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[SK] Rozumnosť ako prirodzenosť: ideál humanity v dielach Barucha Spinozu [The essentiality of rationality: ideal of humanity in the works of Baruch Spinoza]



Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) is considered to be one of the most prominent representatives of traditional European humanism and liberalism. In the next breath, however, we might add that his humanism was a form of modern humanism, which often uncritically overestimated human capacities and capabilities, leading to many ideological, but also practical failures of humanity. The aim of this paper is to reevaluate Spinoza's rationalist model of human nature in the context of "shared" rational nature of humans, which is characterized by a broad anthropological approach. In Spinoza's thought, human being is not regarded merely as rational being (or thinking subject, for that matter), but is considered in his complexity, including his affectivity, corporeality, sociality, and - above all - morality. The ideal of a free and rational humanity is not an abstract concept, but an expression of real possibilities regarding the development of humankind's innate potential.
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