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Abstract

This study uses a multicriteria decision model to solve a problem of energy source selection in order to identify which type of renewable energy is the most viable for Brazilian ports to invest in. This research considers wind energy, photovoltaic energy, and wave energy from a multicriteria perspective. Twenty criteria were defined in a brainstorming process that relied on sustainability management principles, information presented in the literature, national standards, national energy policy legislation, and data from previous or ongoing renewable energy projects in ports. These criteria were then evaluated by the Brazilian Energy Research Office (EPE) on a five-point Likert scale. The multicriteria approach adopted herein is based on the flexible and interactive tradeoff (FITradeoff) method. This process allows for the implementation of a linear programming model to identify potentially optimal alternatives. The assessments performed herein found photovoltaic energy to be the most viable renewable energy source for Brazilian ports to invest.

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... However, they did not consider the missing data. Fossile et al. 58 formulated a software technique for selecting RESs for docks in Brazil. According to their findings, solar energy appeared to be the most viable alternative for ports. ...
... It also contributes to the best decision being made. 79 Fossile et al. 58 Krishankumar et al. 70 Chatterjee et al. 80 • The proposed model considers the interrelationships between attributes within the aggregate decision matrix for RES selection. • The proposed model employs the TODIM method to prioritize RESs by extending it to the neutrosophic context and without any potential loss of information. ...
... In this section, the suggested framework is compared with existing models for the evaluation of RESs. For maintaining homogeneity, the suggested model is compared with models published on the Fuzzy number method, 58 ...
Article
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The need for energy sources in India has increased abnormally in recent years due to industrial and societal growth. To meet this demand, it was a necessary choice of renewable energy sources (RESs) as a solution to lack of nonrenewable energy sources. Due to the multiplicity of involved factors, selecting the most appropriate RESs is a multiattribute decision making (MADM) problem. There is a large number of work associated with the development of MADM techniques, especially under ambiguous and uncertain conditions. However, the effective embedding of uncertainty and ambiguity and in decision‐making remains a difficult challenge, and thus this study introduces a new framework for solving the problem of selecting the most suitable RESs which is based on the neutrosophic set and TODIM (an acronym in Portuguese of interactive and multicriteria decision‐making) method. It also reduces human intervention by being systematically applied. First, it transforms the linguistic terms presented into neutrosophic values and implements systematic techniques to compute missing values in the decision matrix using the case‐based technique. Second, it calculates the weight of every linguistic variable as well as those of the decision‐makers (DMs) and weighted attributes. Furthermore, it creates an aggregated single valued neutrosophic decision matrix for DMs. Finally, it calculates the overall dominance‐degree matrix, derives the overall values, and ranks the alternatives. It is applied to select RESs in Karnataka, India, and the obtained results show that wind energy is the most suitable RES for India, with small hydroenergy second most appropriate.
... In another study, the FITradeoff method is applied to evaluate electric power generation technologies in an electricity matrix (Kang et al. 2018). The method is also applied to identify the most appropriate type of renewable energy in ports (Fossile et al. 2020). Environmental issues are also considered for a water supply system (Monte and Morais 2019). ...
... In the context of choice problematic, Fossile et al. (2020) deal with choosing renewable energy sources with three alternatives and twenty criteria. In the example, during the decision process, the DM chooses to go "Back to Elicitation by decomposition" after the DM has performed the first DM's choice step, highlighted with Key Moment 1 in Fig. 2 ("Perform Holistic pre-analysis?"). ...
... In other words, it can be quite confusing for the DM to analyze a graphic with such a large number of criteria, even though only three alternatives are being compared. Therefore, Fossile et al. (2020) state that the elicitation process by decomposition fits better than the holistic evaluation. Pergher et al. (2020) deal with selecting the best combination of scheduling decisions, with fifteen alternatives and four criteria. ...
Article
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This paper focuses on the flexibility feature of the Flexible and Interactive Tradeoff (FITradeoff) multicriteria method for preference modeling. This method is based on the additive aggregation of criteria and using partial (incomplete; imprecise) information to be obtained from a Decision Maker (DM). The flexibility in FITradeoff for preference modeling has already considered two different perspectives: holistic evaluations and elicitation by decomposition based on the classical tradeoff procedure. This paper introduces a new feature in the flexibility of FITradeoff by combining and integrating these two paradigms: Holistic evaluations and elicitation by decomposition. This combination improves the preference modeling process, since it increases its efficiency and consistency. The use of results from behavioral studies is briefly presented. These results include those that arise from using neuroscience tools in order to modulate changes in the design of the Decision Support System and also from improving the decision process by supporting the way the analyst can interact with the DM.
... Recently, Siksnelyte-Butkiene et al. (2020) presented an interesting review on decision methods for CES assessment with households. Fossile et al. (2020) gave a new framework with linear programming and a flexible-interactive trade-off method for identifying suitable CES for Brazilian port with the help of 20 sustainable criteria. Rani et al. (2020a, b) gave a fuzzy-based framework with divergence and TOP-SIS approach for CES assessment to satisfy Indian demands. ...
... Rani et al. (2019),Fossile et al. (2020),Zhang et al. (2019), andRani et al. (2020a, b) are compared with the proposed work. All these models address the CES selection problem under diverse preference structures. ...
Article
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Smart cities development is an ambitious project launched in India in 2015 with around 14 billion USD. Smart city mission program primarily aimed at reducing the carbon footprint and encouraging green and sustainable practices. Under this context, clean energy usage for demand fulfillment became the prime focus. India's geographic location gifts the nation with diverse clean energy sources (CES). Owing to the multiple sustainable criteria that are both conflicting and correlated, there is an urge for a multi-criteria decision approach. Previously, literatures on CES selection have not been able to grab the hesitation properly and handle uncertainty effectively. Since the human mind is dynamic, hesitation is an integral part of choice making. Hesitant fuzzy set (HFS) is a generic set that captures hesitation better. Driven by these claims, in this work, a new framework for CES selection is developed. Attitude-driven entropy measure is proposed for criteria weight assessment, and a mathematical model is formulated for ranking CESs. Together, these methods constitute a decision framework that (i) considers the attitude of experts and captures hesitation during rating process and (ii) acquires partial personal choices from experts before ranking CESs. To testify the framework, a case study from a smart city within Tamil Nadu (a state in India) is explained. Sensitivity analysis reveals the robustness of the framework, and comparison with other works showcases the novel innovations of the proposal.
... The FITradeoff method can be used in choice problematics (de Almeida et al., 2016), in ranking problematics (Frej et al., 2019), in sorting problematics (Kang et al., 2020), and in portfolio problematics . Thus, the FITradeoff presents a wide variety of real-world applications, such as: energy and environmental applications (de Macedo et al., 2018;Fossile et al., 2020;Frej et al., 2021;Kang et al., 2018;Monte & Morais, 2019), healthcare applications (Dell'Ovo et al., 2017;Camilo et al., 2020), applications regarding public security (Camara e Silva et al., 2019), application in industry context (Frej et al., 2019;Lima et al., 2017;Pergher et al., 2020;Santos et al., 2020;Silva et al., 2019), agricultural context (Carrillo et al., 2018). ...
... These four visualizations have been constructed to represent problems with many criteria, which are not quite common to be used by DMs. Moreover, as illustrated by de Almeida et al. (2021), in the case study of Fossile et al. (2020), the Holistic Evaluation might not be appropriate to be used in problems with a huge number of criteria. In these situations, the decomposition elicitation process fits better than the holistic evaluation . ...
Article
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This study has been proposed to improve the holistic evaluation in the FITradeoff decision-making process. The study generates recommendations that can support the analyst during the advising process with the decision-maker. A neuroscience tool is applied to conduct a behavioral study. Using an electroencephalogram, the Alpha and Theta activities have been monitored from a sample of twenty-seven management engineering students. The neuroscience experiment is composed of graphical and tabular visualizations. These visualizations represent multi-criteria decision problems, and they are presented in the holistic evaluation phase of the FITradeoff method. As result, the Alpha-Theta Diagram has been obtained, based on frontal Theta and parietal Alpha activities. The Alpha-Theta Diagram is a tool proposed to be applied during the holistic evaluation phase, with the visualizations. Thus, based on the Alpha-Theta Diagram, the visualizations in which the decision-maker presents the adequate pattern of behavioral, with high cognitive effort and high engagement are revealed. Statistical tests show that in most of the visualizations there have been significant cognitive effort and/or engagement of participants. Thus, based on this diagram, recommendations can consider the visualizations that use the adequate patterns of behavioral. As conclusion, the result reinforces which visualization should be used for holistic evaluation during the FITradeoff decision process. For future studies, rigorous investigations should be performed with EEG responses, specially to develop the Alpha-Theta Diagram for participants.
... Wind energy was opted out for not resulting in a potentially optimal alternative, i.e., its mathematical value within the model had much lower weight compared to the others. The study finally revealed that photovoltaic energy seems to be the most viable type for Brazilian ports [95]. Figure 18 below shows a radar chart with the 20 criteria; blue line stands for photovoltaic energy, whereas orange is for wave energy. ...
... A radar chart with the 20 criteria, showing the predominance of photovoltaic over wave energy. Reprinted from ref.[95]. ...
Article
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In recent decades, maritime transport demand has increased along with world population and global trades. This is associated with higher pollution levels, including the emissions of GHG and other polluting gases. Ports are important elements within maritime transport and contribute themselves to pollutant emissions. This paper aims to offer a comprehensive yet technical review of the latest related technologies, explaining and covering aspects that link ports with emissions, i.e., analyzing, monitoring, assessing, and mitigating emissions in ports. This has been achieved through a robust scientific analysis of very recent and significant research studies, to offer an up-to-date and reliable overview. Results show the correlation between emissions and port infrastructures, and demonstrate how proper interventions can help with reducing pollutant emissions and financial costs as well, in ports and for maritime transportation in general. Besides, this review also wishes to propose new ideas for future research: new future experimental studies might spin-off from it, and perhaps port Authorities might be inspired to experiment and implement dedicated technologies to improve their impact on environment and sustainability.
... Corroborating with the authors, Figueiredo Neto and Rossi (2019) mentioned that photovoltaic systems are considered a good alternative for the supply of energy in rural areas with indigenous communities and, as a consequence, they have caused significant improvements in local teaching conditions and in the community in general. Fossile et al. (2020) evaluated the use of photovoltaic energy in ports and concluded that photovoltaics is the most viable renewable energy source for Brazilian ports to invest in. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to verify how photovoltaic solar energy in Brazil has been approached in the scientific literature. Therefore, searches were carried out in the ScienceDirect database, using the words “Brazilian and photovoltaic and energy” and limited by the type “review” and “research”. A total of 160 articles were found, four were discarded, leaving 156 articles. Among the 156 articles, within the adopted classification, research was carried out on technologies and equipment; hybrid or complementary generation systems; power generation using buildings; laws, rules, regulations, tariffs; Marketplace; residential use of photovoltaic energy; comparison between energy sources; environmental impacts; education and training; and studies for a better location for the implementation of photovoltaic plants. What emerged from the research was the wide variety of topics, but especially the proposals for the use of photovoltaic solar energy sources, such as, for example, in hydroelectric power plant reservoirs and weirs; in the structure of commercial, residential, public buildings; on the roof of homes; hybrid systems associated with other sources, such as wind power; and in technology parks.
... The FITradeoff method has been made use of in a wide range of practical applications. Thus, it was used in medical applications (Dell'Ovo et al., 2020;Camilo et al. 2020), in energy applications (Fossile et al., 2020;de Macedo, de Miranda-Mota and Sola, 2018;Kang, Frej and de Almeida, 2018), in environmental applications (Monte and Morais, 2019;Carrillo et al., 2018), in a security application (Camara e Silva et al., 2019), and in industry applications (Frej, de Almeida and Costa, 2017;Santos et al., 2020;Pergher et al., 2020; Silva, Costa and Frej, de Almeida and Costa, 2019;Lima, Viegas and Costa, 2017;de Gusmão and Pereira Medeiros, 2016). In order to test the performance of the FITradeoff method, Mendes et al. (2020) performed simulation studies considering several scenarios, including different number of criteria and alternatives. ...
Article
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This paper presents a practical case involving a shopping mall location problem in the northeast countryside of Brazil. In this problem, conflicting objectives have been expressed in terms of seven criteria. Then, ten cities of the northeastern countryside have been selected to compose the space of actions. The problem plays a special role since Brazil is a big country that requires investments in the countryside. Thus, the shopping mall aims to stimulate economic growth in the respective region. In the study, this multi-objective problem is solved using the FITradeoff method. In FITradeoff, the combination of the paradigms of holistic evaluation and elicitation by decomposition in preference modeling are well explored, bringing different perspectives for the decision-maker during the decision process.
... In Frej et al. (2017) FITradeoff method is used to select suppliers. In the energy context, the FITradeoff method was used to select the best type of renewable energy for Brazil (Fossile et al., 2020), as well as to evaluate the best technology for generating electricity (Kang et al., 2018). To indicate the best location for the construction of a security unit for the Military Police . ...
Article
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The technology can support multi-criteria decision-making processes, allowing managers to identify efficient solutions to complex problems in a structured and rational way. Specially, in time of crises, the use of Decision Support System (DSS) is useful since these situations demand greater accuracy in the decision-making process. Therefore, this study shows the usefulness of the Decision Support System constructed for the FITradeoff method in a practical context involving a decision-making in time of crisis. In special, in this study, the applicability of the FITradeoff DSS is discussed to solve an important problem involving a Brazilian Company. The FITradeoff DSS was employed for a compliance-program problem, in which a company sought to improve its performance in relation to the program. This problem is particularly significant in Brazil where the search for compliance programs has been increasing since the adoption of the anticorruption law. Thus, twenty-eight alternatives were created, and these alternatives were evaluated against five criteria. As a result, most of the alternatives in the top of the ranking are related to Internal Communication aspect. Hence, the DM considered that these alternatives are sufficient to direct the efforts to execute the Compliance Program, and in special this theme can be the focus in this company. Furthermore, in view of recurring crises around the world, companies must identify ways to ensure their internal processes support the sustainability of their business. For decision making in times of crisis, the DSS of the FITradeoff method is an effective tool allowing decision makers to handle complex decisions.
... Three hundred forty-two systematic literature studies on multi-criteria methods were discovered during the literature survey. The ten largest categories classified by Web of Science using multi-criteria methods were green sustainable science technology [22], energy fuels [23], environmental sciences [24], operations research and management science [25,26], computer science and artificial intelligence [27], management [28], economics [29], engineering environmental [30], computer science and interdisciplinary applications [31], and civil engineering [32]. ...
Article
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Multicriteria methods have gained traction in academia and industry practices for effective decision-making. This systematic review investigates and presents an overview of multi-criteria approaches research conducted over forty-four years. The Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus databases were searched for papers on multi-criteria methods with titles, abstracts, keywords, and articles from January 1977 to 29 April 2022. Using the R Bibliometrix tool, the bibliographic data was evaluated. According to this bibliometric analysis, in 131 countries over the past forty-four years, 33,201 authors have written 23,494 documents on multi-criteria methods. This area's scientific output increases by 14.18 percent every year. China has the highest percentage of publications at 18.50 percent, followed by India at 10.62 percent and Iran at 7.75 percent. Islamic Azad University has the most publications with 504, followed by Vilnius Gediminas Technical University with 456 and the National Institute of Technology with 336. Expert Systems With Applications, Sustainability, and the Journal of Cleaner Production are the top journals, accounting for over 4.67 percent of all indexed works. In addition, E. Zavadskas and J. Wang have the most papers in the multi-criteria approaches sector. AHP, followed by TOPSIS, VIKOR, PROMETHEE, and ANP, is the most popular multi-criteria decision-making method among the ten nations with the most publications in this field. The bibliometric literature review method enables researchers to investigate the multi-criteria research area in greater depth than the conventional literature review method. It allows a vast dataset of bibliographic records to be statistically and systematically evaluated, producing insightful insights. This bibliometric study is helpful because it provides an overview of the issue of multi-criteria techniques from the past forty-four years, allowing other academics to use this research as a starting point for their studies.
... Today most RES incorporate Photovoltaic Systems (PV) for energy production and batteries for energy storage purposes, depending on the availability of renewable energy resources and the load demand [51]. PV is the most common RES [52] due to the availability of the solar resource [53] and the technology's gradually decreasing initial costs [54] alongside its low environmental footprint [55]. ...
Article
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Natural resources’ unexpected nature makes renewable energy sources’ power supply irregular and inflexible; weather conditions are impossible to be predicted. Energy storage systems are required to balance this green power supply and ensure both off‐grid and autonomous infrastructures' stability and reliability. Various energy storage technologies are available, but the high initial capital cost and the uncertainty regarding future cost and performance are critical bottlenecks for possible investors. Batteries are the most common energy storage means, while hydrogen storage is one of the least used options. This research attempts to conduct a comparative technoeconomic analysis between a hybrid renewable energy power plant combined with a hydrogen energy storage system and the implementation of the cold‐ironing technique. The test bed is the port of Milos, which is a Mediterranean island port. Thirteen scenarios were conceptualized, simulated, and assessed after examining and assessing the existing methods and technology using MATLAB and Homer Pro software. The economy of scale plays its role in this aspect as hydrogen storage systems' cost has been proven to be lower for larger infrastructures. Indicatively, the levelized cost of energy is significantly reduced for the two optimal scenarios, as there is a 41.3% decrease for the non‐cold‐ironing case and a 33.4% decrease for the cold‐ironing one. Moreover, the carbon footprint for the suggested systems of all the examined scenarios is almost diminished, paving the way forward for turning the port into a nearly Zero Energy Port. This study also helps to comprehend the technoeconomic characteristics of hydrogen‐based hybrid renewable energy systems for supporting the cold‐ironing technique. A systematic methodology is presented to introduce the cold‐ironing technique to a small Mediterranean port; Hydrogen‐based renewable energy systems are a sustainable and feasible solution toward the nZEP concept; An optimally sized hybrid renewable energy system guarantees the unhampered 24‐h port's operation; The suggested hybrid systems are capable of covering the port's energy needs fully even if the cold ironing is incorporated. Schematic diagram of the examined scenarios' components.
... Q5:What are the conceptual structures of the multicriteria methods of decision support? Throughout this research process, 342 systematic literature reviews on the theme of multicriteria methods have been identified as per the ten largest categories classified by the Web of Science, i.e., green sustainable science technology (Fossile et al., 2020); energy fuels (Siksnelyte-Butkiene et al., 2020); environmental sciences (Akhtar et al., 2021); operations research and management science (Syan and Ramsoobag, 2019;Costa et al., 2021); computer science and artificial intelligence (Salih et al., 2019); management (Pelissari et al., 2021); economics (Moreno-Calderón et al., 2020); engineering environmental (Heidari et al., 2021); computer science and interdisciplinary applications (Cunha et al., 2021); engineering civil (Serugga et al., 2020). This article is structured as follows: Section 2 provides a brief description of the methods and materials. ...
Preprint
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Purpose: Multicriteria methods have gained traction in both academia and industry practices for effective decision-making over the years. This bibliometric study aims to explore and provide an overview of research carried out on multicriteria methods, in its various aspects, over the past forty-four years. Design/Methodology/Approach: The Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus databases were searched for publications from January 1945 to April 29, 2021, on multicriteria methods in titles, abstracts, and keywords. The bibliographic data were analyzed using the R bibliometrix package. Findings: This bibliometric study asserts that 29,050 authors have produced 20,861 documents on the theme of multicriteria methods in 131 countries in the last forty-four years. Scientific production in this area grows at a rate of 13.88 per year. China is the leading country in publications with 14.14%; India with 10.76%; and Iran with 8.09%. Islamic Azad University leads others with 504 publications, followed by the Vilnius Gediminas Technical University with 456 and the National Institute of Technology with 336. As for journals, Expert Systems With Applications; Sustainability; and Journal of Cleaner Production are the leading journals, which account for more than 4.67% of all indexed literature. Furthermore, Zavadskas E. and Wang J have the highest publications in the multicriteria methods domain regarding the authors. Regarding the most commonly used multicriteria decision-making methods, AHP is the most favored approach among the ten countries with the most publications in this research area, followed by TOPSIS, VIKOR, PROMETHEE, and ANP. SciELO Preprints-This document is a preprint and its current status is available at: https://doi.org/10.1590/SciELOPreprints.3576 2 Practical implications: The bibliometric literature review method allows the researchers to explore the multicriteria research area more extensively than the traditional literature review method. It enables a large dataset of bibliographic records to be systematically analyzed through statistical measures, yielding informative insights. Originality/value: The usefulness of this bibliometric study is summed in presenting an overview of the topic of the multicriteria methods during the previous forty-four years, allowing other academics to use this research as a starting point for their research.
... Table 6 lists the various features of the different models. State-of-the-art models [81]; and [44] that are compared with the proposed work. Proposed work has some innovations/novelties, which are listed below: ...
Article
With a sheer commitment to reduce carbon footprint, India refined its strategy towards meeting energy demands by adopting clean energy policies in smart cities. In an event hosted by the Confederation of Indian Industry, the Chairman of the electricity board claimed that India has reached its clean energy share of 26% and has rigorous plans to reduce carbon trace to adhere to the commitment made in the Paris Accord. Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) is an ambitious plan by India to create and manage smart cities with sustainable development plans. Under this plan, clean energy usage plays a substantial role and the selection of appropriate energy options is a complex decision problem with competing criteria. Previous studies on clean energy selection have paid subtle attention towards criteria interrelationships, managing of linguistic expressions, and relative importance of experts. Therefore, in this study, a new decision making approach is developed. Specifically, the hesitant fuzzy linguistic information (HFLI) is adopted. Then, attitudinal Choquet integral (AC) is proposed under HFLI context along with their fundamental properties. Besides, relative importance of criteria and experts are determined by evidence-based Bayesian approach and variance approach under HFLI context, respectively. A ranking algorithm is presented with the CRITIC technique. Finally, a case study in Tamil Nadu illustrates the usefulness of the integrated framework and the comparison provides grounding for the superiority of the framework.
... A escolha do FITradeoff para este trabalho decorre desta potencialidade, aliada ao emprego em contextos de obtenção [Frej et al., 2017;Rodrigues et al., 2020;Fossile et al., 2020], em avaliação de tecnologias [Kang et al., 2018], e também nos contextos militares, no qual o presente trabalho está inserido [Pessôa et al., 2018;Silva et al., 2020;Botelho et al., 2017;Pessôa et al., 2016]. ...
Conference Paper
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RESUMO Este trabalho apresenta uma aplicação do modelo FITradeoff a um contexto de licitação da Administração Pública, portanto sujeito às limitações normativas e ditadas pela legislação. O caso específico relaciona-se a cobertura estrutural, utilizando como subsídio de definição de critérios a NBR15575. Apesar de nesse contexto não ser adequado o uso de método de apoio à decisão para a escolha de fornecedores, dadas as normas estabelecerem o processo licitatório, mostra-se uma contribuição do FITradeoff em apoio ao procedimento de definição do objeto, fundamental para evitar falhas no processo de contratação. Utiliza-se a recente versão web do Sistema de Apoio a Decisão (SAD) do Fitradeoff e vê-se como vantagem da utilização do método a redução de viéses do decisor, aumentando a transparência do processo. PALAVRAS CHAVE. Administração Pública. Apoio à Decisão Multicritério. FITradeoff. Tópicos (SE-FITradeoff) ABSTRACT This paper shows an application of the FITradeoff method to a context of public administration bidding, therefore subject to the normative limitations and dictated by Brazilian legislation. The specific case is related to structural coverage, using Brazilian norm as a criterion definition subsidy. Although in this context it is not appropriate to use a decision support method for the choice of suppliers, given the normative procedures establish the bidding process, the work shows a contribution of FITradeoff supporting the definition of the object, a fundamental step to avoid failures in the hiring process. It employs the recent decision support system Fitradeoff web version, and the used method reduces possible biases of the decision-maker, increasing the transparency of the process.
... Secondary data is in the form of documents that support the research. In qualitative research, the selection of research subjects used criterias based selection (Muhadjir, 1993;Fossile et al., 2020;Shao et al., 2020;Abdel-Basset et al., 2021), which is based on the assumption that the subject is the main actor in the theme of the research being implemented. In this study, the determination of informants using the Snow Ball model adjusts the information needs needed during the research process, because this method is used to expand the research subject. ...
Article
The research method is qualitative with phenomenological approach. The research design using one site involving Banjarmasin City in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Data collection techniques used were content analysis, participatory observation and depth interviews. The analysis used in answering this research is a combination of various analytical methods to answer each of the objectives namely miles & Huberman analysis and Webbed Spider Model Analysis as the ultimate in formulating management of plastic waste through a leadership role. The results of this research found that the adaptation of environmentally sound habits in minimizing the production of plastics waste through local wisdom approaches and changing the people's mindset to live healtier. The purpose of writing this paper is to provide examples of new habits of healthy living by starting to reduce the use of plastic bags as the main source of waste generation that is not easily biodegradable in Banjarmasin City produced in every citi anywhere and is a major problem of environmental damage, including Banjarmasin City as a city of a thousand rivers, south Kalimantan Province. Effort to reduce the use of pastic bags began in stages, starting with modern retailers in the City of Banjarmasin. Through a leadership role based on local wisdom and a persuasive approach that is environmentally sound, it can provide solutions in current and future waste management. Result from this research is Banjramasin as the first City in Indonesia implemented regulation to reduction of plastic waste for modern retailers which are widely scattered throughout the City, sub-districts and villages. This is effective through regulation and direct approach to society. In the waste management that is carried out in the City of Banjarmasin includes waste reduction activities with ten activities and waste handling through five activities. As a substitute for these plastic bags, plastic bag producers are forced to use environmentally friendly plastic bags and / or purun baskets which are products of local wisdom of the people of South Kalimantan, Indonesia, all of these activities are carried out by involving the community by applying the rules without sanctions. Until this paper was written, there has never been a leader with leadership who has implemented a similar regulation as a direct effort from the role of a leader in reducing the use of plastic bags, where the use of plastic bags is the biggest contributor as a source of producing plastic waste.
... The FITradeoff method (de Almeida et al. 2016;Frej et al. 2019) is a flexible and interactive method for eliciting preferences in the scope of Multiattribute Value Theory (MAVT- Keeney and Raiffa 1976), which works based on partial information gathered from DMs. FITradeoff has a strong axiomatic foundation based on the classical tradeoff procedure, but improves its applicability to DMs by asking easier elicitation questions and requiring less cognitive effort from them in order to achieve a recommendation (de Almeida et al. 2016). The FITradeoff method has been applied for solving a wide range of practical MCDM problems (Frej et al. 2017;Carrillo et al. 2018;Pergher et al. 2020;Fossile et al. 2020). Variants of this method for dealing with sorting MCDM problems (Kang et al. 2020) and portfolio selection problems have also been developed. ...
Article
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Preference evaluation is a key aspect of multi-issue negotiation support, especially when the set of possible alternative offers is large. Approaches based on utility (value) functions have been used to elicit negotiators’ preferences so that they can assess alternatives and concessions. A disadvantage of eliciting preferences is the requirement that the negotiators provide precise values, which may cause errors and inconsistencies. This paper proposes a protocol for eliciting preferences, which is based on an adaptation of the Flexible and Interactive Tradeoff (FITradeoff) multicriteria method. This method allows negotiators to provide incomplete information, which is used to construct a linear programming model to determine the dominance relationship of the alternatives. During the exchange of offers, the models are refined and the dominance relationship becomes increasingly more complete. The negotiation protocol is based on reducing the current set of possible agreement packages, by removing those that are not of interest to both parties, which facilitates reaching an agreement. A Pareto-optimality analysis of the final agreement package is conducted in the post-settlement phase, also under partial information provided by the parties, which is a challenge when exact information about the weights of issues is not known.
... For instance, in the contexts of scheduling decisions, Pergher et al. (2020) used FITradeoff method integrated with discrete event simulation in order to identify the best combination of due date assignment, order release and shop dispatching rules. In the study of Fossile et al. (2020), FITradeoff is used to support the process of selecting the most viable renewable energy source for Brazilian ports, considering important aspects such as national energy policy legislation, national standards, sustainability management principles, information presented in the literature, among others. Kang et al. (2018), in turn, proposed in their study a decision model based on FITradeoff that integrates social, environmental and economic issues within the scope of energy planning. ...
Article
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Multiple decision support methods have been developed to support multi-criteria problems, offering a structured approach. One such method is FITradeoff, which is based on tradeoff, and has a strong axiomatic structure. Implemented in a Decision Support System, FITradeoff offers an experience with low cognitive effort and time demanded by the decision maker. Despite its advantages, some issues remain unclear. In this study, we sought to perform an analysis about the cognitive aspects during the elicitation process using FITradeoff in which the subjects solved decision problems developed by themselves. Two neuroscience tools, Eye-Tracker and a 14-channel EEG were used for neurological and psychophysiological data collection. From the results obtained, analyzes and considerations were made about the elicitation process with FITradeoff and the impact of different types of criteria on the performance of the decision maker. With these findings, it is expected to create direction for improvements in the Decision Support System.
... The results of that study indicated that wind energy was the optimal alternative. Fossile et al. (2020) proposed a programming model for the selection of RESs to Brazil's ports. Results indicate that solar energy is most viable for the ports. ...
Article
This paper proposes an integrated decision-making framework for the systematic selection of a renewable energy source (RES) from a set of RESs based on sustainability attributes. A real case study of RES selection in Karnataka, India, using the framework is demonstrated, and the results are compared with state-of-the-art methods. The main reason for developing this framework is to handle uncertainty and vagueness effectively by reducing human intervention. Systematic selection of RESs also reduces inaccuracies and promotes rational decision-making. In this paper, q-rung orthopair fuzzy information is adopted to minimize subjective randomness by providing a flexible and generalized preference style. Further, the study found systematic approaches for imputing missing values, calculating attributes' and decision-makers' weights, aggregation or preferences, and prioritizing RESs, which are integrated into the framework. . Comparing the proposed framework with state-of-the-art-methods shows that (i) biomass and solar are suitable RESs for the process under consideration in Karnataka, (ii) the proposed framework is consistent with state-of-the-art methods, (iii) the proposed framework is sufficiently stable even after weights of attributes and decision makers are altered, and (iv) the proposed framework produces broad and sensible rank values for efficient backup management. These results validate the significance of the proposed framework.
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Multi‐criteria methods and systems have been developed over many years to support decision‐making with a process of eliciting preferences. The emphasis has been on those that incorporate compensatory rationality, the characteristics of which make the process more complex. Neuroscience has offered the opportunity to capture aspects of cognition, generating insights. This paper investigates the preference elicitation process with Flexible and Interactive Tradeoff (FITradeoff), using electroencephalography and eye‐tracking applied to a sample of undergraduate and graduate students. While FITradeoff offers greater flexibility when evaluating recent advances in the area, the experiment carried out incorporates paradigms present in other methods developed for compensatory rationality. The results indicate the effect the type of predominant criterion has on cognitive effort. Moreover, a non‐linear relationship between the number of criteria and questions was found, which suggests that decision‐makers use a strategy of minimizing cognitive effort. Such findings help to direct efforts to enhance systems and methods with compensatory rationality.
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The relevance of multiple criteria decision-making/aiding is reinforced by the prominence of these methods in a wide range of applications. Whether by solving problems with a single decision-maker (DM) or a group of DMs, additive modelling, based on value or utility functions, is the most traditional. However, applying this kind of method raises a critical issue: the difficulty in eliciting DM’s preferences and recommending a decision. Actually, it is a hard task for the DM to provide complete information regarding their preferences, because the DM may not be able to provide such information in the detailed way required, or even they may not be willing to do so. From this perspective, the emergence and growth of partial (incomplete or imprecise) information-based methods is indicative that these are a useful way of guiding decision-making as they require less cognitive input from a DM. Thus, this paper systematically reviews the literature on multicriteria decision methods that deal with partial information, focusing on the Multi-Attribute Value/Utility Theory context. Strategic research questions guide a bibliometric and content analysis of 105 peer-reviewed papers selected from the Web of Science (Main Collection). An integrated analysis of the results provides scholars, researchers and other professionals with a deeper comprehension of methodological advances and respective contributions, and of the main challenges and trends in this field of knowledge. Our analysis aims to show that when these methods are applied more reliable decision-making can be achieved.
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Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methods have gained popularity among practitioners and researchers in recent years. MCDA methods based on measuring the distance to reference objects are particularly noteworthy since their suitability for most decision problems, comparable and straightforward use, interpretation, and wide post-analytical possibilities. However, software implementations devoted to the MCDA domain show the lack of solutions dedicated to this family containing a sufficient number of methods, providing additional distance metrics and post-analytical tools such as sensitivity analysis. Therefore, this article presents a Python 3 based library that addresses this gap. The research demonstrating the functionalities of the proposed library includes a comparative analysis of the rankings provided by the different methods implemented in the library, a sensitivity analysis of the alternatives to criteria weights modifications, and a robustness analysis of the alternatives to changes in the performance values. The applicability of the proposed library is demonstrated in two real-life numerical examples. The first illustrative example involves the recommendation of renewable energy resources (RES) for development focusing on increasing the significance of RES. The other example involves the evaluation of material suppliers for a steel manufacturing company. Data for both examples were acquired from research papers. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that the proposed library is helpful in the process of supporting the solution of multi-criteria decision problems, and the implementation of a set of methods provides opportunities to search for the most reliable alternative.
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It has been claimed in the literature that decision-making methods have not been modulated (transformed) by results obtained in behavioral studies as much as has been expected and that further modulation would be an important advancement in decision-making. This paper summarizes the modulation provided by the Flexible and Interactive Tradeoff (FITradeoff) method from behavioral studies performed using neuroscience tools. Modulations of the FITradeoff method have been conducted in two ways: modulations in the preference modelling process and modulations in the FITradeoff Decision Support System (DSS). For modulation in FITradeoff preference modeling, several recommendations were provided to support analysts during their advising process with decision-makers. For modulation in the FITradeoff DSS, several improvements were implemented in the design of the DSS. The modulation of the FITradeoff method was supported by neuroscience experiments. These experiments investigated decision-makers’ (DMs) behavior when they interacted with a holistic evaluation and elicitation by decomposition in the FITradeoff method. The modulation of the FITradeoff method promoted the inclusion of some features through the combination of the two paradigms of preference modeling, completely transforming the decision-making process, and its DSS.
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The study demonstrates the flexible functioning of the FITradeoff method that integrates the Holistic Evaluation with the Elicitation by Decomposition. For that purpose, the new features of the FITradeoff method in which integrates the two paradigms of preference modeling have been explored to solve a real multi-criteria decision problem. In this paper, a truck acquisition problem, at a midsize carrier faced with an uncertain and turbulent scenario due to the Coronavirus pandemic, was solved using the FITradeoff method. In this problem, seven criteria were considered to represent the Decision-Maker objectives. Also, six trucks (alternatives) have been examined by the Decision-Maker (Financial Director). The FITradeoff DSS supported the company as to obtain, through the combination of Holistic Evaluation and Elicitation by Decomposition, a ranking of all the trucks based on the preferences expressed during the decision process to ensure lower costs and higher profits in the long run, also guaranteeing a quicker (more efficient) resolution of the problem.KeywordsFITradeoff methodElicitation processHolistic evaluationMulti-criteria decision making/Aiding (MCDM/A)Truck acquisition
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The current global scenario of a greater scarcity of resources, uncertainty in several dimensions and problems that seek to reconcile multiple criteria to achieve the best possible results are issues commonly related to problems of selecting a portfolio of projects. This paper presents a new proposal for using the flexible and interactive method, FITradeoff, for portfolio decision analysis in the presence of possible partial information about decision-makers’ preferences. The proposed approach, specifically, uses the concept of c-optimal portfolios and refinement strategies of feasibility and efficiency during the process of generating a portfolio while endeavoring to keep both computational and cognitive efforts within reasonable limits. This approach is built into a Decision Support System. After applying several tests, what can be concluded from the computational results in randomly generated instances is that this method exhibits good performance both in terms of minimizing the computational effort and reducing the cognitive effort demanded from the decision-maker.
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Levulinate compounds are considered as a potential energy chemical and bio-lubricant of the present century due to extraordinary application in fuel blending which improves the performance and efficiency of fuel and engine. The traditional industrial synthesis of levulinate compounds involves the use of hazardous reagents/chemicals and harsh reaction temperature conditions which are considered as non-green methodologies that violate the green and sustainable chemistry principles. The recent literature survey suggested that enzyme (lipase) catalyzed synthesis of levulinate compounds may be a competent solution over the present traditional synthesis. However, there is need of extensive research efforts and reviewing of recent advances in this field to get the proficient synthesis of levulinates through enzyme catalysis. In view of this, the present review article highlights the current state of the art in this field along with major challenges for the proficient enzyme catalyzed scale-up production of levulinate compounds.
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The application of enzymes as biocatalyst is well recognized in the field of green engineering. Due to their outstanding properties such as inconsumable in chemical reaction, highly specific in action, and speeding up the reaction rate, they are widely used in the conversion of various renewable sources into biofuel. Biofuel, in recent years, had shown such great potential in becoming the alternative for the petrol-derived fuel since it is generated from biomass origins. Researchers currently had introduced few enzyme modifications such as gene editing and supercritical fluid extraction techniques in order to maximize their catalytic performances. However, all of those methods are more tedious and still lack in maintaining the regenerative ability of the enzymes as well as their stabilities. Hence, the technique of enzyme immobilization is currently applied in the biofuel production in improving the enzymes’ performances by providing extra physical support known as backbone to the enzyme to speed up the reaction. Thus, this review aims to provide better insight on the current immobilization technology as well as the enzyme immobilization itself in biofuel generation. Different types of biofuel produced in the industry is also reviewed. The working principles, mechanisms, characteristics, and advantages of the enzyme immobilization technique is also conferred. Besides, comparisons between mobilized, extracellular immobilized and intracellular immobilization will also be reviewed along with the types of matrices used in the adsorption immobilization methods. Lastly, some issues regarding this technique are also highlighted in improving the enzyme performance itself.
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The FITradeoff method is a Flexible and Interactive method used to solve Multi-Criteria Decision Making/Aiding (MCDM/A) problems, with additive aggregation in the context of Multi-Attribute Value Theory. This study discusses the combination of two perspectives of preference modelling in the FITradeoff method for a supply selection decision problem. Five criteria are considered: Price, Product Quality, Delivery Time for supplying, Confidence of the Supplier and Service, associating to the classical objectives of manufacturing and operations strategies. The two perspectives are: the elicitation process by decomposition and the holistic evaluation. The combination of these two perspectives offers flexibility for the decision-maker during the FITradeoff decision process. The FITradeoff is implemented in a Decision Support System, in which the holistic evaluation is performed using graphical and tabular visualizations.
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Multicriteria Decision Making/Aiding (MCDM/A) techniques are usually required to solve practical decision-making problems that consider multiple criteria structured based on a value tree. Structuring criteria based on a hierarchy is common specially in problems in which the number of criteria is high, and therefore MCDM/A techniques should be prompted to deal with such situations. The well-known FITradeoff method is being widely applied for solving practical multicriteria problems due to its easiness of use and attractive flexibility features. However, the current version of this method is suitable for dealing with single-level criteria decision problems only. Therefore, in this context, this paper proposes a approach for solving multicriteria decision-making problems with hierarchically structured criteria in the FITradeoff method. This approach uses partial information of preferences provided by the decision maker, based on a structured process within the scope of the multi-attribute value theory, to find the values of the scale constants. The model is presented for both choice and ranking problematics and it is based on the traditional tradeoff procedure, which is axiomatically robust. The model effectiveness is verified after being applied to three problems adapted from the literature to both choice and ranking problematics. As a result, it was observed that in the choice problematic, in all analyzed problems, a single optimal alternative was found and always with 6 or less questions answered. In turn, in the ranking problematic in all cases either a complete order or a complete preorder was found with 17 or less questions answered.
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With the advance coming from studies in the area of decision making, different models have emerged to assist in the interpretation of multicriteria decision problems. One of the most recent improvements in the MCDM/A mathematical models deals with the use of partial information about the preferences of the decision makers at the elicitation process. The FITradeoff method is a MAVT (Multi-attribute Value Theory) method that requires only strict preferences and uses partial information in judgments, reducing the amount of information required. Therefore, this study aims to improve the intra-criteria evaluation step of the FITradeoff method, by proposing a new approach for elicitation of marginal value functions based on partial information. The proposed approach is based on the traditional bisection method, but requires preference statements only. The results obtain show that the approach using the bisection method associated with the use of partial information appears to have a good performance, enabling the improvement of the process in terms of reducing the effort and time required.
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Fruticulture is one of the most important sectors of Brazilian agribusiness, being a strategic segment for the country’s socio-economic development, with mango having significant participation. One of the most complex problems faced by this sector is the assessment of which variety of mango to grow in new farms, given the long period of time to have the first production and only then, to verify the result of the cultivation. Furthermore, this kind of choice may consider different technical aspects and stakeholders’ viewpoints. In that perspective, this paper presents a case study of an agribusiness organization, which is one of the greatest exporting company of Mango from Brazil, that needs to evaluate which variety to plant in new farms intending to double its cultivable area in the next five years. It was developed a group decision process, appropriate to the company’s organizational structure, with four phases: 1) definition of the actors, criteria, and identification of alternatives, 2) individual assessment by each decision-maker, 3) application of the framework for choosing a voting procedure; 4) collective result. Based on the results achieved, besides the recommendation of the mango variety to be planted, with this new approach of group decision, it was also possible to enrich the discussion in the process of analysis of the expansion of planted areas, in addition to fostering support for strategic planning for the company’s growth in a sustainable way.
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Investments in the agricultural sector represented by innovations and new technologies strongly influence the economic growth in developing countries. In this context, purchasing decisions have become more relevant. Multiple-criteria decision-making techniques are well suited for decision-makers (DMs) who are considering the introduction of new technologies. In this paper, a multi-criteria model is built to help a Colombian agricultural research company make decisions on purchasing different laboratory equipment. A compensatory approach based on trade-offs is used to elicit the preferences of a group of DMs. The high number of answers and cognitive effort required from them during the elicitation process led to using an alternative approach based on partial information, called the FITradeoff (The Flexible and Interactive Tradeoff) method. It showed to be the best fit to solve the company’s purchasing problem and allowed its managers to make decisions that consider criteria other than price, taking account of the DMs’ conflicting viewpoints. The proposed model aimed at contributing to the articulation of the end-user knowledge in decision-making in order to ensure effective articulation of actors and strengthening of science, technology and innovation in agriculture.
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This paper discusses the trends for building DSS (Decision Support Systems) for Multicriteria Preference Modeling by using partial information to be obtained from DMs (Decision-makers). Also, it discusses the use of results from behavioral studies, including those that take a Decision Neuroscience approach, in order to modulate changes in the decision process and in the design of a DSS. The preference modeling is considered from two different perspectives: elicitation by decomposition and elicitation by holistic evaluations. This chapter focuses on a DSS that deals with Multicriteria Preference Modeling in the scope of MAVT (Multiattribute Value Theory) and describes the evolution of these DSSs in recent years. Finally, the trends in the decision aiding process using this kind of DSS for Preference Modeling with partial information is illustrated with the DSS for the FITradeoff method. The trends in the flexibility of this DSS is one of the features explored. It is shown how to combine two different paradigms for preference modeling: decomposition and holistic evaluations. Also, this chapter demonstrates how results from neuroscience experiments can be used to prompt the analyst to have insights when talking with and advising decision-makers (DMs) and how to improve the design of the DSS, both for the choice and the ranking problematic.
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The evaluation of cities regarding environmental and sustainable development practices should be made by a set of criteria expressing their economic, social, and environmental objectives. A ranking of sustainable cities aims to encourage the continuity of actions that contribute to the reduction of environmental problems and help cities develop sustainably. This paper proposes a group decision model for ranking sustainable cities. It is based on a multi-criteria method to support decision-makers to build individual rankings, and on a framework for choosing a voting procedure to aggregate the individual priorities into a collective ranking of sustainable cities. The applicability of the model is illustrated with a real environmental problem in a hydrographic basin in Brazil.
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In this paper, a prioritization problem of strategic improvement actions of a Fresh Fish Distribution Company (FFDC) is approached. Improvement actions to be prioritized are defined based on critical success factors derived from the SWOT analysis of the company, conducted by multiple stakeholders of the organization. Four criteria were defined to evaluate these actions, and then the FITradeoff (Flexible and Interactive Tradeoff) multicriteria method is applied to aid the decision process and preferences assessment. This method works based on partial information of the DMs to elicit criteria scaling constants in additive models, considering structured elicitation process based on tradeoffs. Throughout an interactive Decision Support System (DSS), this work illustrates how the decision process can be carried out with FITradeoff based on an integration of two paradigms in preference modeling: elicitation by decomposition and holistic evaluations.
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Climate change mitigation has become a ports' emergency; they endeavour to improve their energy efficiency and diminish their carbon footprint. The optimisation analysis of a seaport grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system is presented, comparing the impact of two dispatch strategies and three energy storage systems. Seventeen scenarios have been examined regarding the possible combinations of the most mature renewable and energy storage systems according to the Levelised Cost of Energy, environmental footprint, and future employability. Vanadium Redox Flow Battery based Hybrid Renewable Energy System employed offering 10-h port services’ autonomy. For the grid-connected net metering and 24-h port autonomy, the optimal Levelised Cost of Energy is 12.9 c€/kWh. The overall optimum was 8.0 c€/kWh, incorporating 10-h port services’ autonomy. All the alternative cases proved much lower of the Levelised Cost of Energy could be much lower than the current grid's tariff. Peak shaving strategy is proven to be more efficient for seaports than cycle charging, resulting in improved energy management and lower energy billing costs by setting peak monthly demand limits. The emissions are diminished to zero, as the net grid purchases are zero, incorporating totally green infrastructure. The nearly Zero Energy Port concept proved to be a viable and feasible solution for ports towards sustainability.
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As one of the most effective ways to alleviate energy crisis and environmental pollution, the renewable energy sources (RESs) have received increasing attention. Different RESs enjoy different characteristics and are suitable for different scenarios, thus it is essential to evaluate them before installation. Due to the increasing complexity of reality, the RESs evaluation usually involves various risks and large-scale group decision makers. To manage these risks and decision makers, this paper proposes an interval type-2 fuzzy large-scale group risk evaluation method. First, the interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2FSs) are employed to encode the qualitative information provided by the decision makers. Then, a new clustering approach integrating consensus reaching model and risk measurement model is developed to manage the decision makers and enhance the evaluation efficiency. After the clustering process, the selection procedure is activated and an interval type-2 fuzzy centroid-based ranking method is presented to rank the candidate RESs. Finally, a case study in China is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and comparisons are also made to verify the advantages.
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Ethanol production in Brazil has two major drawbacks, related to the maximum product concentration and control of the process temperature. During the fermentation, yeast metabolism completely ceases when the ethanol concentration reaches 95 g.L⁻¹, while high temperatures increase both the risk of bacterial contamination and the sensitivity of the yeast to ethanol toxicity. In order to address these problems, extractive ethanol fermentation with carbon dioxide stripping offers a way to overcome the toxic effect of ethanol on yeast cell growth, while also avoiding increase of the broth temperature during the fermentation. Although ethanol removal by gas stripping has a positive effect on ethanol volumetric productivity, the application of this technique for economization of cooling water during the ethanol fermentation process requires a technical analysis. Therefore, in the present work, evaluation was made of heat removal from the culture broth during extractive fermentation with ethanol stripping by CO2. First, ethanol fermentations were carried out using a 10-L bench-scale bubble column bioreactor. The mass and energy balances were used to obtain kinetic parameters, with the heat generated during fermentation being close to theoretical values. Extractive batch fermentations were performed using two carbon dioxide specific flow rates (0.5 and 1.0 vvm), resulting in efficient removal of heat from the fermentation broth, as well as reducing cooling water consumption by up to 62.7%. These results were then validated in a pilot-scale (100-L) extractive fed-batch fermentation performed at 1.0 vvm, resulting in a 63.1% reduction of cooling water consumption. In an industrial distillery, this lower consumption of cooling water would allow substantial savings of chemicals needed for cooling water treatment, making the ethanol production process in Brazil more competitive in the near future.
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The flexible and interactive tradeoff (FITradeoff) method is a multi‐criteria decision‐making/aiding (MCDM/A) method in the context of the multi‐attribute value theory. The implementation of the FITradeoff method is supported by a decision support system (DSS), which includes an elicitation procedure for scaling constants with the flexibility of including a holistic evaluation. The holistic evaluation has graphics that can be used to assist decision‐makers (DMs) during the FITradeoff decision process. In this context, three neuroscience experiments have been conducted to investigate how a DM uses the graphics to evaluate an MCDM/A problem. Thus, the main contribution of this paper is to propose the success‐based decision rule. Based on this rule, recommendations are made concerning the holistic evaluation. The first is that this rule can assist the analyst to advise DMs with information on the visualization's probability of success. Second, this rule suggests improvements that can be made to the design of the FITradeoff DSS.
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This research work attempts to review and compare the available scientific literature, to identify several crucial research opportunities, and to achieve the challenge of putting the findings together to achieve the prospect of nearly Zero Energy Ports. High energy demand and vital supply activities are characterizing ports; they are central hubs in the transport of materials, passengers, vehicles, and cargo. The growing progress of implementing the typical renewable energy installations in port areas and the need for innovative smart energy systems attract port management authorities' attention to energy matters. The research team constructed a specific methodology to review the available literature and viable solutions. All the reviewed measures were analysed and evaluated, highlighting their pros and cons for future implementation alongside their economic or technological maturity according to their cost-effectiveness and the expertise in each one of them. The research gaps per reviewed sector were identified, and suggestions were made in a future agenda for both port decision-makers and researchers. Although ports seem to be similar amongst themselves, due to their upmost goal to transport passengers and goods, they are different and have distinct features. The research team attempted to establish a typology and categorize ports into three (3) main categories according to their specific characteristics. A “strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats” alongside an “importance-performance” analysis were conducted on the proposed concept. This work investigates the literature gaps; the number of studies in many research fields is deficient, and future researchers' opportunities are underlined. Even though the vast majority of the energy management strategies and technologies, along with the green energy generation technologies, are under-exploited in port areas, they have high figurative value and are highly recommended.
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Several ports worldwide use renewable energy sources such as: wind, photovoltaic and wave energy. Rotterdam in the Netherlands, Genoa in Italy, Hartlepool in the United Kingdom, Kitakyushu in Japan, Port Kembla in Australia, Gothenburg in Sweden, ports in Spain, San Diego, Tokyo and Los Angeles can be cited. Regarding Brazilian ports, the Pecém Port in Ceará implemented wave energy; however, due to the need for adjustments and further investments, it is no longer operational. The main goal behind the study is to propose and test a sustainability measurement model for renewable energy sources for Brazilian ports, identifying the most appropriate clean energy. In order to define the evaluation criteria for the model, information from literature, legislation and rulings (environmental, social, economic and national energy policies) were considered alongside an evaluation by 10 experts through the Lawshe method. The criteria were classified through the Phrase Completion scale; the scale presents 11 points, where zero indicates the absence of the attribute (excellence) and 10 indicates the presence of all possible levels of excellence. Finally, the Renewable Energy Sustainability Partial Score, Renewable Energy Sustainability Score and Renewable Energy Corporate Sustainability Grid were applied. This model was applied in a port enterprise located in the South Region of Brazil and indicated that the photovoltaic energy is regarded as the most appropriate to be used, matching the environmental, social and economic criteria. The model is applicable to companies with different characteristics, regardless of industrial sector and geographic location of the company.
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This paper presents a broader view of the Flexible and Interactive Tradeoff (FITradeoff) multicriteria method and its practical applicability in a problem of prioritization of resources for special operations in Brazilian Federal Police. The FITradeoff method works based on partial information of decision makers (DMs), but keeps the whole axiomatic structure of the classical tradeoff procedure. Due to the reduction of the level of difficulty in the elicitation process for obtaining information from the DM, this tool has a great potential for application in practical real world decision situations. This paper brings up a decision-making problem in which the aim is to rank ten special police operations, which are evaluated with respect to fourteen criteria, with the main goal of prioritizing scarce resources allocation of the Brazilian Federal Police. The decision process is aided by graphical tools presented in FITradeoff Decision Support System (DSS), which enables the elicitation process to be shortened with a view to the flexibility of the method.
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The Flexible and Interactive Tradeoff (FITradeoff) method is a multicriteria decision making/aiding (MCDM/A) method that uses partial information about the decision maker’s (DM’s) preferences in order to build a recommendation. This method preserves the strong axiomatic structure of the traditional tradeoff procedure, with an interactive and flexible process that demands less cognitive effort from the DM. Although FITradeoff has already been applied for aiding several practical decision situations, there is no previous study that tests the performance of this method with respect to expected theoretical benefits such as time and effort reduction. In this context, this paper presents the results of a simulation experiment that aims to analyze the behavior of FITradeoff in a wide range of scenarios. Computational constraints were identified in the simulation process, such as the number of simulations for each iteration. Despite the memory limitation of the software used, the number of total simulations performed was greater than what is commonly found in literature. We investigate how the performance of FITradeoff can be affected by changes in number of criteria, number of alternatives and weight pattern, and therefore it is possible to have a deeper understanding of the method and its main features. Therefore, this work focuses on studying, through simulations, the behavior of the multicriteria method FITradeoff, developed by De Almeida et al. (2016), filling a lack in the literature by analyzing said method in a wide array of scenarios by a simulation process in order to bring a better understanding of the method, as well as to validate it in a simulation study.
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Energy is the basis of the survival and development of human society, and the energy needed is increasing. Our building energy consumption accounts for a large proportion of total social energy consumption, so the research and development of building energy-saving technology is the top priority. The energy conservation and emission reduction of port public buildings should also be paid attention to. Domestic and foreign scholars’ research on port energy conservation mainly focus on the management and planning of port construction, less on the specific energy conservation measures of port public buildings, staying at a relatively macro and overall level, and lack of detailed research on the function positioning, site selection and layout, and structural form of port public buildings.
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The main purpose of this paper is to develop an efficient multi-stage methodology to predict carbon dioxide emissions based on two important variables including the energy consumption and economic growth using the clustering, prediction machine learning techniques, and dimensionality reduction. To do so, we use the self-organizing map clustering algorithm to cluster the data and the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and artificial neural network to construct the prediction models in each cluster of the self-organizing map to predict carbon dioxide emissions considering a set of input parameters including economic growth and energy consumption in Group 20 nations. Furthermore, we use the singular value decomposition for dimensionality reduction and missing values’ prediction in the dataset. The results of the analysis of a real-world dataset found that the developed multi-stage approach was capable of predicting the carbon dioxide emissions on two indicators. To validate the proposed method, the results are compared with other existing methods. The outcomes demonstrate that the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and artificial neural network techniques combined with the self-organizing map and singular value decomposition technique provide 0.065 accuracy in terms of the mean average error. In addition, when comparing singular value decomposition-self-organizing map-adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system method with the singular value decomposition-self-organizing map-adaptive-artificial neural network method, the singular value decomposition-self-organizing map-adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference provides with 0.104 accuracy in predicting CO2 emissions. Moreover, the multiple linear regression provides the worst accuracy (0.522) results compared with the artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system techniques. The analysis regarding the relationship between economic development, carbon dioxide emissions, and the energy consumption is extremely vital from the energy and economic policy-making aspects in Group 20 countries given that the primary focus of this group has been the governance of the global economy.
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Multi-criteria decision making/aiding problems are very common in everyday life in society. Nevertheless, some difficulties appear when such problems arise and visualization may facilitate this process. Neuroscience deals with the study of the neural system and has had increasing relevance for several areas of knowledge, including multi-criteria decision making/aiding, as it adds to the understanding of human behavior and the decision process. Using neuroscience tools to aid improving data visualization is becoming increasingly relevant, since this is an important issue for decision-making. Therefore, this study seeks to use neuroscience in order to investigate how decision makers evaluate the graphical visualization in FITradeoff method. In this context, a neuroscience experiment using eye-tracking was developed, the main purpose of which was to improve the FITradeoff decision support system and, moreover, to provide information for the analyst about the application of graphical visualization in multi-criteria decision making/aiding problems. The experiment was applied using graduate and postgraduate management engineering students. This paper presents the main results obtained from the experiments, and also an analysis of these results.
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This paper puts forward the use of data visualization in a new method for solving multiple criteria decision-making problems for ranking of alternatives, based on Flexible and Interactive Tradeoff (FITradeoff) elicitation. This approach uses partial information about the decision maker’s preferences, based on a structured process for eliciting scale constants (or weights) within the scope of multi-attribute value theory. Different from most of the partial information methods present in the literature, our approach is based on the traditional Tradeoff, which is the most axiomatically founded procedure for elicitation of criteria weights. Pairwise dominance concept is incorporated into the mathematical model of FITradeoff in such way that, at each interaction with the decision maker, a partial—or complete—order of the alternatives can be achieved, based on a two-step algorithm proposed. The method is operated by means of a decision support system, which provides graphical visualization of the ranking at each interaction, in order to support the decision-making process with a simpler visualization of dominance relations. The proposed method is applied for solving a practical case of supplier selection in a food industry.
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The aim of this paper is to solve an agricultural technology packages selection problem by considering multiple dimensions which influence a maize producer’s preferences. The decision-making process is aided by a new multicriteria method for eliciting scale constants in additive models: flexible and interactive tradeoff (FITradeoff). This method works with partial information, obtained from the decision maker (DM), and thus reduces the time that the DM has to spend on the process for eliciting his/her preferences as he/she may avoid answering difficult questions. The decision-making process makes use of a decision support system (DSS), in which the DM interactively gives preference statements in a structured manner. The DSS gives flexibility to the DM, in such way that he/she gives as much information as he/she is willing to. Graphical visualization is provided at each step in order to help the DM’s analyses. Throughout the description of an application, some insights are provided including a discussion of the advantages and features of the FITradeoff method.
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This article puts forward a decision model for solving a supplier selection problem in a food industry by considering multiple objectives that influence the decision-making process. In times of increasing competitiveness, companies strive hard to improve their profitability, and selection of supply sources may help if an appropriate decision is made through a well-structured decision-making process. Preference modeling is conducted in a flexible and interactive elicitation manner with the decision-maker (DM), aided by FITradeoff method. Partial information is gathered about the DM’s preferences in such a way that less effort is spent on finding a final solution for the problem.
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The article provides a consistent insight into the results and experience related to the implementation of activities fostering the development of marine economy in Lithuania. EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region and the Blue Growth concept explicitly focuses on maintenance of the good status of the marine environment of the European seas. Recently developed Lithuanian integrated maritime spatial plan aims to create the favourable conditions for sustainable development of marine economy, and particularly the offshore wind energy. Proposed and tested innovative solutions for selection of new disposal sites as well as handling the dredged soil in ports, contributes to more environmentally sound and economically feasible operations of the south-eastern Baltic Sea ports.
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Major ports such as Rotterdam, Antwerp, Houston and Singapore’s Jurong Port host large industrial complexes of (petro)chemical and other energy-intensive process industry firms. Port authorities face the challenge to contribute to both greater international competitiveness and better environmental performance of these complexes. The development of industrial ecosystems, in which firms located in port areas use one another’s residual energy and chemical effluents as input for their own production process, appears to be a promising strategic response to this challenge. In this article, we contribute to port research by examining how port authorities can foster this development within their port-Industrial complex. We present a case study of the Port of Rotterdam to empirically capture how the Port of Rotterdam Authority has done so in the last decade by strategically making use of two generic types of policy instruments: (i) investments in physical and knowledge infrastructure and (ii) land allocation. On the basis of the case study and previous literature, we derive a set of strategic levers of port authorities to foster industrial ecosystem development. We discuss implications and challenges for port authorities.
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One of the main tasks in a multi-criteria decision-making process is to define weights for the evaluation criteria. However, in many situations, the decision-maker (DM) may not be confident about defining specific values for these weights and may prefer to use partial information to represent the values of such weights with surrogate weights. Although for the additive model, the use of surrogate weighting procedures has been already explored in the literature, there is a gap with regard to experimenting with such kind of preference modeling in outranking based methods, such as PROMETHEE, for which there already are applications with surrogate weights in the literature. Thus, this paper presents an experimental study on preference modeling based on simulation so as to increase understanding and acceptance of a recommendation obtained when using surrogate weights within the PROMETHEE method. The main approaches to surrogate weights in the literature (EW, RS, RR and ROC) have been evaluated for choice and ranking problematics throughout statistical procedures, including Kendall's tau coefficient. The surrogate weighting procedure that most faithfully represents a DM's value system according to this analysis is the ROC procedure.
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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between enterprise efficiency in resource use and the adoption of energy efficiency practices recommended by the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC). Using non-parametric techniques such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and parametric techniques like Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) and Corrected Ordinary Least Square (COLS) to measure the efficiency. The Regression Quantile (RQ) is carried out to test the hypothesis that the most efficient companies have adopted a higher level of practice. The main conclusion is that when the enterprise operates at increasing Returns-to-Scale (RTS) the impact of efficiency on adoption increases positively, inversely when the enterprise operates at decreasing (RTS) the impact of efficiency on adoption increases negatively.
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This paper proposes the Flexible and Interactive Tradeoff (FITradeoff) method, for eliciting scaling constants or weights of criteria. The FITradeoff uses partial information about decision maker (DM) preferences to determine the most preferred in a specified set of alternatives, according to an additive model in MAVT (Multi-Attribute Value Theory) scope. This method uses the concept of flexible elicitation for improving the applicability of the traditional tradeoff elicitation procedure. FITradeoff offers two main benefits: the information required from the DM is reduced and the DM does not have to make adjustments for the indifference between two consequences (trade-off), which is a critical issue on the traditional tradeoff procedure. It is easier for the DM to make comparisons of consequences (or outcomes) based on strict preference rather than on indifference. The method is built into a decision support system and applied to two cases on supplier selection, already published in the literature.
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Industrial port cities are essential components in a society dependant on fossil fuels and low cost energy. In the global move towards a low-carbon society, industrial port cities are emblematic of complex and integrated socio-ecological systems, which are experiencing transition processes related to interactions between bio-geo-physical components and governance. Using a socio-ecological system framework, this article provides insights into innovative regional eco-industrial development strategies for moving toward a low-carbon future in industrial port areas. Based on three case studies (Marseille-Fos in France, Ningbo in China, and Ulsan in South Korea), our analysis focuses on the changing relationships between energy, land cover, time use, and governance. The historical socio-ecological transition of industrial port cities is described as a stepwise process of spatial and functional disconnection/connection of port industrial complexes, which decouple/combine the port city’s metabolism from local resources. We highlight the impacts of globalization on port-city socio-ecological trends, describing the effects of the integration of port cities into global economic processes, the impact of global awareness on global environmental changes, and the accelerating pace of change. We compare low-carbon strategies, revealing similarities in terms of conversion toward low carbon sources and growing connectedness and functional diversity of port-industrial systems.
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This paper investigates the current status and trends over time in the environmental performance of European ports. The research is based on the provision of data from 79 European ports on issues related to their environmental management, environmental priorities and current environmental monitoring practices. This study updates previous environmental reviews, so that the trends over time are drawn. For instance, 90% of respondent ports stated that they have an environmental policy and 94% of ports have designated environmental personnel. The percentage of ports that have an Environmental Management System has increased by +33% in the last 9 years. Air quality, port waste and energy consumption emerged as the three major environmental priorities of the European port sector in 2013. The research also reveals the diversity amongst European ports in terms of size and physical surroundings. Some examples are presented on specific initiatives carried out by sector organisations about the Top-10 port priority issues. The future expectations of European ports on data collection and reporting are described.
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More than ten major development projects have been announced on the waterfront of the Port of Tokyo. In total, these projects will include 565 hectares of land to be developed into new CBDs (Central Business Districts) and high-rise apartments. The total floor area is expected to reach 1,480 hectares. As for energy, 500 MW of electricity and 730 Gcal/h of heat is expected to be consumed in this area totally at the peak. In order to lead these projects successfully, the installment of efficient infrastructure will be of utmost importance. Design of a reliable energy distribution system will be essential. Co-generation should be a good alternative, because with Tokyo's reliable city-gas pipelines, it will assure the stable supply of electricity even under the breakdown of the conventional power grid. A choice between a centralized and decentralized system will also be important. The latter should work better in this area because of its scattered energy demand.
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The City of Los Angeles Harbor Department (Harbor Department) has been a world leader at reducing the effects of seaport operations on the communities that surround the Port of Los Angeles (Port). The Harbor Department is in the process of installing ten megawatts (MW) of photovoltaic (PV) solar power as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This ten MW of zero-emissions power generation will be constructed within the Port's boundary. This paper presents the Harbor Department's successes and challenges associated with the implementation of its ten MW PV solar power program. This paper presents the criteria for successful evaluation and selection of potential sites for PV solar power systems (PV Systems), the installation of the Harbor Department's first MW, and the forging of an agreement with the City's utility agency to reduce up-front costs. This paper also describes the challenges the Harbor Department has faced such as final site selection, design, permitting, construction, and commissioning as it works at installing its remaining nine MW. Given these challenges, the Harbor Department is exploring different technologies as an alternative to PV solar power to help it achieve its goal of ten MW of zero-emissions power generation in a faster and more cost-effective way.
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The PAIRS method developed in this paper introduces imprecise preference statements into value trees. The assessment of attributed weights in PAIRS extends the well known SMART technique so that in addition to exact statements the decision maker can enter interval judgements which indicate ranges for the relative importance of the attributes. The interval judgements and the possibly range-valued information about the outcomes of the alternatives are processed with linear programming into value intervals and dominance relations. As the decision maker refines the description of his preferences, either by entering new statements or by tightening his earlier judgements, these results become more detailed and convey more information about which alternatives are preferred. Throughout the interactive refinement process PAIRS supports the decision maker by deriving and displaying the consequences of his earlier judgements.
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Ports are characterised by the geographical concentration of high–energy demand and supply activities, because of their proximity to power generation facilities and metropolitan regions, and their functions as central hubs in the transport of raw materials. In the last decades the need to better understand and monitor energy-related activities taking place near or within the port has become more apparent as a consequence of the growing relevance of energy trades, public environmental awareness and a bigger industry focus on energy efficiency. The uptake in the port sector of innovative technologies, such as onshore power supply, or alternative fuels, such as LNG, and the increasing development of renewable energy installations in port areas, also calls for more attention to energy matters within port management. So far, however, few port authorities have actively pursued energy management strategies. The necessity for port authorities to actively manage their energy flows stems from their efforts to plan, coordinate and facilitate the development of economic activities within the port, and as a consequence of the heavier weight that sustainability is given within the port management strategies. Through the analysis of the experiences of two European ports, Hamburg and Genoa, that have already attempted to coordinate and rationalise their energy needs, this paper will argue that for the ports of the future active energy management can offer substantial efficiency gains, can contribute to the development of new alternative revenue sources and in the end, improve the competitive position of the port.
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The aim of Industrial ecology (IE) is to optimize resource management by densifying interactions between stakeholders occupying a common geographic area. This article considers ports, understood as platforms of circulation and transformation of material and energy flows. It addresses the role and capacity of ports to foster the implementation of IE in port cities and to contribute to the optimization of resource management in coastal areas. This article presents the result of a research project (2011–2012) consisting of an international inventory of innovative resource management initiatives in port areas. 18 port-based industrial complexes were visited, enabling the analysis of 23 port IE initiatives. Cross-case analysis was carried out following a 3 step methodology: 1/ definition of the research boundaries; 2/ qualitative data collection by means of interviews and a literature review; 3/ data analysis in order to build a typology of port contribution to the implementation of IE in port-city areas. The case studies analyzed can be classified into 9 patterns based on temporal and spatial characteristics of P-IE initiatives. They provide insights on the ports' influence on local IE dynamics: as areas of testing and implementation of industrial symbiosis, ports can constitute exemplary self-sufficient areas, likely to boost the development of other local eco-parks; as drivers of local economic development, ports act as levers for the implementation of sustainable policies at a regional scale; as nodes in a global port network, ports can develop inter-port by-product exchanges and utility sharing. Ports question the relevance of geographical proximity in IE.
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This paper illustrates the research activities linked with the European Project “Wind and Ports: The forecast of wind for the management and the safety of port areas”, which involves the Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering of the University of Genova, and the Port Authorities of Genova, La Spezia, Livorno, Savona (Italy) and Bastia (France). The project is based on three tools, namely the historical databases, the global meteorological data and forecasting system, and the data provided by a wide seaport monitoring network that represents also the first product of the project. These tools are processed by a set of numerical models that represents the second product and the key tool to derive three further products, namely the statistical mapping of seaport areas, a medium-term forecasting system and a short-term forecasting system. A web-based GIS system is being realized to make the products of this project directly available to port operators, within a global system for a safe management of port areas. Downstream of these products, this paper provides some insights of the wide validation procedure that is going to be implemented to check and to improve the quality of the results. Further prospects for new research projects using the results of the Wind and Ports Project as starting point are also discussed.
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This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must include strategies of how to integrate the renewable sources in coherent energy systems influenced by energy savings and efficiency measures. Based on the case of Denmark, this paper discusses the problems and perspectives of converting present energy systems into a 100 percent renewable energy system. The conclusion is that such development will be possible. The necessary renewable energy sources are present, if further technological improvements of the energy system are achieved. Especially technologies of converting the transportation and the introduction of flexible energy system technologies are crucial.
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Nowadays, the development of a sustainable indicators’ framework towards the sustainable energy policy making should be characterized by clarity and transparency. Even though the energy policy making has been the subject of many researchers, studies proposing an appropriate framework of sustainable indicators that have to be used are not present in the international literature. The purpose of the current paper is to present an integrated review of the methodologies and the related activities of the energy indicators and to recommend an operational framework of appropriate indicators supporting thus the policy makers/analysts/citizens towards a sustainable energy policy making.
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In all European seaports, organisational efficiency forms a vital component of the activities to improve competitiveness in the market. As public enterprise entities, Portuguese seaports rely on government subsidies to meet their deficits. The policy of subsidisation is part of the regulatory procedures that are intended to provide incentives for increasing productive efficiency, thereby allowing seaports to share in the social gains from efficiency in the form of greater, or at least stable, employment and local development. In addition, the drive for greater efficiency is meant to assist the ports' preparation for some kind of privatisation. In this paper, we analyse the technical and allocative efficiencies of Portuguese seaport authorities in order to investigate if the state's policy is achieving its aims. We find that the results are, at best, mixed, leading us to conclude that the incentive regulation carried out by the government's regulatory body, the Maritime Port Agency, is not achieving its aims. Therefore, we propose a policy revision to enforce efficiency, based on a governance environment framework. Maritime Economics & Logistics (2003) 5, 55–69. doi:10.1057/palgrave.mel.9100060
Article
Weighted additive evaluation functions are widely used to rank alternatives in decision making under certainty with multiple evaluation attributes. Some researchers have suggested that approximate attribute weights may be adequate to accurately rank alternatives. Use of approximate weights would simplify decision analysis since detailed elicitation of weights can be time consuming and controversial. This article investigates the degree to which partial information about the relative magnitudes of attribute weights is sufficient to rank alternatives as a function of the number of decision alternatives, the number of attributes, and the number of allowed levels for each attribute. A simulation analysis, as well as a reanalysis of an actual application, shows that partial information about weights is often not sufficient to determine the most preferred alternative for realistic decision problems. Hence, approximation procedures for specifying weights may lead to errors. However, our work also shows that a simple analysis procedure can be used to accurately determine whether partial information about weights is adequate to correctly specify the most preferred alternative. This procedure can be useful for identifying situations in which detailed elicitation of weights is not needed.
Multicriteria and multi-objectiveModels for risk, reliability and maintenance decision analysis
  • de Almeida
Wind turbine on floating platforms for electricity service in marinas
  • Cesari
Cesari, F.G., Gaudiosi, G., 1999. Wind turbine on floating platforms for electricity service in marinas. Trans. Built Environ. 45, 217e226. https://doi10.2495/ MT990231.
Processo de construção de indicadores para a avaliação de desempenho
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Evaluation of renewable energy sources in the context of Brazilian ports using the PROMETHEE-ROC approach
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A multicriteria decision support model for evaluating renewable energy sources for Brazilian ports
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Diagnóstico energético de um terminal portuário localizado em Itajaí-SC com base na NBR ISO 50001: 2011
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Leite, T.A.P., 2015. Diagn ostico energ etico de um terminal portu ario localizado em Itajaí-SC com base na NBR ISO 50001: 2011. In: IX Simp osio internacional de qualidade ambiental. https://www.abes-rs.org.br/qualidade2014. (Accessed 15 August 2017).
Energia das Ondas no Brasil
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Processo de decisão nas organizações: Construindo modelos de decisão multicrit erio
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de Almeida, A.T., 2013. Processo de decisão nas organizações: Construindo modelos de decisão multicrit erio. Atlas. São Paulo.
Processo de construção de indicadores para a avaliação de desempenho. V Ciclo de debates -Avaliação de Políticas Públicas
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Ensslin, L., Ensslin, S.R., 2009. Processo de construção de indicadores para a avaliação de desempenho. V Ciclo de debates -Avaliação de Políticas Públicas.
The Evolution of Scientific Production on Ports Energy Efficiency Management
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Fossile, D.K., Gouvea da Costa, S.E., Pinheiro de Lima, E., 2016. The Evolution of Scientific Production on Ports Energy Efficiency Management. III CIDESPORT. Florian opolis/SC. https://2017.cidesport.com.br/sites/default/files/a52174.pdf. (Accessed 4 September 2018).
A multicriteria decision support model for evaluating renewable energy sources for Brazilian ports
  • D K Fossile
  • T H A Kang
  • S E Gouvea Da Costa
  • E Pinheiro De Lima
  • A T De Almeida
Fossile, D.K., Kang, T.H.A., Gouvea da Costa, S.E., Pinheiro de Lima, E., de Almeida, A.T., 2018. A multicriteria decision support model for evaluating renewable energy sources for Brazilian ports. In: The 9th International Conference on Production Research, Bogot a/Colombia.
Evaluation of renewable energy sources in the context of Brazilian ports using the PROMETHEE-ROC approach
  • T H A Kang
  • D F K Fossile
  • S E Gouvea Da Costa
  • A P C S Costa
  • A T De Almeida
Kang, T.H.A., Fossile, D.F.K., Gouvea da Costa, S.E., Costa, A.P.C.S., de Almeida, A.T., 2018. Evaluation of renewable energy sources in the context of Brazilian ports using the PROMETHEE-ROC approach. In: International Conference on Decision Support System Sechnology & PROMETHEE DAYS, Greece.
Decision Analysis with Multiple Conflicting Objectives
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Keeney, R.L., Raiffa, H., 1976. Decision Analysis with Multiple Conflicting Objectives. Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA.
Estudo do uso de pain eis fotovoltaicos como alternativa para a eficiência energ etica em terminal portu ario de min erio de ferro
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  • S Monteiro Junior
Mello, A.L., Coelli, F., Coelho, A., Feliciano, C., Esteves, F., Jeronimo, M.F., Carvalho, M., Monteiro Junior, S., 2018. Estudo do uso de pain eis fotovoltaicos como alternativa para a eficiência energ etica em terminal portu ario de min erio de ferro. In: V CIDESPORT e Congresso Internacional de Desempenho Portu ario e Florian opolis/SC. (Accessed 9 August 2019). In: file:///C:/Users/Dayla/Downloads/ galoa-proceedings-V%20Cidesport-95211%20(2).pdf.
Usina de ondas do Pec em est a abandonada. Di ario do nordeste
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Solari, G., Burlando, M., Pizzo, M., Parodi, M., Repetto, M., Gaetano, P., Tizzi, M., 2012. The wind forecast for safety management of port areas. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod. 106, 266e277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2012.03.029. Usina de ondas do Pec em est a abandonada. Di ario do nordeste. http:// diariodonordeste.verdesmares.com.br/cadernos/negocios/usina-de-ondas-dopecem-esta-abandonada-1.1112312. (Accessed 1 June 2017).