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Effect of Ultrasound on Seed Germination Factors of Iranian Black Cumin (Bunium persicum Boiss.) and its Optimization

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This article published in the Iranian Journal of Seed Science and Technology. Abstract In this study, the effect of ultrasound on the germination and vigor index of Iranian black cumin (Bunium persicum Boiss.), was studied. Response surface methodologhy and central composite design were used ti analyze the data and optimize the experiment. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted. Experimental factors included time of ultrasound treatment (5, 7 and 9 minutes), ultrasonic power (130, 180 and 230 watts) and sonication temperatures (10, 20 and 30 °C) as well as control and germination percentage and seed vigor index were measured. The highest germination percentage and seed vigor index were determined by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results indicated significant effect of time and ultrasound power on studied traits, but temperature had no significant effect on them. The highest germination percentage (61%) and seed vigor index (800) were observed at 180 W and 7 min duration time and 20 °C. The lowest germination percentage (24.5%) and seed vigor index (462) were observed in 230 W ultrasound power, 9 min duration time and 20 °C. Also, the optimization results showed that the best points for power, time and temperature for achieving the highest values of germination percentage and seed vigor index were 175.47 W, 6.37 min and 19.36 °C, respectively and the output values (germination and seed vigor index) were obtained the this points 63.02% and 808.39 respectively. Finally it seems that the increasing or decreasing time and power of ultrasonication in a certain range decreases the seed germination percentage and vigor index.
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Iranian Journal of
Seed Science and Technology
Vol.: 10, No.: 2, Summer 2021
(pp: 37-52)
DOI: 10.22034/ijsst.2020.125212.1260
Research Article
""



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Bunium persicum Boiss.
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Bunium persicum Boiss.
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
Effect of Ultrasound on Seed Germination Factors of Iranian Black Cumin
(Bunium persicum Boiss.) and its Optimization
A. Hasani1, M.H. Khoshtaghaza2*, M.T. Ebadi3
1. Graduate student, Department of Mechanical and Biosystems Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2. Corresponding Author, Professor, Department of Mechanical and Biosystems Engineering, Tarbiat Modares
University, Tehran, Iran. Email: khoshtag@modares.ac.ir
3. Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
(Received: Feb. 03, 2019 Accepted: Jul. 04, 2019)
Abstract
In this study, the effect of ultrasound on the germination and vigor index of Iranian black cumin (Bunium persicum Boiss.),
was studied. Response surface methodologhy and central composite design were used ti analyze the data and optimize the
experiment. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted. Experimental factors included
time of ultrasound treatment (5, 7 and 9 minutes), ultrasonic power (130, 180 and 230 watts) and sonication temperatures
(10, 20 and 30°C) as well as control and germination percentage and seed vigor index were measured. The highest
germination percentage and seed vigor index were determined by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results
indicated significant effect of time and ultrasound power on studied traits, but temperature had no significant effect on
them. The highest germination percentage (61%) and seed vigor index (800) were observed at 180 W and 7 minduration
timeand 20°C. The lowest germination percentage (24.5%) and seed vigor index (462) were observed in 230 W ultrasound
power, 9 min duration timeand 20°C. Also, the optimization results showed that the best points for power, time and
temperature for achieving the highest values of germination percentage and seed vigor index were 175.47 W, 6.37 min and
19.36°C, respectively and the output values (germination and seed vigor index) were obtained the this points 63.02% and
808.39 respectively. Finally it seems that the increasing or decreasing time and power of ultrasonication in a certain range
decreases the seed germination percentage and vigor index.
Keywords: Dormancy, Seed vigor index, Germination, Response surface
* Email: khoshtag@modares.ac.ir
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
Azimzadeh, 2009

Bunium persicum Boiss.
Pour- Seyedi, 1994 



Omidbeigi, 2005




Khosravi, 1994; Faravani, 1997


Shankaracharya and
Shankaracharya, 1988 
   

Rangbarian et al., 2004
       
         
    
Kaye et al., 1997
Eyog- Matig et al., 2007


Ritchie and Gilroy, 1998



Gonzalez_Benito et al., 2004

Copland and Mc Donald, 1995




Olvera_Carrillo et al., 2003


.(Kala, 2003)


2006Gonzalez-Benito,




(Beyaz et al., 2016)

 
Mason, 1996. 
     
      
     
      
      
  Yaldagar et al., 2008


         
Mason, 1996


Mason, 1996





Afzal et al., 2008; Patade et al., 2009 




Taylorson, 2012





 



minW °C
Fazeli, 2017


Yang et al., 2015
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






Aladjadjiyan, 2011
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






Nazari et al., 2014
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




Machikowa et al., 2013









Bunium persicum Boiss.



Design Expert 10













Table 1- The coding levels of the independent variables selected in the response level method

Encoding levels
Math symbol

Independent variable
-1
0
1
10
20
30
C°
5
7
9
Min
130
180
230
W














ISTA, 2010
cmml



°C


ml

Ellis and Roberts, 1981

𝑋
𝑌
G
XY
G
cm
L
GS
SGL




Table 2- The results of treatments related to germination percentage and seed vigor index in Design Expert software
 
Seed vigor index

Germination Percentage
 W
Power
M
Minute
°C
Temperature

690
50.5
180
5
10
1
633
44
130
7
10
2
580
38
230
7
10
3
523
25
180
9
10
4
605.4
40.5
130
5
20
5
545.4
34
230
5
20
6
800
61
180
7
20
7
798
61.5
180
7
20
8
800
61
180
7
20
9
798
62.5
180
7
20
10
800
63
180
7
20
11
493
27
130
9
20
12
462
24.5
230
9
20
13
669
48
180
5
30
14
554
35
230
7
30
15
616
42
130
7
30
16
500
30
180
9
30
17
Design Expert 10




    
  
RSM)  





       
       
1
Respond Surface Methodology
(Bezerra et al., 2008)     
CCD   
   
      
        
   







 





A
BC
.












 
Table 3- Mean squares for quadratic model in the method of response surface curves for increasing
germination percentageand weight vigor index

Seed vigor index

(Germination percentage)

Degrees of freedom

(Source of change)
**
26208
*
332.22
9

ns
946.45
ns
0.78
1
A
**
35351.28
*
552.22
1
B
**
5299.35
*
60.50
1
 C
ns
208.80
ns
25
.
0
1
A * B
ns
20.25
ns
0.25
1
A * C
ns
17.46
ns
0.4
1
B * C
**
19245.15
*
217.01
1
A2
**
78451.04
1007.96
*
1
B2
**
78164.09
832.12
*
1
C2
2529.13
8.79
7

ns
2529.13
ns
20.63
3

2.384
3.30
4

16



ns

Table 4- The final model (based on the code) for each of the dependent variables

Germination= 62 8.31 B -2.75 C -7.19 A2 -15.44 B2 14.06 C2 
Seed vigor index= 800 66.47 B -25.75 C 136.9 B2 136.65 C2 
BC
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

Wang et al., 2002
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




Gavrilov et al., 1996






 












 
Fig 1- actual data values against predicted germination percentages

min
W°C
 
min
min W 















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



Sharififar et al., 2015



Actual





minW°C
 Fazeli et al., 2017

Fig: 2 Simple effect of power on germination

Fig. 3- Simple effect of time on germination


Minute


Power



Fig. 4 Actual data values against predicted seed index










C.V
  











min WC°
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
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WC°












Actual







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
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min

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
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







minmin
Tavakoli Dinani, 2009





Karimi fard et al., 2017


 

minW°C
Fazeli, 2017

Fig 5- Simple effect of power on seed vigor index


Minute


-
Fig. 6- Simple effect of time on seed vigor index


 







-
Fig 7- Optimal values for germination percentage and seed vigor index according to the variables of time,
power and temperature


Povewr








-
Fig 8- Optimal values for germination percentage according to the variables of time, power and temperature






-
Fig 9-Optimal values for seed vigor index according to the variables of time, power and temperature






















minWC°




W
minC °





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