ArticlePDF Available

Object-Based Learning in Museum

Authors:
  • University of Calabar, Calabar Nigeria

Abstract

The study examined museum education from the perspective of object-based learning which encourages participants to construct meaning by way of interacting with museum objects. Data for the study were sourced through secondary sources such as books, journals and public library, and were analyzed using thematic analytical procedure. Findings show that object-based learning is relevant to children, adults and family groups. Object-based activities in museums provide children with experiential learning where the cumulative effect of the experiences contributes to their social and cognitive development, enhances their interpersonal interactions, and plays vital role in the development of children's higher mental functions. Object-based learning and family groups presents opportunity for strengthening family ties, and for social interactions, and can stimulate exchange of information and reactions among members of a family group. Findings also show that adult visitors to museums are likely to construct personal meanings from what they see and as they interact with museum objects since they may have prior understanding or perceptions about museum, thus, museum professionals can use front-end research to uncover these meanings. To guide visitors' learning in museum and to improve museum educational services, it is suggested that museums should develop educational policies and apply educational theory through specific pedagogy.
Researchjournali’s Journal of Hospitality Tourism
Vol. 5 | No. 1 February | 2018
1
www.researchjournali.com
Obinna Emeafor
Department of Archaeology and Tourism, University
of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Diminyi, Christopher A.
Department of Tourism Studies, University of Calabar,
Calabar, Nigeria.
Duru, C. Henry
Departmet of Leisure and Tourism Management,
Institute of Technology and Management, Ugep, Cross
River State, Nigeria.
Object-Based
Learning In
Museum
Researchjournali’s Journal of Hospitality Tourism
Vol. 5 | No. 1 February | 2018
2
www.researchjournali.com
ABSTRACT
The study examined museum education from the perspective of object-based learning which encourages
participants to construct meaning by way of interacting with museum objects. Data for the study were sourced
through secondary sources such as books, journals and public library, and were analyzed using thematic
analytical procedure. Findings show that object-based learning is relevant to children, adults and family groups.
Object-based activities in museums provide children with experiential learning where the cumulative effect of
the experiences contributes to their social and cognitive development, enhances their interpersonal interactions,
and plays vital role in the development of children’s higher mental functions. Object-based learning and family
groups presents opportunity for strengthening family ties, and for social interactions, and can stimulate
exchange of information and reactions among members of a family group. Findings also show that adult visitors
to museums are likely to construct personal meanings from what they see and as they interact with museum
objects since they may have prior understanding or perceptions about museum, thus, museum professionals can
use front-end research to uncover these meanings. To guide visitors’ learning in museum and to improve
museum educational services, it is suggested that museums should develop educational policies and apply
educational theory through specific pedagogy.
Key Terms: Museum, Museum Education, Object-based Learning
1. INTRODUCTION
Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge and skills, modifying and strengthening existing knowledge
through study, practice, experience and teaching. Learning is a main aim of education. There are various ways
of learning: audio-visual, visual, learning by listening and speaking, learning by feeling and touching, learning
from experience, learning through the intellect, and object-based learning.
Museum education whether intra-mural or extra-mural, is always characterized by the use of objects in the
learning process. Indeed, a hallmark of museum education is the opportunity to learn from objects. The basis
for using objects in learning is to break educational content into small chunks that can be reused in various
learning environments. Each learning object can be taken independently; therefore, learning objects are self-
contained. Furthermore, object-based learning allows the use of feeling and touching in the learning process,
this brings about experiential learning a form of learning that cannot be reproduced otherwise.
Kenneth Murray in 1927 made a collection of Nigerian works of art with the intention that the artworks could
be used as teaching aids (Okpoko, A.I. 2006). This action exhibit the fact that, he recognized the usefulness of
objects in the learning process. Today, the use of instructional materials or teaching aids in schools is becoming
popular; school authorities have realized the importance of using objects as teaching aids. Museum as learning
laboratory is very relevant in this regard, because learning in museums is object-based.
Researchjournali’s Journal of Hospitality Tourism
Vol. 5 | No. 1 February | 2018
3
www.researchjournali.com
Every object has a bunch of information surrounding it. Objects can engage people’s attention, stimulate
thought and reflection, arouse curiosity, and can be used to initiate discussion and make connection to people’s
experiences. “Direct interaction with objects allows for visual and kinesthetic learning that can be far richer
than text alone” (Borun in Paris ed. 2002:247).
Museum objects are not just objects; they are also the embodiment of aspects of people’s culture, such as the
artistic ingenuity of people. Objects in museums are rare and unique, that is why museums are referred to as
“cabinet of curiosity” (Weil 1995). Museum objects are powerful learning materials, they can stimulate intense
levels of ‘wanting to know’ and can unleash strong emotions in people. The aim of this paper is to discuss
museum education with special reference to object-based learning in museum.
1.1 CLARIFICATION OF CONCEPTS
1.1.1 MUSEUM
The International Council of Museums (ICOM), defines ‘museum’ as “… a non-profit making permanent
institution in the service of society and of its development, which acquires, conserves, researches,
communicates and exhibits, for purposes of study, education and enjoyment, material evidence of people and
their environment”. Again, Knuston and Crowley (2005:4) understood museum as “cultural (institutions) that
house research collections, which represent cultural beliefs and that offer visitors a rich social, leisure time
experiences where learning of museum sponsored content may be an outcome”. From these definitions, it can
be deduced that museums are public institutions, their functions are to collect, preserve, conserve, study,
interpret, and exhibit objects of historical, cultural and educational importance.
1.1.2 MUSEUM EDUCATION
According to Udubrae in the Museologist Volume 1 of 1997, “museum education is the in-depth transfer of
pertinent cultural information using museum exhibits, and its process is not only evaluated in terms of what is
impacted but also how it is received and further transferred”. Museum education is a kind of informal learning,
whereby visitors through instructions or self-discovery, enrich their knowledge about museum and museum
collections, and also understand the significance of these historical and cultural objects to past and present
times. Museum education also seeks to influence visitors experience in a way that leaves them better than they
were.
1.1.3 OBJECT-BASED LEARNING
Also known as object-based investigation, this is an approach to learning which encourages participants to
construct meaning by way of interacting with objects. The interaction culminates in observations or remarks,
questions and inferences which trigger additional inquiry.
Researchjournali’s Journal of Hospitality Tourism
Vol. 5 | No. 1 February | 2018
4
www.researchjournali.com
2. A BRIEF HISTORY OF MUSEUM EDUCATION
“Education as a crucial museum function has been recognized as long as there have been public museums”
(Hein 1998). Museum education came into being with the emergence of public museums, which was an eighteen
century phenomenon. Hudson (1975:6) is of the opinion that the spirit of enlightenment of the eighteenth
century led to the recognition of the need for equality of opportunity of learning. This meant that collections
which had hitherto been reserved for the pleasure and instruction of a few people would be made accessible to
everybody. As a result, public museums were established so that people could gain access to museum
collections for pleasure and instruction. However, it was not until the nineteenth century that museums would
expand into a significant public institution.
In the opinion of Hein (1998), museums of early nineteenth century were primarily used to showcase the power
and wealth of government of countries that engaged in the business of imperialism. The museums displayed
“imperial conquest, exhibited the exotic material treasures brought back to Europe by colonial administrators”.
Wittlin (1949) supports this assertion by Hein (1998) stating that the museum of Napoleon at the Louvre
displayed the booty of imperial conquest; every new campaign necessitated opening a new gallery to house the
material shipped to Paris after the battles.
Hein (1998) further states that by the latter half of the nineteenth century, industrialization was on the increase,
pushing population to the cities, governments also became more aware of their responsibilities for social
services and education. Museums were seen as one of the institutions for the education of the masses; it was
equally perceived that museums could help people appreciate the value of modern life. Museum exhibitions,
for instance, were used to lend support to public campaigns for health education, to demonstrate achievement
in science and technology, and as entertainment for people.
At about the same time, public school movement in the industrialized countries began to develop, paving way
for the provision of what Hein (1998) referred to as “a uniform education base for the labour force”. Still in the
writing of Hein (1998), public schools, unlike the museum, developed standard curriculum, the schools were
able to open up discussions on the objectives of schools, how to run the schools in order to achieve aims and
goals, and how to compare results to stated objectives. The public schools, towards the end of nineteenth
century, had incorporated assessment system and evaluation of school systems. By the end of the nineteenth
century, public schools had overshadowed the educational functions of museums; attention then shifted to how
museums could support the educational activities of schools. This was well captured by James Paton, former
superintendent of the Glasgow Art Gallery and Museums, as cited in Hein 1998:
We are now on the threshold of other important changes in connection with scientific and secondary education; and in the efficiency of
all these educational movements, the museum of the city should be an important factor. It ought to be the centre around which institutions
cluster, the storehouse where they could draw the material examples and illustrations required on the lecture table and in the class-room.
Researchjournali’s Journal of Hospitality Tourism
Vol. 5 | No. 1 February | 2018
5
www.researchjournali.com
At present, museums have generally become great source of informal education, providing flexible and relaxed
atmosphere for learning, as against the strictness associated with formal classroom learning. A more interesting
thing about museum education is the use of objects in learning.
3. CHILDREN LEARNING WITH MUSEUM OBJECTS
Museums provide children with informal learning environments where they have the opportunity of experiential
learning through object-based activities. The cumulative effect of these experiences contributes to their social
and cognitive development. This is supported by Resnick (1987) when he stated that learning in informal
settings, for example museum, emphasizes “shared cognition, tool manipulation, contextual reasoning and
situation-specific competencies”.
For effective children learning in museums, museum officials should ensure the availability of children friendly
environment, which will enhance their physical and mental alertness for the learning session; this is particularly
necessary for pre-school children. During museum visits, pupils accompanied by their teachers, are presented
with the opportunity of handling and exploring museum exhibits. By exploring material culture, pupils can learn
about object and its relationship to other objects, eras, cultures and people. In this method of learning, pupils
interact with museum exhibits, the unique tangibility of these artifacts can motivate curiosity among children
and with questions, pupils discover the role of these objects and their relevance to past and present times.
Object-based learning in museums also enhances children’s interpersonal interactions, and plays vital role in
the development of children’s higher mental functions. Children’s need for object-based learning cannot by
overemphasized, because as Borun in Paris (Ed.) (2002) has argued, “development research usually assigns
object-based learning to an elementary stage of thinking that is concrete rather than symbolic …”. Since the
mental ability of children is nascent, the use of objects in teaching helps children to create mental pictures of
what is being taught.
Formal classroom teaching of aspects of Nigerian history, for example, Nigerian/Biafran Civil War, can be
complemented by an excursion to National War Museum, Umuahia. The war museum, according to Tony
Duruaku (2005) is located at the site of a large underground complex housing a radio transmitting station and
war rooms of the defunct Biafra. The setting of this museum will definitely unleash strong emotional reactions
on the pupils; the feeling of wartime is totally created when the pupils begin to interact with “carcasses of once
awesome fighting machines and aircrafts” (Duruaku 2005). This experience will certainly stimulate learning
and make more indelible impression on the pupils more than any formal classroom teaching of the topic.
Having said these, it is pertinent for us to note that a major responsibility of museum education officers is to
understand children psychology with special reference to how they learn. Paris and Susanna in Paris (Ed.)
(2002:45) are of the opinion that children sometimes ask questions, but often their inquiry is internal or
Researchjournali’s Journal of Hospitality Tourism
Vol. 5 | No. 1 February | 2018
6
www.researchjournali.com
reflective. Therefore, museum educators, with the help of teachers, should find ways of encouraging pupils to
make their questions open; they should also encourage conversations about objects and try to use objects to
make connections to pupils’ experiences.
In museums, there are various learning patterns that can be done using objects. Pupils can start their museum
learning by taking a visual inventory of the museum exhibit, describing the physical characteristics of the
objects under study. Physical characteristics refer to concrete qualities like shape, colour, design and decoration
etc. After the preliminary stage, comes a detailed exploration of the objects which will definitely lead to asking
questions. Questions that may arise include the following:
How was the object made, when, by whom and why was it made?
What was the significance of the object in the past?
What is the significance of the object today?
The nature of question asked will ultimately determine the type of answers provided. Museum education
officers should answer questions in a way that will provoke discussion in a vast array of topics, including
historic, cultural, social, artistic and scientific subjects.
For practical purposes, some suggestions for generic questions that may relate to any objects are provided in
what follows:
Physical Features
What colour is it?
How heavy do you think it is?
What shape is it?
How big is it?
Describe its surfaces
Construction
What is the object made from?
Is there more than one material?
Has the shape of the object been affected by the materials used to make it?
How has the object been made? How do you know?
Is there anything missing from the object? How can you tell?
Function
Can you work out what the object was used for?
What clues are there?
Can you tell whether the function of the object has changed over time?
Researchjournali’s Journal of Hospitality Tourism
Vol. 5 | No. 1 February | 2018
7
www.researchjournali.com
Does the object give any clues about who might have used it?
Design
Does its design suit its purpose?
Does the object have any decoration (patterns, designs or markings)?
Why has it been decorated?
How has it been decorated?
Does it have any writing on it?
What does it tell us?
Context
What can the object tell us about the society in which it was made and used?
Are there any clues to tell us how old the object is?
What do we know about its previous history?
(Source: Albany Institute 2005).
The organized visit does not start and end at the museum door; it should be integrated into the school’s education. It should also be
enjoyable. Very little research into either the school group or children has been undertaken; often this is because it is difficult to assess
meaningful results. However, if museums are to ensure that museum learning is not acting as a ‘turn off’ for children, it must know how
they feel about museum (Maclean 1997:114)
4. MUSEUM OUTREACH PROGRAMME
Learning from museum objects is not restricted to museum environment; pupils who are not privileged to visit
museums can benefit from museum extension services, or museum outreach programme. ‘Outreach’ is defined
as an organization’s involvement with, or influence in the community particularly in relation to education, and
social welfare. For museums, this involves work with audiences using museum collections, but staged in non-
museum locations (Panaki in The Museologist, Vol. 3, 2000/2001, p. 70). An example is the outreach
programme of the National Museum of Colonial History, Aba. The museum focuses on the period of
colonization in Nigeria with photographic illustrations of Nigerian under colonial rule. This museum of colonial
history has a lot of programmes both intra-mural and extra-mural. Some of the programmes are: guided tour,
organized school visit to the museum, Saturday Art Club, holiday programme, organization of film shows, loan
services, and visit to schools etc.
Museum education officers in the National Museum of Colonial History, Aba, visit schools on invitation from
teachers or headmasters to deliver lectures and show complementary films. Museum outreach programmes can
be integrated into school curriculum so that lectures delivered by museum educators and display of objects in
portable exhibition (mobile museum services) can enhance pupil’s understanding of aspects of national history,
Researchjournali’s Journal of Hospitality Tourism
Vol. 5 | No. 1 February | 2018
8
www.researchjournali.com
like Nigeria under colonial administration. Where portable exhibitions are not possible, drawings and paintings
may be used as alternatives.
4.1 OBJECT-BASED LEARNING FOR ADULTS
Adults also learn from museum collections. Museum education officers should understand that there are
remarkable differences between how children learn and how adults learn. This is corroborated by Swift
(1999b:51), quoted in Okpoko, A.I. (2006:30):
There are certain basic characteristics which distinguish adult learners from children and these must be taken into account when planning
for adult learners that is, for their practical needs and services. For instance, adult learners have different motives for learning, different
experiences and personal circumstances. Hence, these adults who have developed preferred ways of learning (mostly independent and
self directed) learn through choice not compulsion, and may choose to stop at any point. They also have clear objectives and expectations
of learning and well-established attitudes, values and beliefs.
From the foregoing, it is clear that adult museum learning is more demanding than that of children. For museums
to satisfy the educational needs of adults, therefore, they must strive to meet the demands of contemporary
education. “Museum professionals must consider ways to introduce their institutions to the adult public as
sources of intellectual enrichment, as places where learning can be spontaneous and personal, and as
opportunity for growth and thinking as well as being” (American Association of Museums, 1984:71).
Education in museum should not been seen as only the structured or routine museum educational programme,
like guided tours, workshops, exhibition; but should also include “everything that occurs in museums to
show and interpret the collection to the public or create and promote the museum’s image is considered part of
the museum’s educational function” (American Association of Museums 1984:63). This is re-enforced by Hein
(1998):
Everything that the visitor experience contributes to the educational role of the museum. The architecture of the museum, the
arrangement of the galleries, the style of the signage welcoming visitors (or the lack of orienting devices!), the composition of the staff,
all contribute to communicating a museum’s educational policy.
Adult visitors to museums are likely to construct personal meanings from what they see and as they interact
with museum objects. It will be a big mistake on the part of the curators to view the adult museum learner as a
novice. Curators have to realize that adult visitors may likely have prior understanding or perceptions about
museum, and these perceptions will definitely influence what they learn and how they learn. The knowledge
which adult museum visitors bring to museums may be right or wrong; the knowledge may not correspond with
what experts know to be valid. It, therefore, becomes necessary for museum professionals to find out what
visitors already know about museum subjects. One way to do this is to “conduct front-end research to uncover
widespread misconceptions and treat them in exhibitions” (Borun in Paris Ed. 2002). This is very important
because widely shared misconceptions twist or impede understanding, in which case, there is no learning.
Researchjournali’s Journal of Hospitality Tourism
Vol. 5 | No. 1 February | 2018
9
www.researchjournali.com
To guide visitors’ learning in museum, it is suggested that museums should develop educational policies, but a
viable and effective educational policy will also mean the application of theories of education, or at least an in-
depth knowledge of these theories. Under educational theories, museums are faced with such questions as:
“What to learn?” (theory of knowledge); How to learn? (theory of learning), and how to teach? (theory of
teaching or pedagogical strategies).
In Psychology and Education, learning theories are attempts to describe how people and animals learn, thereby,
helping us to understand the inherently complex process of learning. There are basically three main perspectives
in learning theories: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism (Learning Theory (Education) 2016).
Behaviorism (radical behaviorism) is an approach to Psychology which supports that learning is the result of
operant conditioning. The word ‘operant’ refers to the way in which behavior ‘operates on the environment’. A
behavior may result either in reinforcement which increases the likelihood of that behavior occurring again; or
punishment, which decreases the likelihood of the same behaviour recurring in the future (Learning Theory
(Education) 2016).
Cognitivism, which is also known as Cognitive Information Processing (CIP), seeks to explain learning in terms
of the functioning of the mind; it accepts the existence of internal mental states, and argues that these states can
be described and analyzed. Constructivism, on the other hand, views learning as a process in which the learner
actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts based upon current and past knowledge (see Dewey 1938).
Learning in this regard, involves constructing one’s own knowledge from one’s experiences, it promotes
students’ free exploration within a given framework or structure, for example, learning with objects.
Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations
and validity of knowledge and belief. Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of
knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief, and justification. Epistemology primarily
addresses the following questions: “What is knowledge?” “How is knowledge acquired?” and “What do people
know?” (Learning Theory (Education) 2016).
Pedagogical strategies (theory of teaching), on the other hand, deals with the methods and styles of teaching. It
is the job of museum educators to identify the best methods of teaching museum visitors. In theory of
knowledge, museum professional will decide on what they want visitors to learn, depending on the actual
mission of the museum. If the museum wants to impact knowledge based on realism “that knowledge exists
independently of the learner” (Hein 1998), it will definitely focus exhibition policy on the structure or nature
of the subject being displayed. This means that exhibition is not organized with the primary aim of what
meaning the visitors may construct from the display.
On the contrary, museum may want to transmit knowledge based on idealism; this is where the ‘constructivist
theory’ comes into play. Whatever the visitors learn from museum is dependent not on external reality, but on
Researchjournali’s Journal of Hospitality Tourism
Vol. 5 | No. 1 February | 2018
10
www.researchjournali.com
what meaning they construct from an object or entire exhibition. To achieve this, the idealist curator will more
likely arrange an exhibition in a way that will allow various interpretations from visitors, one way to do this is
to show multiple perspectives.
4.2 OBJECT-BASED LEARNING AND FAMILY GROUPS
We often have the erroneous view that learning is only related to formal classroom teaching. Far from that, a
substantial size of what we learn is part of the process of growing up as a member of a social group (Borun in
Paris (Ed.) 2002:245). For example, we do not have to enroll in school before we can learn how to eat, cook,
dress, greet our elders etc. This informal pattern of learning is called “socially situated” (Lave and Wenger
1991).
Family as the first social group which a child comes in contact with has always been defined as “the smallest
unity of society”. This is where learning begins for every child. In the context of this study, however, the use
of the term ‘family’ does not necessarily mean ‘nuclear family’, it also refers to any small multi-generational
group visiting the museum; for example, children with their adult companions who may or may not be related
to the children. But why do nuclear families visit museums?
Some parents may see museum visit as an opportunity for their children to complement what they learn in
school through “authentic artifacts and knowledgeable experts” (Paris and Susanna in Paris (Ed.) 2002:40).
Others may visit museums as a way of strengthening family ties, and for social interactions, while some other
groups may see museum visit as a form of leisure.
Inside the museum, museum objects stimulate exchange of information and reactions among members of a
family group. The museum exhibits, in the words of Borun in Paris (Ed. 2002:245), “acts as a catalyst to
conversation among family members”. Children may not be able to read complex texts, and therefore, rely on
adults among them for interpretation and explanation; this will facilitate the learning of children. Adult members
will equally learn, or at least improve their knowledge on certain museum subjects.
Exhibit developers should make sure that museum exhibits intended for family groups are arranged in a manner
that will allow group access and conversation. This is one way to maximize the learning potential of museum
collections.
4.3 DIGITAL OBJECT-BASED LEARNING
In the struggle to justify its existence, and more especially, to take its rightful position among educational
institutions, many museums have introduced digital rendering of museum objects which can be viewed on the
internet. With more than 5,000 museum available online (Davis 2000, in Eternal Egypt 2005), the digital display
of museum objects on the internet has presented instructors as well as learners with the opportunity to view
more objects in virtual visits to museums as compared to physical museum tours.
Researchjournali’s Journal of Hospitality Tourism
Vol. 5 | No. 1 February | 2018
11
www.researchjournali.com
Although digital display of museum collections is limited in its ability to bring about emotional reactions and
curiosity, it, nevertheless has its own advantages.
Digital technologies make it possible for learners, and users in general, have relatively easy access to an almost limitless number of
objects. These technologies also make it possible to surround the objects with rich sets of contextual information that can inform the
appreciation of the object, suggest analogies from other experiences and objects, and stimulate thinking on related topics. Technologies
make it possible for learners to build on objects to develop new information sources tailored to their needs and to create their own
information objects. The collaborative potential of digital technologies also facilitates sharing and exchange of communication about
objects (Frost in Paris ed. 2002).
In Egypt, a digital guided tour is one of the latest innovations of Cairo museum. The digital guide is a handheld
computing application which “represents the next generation of assistive technology in museums, going beyond
traditional audio-only devices to offer in-depth text, images, and animations to contextualize the artifacts
encountered as visitors move through the museum” (Eternal Egypt 2005).
The basic goal of the digital guide, according to Eternal Egypt (2005), is to facilitate museum visitors’
experience without detracting from personal interaction with the museum collections. Visitors have many
alternatives, they can choose to get along with tours established by the museum, observe the museum objects
in a less structured way, by artifact ID’S, by room, by artifact images, or by taking individual recommendation
from museum professionals. For every artifact on the digital guide, the visitor has the option to read more in-
depth information, view other visual representations of the artifact, or move on to the next artifact. As visitors
move through the museum, the IBM text-to-speech engine narrates important connections between artifacts and
larger themes in Egyptian History; and for complex topics, animations are used to supplement textual
descriptions and images.
The digital device stores a log of the museum objects and the places that the museum visitor has either selected
or encountered while on the digital guided tour. At the end of the tour, a personalized printed record of the
visitor’s tour is generated, in this way; a custom catalog is created and presented to the visitor as the ultimate
personalized souvenir of one’s visit to the museum.
5. SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION
A characteristic feature of museum education is the use of objects in learning. Objects as we have seen can
stimulate thought, reflection and curiosity. Museum objects are powerful learning tools; they may lead to
transfer of cultural and historical information on to museum visitors.
Museum education is increasing in significance; therefore, museum managers must strive to improve on what
museum can offer educationally. It has been suggested that one way to improve museum education services is
the application of educational theory and development of educational policy. But the analysis of theories is not
Researchjournali’s Journal of Hospitality Tourism
Vol. 5 | No. 1 February | 2018
12
www.researchjournali.com
sufficient; a complete educational programme will also require the application of theory through a specific
pedagogy. Absence of teaching skills will seriously retard learning in museums.
In developing educational policy, certain questions have to be answered: “What is the aim of the education?”
“To whom is it directed?” “How does it relate to other social and political institutions?” “How can visitors’
learning be assessed?” If these suggestions and many more are synthesized, museums may well become the
champion of informal education.
6. REFERENCES
Albany Institute (2005). Suggestions for Object-Based Learning in the Museum and Classroom. Retrieved August 13, 2009, from
www.albanyinstitute.com
American Association of Museums. (1984). Museums for a New Century. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Museums.
Borun, M. Object-Based Learning and Family Groups. In Paris, S.G. (ed.) (2002). Perspectives on Object-Centered Learning in
Museums. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and Education. New York: Macmillan.
Duruaku, A.B.C. (2005). Strategies for Overcoming Physical Constraints to the Tourist in Nigeria. Unpublished seminar paper presented
at the National Conference on Developing Strategies for Viable Cultural Promotion and Tourism Development in a Reforming Economy,
organized in Enugu by the Federal Ministry of Culture, Tourism and National Orientation.
Eternal Egypt (2005). The Digital Guide at the Egyptian Museum. Retrieved March 2009, from http://www.eternalegypt.org
Frost, C.O. When the Object is Digital, Properties of Digital Surrogate Objects and Implications. In Paris, S.G. (ed.) (2002).
Perspectives on Object-Centered Learning in Museums. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hein, G.E. (1998). Learning in the Museum. London:Routledge.
Hudson, K. (1975). A Social History of Museums: What the Visitors Thought. London: Macmillan.
Knutson, K. and Crowley, K. (2005). Museum as Learning Laboratory: Development and Using a Practical Theory of Informal
Learning. PDF.
Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Learning Theory (Education). (2016). In Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia. Retrieved September 27, 2016, from
https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Learning_theory_(education)&oldid=734706771
Maclean, F. (1997). Marketing the Museum. London: Routledge.
Okpoko, A. I. (2006). Fundamentals of Museum Practice. Nsukka; Afro-Orbis Publications Limited.
Panaki, C.N. Educational Outreach Programme of National Museum of Colonial History, Aba: An Example of a Museum Project
Management. In the Museologist, Journal of the Institute of Archaeology and Museum Studies, Jos. Vol. 3, 2000/2001. Pp. 70-75.
Paris, S.G. and Susanna, E. Children Learning with Objects in Informal Learning Environments. In Paris, S.G. (ed.) (2002). Perspectives
on Object-Centered Learning in Museums. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Resnick, L.B. (1987). Learning in School and Out. Educational Researcher.
Udubrae, E.E. The Art of Drawing and Painting: A Necessary Tool for Museum Education Officers. In The Museologist, Journal of the
Institute of Archaeology and Museum Studies, Jos. Vol. 1, 1997.p. 103.
Weil, S. (1995). A Cabinet of Curiosities: Inquiries into Museums and their Prospects. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Wittlin, A.S. (1949). The Museum, Its History and Its Task in Education. London: Routledge and Keagan Paul.
... Bu yaşantı çocukların işitsel ve görsel bir uyaranla karşılaşmalarını sağlayarak onları araştırmaya, sorgulamaya ya da keşfetmeye yönlendirmektedir (Mayfield, 2004;Williams, 1982). Dolayısıyla müze ortamında düzenlenen etkinlikler, çocukların uyarıcı çevreyle zaman geçirmelerini sağlayarak; geçmişle gelecek arasında bağlantı kurmalarına ya da ilgi alanlarını bulmalarına yardım etmektedir (Obinna, Diminyi ve Duru, 2018). Aynı zamanda çocuğun müzeyle etkileşimde bulunmasıyla sanatsal bakış açısı gelişmekte ve kültürel farkındalıkları desteklenmektedir (Mayfield, 2004). ...
... Müzeler, nesneden öğrenme etkinlikleriyle çocuklara öğrenme olanakları tanıyan okul dışı (informal) ortamlardır. Bu ortamlar çocukların toplumsal ve bilişsel gelişimlerini destekleyen zengin deneyimler sağlamaktadır (Obinna, Diminyi ve Duru, 2018). Nesneden öğrenme etkinliklerinde tarih, sanat ya da bilim nesneleri kullanılmaktadır. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
OKULÖNCESİ EĞİTİMDE MÜZE: MÜZE UYGULAMA ÖRNEKLERİ (NESNEDEN ÖĞRENME) Öz Müzeler, çocukların yeni fikirler keşfetmelerine ve yaşam deneyimlerini zenginleştirmelerine olanak sağlayan öğrenme ortamları arasında yer almaktadır. Geçmişten günümüze değin uzanan özgün nesnelerin sergilendiği müze ortamlarında, çocukların bir düşünceye, bir nesneye ya da bir deneyime yakından bakmalarına, somut nesnelerle etkileşime geçmelerine, dokunmalarına ve duyularını harekete geçirmelerine olanak verildiğinde öğrenme süreci başlamaktadır. Okulöncesi dönemde çocuklarla yapılacak eğitim çalışmalarında sınıf ortamı dışında yaparak-yaşayarak öğrenmeye olanak veren, farklı eğitim ortamları oluşturulmalıdır. Bu eğitim ortamlarından biri de müze ortamıdır. Okulöncesi dönemde müzede eğitim uygulamaları sıklıkla yapılabilir. Müze çalışmalarında resimli çocuk kitaplarıyla yapılandırılmış eğitim yöntemlerinin kullanılması da büyük önem taşımaktadır. Çocukların gelişim özellikleri göz önüne alındığında çocukların geçmişi anlamlandırıp, şimdiyi yaşamaları ve geleceği düşlemeleri için müzede yer alan nesnelerle etkileşimli öğrenme ortamı oluşturulması, müzeleri anlamlı öğrenme merkezlerine dönüştürmektedir. Bu çalışmada, “Çocuk ve Müze Eğitimi” seçmeli dersi kapsamında “Malatya Fotoğraf Makinesi Müzesi”nde çocuklarla “müzede resimli çocuk kitaplarıyla yapılandırılmış ‘nesneden öğrenme’ çalışmalarına” yer verilmiştir. Bu çalışmadan yola çıkılarak “müzede eğitim” adına çeşitli önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Anahtar Sözcükler: Okulöncesi dönemde müze, müze uygulamaları, nesneden öğrenme, resimli çocuk kitapları.
... Bu yaşantı çocukların işitsel ve görsel bir uyaranla karşılaşmalarını sağlayarak onları araştırmaya, sorgulamaya ya da keşfetmeye yönlendirmektedir (Mayfield, 2004;Williams, 1982). Dolayısıyla müze ortamında düzenlenen etkinlikler, çocukların uyarıcı çevreyle zaman geçirmelerini sağlayarak; geçmişle gelecek arasında bağlantı kurmalarına ya da ilgi alanlarını bulmalarına yardım etmektedir (Obinna, Diminyi ve Duru, 2018). Aynı zamanda çocuğun müzeyle etkileşimde bulunmasıyla sanatsal bakış açısı gelişmekte ve kültürel farkındalıkları desteklenmektedir (Mayfield, 2004). ...
... Müzeler, nesneden öğrenme etkinlikleriyle çocuklara öğrenme olanakları tanıyan okul dışı (informal) ortamlardır. Bu ortamlar çocukların toplumsal ve bilişsel gelişimlerini destekleyen zengin deneyimler sağlamaktadır (Obinna, Diminyi ve Duru, 2018). Nesneden öğrenme etkinliklerinde tarih, sanat ya da bilim nesneleri kullanılmaktadır. ...
Presentation
OKULÖNCESİ EĞİTİMDE MÜZE: MÜZE UYGULAMA ÖRNEKLERİ (NESNEDEN ÖĞRENME)
... It is also essential to teach life's values and form the foundation of long life [21]. Also, it could provide an experience that leaves better than study in the classroom [22]. The museums todays develop educational materials and public outreach to promote science literacy for people of all ages and backgrounds. ...
Article
A Museum is an important place to promote science literacy for people. Recently, museums have developed educational materials and exhibits for learning and raising awareness of global issues. Microplastics have become a global environmental issue. A board game has been used to implement many environmental problems effectively. This study, therefore, aimed to develop a board game with simple simulation in a spreadsheet to create an interactive environment to learn about microplastics and their impact on the environment. The developed board game was implemented at the natural history museum in Thailand with six undergraduates studying life science who voluntarily participated in the study. The multi-answer questions, mind map, and worksheet were used to assess the understanding of microplastics when the participants completed the first game. Data from observation of the participants’ interaction during the game was also used to support the result. Data pointed that the participants gained some information from the action and information provided in the board game. Participants could clearly state the sources of microplastics. They also demonstrated the knowledge of microplastics’ cause and effect on living organisms and how to manage microplastics concentrations in the environment. However, the concept of a microplastic pathway was missing, which would be discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Book
Experience and Educationis the best concise statement on education ever published by John Dewey, the man acknowledged to be the pre-eminent educational theorist of the twentieth century. Written more than two decades after Democracy and Education(Dewey's most comprehensive statement of his position in educational philosophy), this book demonstrates how Dewey reformulated his ideas as a result of his intervening experience with the progressive schools and in the light of the criticisms his theories had received. Analysing both "traditional" and "progressive" education, Dr. Dewey here insists that neither the old nor the new education is adequate and that each is miseducative because neither of them applies the principles of a carefully developed philosophy of experience. Many pages of this volume illustrate Dr. Dewey's ideas for a philosophy of experience and its relation to education. He particularly urges that all teachers and educators looking for a new movement in education should think in terms of the deeped and larger issues of education rather than in terms of some divisive "ism" about education, even such an "ism" as "progressivism." His philosophy, here expressed in its most essential, most readable form, predicates an American educational system that respects all sources of experience, on that offers a true learning situation that is both historical and social, both orderly and dynamic.
Suggestions for Object-Based Learning in the Museum and Classroom
  • Albany Institute
Albany Institute (2005). Suggestions for Object-Based Learning in the Museum and Classroom. Retrieved August 13, 2009, from www.albanyinstitute.com
Museums for a New Century
American Association of Museums. (1984). Museums for a New Century. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Museums.
Perspectives on Object-Centered Learning in Museums
  • M Borun
Borun, M. Object-Based Learning and Family Groups. In Paris, S.G. (ed.) (2002). Perspectives on Object-Centered Learning in Museums. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.