Utilization of Construction and Demolition (C&D) Waste and Industrial Inorganic Wastes in Cement Manufacturing

  • National Council for Cement and Building Materials , India
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.


Annual generation of C&D waste and industrial inorganic wastes in India is estimated to be 170 million tonnes and >300 million tonnes, respectively, which is projected to increase with the growing urbanization and economic development. Considering the constant expansion of the cement industry and its need to sustain, waste valourization has emerged as a great opportunity for the industry. Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) has prescribed standards for use of C&D waste as coarse and fine aggregates, fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) as blending materials in cement manufacturing and other inorganic wastes as performance improvers in cement manufacturing. The physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of inorganic wastes suggest their potential to be utilized as alternative raw materials in cement manufacturing. The addition of red mud can improve the strength properties of cement and resistance to sulphate attack. Spent Pot Liner (SPL) can be gainfully utilized as a mineralizer in cement raw mix. NCCBM has explored use of Jarosite as set controller in place of gypsum, use of copper slag and lead–zinc slag as alternative raw materials and as blending materials in Portland Slag Cement (PSC) and use of marble dust as decarbonated raw material and as blending material in Portland Limestone Cement (PLC). There are, however, limited number of studies for use of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), recycled masonry aggregate (RMA) and fines extracted from recycled concrete, as alternative raw materials in cement manufacturing. As a part of the Indo-Norwegian project on co-processing, NCCBM is currently exploring the possibility of utilization of fines extracted from recycled concrete aggregate and recycled aggregate as alternative raw materials in cement manufacturing. This paper contains potential utilization and further opportunities for increased utilization of C&D waste and industrial inorganic wastes in cement manufacturing process.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... For instance, more than 60% of the total spending in the United States' civil infrastructure is for operation and maintenance expenses [1]. Among various environments impinging upon the behavior of construction materials (e.g., freeze-thaw, wet-dry, temperature, ultraviolet rays, carbonation, and deleterious chemicals), sulfuric acid is a representative source degrading the performance of structural materials in industrial and agricultural regions [2,3]. When concrete is exposed to sulfuric acid, substantial changes take place in mechanical and physical properties, thereby decreasing compressive strength by more than 20% [4,5]. ...
Full-text available
This paper presents the durability performance of concrete subjected to sulfuric acid. Accelerated conditioning is conducted at a 5% concentration employing concrete blocks bonded with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets, which are used for rehabilitating impaired structural members, and plain concrete blocks. After deteriorating the specimens for up to 9 weeks, various physical and mechanical tests are carried out such as digital microscopy, resonance frequency, porosity, thermogravimetry, and flexural loading. The initial uptake of sulfuric acid raises the mass of the concrete by 5.9%, on average; however, with the increased exposure period, the mass decreases by 19.8% because of the dissolved cement paste and enlarged pores. The presence of a CFRP layer partially hinders the ingress of sulfuric acid and improves the integrity of the concrete. Irreversible damage in the conditioned specimens reduces their resonant frequency and dynamic modulus as low as 20.3% and 49.0%, respectively. According to thermogravimetric results, the acid conditioning changes the microstructure of the concrete. While the flexural capacity of the blocks rises over 409% after CFRP-bonding, the level of uncertainty increases owing to the irregular deterioration of the CFRP-concrete interface. Furthermore, the capacity reduction and flexural stiffness of the specimens, as well as the debonding characteristics of CFRP, are dependent upon exposure period. A probability-based analytical model is formulated to complement the experimental findings, including the quantification of hazard and reliability. By comprehending the unexplored degradation mechanisms of concrete with and without CFRP-bonding under the sulfuric acid environment, a link is established between material-level damage and sustainable rehabilitation systems.
Full-text available
Current total productions of steel slag in India, are around 12 million tonnes per annum (Indian Minerals Yearbook, May 2016), which is far behind the developed countries. Presently in India, due to limited modes of practices of utilization, huge amount of iron and steel slag dumped in yards of each production unit and engaging of important agricultural land and grave pollution to whole environment. An efficient approach to overcome these problems is the slag utilization. Physical and chemical characterization of steel slag is a deciding factor of steel slag utilization as recycled raw material as road aggregate, cement and concrete admixture, soil stabilizer and construction materials, etc. This review presents utilization trends of steel slag and possible potentials for large-scale employment of steel slag in Indian context.
Full-text available
Spent Pot Lining (SPL) or Spent Cathode is a solid waste produced by the aluminum industry during the manufacture of aluminum metal in electrolytic cells. After 3-7 years of The operation, the cathode liner materials deteriorate and affect the cell’s performance and need to be replaced. Due to high fluoride (20 wt. %) and cyanide (1 wt. %) content SPL was listed as hazardous waste by the US Environmental Protection Agency in the year 1988.In the present study, various approaches in the treatment of SPL have been conducted to recover the valuable carbon and fluoride values. Initially, a comparative study was investigated by the chemical leaching of water washed SPL with H2SO4 and HClO4 acids and the process parameters were optimized via utilization of Multiple Level Factorial design. For H2SO4 and HClO4 treatment of water washed SPL, L/S ratio was found to be the most significant factor.The carbon content was increased from 42.19% for raw SPL to 70.83% for H2SO4 and 71.76% HClO4 treatment. An approach in chemical leaching of water washed SPL was performed initially with caustic leaching followed by Perchloric acid leaching. In this case, the Temperature was found to be the most significant factor among all the parameters, whereas the L/S ratio was the least significant among the four parameters studied.The carbon percentage of SPL was increased from 42.19 to 87.03% as confirmed from the ultimate analysis. From the proximate analysis, the fixed carbon was increased from 38.96% to 82.86% from the raw to final treated SPL. Another approach in chemical leaching of water washed SPL was conducted initially with caustic leaching followed by sulfuric acid leaching. In this case, Alkali concentration and the Temperatures were found to be the most significant and least significant factor among the four parameters studied.The process parameters used in above approaches were optimized by Taguchi method and Classical Method.The carbon percentage of SPL was increased from 42.19% to 81.27% as confirmed from the ultimate analysis. From the proximate analysis, the fixed carbon was increased from 38.96% to 78.68% for sulfuric acid from the raw to final treated SPL.Gross calorific values (GCV) were determined for the all optimized samples obtained from above studies. The GCV was found to be increased from 2865.04kcal/kg to 6689.69 kcal/kg for raw SPL and optimized sample obtained from caustic followed by sulfuric acid treatment respectively.
Full-text available
Construction and demolition waste (CDW) recycling is generally limited to the use of the coarser fraction as aggregate for new concrete. The recovery of fine aggregates requires a cleaning by removing the hydrated cement waste (HCW). In this paper, the possibility to use HCW extracted from CDW as alternative component for the production of new clinker is explored. A pure HCW sample was prepared and used in partial replacement of natural materials in raw admixtures for new clinker production. At a replacement degree of 30%, a new Portland clinker containing almost 50% of C3S could be produced with a huge spare in the release of CO2 (about 1/3 less). At higher HCW dosage a non-Portland clinker containing almost 80% of C2S has been obtained: its use as supplementary cementing material in blended cements revealed satisfying long term performances.
Full-text available
Currently, Construction and Demolition waste (C&D waste) is a worldwide issue that concerns not only the construction management level of on-site managers but also the sustainable development of construction industry. In this paper, detailed formulas are listed for calculating the costs of three typical kinds of disposal routes of C&D waste. They are Landfill Disposal, Recycling and Reuse. Using the specific formulas, the costs of new construction project in the Pearl River Delta Region of China are also estimated. The results of this study show: From 2010 to 2013, the Pearl River Delta region costs about 87.91 yuan (1US$=6.12 yuan in September 2013) for landfill disposal of 1t(tone) C&D waste, from the site collection management to landfill disposal; about 76.33 yuan for recycling of 1t C&D waste, from the site collection management to the recycling treatment; 27.29 yuan for recycling and reusing of 1t C&D waste, from the site collection management to recycling processing for reuse. On equal conditions, the recycling based reuse costs the lowest in C&D waste management. Reasonable arrangement of C&D waste treatment field. Additionally, in this paper, it is suggested that the government should make proper compensations to the contractors and professional processing businesses, to reduce their disposal cost and promote C&D waste management. The results of this study can provide supportive data and theoretical basis for the C&D waste management decision-making in rapidly developing economies.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the process of preparation of Portland clinker, imported bauxite was substituted with two types of materials: natural rock kaolin (KL) and waste by-product, spent alumina catalyst (SAC) and reduced fluid cracking catalyst (RFCC), from petroleum refinery in the Sultanate of Oman. Different clinkers were prepared using four different raw meal (RM) samples, i.e. one with bauxite as a reference sample (RM-Bxt Ref), one with kaolin (RM-KL) as a secondary reference sample, one with spent alumina Catalyst (RM-SAC) and another with reduced fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (RM-RFCC). The clinker samples obtained were ground with 5% gypsum (CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O) for preparation of cement. The microscopic features of the clinker samples prepared were examined petrographically under a polarized microscope.The study of sintering behavior of the raw mix shows that clinker prepared using kaolin has the lowest free lime content compared to the other prepared clinker samples. The compressive strength results indicate that the inclusion of kaolin in the raw mix favors an easy silica source for the reaction with lime and a media relatively free of impurities at the different stages of the thermal treatment. It seems that the impurities found in the raw materials dominate the reaction between the available reactants during heating and affects the burnability at the different reaction stages. In general, the results show that substitution of bauxite in the preparation of cement by kaolin, RFCC and SAC gave results that similar to cement samples prepared using bauxite and kaolin . These results demonstrate that the spent catalysts (SAC and RFCC) could be utilized to replace bauxite in the manufacturing of Portland clinker. This could potentially solve the environmental problem of disposal of spent catalysts from refinery companies as well as reduce the cost of cement production. ORIGINALITY: AREA 2: Sustainable production CHIEF CONTRIBUTION: Utilization of industrial wastes to replace bauxite as a solution to protect the environment and reduce the cost of production in cement manufacture.
Full-text available
The cement industry has for some time been seeking procedures that would effectively reduce the high energy and environmental costs of cement manufacture. One such procedure is the use of alternative materials as partial replacements for fuel, raw materials or even clinker. The present study explores the reactivity and burnability of cement raw mixes containing fired red or white ceramic wall tile wastes and combinations of the two as alternative raw materials.The results showed that the new raw mixes containing this kind of waste to be technically viable, and to have higher reactivity and burnability than a conventional mix, providing that the particle size of the waste used is lower than 90 μm. The mineralogical composition and distribution in the experimental clinker prepared were comparable to the properties of the clinker manufactured with conventional raw materials. Due to the presence of oxides such as ZnO, ZrO2 and B2O3 in tile glazing, the content of these oxides was higher in clinker made with such waste. The mix of red and white ceramic wall tile waste was found to perform equally or better than each type of waste separately, a promising indication that separation of the two would be unnecessary for the purpose described above.
This study investigated the feasibility of using waste limestone sludge, waste stone sludge, iron oxide sludge, and spent catalyst as raw materials in the production of eco-cement. The compressive strength development of the Eco Cement-A (ECO-A) paste was similar to that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes. The compressive strength development of the ECO-B paste was higher than that of OPC pastes. In addition, the C2S (Ca2SiO4, C2S) and C3S (Ca3SiO5) minerals in the eco-cement paste were continuously utilized to hydrate the Ca(OH)2 and calcium silicate hydrates gel (Ca6Si3O12·H2O, C–S–H) throughout the curing time. When ECO-C clinker contained 8% spent catalyst, the C3S mineral content decreased and C3A (3 CaO·Al2O3) content increased, thereby causing the structure to weaken and compressive strength to decrease. The results showed that the developed eco-cement with 4% spent catalyst possessed compressive strength properties similar to those of OPC pastes.
This paper aims to examine the use of fines generated out of recycled aggregates production as an alternative raw material for Portland clinker kilns with enumeration of possible limitations. Different technical set-ups were used to separate these fines from the recycled aggregates. The relationship between the particle size distribution of the generated fines fraction and their chemical composition as well as the relationship between the final filler (<63 μm) content [wt%] and the water demand of the treated sand fraction were investigated. Numerical simulations were carried out to maximise the fines fractions as raw materials in clinker kilns based on which experimental clinkers were produced. The final clinkers were fully analysed and evaluated on possible mineralogical influences.
Red mud is a solid waste produced in the process of alumina production from bauxite following the Bayer process. More than 4 million tons of red mud is generated annually in India only. Presently, it is stored or dumped on land, or in the oceans near alumina refineries. However, its high alkalinity is a potential pollution to threat water, land and air. While high costs are associated with the large area of land required for storage of the residue. India is amongst the major producers of alumina in the world. There are some differences in mineralogical composition between the residues from India and other countries due to the difference in the ore type in its production processes. Significant achievements in treatment and utilization of red mud have been obtained in India in the last decade. In this paper, the various proposals for the utilization of red mud generated in India are presented. Similarly, the drawbacks associated with these potential commercial applications of red mud are discussed.
The aim of the present paper was to investigate the possibility of utilizing Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes as substitutes of Portland cement raw meal. The C&D wastes that were so used, were the Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) and the Recycled Masonry Aggregates (RMA) derived from demolished buildings in Attica region, Greece. RCA and RMA samples were selected because of their calcareous and siliceous origin respectively, which conformed the composition of the ordinary Portland cement raw meal. For that reason, six samples of cement raw meals were prepared: one with ordinary raw materials, as a reference sample, and five by mixing the reference sample with RCA and RMA in appropriate proportions. The effect on the reactivity of the generated mixtures, was evaluated on the basis of the free lime content (fCaO) in the mixtures sintered at 1350°C, 1400°C and 1450°C. Test showed that the added recycled aggregates improved the burnability of the cement raw meal without affecting negatively the cement clinker properties. Moreover, the formation of the major components (C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF) of the produced clinkers (sintered at 1450°C) was corroborated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD).
This study investigated the mechanical properties of high strength concrete incorporating copper slag as a fine aggregate and concluded that less than 40% copper slag as sand substitution can achieve a high strength concrete that comparable or better to the control mix, beyond which however its behaviors decreased significantly. The workability and strength characteristics were assessed through a series of tests on six different mixing proportions at 20% incremental copper slag by weight replacement of sand from 0% to 100%. The results indicated that the strength of the concrete with less than 40% copper slag replacement was higher than or equal to that of the control specimen and the workability even had a dramatic growth. The microscopic view demonstrated that there were limited differences between the control concrete and the concrete with less than 40% copper slag content. It also suggested that the determination of the copper slag replacement level should consider with the desired compressive strength of concrete.
Technical studies have shown that ferro-silicate slag from the Imperial Smelting Furnace (ISF slag) production of zinc can be used as a replacement for sand in cementitious mixes. The ISF slag contains trace quantities of zinc and lead, which are known to cause retardation of concrete set. Testing of experimental concrete mixes proves this retardation affect, although the delay in set does not appear deleterious to the eventual concrete hydration. If a gelatinous layer containing lead and zinc ions is formed around the cement grains in the concrete mix, set begins when this layer is disrupted and then continues as it would as if no zinc or lead had been present. Leaching studies demonstrate that pulverized-fuel ash and ground granulated blastfurnace slag have the potential to reduce the leaching of lead and zinc ions from the ISF slag, even in highly alkaline solutions.
The effect of copper slag on the hydration of cement-based materials is studied. Up to 15% by weight of copper slag was used as a portland cement replacement. Hydration reactions were studied through semiquantitative X-ray diffraction and TGA/DTA. Samples of copper slag and hydrated lime (ASTM type S) were used to test the pozzolanic properties of the slag. The porosity was examined using mercury intrusion porosimetry. A decrease in capillary porosity was observed while the gel porosity was increased. A significant increase in the compressive strength for up to 1 year is observed.
Utilization of Spent Pot Liner (SPL) as a raw mix component in cement manufacturing
  • A K Singh
  • M Alka
  • S Kumar
Potential of utilizing spent pot refractory lining waste from alumina smelter in cement manufacture
  • S K Chaturvedi
  • D Yadav
  • M M Ali
  • S Nanda
  • S N Das
Production of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) from NALCO red mud
  • C R Mishra
  • D Yadav
  • P S Sharma
  • M M Ali
Applicability study of recycled aggregates as raw materials in cement clinker manufacturing
  • C T Galbenis
  • S Tsimas
Ordinary portland cement-Specification
  • Indian Standard
An experimental study on construction and demolition waste usage as secondary raw material for cement production
  • M Kara
  • Y Kilic
  • T Erenoglu
BCR-from byproduct to brick: Using red mud waste as a construction material
  • K Mustafa
Spent pot liner utilization in cement industry, presentation
  • N K Tiwari
Co-processing of waste in cement kilns, status and options to promote co processing for waste management
  • B Sengupta