ArticlePDF Available

The Musical-Artistic Dimension of the Mehterhane

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Mehterhane represents the most important musical formation found in the royal courts of Moldova and the Wallachia, because it is the one that makes the connection – from an artistic and political point of view – between these countries and the Ottoman Empire. The context in which this musical formation comes into the possession of the Romanian rulers is related to the geopolitical context of the Romanian Countries related to the Ottoman Empire. Due to the increasing influence of the Ottomans on the Romanian Countries, they become an integral part of the empire from the Ottoman perspective. As a result, the Romanian rulers received the sultan’s reign, in exchange for a sum of money, and they invested them according to Ottoman practice, by conferring a badge, as a representation of the sultan’s political power, among which elements were the mehterhane. This formation was the one that accompanied the ruler not only in all the official public events, but also in the private ones, assuring him the necessary grandeur, being as well regarded as a bey in the political hierarchy of the Gate from this point of view. From an artistic point of view, in Moldova and the Wallachia, the mehterhane had to be heard daily at dusk (chindie) and to make the parade, called “nöbet”. The music of mehterhane was both instrumental and vocal-instrumental, while the main repertoire consisted of military marches and prayers (gülbank), sung during war, while he performed octaves, bestels and semais following the structure of “fasıl” concerts, specific to Ottoman music in general during peacetime. Due to the psychological effect exerted on the enemies on the battlefield and the moralizing effect on the Ottoman soldiers, the mehterhane was also adopted by some European armies, without reaching the expected effect, due to the mismatch with the foreign environment where it was active. The more, it starts to become well known by Western influence and its musical influences are taken over by famous composers such as Mozart.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Artes. Journal of Musicology
262
The Musical-Artistic Dimension of the Mehterhane
EDUARD RUSU, PhD Candidate
Alexandru Ioan CuzaUniversity Iași
ROMANIA
Abstract: Mehterhane represents the most important musical formation found in the
royal courts of Moldova and the Wallachia, because it is the one that makes the
connection – from an artistic and political point of view between these countries and
the Ottoman Empire. The context in which this musical formation comes into the
possession of the Romanian rulers is related to the geopolitical context of the
Romanian Countries related to the Ottoman Empire. Due to the increasing influence of
the Ottomans on the Romanian Countries, they become an integral part of the empire
from the Ottoman perspective. As a result, the Romanian rulers received the sultan’s
reign, in exchange for a sum of money, and they invested them according to Ottoman
practice, by conferring a badge, as a representation of the sultan’s political power,
among which elements were the mehterhane. This formation was the one that
accompanied the ruler not only in all the official public events, but also in the private
ones, assuring him the necessary grandeur, being as well regarded as a bey in the
political hierarchy of the Gate from this point of view. From an artistic point of view,
in Moldova and the Wallachia, the mehterhane had to be heard daily at dusk (chindie)
and to make the parade, called “nöbet”. The music of mehterhane was both
instrumental and vocal-instrumental, while the main repertoire consisted of military
marches and prayers (gülbank), sung during war, while he performed octaves, bestels
and semais following the structure of “fasıl” concerts, specific to Ottoman music in
general during peacetime. Due to the psychological effect exerted on the enemies on
the battlefield and the moralizing effect on the Ottoman soldiers, the mehterhane was
also adopted by some European armies, without reaching the expected effect, due to
the mismatch with the foreign environment where it was active. The more, it starts to
become well known by Western influence and its musical influences are taken over by
famous composers such as Mozart.
Keywords: mehterhane, music, political power, ruler, Ottoman Empire.
1. Introduction
This research tries to provide information regarding the musical and
artistic part of this musical formation, because, most contributors generally
approach this topic or they particularly refer to the issues related to the
historical context where the mehterhane or the political symbolism was
manifested. Our attempt can also be justified from the perspective of a
curiosity in knowing what this music sounds like and what the principles
according to which it was created were. The literature abounds in works that
eduard.rusu91@yahoo.com
DOI: 10.2478/ajm-2020-0015
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Studies
263
approach Ottoman classical music, which is a very fashionable subject from
multiple perspectives, which is why, according to our knowledge, it does not
exist, and mehterhane works only dedicated to tackle the technical aspects of
this music. The only information regarding the musical and artistic features of
the Ottoman military music is briefly contained by works that do not have the
mehterhane as main subject.
This research also aims at highlighting the role played by the mehterhane
music in influencing the Western military music firstly, as well as by secondly
introducing the new elements of musical language in the European cult music.
All these aspects have contributed to the development of music in general, but
also to its diversification.
Mehterhane or the Ottoman military music represents the most important
musical band found in the royal courts of Moldova and the Wallachia, because
it makes the connection not only from an artistic but also politically point of
view between these countries and the Ottoman Empire. The context in which
the band enters under the Romanian rulers’ law is related to the geopolitical
situation of the Romanian Countries in relation to the Ottoman Empire.
Prior to the establishment of the Ottoman Empire, the Islamic political
structures in the Middle East used a music band formed by different types of
drums, called “tabl-khana”, as military music and as a sign of their leader’s
(caliph) authority (Farmer, 2000, p. 35), along with other elements.
Subsequently, with the decline of the caliphate, the rulers of the small Arab
tribes demanded the right to benefit from the tabl-khana and to legitimize
themselves through it, which led to the crystallization of a tradition, according
to which, granting the political power to the tribal leader by the caliph to be
done by offering a badge, composed of the mentioned musical band, a flag and
an investment diploma (Farmer, 2000, p. 35).
This practice was adopted by the Ottoman empire even Osman I, who
laid the foundation of the future Empire was vested with such a badge
(Hammer, 1840, p. 29) and it was implemented in granting the positions
within the imperial hierarchy by which each Ottoman dignitary was receiving a
badge, according to the mentioned Islamic tradition (Hammer, 1836, p. 304).
The tabl-khana band, named in the Romanian sources “tabulhanea”, adopts
wind instruments, such as the drone in its composition, since the caliphate,
while during the Ottoman Empire it develops into an institution, under the
strict authority of the state, both from an artistic and political point of view.
The members of this musical group were included among senior
ministers, called “mehters” because of the close connection between this and
the supreme political authority the Sultan (Hardy Campbell, 2012, pp. 2-3).
The category of the mehters included those who took care of the Sultan’s tents,
those who were in charge of various domestic services and those who sang
military music and wore flags during the battle (Mehterʼin Tarihi). The word
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Artes. Journal of Musicology
264
“mehterhane”, that is to say the “house of mehters” which represents the
institution of this category of servants, was coined from the term “mehter”,
translated as “very big”, to which the word “hâne”, which translates to “house”
(Serdaru Agachi, 2000, p. 77), was added.
The military music of the Ottomans evolved from a simple composition,
consisting of several types of drums, to a large structure, with various
instruments, created to meet the demands of the battlefield or ceremonials.
Even before the set up of the Ottoman Empire, starting with the 12th century,
the “tabl” (drums) sang every time the Ottoman sultans ascended or descended
from the horse (Popescu). It also represented the official music of the empire
and was under the direct ruling of the state. It started to sing in the presence of
the pad shah inside both the inner and outer courtyards of the Top-Kapı palace,
but never inside the harem and could be heard by a very large number of
people, due to the loud sounds and the large number of hundreds of members
(Veinstein, 2001, pp. 158-159). The main duties of mehters were to play
continuously during the battle, ending the music meaning losing the battle, to
sing the Sultan every night (at the sunset) a repertoire that included the prayer
for him and play well every night and morning in the garden of the imperial
palace or other cities of the empire, before evening and morning prayers
(Feldman, 1991, p. 1007). There are examples regarding the Romanian courts,
reporting on the habit of singing mehterhane at the sunset “they gathered the
mehters and asked them to sing in court every day at the sunset” (Uricarul,
1994, p. 251, etc.).
Moving on from this brief introduction intended to create an image on
the significance of mehterhane, we will further try to deepen musical and
artistic side of this band, and to present details that guide and provide insight
into its importance in terms of musical and artistic view.
2. Technical characteristics of the mehterhane music
Initially only instrumental and since the eighteenth century both
instrumental and vocal (Nicolle and Hook, 1995, p. 32), the music of the
mehterhane varied, depending on the circumstances where it was to be sung.
The repertoire of “war” contains songs such as “peșrev”, “semaiand “beste”,
composed according to the tact “usûl düyek”, representing the core essence of
the traditional military marches. Another usûl specific to this music, called
“ceng-i harbi” was created by mehters. Also, during the war context, the
mehterhane also had a prayer, called “cenk-i gülbank” (Veinstein, 2001, pp.
166-167) which also denoted a religious dimension of this musical band.
Another religious feature of the band is the prayer performed for the Sultan on
special occasions, as it contained words of praise shouted by the hymns at
certain times (Popescu). During peacetime, the mehterhane also sang folk
songs, dance songs or “ilahi” in order to distract people from the Empire. By
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Studies
265
adopting a diverse repertoire, this musical band proves that it has enjoyed a
wide popularity among all social strata (Popescu).
The music of the mehters is a mix between the classical style of music
and the popular one; it also implies a mixture of forms and instruments, which
become specific to this (Jackson, 2009, p. 407).
Makam is a term to designate how the oriental music is composed. Each
song is written in a different makam composed mainly of tunes specific to a
certain musical scale. If a song is composed as “makam sûznak”, this means
that notes specific to this scale have been used (Edelman, 1954, p. 27). Applied
to mehterhane, “makam mâhur” represents the mostly used makam for its
composition (O’Connell, 2017, pp. 104-106) with a cheerful sounding dynamic
suitable to martial music. The corresponding of this makam in western music is
the G major tone. Due to this similarity there is the possibility of modulation in
C major or E minor, that is, in “çargah makam” or “buselik makam” (Tarikci,
2010, p. 17).
Usûl is the second makam feature typical to the Ottoman music it
includes all concepts related to pace and rhythm and it was born and developed
during the Ottoman Turkish music (Tarikci, 2010, p. 17). Usûl (pl. usûllar) is a
rhythmic interpretation, generally by using a drum, which considers the
creation of a rhythm set, based on a certain duration, sound and certain accents.
The Ottoman musical tradition created distinct rhythmic elements, of a
predetermined length, divided into stressed and unstressed beats, called “düm”
and “tek” (Graeme, 2008, p. 17). Depending on how you combine the duration,
sound and stresses, the usûl can be of several types: „usûl devrirevan”, „usûl
sengîn semaî”, „usûl sofyan”, „usûl düyek”, „usûl ceng-i harbi” etc., these
rhythmic characteristics representing the limits within which the composer
must fit his song (Edelman, 1954, p. 44). Specifically, due to the fact that the
Ottoman music was not written on the music score, its learning and forwarding
(meșk) was made by usûl, made in turn from a mix of various rhythms and
metric stressed lyrics (Sari, 2015, p. 128).
During the Ottoman music the usûl is named according to the name of
each subcategory already mentioned and not according to the number of
measures. Just like the makam, the usûl is divided into several sub-categories,
being divided into two groups, however, minor and major, according to the
number of each part beats (Tarikci, 2010, p. 18). Düyek and Ceng-i Harbi, the
ones we will further talk about are part of the usûl minor category, that is, they
consist of up to 16 beats.
Düyek is an imbalanced beat and one of the most used usûl by the
mehters being formed by a pattern of eight times and five beats. More than the
2/4 measure of the Western music, which can be divided into 4/8 and 8/16, the
düyek beat of 8 can be subdivided into 16 or 32. In the case of rhythm
subdivision, the general beat does not change, since the stresses retain the basic
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Artes. Journal of Musicology
266
form of a rhythmic pattern (Popescu-Judetz, 1973, p. 116; Graeme, 2008, p.
17).
Ceng-i harbi also represents a minor use of 10 beats (10/8) used in
music for military marches as well as in others (Saull, 2014, p. 68).
Fasıl refers to concert performances of Ottoman classical music in
general. In case of mehterhane we don’t know exactly if concerts were made
according to the classic form “fasıl”, but given the fact that the repertoire of
this band was made up of the same species of music, like peşrev, semai or
beste as well as in the Ottoman classical music and bore the name “newbet” or
fasıl (Feldman, 1991, p. 1008) we may think that the representations were still
unfolding according to clasic fasıl. On fasıl concert, Eugenia Popescu-Judetz
offers the most concise and clear explanation: “The concert suite (fasl, author’s
note) comprised a succession of vocal, vocal-instrumental and instrumental
pieces composed in the same way but by different authors. Although all the
pieces in a suite are composed in the same way, however, other modulations
and passages within the same piece are allowed, respecting precise
composition rules. They can also be composed in related or derivative ways,
according to the theory of Oriental music. Changes allowed extent and pace of
a piece to another and rhythmic variations in the content of the same parts. The
variety of meter and rhythm is a guiding principle in the composition of the
suite. In contrast, the tempo differences between the movements of the concert
are not striking, creating the impression of homogeneity in a number of pieces.
They follow one another in a fixed order by tradition and become an inexorable
rule: 1. Taksim (initial prelude with free form); 2. Pešrev (instrumental piece);
3. One or two Beste (voice track); 4. Aghir semâʼî (very slow vocal track); 5. A
series of 5-15 sarki (vocal tracks with instrumental parts); 6. Sâz semâʼîsi
(instrumental piece related to the pešrev, with which the suite ends). On request
an additional piece of any kind can be sung”. (Popescu-Judetz, 1973, p. 39)
An account of a mehterhane “concert” refers even to the Romanian area
and corresponds with performing the fasıl in some respects. The story made in
1768 by a German commercial agent, traveling through the Romanian
Countries, captures the musical atmosphere at the the khan court in Căușani as
follows: “I have never heard anything more sinful, more discordant as a song
and a tone. Ten individuals blow from some similar tools like oboe (zurna), but
half the size of a single item and having a very thick end. Three of them were
beating in small dulcimers (nagarals properly) about which you could not know
what they were made of, because of the mud on them. Ten people were hung
by big throats with red patches attached to their necks; they beat according to
the rhythm with a big stick over the drum and at the bottom with a smaller one,
very fast. This music was started by ten oboes who blew a few minutes in the
same tone; then one blew a solo and made strings, runs, triplets, blooms until it
turned green, blue and black; afterwards they all sang together and a little later
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Studies
267
the dulcimer players (nagaragii) started their drumming with the drums.
Everything was going well, but to make a real song would have been a pure
impossibility. When one piece was finished the first oboe began again and the
others followed it as described above. Finally, one of the musicians was
making a wish, and the others ended it with a shout (Holban, Alexandrescu-
Dersca Bulgaru and Cernovodeanu, 1997, p. 638).
Comparing the two texts we can consider that the mehterhane also
followed, at least to a certain extent, the pattern of the Ottoman classical
concert of music, considering that the melodic sections coincided as a name or
as a composition. Moreover, in the year 1762, Mr. Grigore Callimachi of
Moldova receives the visit of Hamza-Pasa, welcomed with a lavish ceremony.
Within the context of this visit, the mehter of the Moldavian gentleman sings a
peșrev to the pasha to his delight (Simonescu, 1939, p. 311). We have here
another argument that the mehterhane music was made according to the
terminology of the Ottoman classical music and most likely, according to its
perceptions.
Peșrev are instrumental works, preludes, composed of smaller sections,
termed “garments”, generally having four such sections. Each hane ends with
another section, called “teslim”. The grouper is generally composed to be sung
in the usûl major style, and there are some that do not have the teslim section
(Mousique classique...). According to Sulzer, the sections of the peșrev are
called as follows: “First, șerhane, second mülazime, third orthane and fourth
zonhane. Each of the last three parts differs completely from the basic sound or
tone of sherhane, and when the third or the orthane part is finished, the first
part is not repeated, but the second part, i.e. mülazime. The same thing happens
after the completion of the zonhane, so of the last part” (Zinveliu, 1995, p.
163).
The peșrevs sung by the meterhana, in contrast to those of the Ottoman
classical music, generally bear functional names such as: Parade order,
Carrying horses”, “Flag, etc., according to the context in which they were
performed (Feldman, 1996, p. 306; Feldman, 1991, p. 1008).
Semai is one of the great forms of varied composition of Turkish music.
It is divided, like the peșrev, into four sections, with a teslim at the end of each
hane. The first three hane of the semai have introductory and transitive
characteristics, and the tune and structure of the fourth section are completely
free, depending on the composer’s choice (Mousique classique...). There are
two types of semai, one has a rhythmic pattern of the form 10/8 and it is sung
before the second semai, which has a ternary rhythmic formula of 6/4 or 6/8
(Behar 2006, p. 406). The semai is distinguished by a faster tempo and
according to its own specificity, it must end in the same tone in which the first
section of the peșrev is sung. The tune of the semai has nothing to do with the
previous musical species (Zinveliu, 1995, p. 164).
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Artes. Journal of Musicology
268
Beste (bestea (Suciu, 2010, p. 97) in Romanian) or the Turkish areas are
pieces vocally interpreted and instrumentally accompanied, as they belong to
the fasıl concerts (Behar, 2006, pp. 405-406). The beste is made of four
sections, each having different versions. The song used for the first, second and
fourth verse or section is the same, which gives the beste the AABA type of
musical composition. The first two as “zemin”, the third forms “myan”, and the
last “karar”. The beste type always uses a slow, wide usûl rhythm (Edelman,
1954, pp. 70-71).
Ilahi are popular hymns of religious inspiration, composed to praise
Allah, Muhammad and other saints. They are written in Turkish, in different
makams and usûls, in a unique style, specific to them. Although these ilahi can
be formed in any makam, according to tradition it is not preferable to be
composed in bright, shiny makam (Mousique classique...). Something worth
mentioning to this musical species is the fact that it can be sung by a singer or
choir, but without musical accompaniment (Boratav, 1986, p. 1094).
3. Composition and musical instruments
There are several references regarding the structure of mehterhane that
may seem contrary or inappropriate, due to the speaker’s different perception
or reality in many cases. These generally refer to the same family of
instruments, but their used names vary depending on their own musical
knowledge. In this respect, the account of Mouradgea dʼOhsson is relevant,
who states that the mehterhane comprises sixteen drums, sixteen zurna, eleven
trumpets, eight naré drums (nagarals), seven cymbals and four large kös drums.
This company of 62 musicians is doubled when the Sultan leads the army.
Except for the drums, the other instruments are reduced to the number of nine
(nine of each kind of instrument), when they compose the music of the great
Vizier and of all the pashas (dʼOhsson, 1824, pp. 23, 155).
Davul (Fig. 1) is a membranophone percussion instrument a type of
large drum whose length can range between 40 and 100 centimeters
(Bărbuceanu, 1999, p. 83). Within the research sources, the davul employs
different terms, such as: “grande caisse”, “grosse caisse” and “bass drum”,
terms that translate by “big drum”. Although this instrument can be met as
slightly modified according to the needs and specificities of each nation in part,
in most cases, the davul or the big drum are synonymous. In Turkey, the davul
is the percussion instrument characteristic to popular music, being found in
every region of the country. The term is derived from the Arabic word “tabl”, a
general term for the family of drums and represent the instrument of mainly
Islamic military musical bands, called “ṭabl-khāna” (Farmer, 2000, p. 32).
About davul de la Croix says: “The drummers of the janissaries [...] compared
to ours are twice as long and almost twice as wide; they beat them at both ends;
with the right hand they hit the ordinary stick and the left one, with a hoard,
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Studies
269
and their arm is supported on the drum which they hold much higher than the
usual one” (Holban, Alexandrescu-Dersca Bulgaru and Cernovodeanu, 1980, p.
288).
Fig. 1 Performer at davul (mehter.com)
“Naḳḳāra”, “Naqqāra” or “Nagara” (Fig. 2) are different names of the
same musical instrument. It is of Arab-Persian origin; ancient eardrum with
hemispherical or conical basin, of small size, made of wood or bronze
(Bărbuceanu, 1999, p. 178). The Nagara drum is considered to be the ancestor
of the eardrum currently used in a symphonic music ensemble.
These were introduced to the Iberian Peninsula by the Arabs in the eighth
century, while they only reached the other part of Europe during the fifteenth
century (Demian, 1968, p. 39), most probably through the Ottomans and their
military music.
Identifying this musical instrument in sources raises several problems,
because, in French, the term has several forms: “caissettes” (d’Ohsson, 1824, p.
155), “petite timballes” (Hammer, 1839, p. 17; Dumont and de Rousset Missy
1739, p. 497), “naré” (dʼOhsson, 1824, p. 23) or simply “timbales” (dʼOhsson,
1791, p. 416). Most often used the last term has been translated into Romanian
by “țimbal/țambal”, as Emil Suciu also states in his dictionary (2010, p. 533).
According to George Henry Farmer, the reason why this term takes several
forms, being difficult to be identified, depends on the source of the
instrument’s name and the transformations it undergoes. There are various
terms used to be designated but subsequently, the nagara drum was crystallized
as the “naḳḳāra “. The term has been taken over in Europe as “naker”,
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Artes. Journal of Musicology
270
“nacaire”, and the Persian synonym “ṭinbal”, becomes “timbale”, “tymbala”
(2000, p. 34).
Fig. 2 Performer at nagara (mehter.com)
Among the Romanian and Italian sources (Toderini, 1787, p. 239), the
nagara occurs under the name “tumbelechi”1 (Ionnescu-Gion, 1891, p. 216) or
even darabană2 (Cantemir, 1973, p. 231), a Romanian small drum
(Bărbuceanu, 1999, p. 83). Teodor Burada uses the same tumbelechi to
designate the nagara, according to who these are “small tambourines, like teas
sites brass casting, covered with leather, on which the straps braided leather
were used” (1974, p. 242).
Kös, (Fig. 3) as called in Turkish, is the most important drum of the
mehterhane and the core of the band otherwise, because it represents the person
of the Ottoman Sultan, within his own mehterhane, in that of the great vizier or
another, during the war, when the Sultan does not participate in the respective
military campaign (Schmidt-Jones, p. 2).
For the Romanian Countries and for the mehterhane belonging to the
gentlemen, there is no evidence of the kös drum. However, there are
testimonies that show that a mehterhane of the sultan who had the kös drum
was present in these countries. The context in which this aspect was mentioned
refers to the 1484 conquest of the Moldovan cities, Chilia and the White
1 The “tumbelehi” drum is not strictly a nagara, but it is also a small drum, also called
“darbuka” or “küdüm” (Bărbuceanu 1999, pp. 83, 147, 264).
2 This is clearly about small drums, because it refers to the Lord’s Table, which took place in a
room and where one could bring large drums because of the limited space.
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Studies
271
Fortress (Cetatea Albă), where the victorious Ottoman army introduces the
sounds of the royal music (Guboglu and Mehmet, 1966, pp. 98-99, 131), flies
the Islamic flags and beats the “royal drum, according to the Osmanian
custom” (Guboglu and Mehmet, 1966, p. 326).
Fig. 3 Performer at kös (mehter.com)
Zil (Fig. 4) is the percussion instrument found under names such as:
cymbals, cinel, cymbals. Its origins are very old, and can be found in countless
lines in the writings of the Old Testament, especially in the Book of Psalms. In
the music of the mehters, the cymbal or zil as it is referred to this band, have
different sizes, the smallest were used in Mevlevi ceremonies, and the highest
were used in big countries very similar to nowadays tools (Graeme, 2008, p. 6).
In the descriptions of foreign travelers, who have passed through our
territory, the zil is depicted as follows: “two-handed collisions on the back to
place hands in them; they are of a metal that has a very vibrant sound. Some
young people hit these tracks with each other, which produces a very pleasant
martial sound with the drum and which is heard from a distance” (Holban,
Alexandrescu-Dersca Bulgaru and Cernovodeanu, 1980, p. 288).
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Artes. Journal of Musicology
272
Fig. 4 Performer at zil (mehter.com)
Zurna (Fig. 5) is a wind instrument with double reed and can be seen in
the Balkans, India and Arabia. In Turkey it is one of the most popular musical
instruments, where it is associated with the davul (Bărbuceanu, 1999, p. 293).
Among the used sources, zurna is a type of whistle, flute (Cantemir, 1973, p.
163) or is referred to as “trumpet”, “oboe”, “flûte”, “chalumeau” etc. In some
accounts of foreign travelers on the territory of our country, the zurna is
described as: “instruments similar to an oboe, but as half as one and with a very
thick end” (Holban, Alexandrescu-Dersca Bulgaru and Cernovodeanu, 1997, p.
638).
Fig. 5 Performer at zurna (mehter.com)
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Studies
273
The trumpet (Fig. 6) represents a wind instrument with a terminal
clutch, in the category of brass, with an origin that is lost in the darkness of
the centuries. The purpose of its use was to give a solemn character to the
military ceremonies and to encourage the soldiers during the battles. Its
probable origin is Egyptian, while gradually evolving into many forms and
sounds (Demian, 1968, p. 161). In the music of the mehters, the trumpets
used were natural and were called “boru”. The natural trumpet in the
simplest form is a sound tube open at both ends, without holes or flaps. It
was brought into Turkish culture by the Arab peoples, where it bears the
name of “nafir / nefir”, with a length of 1.5 meters (Bărbuceanu, 1999, pp.
259, 175).
Fig. 6 Performer at trumpet (boru) (mehter.com)
Chinese pavilion (Fig. 7) is referred to as the “chapeau chinois” (Fr.),
“Jingling Johnnie” (Eng.) and “çevgân” (Tur.) It is an idiophone percussion
instrument, made of a cylindrical timber wand topped by a decorative
Chinese hat, several kinds of bells being hung of it (Bărbuceanu, 1999, p.
49). About its use in the mehterhane we also find from Teodor Burada: “the
mehter-başa was holding a silver rod (hasdran) as a Chinese pavilion of
various types and sizes, adorned with silver chains and a lot of golden bells
while leading the troupe of mehters by shaking it” (1974, p. 242). Similar
instruments (but richer adorned) also had the vocal interpreters within the
mehterhane, which they used at certain times, shaking them rhythmically, as
Raouf Yekta Bey suggests: “chacun dʼeux tenait un pavillon chinois” [each
of them held a Chinese flag] (Yekta Bey, 1922, p. 2981).
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Artes. Journal of Musicology
274
Fig. 7 Performer at çevgân (mehter.com; Farmer, 1912, p. 76)
4. The artistic dimension
Except for the political and musical importance of this band, the
mehterhane also imposed and impressed by the physical aspect, having
several members, dressed predominantly in red clothes, but also through the
choreographic movements if we can call them that by which he fulfilled
one of the main tasks, namely the evening singing, at the sunset, according
to the Ottoman custom.
The choreography or military parades are called “nöbet” and consists
of the intonation of the music military in front of the Sultan and high
officials (Siruni, 1941, p. 77). The mehterhane held five daily performances,
which overlapped the five times of prayer specific to Muslims. “Nöbet” was
an entire ensemble, which included both music and movements of the
soldiers or guards. Reference to this military parade is also provided by
Dimitrie Cantemir, who shows that nöbet was the signal of the sentinels
(1973, p. 163).
In connection with what has been said here, we have to mention that
when the mehters were singing in a fixed place, without moving, they were
placed in an open circle, like a crescent and during the march, they were
stepping with big, solemn steps, similar to the steps of the warrior dance,
called “zeybek” (Popescu).
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Studies
275
Fig. 8 Mehterhane in concert form (Yum, 2002, p. 108)
In the Romanian space, the nöbet is most often related to the time of day
when the chindia was sung, that is, in the evening, at sunset, when the
mehterhane performed its well-known parade: “they gathered the mehters to
beat the chindia in the courtyard all day long” (Uricarul, 1994, p. 251).
According to an anonymous Turkish story from 1740, in Bucharest the
mehterhane sings in front of the lord every afternoon (Holban, Alexandrescu-
Dersca Bulgaru and Cernovodeanu, 1997, p. 263), and according to another
author, at the palace of the khan court in Căușani the military music was sung
every day, about one hour, before night (Holban, Alexandrescu-Dersca Bulgaru
and Cernovodeanu, 1997, p. 638).
Moving from the choreographic representations of the mehterhane to the
clothing of its members, we can see that this was generally red, which also
impressed from an artistic point of view. The red color in Islam has two
meanings, symbolizing both the cycle of life, with love and desire, as well as
war and violence against one another (Sadek Abaza, 2017, p. 67), the second
meaning in our case being more appropriate. Specifically, the mehter and each
“party leader” wore a red long ceremony dress with wide sleeves, red turbans
wrapped in white chiffon, and they wore puttee with red felt and boots made of
yellow leather. The other members wore green turban, wrapped in white gauze,
long purple, blue or black felt garments, red cloth leggings and red boots
(Schmidt-Jones, p. 2).
The ceremonial importance of the mehterhane is unquestionable.
Basically, in the Romanian countries there was no public and even private
manifestation in which the lord would not be accompanied by this musical
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Artes. Journal of Musicology
276
band, in order to support his political legitimacy and as evidence of the
dependence on the Ottoman Empire, whose mandate was. Also, the lord was
the only one who was allowed to play military music, manifesting this attribute
of his political power in front of his subjects.
The suite made up for different occasions, such as receiving the kingdom,
receiving important messages and guests, various trips and other such
situations represent the most specific way of artistic manifestation of the
mehterhane, because its members occupied a predetermined place and were
displayed in all their splendor, being visible to all.
5. The “export” of the mehterhane
All the states of the Ottoman Empire appreciated this music, and the
exponents of the power held even more such musical groups. The greatness of
this music has always raised the attention of Europe, the heads of states send
their masters in music to observe the methods of the mehterhane, and the
Ottoman ambassadors in Europe always had such a band. In the eighteenth
century mehterhane influenced the military music in Europe and contributed to
the development of military musical groups, but the Europeans uninterrupted
by the mysteries of the Ottoman music, failed to reach results that match the
nature of mehterhane (Gazimihal). This is also stated by Franz Joseph Sulzer,
contemporary with these facts, as follows: “you must be careful to consider
that the music of winters, which was recently introduced, in most regiments of
the Austrian Roman-Imperial Army and for which new parts are produced
daily by the German pens. The difference between them is immense. Our
German-Turkish war music cannot even be proud of the same instruments, let
alone in the same manner, trying in vain to imitate it by European beats and
German ears” (Zinveliu, 1995, p. 155). This music began to be associated with
the Ottoman music as a whole and at the same time to influence the European
music, facilitating the introduction into European orchestras, of a percussion
style called “mehter”, to such an extent that even some great composers such as
Mozart and Beethoven took over the musical motifs from the repertoire of the
mehterhane in their works (Jackson, 2009, p. 407).
The first European ruler to adopt the military music according to the
model of the mehterhane was Augustus II (1697-1704) king of Poland, who
received such a musical band from the sultan. He was followed by Anna of
Austria, Frederick the Great, the latter introducing such music in all his
regiments (Meyer, 1974, p. 485).
The growing influence of the mehterhane music on the European military
music, due primarily to the fact that over the centuries the Ottoman military
music has retained its characteristics, has led to the formation of the so-called
alla turca(Turkish style), “Turkische Musik” or “turquerie” style inspired by
this music and used by the great European composers. The elements that led to
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Studies
277
the aforementioned influence and implicit to the creation of the new style,
according to Eric Rice are the following: 1. The songs are sung
monophonically; 2. Musical instruments have stronger, more incisive stamps
than their European correspondent; 3. Cymbals are always used; 4. Some types
of drum (nagara) perform subdivisions of the basic rhythm, on different metric
levels; 5. The various and complex system. For those accustomed to the sounds
of the Western music, the songs sound as if sudden changes were unprepared
from major to minor and vice versa; 6. The meter may be double or irregular;
7. The initial rhythm of the songs is often given by three notes sung in relation
to the basic rhythm; 8. The songs are characterized by fast interpreted
ornamental patterns; 9. The pieces have a rondo-like shape, with many
repeated sections (Schmidt-Jones, p. 3).
One of the places where this new style manifested itself was the scene “O
pari,” a favorable frame for developing an active image world meant to bring
the audience as close to the authentic specificity of the suggested ideas. The
increasingly felt presence of Ottoman influence has generally led to the
“Turkish representation”, which acts as the audience into an exotic world, and
this has been translated by “Alla Turca” which became an important element of
portraying the Turkish music (Babaoğlu Balkiș, 2010, p. 189).
Alla turca is not an authentic Ottoman music, but rather a musical style
introduced within the European music culture inspired by the Ottoman military
music (mehterhane). Until the eighteenth century this style was present within
the European works by means of musical instruments specific to the Western
music, but starting with the eighteenth century or instruments specific to the
Ottoman military music called “Turkish drums” such as: triangle, tambourine,
drums of different sizes, for different rhythms and harmonies (davul, nagara),
which did not have a western recognition were introduced. Through this mix of
familiar and exotic, a new musical language was implemented, in accordance
with the public’s attraction to non-European cultures (Babaoğlu Balkiș, 2010,
p. 190).
There were several composers who were influenced by the Ottoman
music and used that “Turkish”, very fashionable during the second half of the
eighteenth century and the following. Among them we mention here: Frank
with Cara Mustapha, Lully with Le bourgeois gentilhomme (The Bourgeois
Gentleman), Rameau with Les Indes galantes (The Gentle Indies), Gluck with
the Rencontre imprévue (The Unexpected Meeting), Michael Haydn with the
Turkish Suite, Joseph Haydn MillitarySymphony, Mozart with Rondo alla
Turca ( Piano Sonata no. 11, in A, K. 331 ) and Die Entführung aus dem Serail
(The Abduction from the Seraglio) or Beethoven with Alla marcia at the end of
the Symphony no. 9 (Schmidt-Jones, p. 4).
The implementation of the Turkish style within the Western music was
done in two ways. First of all, the composers used the melody and harmonica
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Artes. Journal of Musicology
278
specific to this music, and secondly they introduced some specific musical
instruments in specific orchestras, precisely for their “Turkish” tone. An
curious example in this respect is the acceptance of the triangle (triangulate),
though this belonged to mehterhane, but the reason may be explained by the
inclusion of an attempt to imitate the instrument of the çevgan jingling
Johnnie” (Schmidt-Jones, p.4), as mentioned above which consisted of chains
and bells, which were buzzing.
The extent to which the Ottoman musical elements have penetrated the
works of some European composers is also related to the degree, greater or
lesser, of their contact with the Ottoman music and of course the way in which
it was produced. The question arose whether the composers in question really
listened to a meter or how accurately they transposed this influence in their
work, in order to be recognizable by the public. It is supposed that Mozart
heard the music of the mehterhane through diplomatic exchanges between the
two empires or even through the frequent military confrontations between
them, whose echoes spread throughout the society. For example, in Rondo alla
Turca, during the musical discourse, while on the right hand, the pianist plays
the lively and luminous music of the flute (zurna), the left hand reproduces
exactly the famous rhythm of the drums, called “düyek” (Gazimihal). A clear
answer cannot be given about Beethoven and most of the other composers who
used “alla turca”, as they most probably did not use such live music (Schmidt-
Jones, pp. 4-5).
The most well-known musical examples that contain the imprint of the
percussion instruments specific to the mehterhane, the so-called “Turkish
drums” are the Military Symphony no. 100 by Haydn, and three works by
Beethoven: Alla marcia, the end of Symphony no. 9, Wellington’s Victory
Symphony, as well as the Turkish March and The Dervishes Choir of the work
The Ruins of Athens (Meyer, 1974, p. 487).
6. Examples and musical analysis
The Ottoman march songs are known for their ongoing and strongly
focused rhythm, mostly achieved by the use of drums. This metric route is
generally intended to keep the marching pace of the soldiers during the journey
and the uniformity and synchronization with others. The tone of the march is
generally major, given the character of this music and its role, but we can also
find composite examples in minor tones.
The texts of these marches make general reference to the praises of God,
the love of the homeland and the desire for permanent victory. The soldiers
listening to these verses are animated and urged to face any danger and
shortcoming to win victories and to spread the doctrine of the Islamic empire
and religion.
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Studies
279
Eski Ordu Marși (Ceddin Deden) (Fig. 9)3 is a Hûseyni makam march
by an overture of 7 instrumental beats in a Aeolian mode on A. The next part,
A (Tripod period) is made of 8 beats: a – 2 on Aeolian mode on A (minor A);
a1 – 2 on Dorian mode on D and varied a1 4 on Aeolian mode on A (minor
A).
Fig. 9 Eski Ordu Marși, on the most famous marches of the mehterhane (Șahiner, 1977, p. 41)
3 Your Ancestors Your Grandfathers represent the most famous melody of the mehterhane,
sung today by these bands belonging to the Ministry of Defense of Turkey and various cultural
organization. The text is follows: Your ancestors, your grandfathers, your generation, your
father Always heroic, The Turkish Nation Your armies, many times, gave glory to the world. O
Turkish Nation! O Turkish Nation! Love the Nation with passion Crush the enemy of
Motherland Let that cursed one taste humiliation”.
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Artes. Journal of Musicology
280
Mehter Marși (Gâfil Ne Bilir) (Fig. 10)4 is made of makam Mahur,
with an instrumental introduction of 16 beats on Ionian mode C (major C).
Then part A follows consisting of a 7 beats on Ionian mode on C (major C)
(between the repetition bars); a1 - 8 beats on Ionian mode on C note with a
mobile stage IV and a2 8 beats starting in harmonic C major and it ends in
Ionian G (major G). Part B consists of b 8 bichromatic beats on G note and
b18 beats on Ionian mode on C. The varied A part: varied a, a missing part,
varied a18 beats on Ionian mode on C (major C) and varied a28 beats on
Ionian mode on C (major C).
4 Gâfil Ne Bilir: How would unwary know the joy of fighting a war in vigor
Light of purity emanating from the battlefield of heroism
When the men of war started to scream „the Allah is great” in over excitement
The surface of the earth shooked again the vault of heaven
Letʼs fight in name ot the Allah and have all the glory
Which the Hz Yezdan (Allah) is promising in Quran
Letʼs fight in name ot the Allah and have all the glory
Which the Hz Yezdan (Allah) is promising in Quran
Creator of the universe, made the holy war (jihad) our religious duty
Names of my ancestors have always been ascended through war
Our ancestor who conqured the world, for the name of El Hak (Allah) were just and protective
of right of people
Letʼs fight in name ot the Allah and have all the glory
Which the Hz Yezdan (Allah) is promising in Quran
Letʼs fight in name ot the Allah and have all the glory
Which the Hz Yezdan (Allah) is promising in Quran”.
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Studies
281
Fig. 10 Mehter Marși (Gâfil Ne Bilir) (Șahiner, 1977, pp. 37-38)
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Artes. Journal of Musicology
282
Sancak Marși (Fig. 11)5 is made of makam Rast, with a instrumental
introduction of 12 beats on Ionian mode on G (harmonic G major). Part A is
made up of a 6 beats on Ionian mode on G note (major G) and a1 – 6 beats
on harmonic G major. B consists of 6 recurrent beats on Ionian mode on G
with a mobile step in C sharp and B flat, chromatic I choice on G note. Varied
A missing varied a, and varied a1, consisting of 6 beats on harmonic G
major.
5 Flag March: You've woken up in Ertuğrul's house
You've been painted with martyrs' blood
You've stretched out to many enemy's castles
Hail to you, O glorious Turkish flag
Your wing waves struggling
Do you wish to go up above the sky?
Your children wants to die beneath your shadow
Hail to you, O glorious Turkish flag”.
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Studies
283
Fig. 11 Sancak Marși (Șahiner, 1977, p. 65)
7. Conclusions
Firstly, these few examples are a timid contribution meant to create an
image about the impact and influence of the Oriental source music, especially
the Ottoman military not only on the European military music, but also on the
creative act of the great composers, who were increasingly curious and
interested in the new world and its exoticism. The gradual insertion of elements
specific to the Ottoman musical culture into the European musical language,
starting with the eighteenth century led to the enrichment of the European
music with new musical sounds and instruments, which led to the general
development of the cult music.
Unfortunately for the Romanian space, although the mehterhane bands
have been a constant presence for a long time, their musical characteristics
have not been taken over in the Romanian music, mainly because of the lack of
a musical culture of the western one, but also because of the fact that, the
Romanian Principalities were considered, especially during the Phanariot
period, as part of the Ottoman Empire, as there was no interest in exploiting
and developing a music that they could listen to daily and which most of them
hated. However, the Romanian music was influenced by the classical Ottoman
music, very popular here, which rooted through fiddlers to posterity, who
synthesized and transformed it in the lay songs”, famous category of urban
folklore, carried in the Romanian countries during the eighteenth century and
the first half of the nineteenth century.
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Artes. Journal of Musicology
284
References
Babaoğlu Balkiș, L. (2010). Defining the Turk: Construction of Meaning in Operatic
Orientalism. In International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music, 41, 2,
185-193. Zagreb: Croatian Musicological Society.
Bărbuceanu, V. (1999). Dicționar de instrumente muzicale [Dictionary of musical
instruments]. București: Editura Teora.
Behar, C. (2006). The Ottoman musical tradition. In Suraiya N. Faroqhi (Ed.), The
Cambridge History of Turkey. The Later Ottoman Empire, 16031839, (pp. 393-407),
volume 3. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Boratav, P. N. (1986). Ilāhī. In B. Lewis, V. L. Ménage, Ch. Pellat, J. Schacht (Ed.).
The Encyclopaedia of Islam, (p. 1904) new edition, volume III, H-IRAM. Leiden:
Brill.
Burada, T. T. (1974). Cercetări asupra muzicii ostăşeşti la români [Research on the
Romanian military music]. In Opere [Works] (pp. 229-253), vol. I, partea I. Bucureşti:
Editura Muzicală a Uniunii Compozitorilor.
Cantemir, D. (1973). Descrierea Moldovei [Description of Moldavia], translation after
the Latin original by Gh. Guţu, Bucureşti: Editura Academiei.
Demian, W. (1968). Teoria Instrumentelor [Theory of Instruments]. București: Editura
Didactică și Pedagogică.
DʼOhsson, I. M. (1791). Tableau Général de Lʼempire Ottoman [General View on the
Ottoman Empire], tome quatrième / fourth volume, second partie / second part. Paris.
DʼOhsson, I. M. (1791). Tableau Général de Lʼempire Ottoman [General View on the
Ottoman Empire], tome septième / seventh volume. Paris.
Dumont, J., de Rousset Missy, J. (1739). Supplément au corps universel diplomatique
du droit des gens [...] [Supplement to the universal diplomatic body of the law of
nations], tome quatrieme / fourth volume. Le cérémonial diplomatique des cours
de l’Europe [...] [The Diplomatic Ceremonial of the European Courts], tome premier /
first volume. Amsterdam.
Edelman, D. (1954). The urban music of the Ottoman Turks (Thesis submitted in
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts, Boston
University). Retrieved from https://open.bu.edu/handle/2144/9267.
Farmer, H. G. (2000). Ṭabl-Khāna. In P. J. Berman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E.
Van Donzel, W. P. Heinrichs (Ed.), The Encyclopaedia of Islam, new edition, volume
X, T-U, (pp. 34-38). Leiden: Brill.
Feldman, W. (1991). Mehter. In C. E. Bosworth, E. Van Donzel, B. Lewis, CH. Pellat,
W. P. Heinrichs (Eds.) The Encyclopaedia of Islam, new edition, volume VI, MAHK-
MID, (pp. 1007-1008). Leiden: Brill.
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Studies
285
Feldman, W. (1996). Music of the Ottoman Court: Makam, Composition and the Early
Ottoman Instrumental Repertoire. Berlin: VWB, Verlag für Wissenschaft und
Bildung.
Gazimihal, M. R. Mehterhane et le developpement de la musique en Turquie [The
mehterhâne and the music development in Turkey]. Retrieved from
http://www.turkishmusicportal.org/fr/types-de-la-musique-turque/musique-militaire-
mehterane-et-le-developpement-de-la-musique-en-turquie
Graeme, F. (2008). European Cultural Appropriation of Percussion Instruments from
the Ottoman Empire (Lecture Recital Research Paper, March 21, 2008). Retrieved
from http://www.pas.org/docs/default-source/thesisdissertations/european-cultural-
appropriation-of-percussion-instruments-from-the-ottoman-empire-by-graeme-
francis.pdf
Guboglu, M., Mehmet, M. (1966). Cronici turcești privind Țările Române, sec. XV
mijlocul sec. XVII. Extrase [Turkish chronicles regarding the Romanian Countries,
15th century middle 17th century. Excerpts], vol. 1. București: Editura Academiei
Republicii Socialiste România.
Hammer, J. (1836). Histoire de l’Empire Ottoman, depuis son origine jusqu'à nos
jours [History of the Ottoman Empire, from its origin to the present day], tome
quatrième / fourth volume. J. J. Hellert (translated by l’Allemand). Paris.
Hammer, J. (1839). Histoire de lʼEmpire Ottoman, depuis son origine jusqu'à nos
jours [History of the Ottoman Empire, from its origin to the present day], tome
quatorzième / fourteeth volume, J. J. Hellert (translated by l'Allemand). Paris.
Hammer, J. (1840). Histoire de lʼEmpire Ottoman, depuis son origine jusqu'à nos
jours [History of the Ottoman Empire, from its origin to the present day], tome
premier / firth volume, deuxième édition / second edition. M. Dochez (translated by
l'Allemand). Paris.
Hardy Campbell, K. (2012). Mehter Music Echoes Down the Centuries. Saudi Aramco
World, Vol. 63, No. 55, 2-9. Houston: Aramco Services Company.
saudiaramcoworld.org
Holban, M, Alexandrescu-Dersca Bulgaru, M. M., Cernovodeanu, P. (Ed.) (1997).
Călători străini despre Ţările Române [Foreign travelers on the Romanian Countries],
vol. IX. București: Editura Academiei Române.
Holban, M., Alexandrescu-Dersca Bulgaru, M. M., Cernovodeanu, P. (Eds.) (1980).
Călători străini despre Ţările Române [Foreign travelers on the Romanian Countries],
vol. VII. București: Editura Ştiinţifică și Enciclopedică.
Ionnescu-Gion, G. I. (1891). Din istoria fanarioţilor. Studii şi cercetări [The history
of the Phanariots. Studies and research]. Bucureşti.
Jackson, M. (2009). Music. In Gábor Ágoston, Bruce Masters (Eds.), Encyclopedia of
the Ottoman Empire. New York: Facts On File, Inc.
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Artes. Journal of Musicology
286
*** Mehterʼin Tarihi [The history of the mehters]. Retrieved from
http://www.restoraturk.com/index.php/musiki/440-mehter-marsi-mehterin-tarihi
Meyer, E. R. (1974). Turquerie and Eighteenth-Century Music. In Eighteenth-Century
Studies, Vol. 7, No. 4, 474-488. Maryland: The Jonhs Hopkins University Press.
*** Musique classique turque. Formes [Turkish classical music. Types]. Retrieved
from http://www.turkishmusicportal.org/fr/types-de-la-musique-turque/musique-
classique-turque-formes
Nicolle, D., Hook, C. (1995). The Janissaries. London: Osprey Publishing.
OʼConnell, J. M. (2017). Commemorating Gallipoli throught Music. Remembering
and Forgetting. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Popescu, E. Mehter comme un acte du pouvoir et de la performance [The mehter as an
act of power and performance]. Retrieved from
http://www.turkishmusicportal.org/fr/types-de-la-musique-turque/musique-militaire-
mehter-comme-un-acte-du-pouvoir-et-de-la-performance
Popescu-Judetz, E. (1973). Dimitrie Cantemir. Cartea Științei Muzicii [Dimitrie
Cantemir. The book of Music Science]. București: Editura Muzicală a Uniunii
Compozitorilor.
Sadek Abaza, I. (2017). Color Symbolism in Islamic Book Paintings (A Thesis
Submitted to The Department of Arab and Islamic Civilizations In Partial Fulfilment
of the Requirements For the Degree of Master of Arts, Under the supervision of Dr.
Bernard O’Kane, The American University in Cairo School of Humanities and Social
Sciences). Retrieved from
http://dar.aucegypt.edu/bitstream/handle/10526/5286/ThesisF17_Color%20Symbolis
m%20in%20Islamic%20Book%20Paintings_ImaneAbaza.pdf?sequence=1
Sari, G. Ç. (2015) Melody - Usul - Poetic Prosodic Meter Relations in Ottoman-
Turkish Music. Journal of Literature and Art Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2, 128-140. David
Publishing.
Saull, J. P. (2014). Non-Isochronous Meter: A Study of Cross-Cultural Practices,
Analytic Technique, and Implications for Jazz Pedagogy. Retrieved from
https://yorkspace.library.yorku.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10315/30023/Saull_Jordan_
P._2014_PhD.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y
Schmidt-Jones, C. Janissary Music and Turkish Influences on Western Music. In
OpenStax-CNX module: m15861. Retrieved from http://cnx.org/content/m15861/1.2/
Serdaru Agachi, A. (2000). Dicționar român-turc [Romanian-Turkish dictionary].
Editura Diagonal.
Simonescu, D. (1939). Literatură românească de ceremonial. Condica lui
Gheorgachi, 1762 [Romanian ceremonial literature. Gheorgachi’s register, 1762].
Bucureşti.
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Studies
287
Siruni, H. Dj. (1941). Domni români la Poarta Otomană, după un manuscris turcesc
conținând note și însemnări despre ceremoniile și recepțiunile din palatul împărătesc
din Stambul între anii 1698-1782 [Romanian landlord at the Ottoman Gate, after a
Turkish manuscript containing notes and notes on the ceremonies and receptions at the
royal palace in Stambul between 1698-1782]. (trans. and annotation by H. Dj. Siruni).
București.
Suciu, E. (2010). Influența turcă asupra limbii române. Dicționarul cuvintelor
românești de origine turcă [Turkish influence on the Romanian language. Romanian
words of Turkish origin dictionary], vol. II. București: Editura Academiei Române.
Șahiner, N. (1977). Mehter ve marșalari [Mehters and marches]. İstanbul.
Tarikci, A. (2010). Analysis of Turkish Art Music Songs Via Fractal Dimension.
Retrieved from https://open.metu.edu.tr/handle/123456789/19293?locale-attribute=en
Toderini, G. (1787). Letteratura turchesca [Turkish Literature], tomo I. Venezia.
Uricarul, A. (1994). Cronica paralelă a Țării Românești și a Moldovei [Parallel
chronicle of the Wallachia and of Moldova], vol. 2, critical edition and introductory
study by Gabriel Ștrempel. București: Editura Minerva.
Veistein, G. (2001). Imperiul în secolul de aur (secolul al XVI-lea) [The Empire in the
Golden Age (16th century)]. In Robert Mantran (coord.), Istoria Imperiului Otoman
[The History of the Ottoman Empire], Cristina Bîrsan (trans.). București: Editura All.
Yekta Bey, R. (1922). Turquie. La musique turque [Turkey. The Turkish Music]. In
Albert Lavignac (Ed.), Encyclopédie de la musique et dictionnaire du conservatoire,
première partie, Histoire de la musique [5]… [Encyclopedia of Music and
Conservatory Dictionary, Part One, History of Music [5]… ] (pp. 2945-3064). Paris.
Zinveliu, G. (1995). Fr. J. Sulzer în Dacia cisalpină și transalpină [Fr. J. Sulzer in
cisalpine and transalpine Dacia]. București: Editura Muzica a Uniunii
Compozitorilor și Muzicologilor din România.
Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 19.03.20 02:48 UTC
Article
Full-text available
Whether we are talking about those written directly in Romanian, or whether we are referring to those translated into the same language, the narrative sources are the main source of documentation in the process of reconstructing any aspect related to our past. Regarding music and all the elements related to it, the category of sources we refer to is the most important source of information, even if, in relation to other aspects, music is relatively little “present” within these writings. Therefore, trying to correctly and accurately determine the described musical instruments, as well as the related terminology, is important, but also difficult. On the occasion of a more extensive work (i.e. doctoral thesis) I noticed, especially in the category of sources referred to here, a series of mistranslated musical instruments which makes it difficult or even far from understanding and creating a more accurate picture of the musical atmosphere of past centuries. All these aspects draw our attention first of all by resorting to comparing the translations with the original version after which they were made, but also by comparing the descriptions regarding music related to Romania with those referring to Romaniansʼ neighbors or those with which we have come into consistent contact with throughout history. Therefore, in the following, we propose to analyze the main cases of mistranslations identified by us, a comparison with the original alternatives of the texts after which they were made, but also a framing of the historical context, without which the proper understanding risks would not be fully achieved.
Article
Full-text available
Based on the character stereotypes of the operatic Turk on the Habsburg stages, the study examines the processes of othering. The expression »the depiction of the musical Turk« in analyzing Turk operas is replaced through the orientalist discourse by »the depiction of the musical Non-European= the Oriental= the Other«. Studies focusing on the 18th and 19th centuries use categories such as »turquerie«, »Alla Turca«, »Exoticism«, and »Orientalism« interchangeably as ideologically based frames to describe the encounters between Europeans and Turks. This paper questions the Habsburg Imperial gaze and its presentation to Western audiences and the contemporary approach to these depictions.
Article
The earliest period to which we can trace back the inception of a specifically Ottoman/Turkish musical tradition is the second half of the sixteenth century. In and shortly after the 1550s we observe an extremely important threshold in the musical life of Ottoman cities. Unfortunately, due to the lack of sources – and particularly of any musical notation – we do not really know what the “antecedent’ musical traditions of royal courts and city-dwellers may have sounded like. It may well be, as has sometimes been advanced, that this existential caesura was precipitated by the musicians that Selim I (r. 1512–20) brought to the Ottoman capital from the lands he had recently conquered – in other words, from Tabriz, Syria and Egypt. Other musicians, though probably much fewer in number, were brought in by Süleyman the Magnificent from Baghdad after the Ottoman conquest of 1534. These musicians, whose practices were grafted onto the pre-existing musical traditions of Istanbul, probably contributed to the elaboration of a new and original imperial musical synthesis. A few of the compositions these musicians brought with them survived into later periods and were attributed to “the Persians’ (Acemler, Acemiyan) or “the Indians’ (Hinduyan). Whatever the particulars of the case, the mid-sixteenth century did indeed witness the birth and establishment of an original musical tradition. This involved the establishment of new cultural centres, musicians/composers and makams (modes), in addition to the invention of original musical forms, styles and genres.
Article
Obra perteneciente al Fondo Antiguo de la Biblioteca de la USAL
Color Symbolism in Islamic Book Paintings Thesis Submitted to The Department of Arab and Islamic Civilizations In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements For the Degree of Master of Arts , Under the supervision of Dr The American University in Cairo School
  • Sadek Abaza
asupra muzicii ostăşeşti la români Research on the Romanian military music partea Muzicală a Uniunii
  • Burada
Music In Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire New Facts On File
  • Jackson
paralelă a Țării Românești și a Parallel chronicle of the Wallachia and of critical edition and introductory study by Gabriel
  • Uricarul
Music Echoes Down the Centuries Saudi World No Services Company saudiaramcoworld org
  • Hardy Campbell