day), which optimize cell and tissue levels. In contrast, treatment of established infections requires significantly higher (gram) doses of the vitamin to compensate for the increased inflammatory response and metabolic demand.
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