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Abstract and Figures

Automated bus systems are a promising means of future first- and last mile public transport solutions, and can even possibly become a regular part of the public transport network. Therefore, many projects appear throughout Europe to pilot the feasibility of automated bus system implementation on various locations. Keeping up with the rapidly increasing pace in which these pilots appear, this report aimed to provide an overview of past, currently on-going, and concretely planned pilots with automated bus systems in Europe. Via extensive internet searches, exhausting personal networks, and gathering information from other sources, a detailed overview was developed. 118 pilots were found which were characterized by vehicles with predominantly low speeds, low capacities, and short operation routes. The search in itself proved to be difficult due to the often lacking detailed information of pilots, which was argued to be due to most scientific pilots are of recent years, and therefore often still on-going, and have consequentially not published any information yet on their research. Another difficulty arose due to the rapid increase of occurring pilots with automated buses, which leads to the report already being out-of-date as this report is being written. Therefore, this report will be updated early 2021. Currently, the vast majority of automated bus system pilots occur with the presence of a steward on board, due to legislation, technological challenges, as well as passengers requesting them, raising concerns regarding (e.g., economic) efficiency. Although there are a few automated bus systems that actively show efficient operation without on-board stewards, this still appears to be a future development.
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Automated Buses in Europe
An Inventory of Pilots
Version: 1.0
Authors:
Hagenzieker, Marjan
Boersma, Reanne
Nuñez Velasco, Pablo
Ozturker, Maryna
Zubin, Irene
Heikoop, Daniël
2
Automated Buses in Europe
An Inventory of Pilots
By
Hagenzieker, Marjan
Boersma, Reanne
Nuñez Velasco, Pablo
Ozturker, Maryna
Zubin, Irene
Heikoop, Daniël
An electronic version of this technical report is available at http://repository.tudelft.nl/.
Cover picture: Opening shuttle ESA ESTEC. Picture: Irene Zubin
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Contents
1. Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 6
2. Methods .......................................................................................................................................................... 9
3. Results .......................................................................................................................................................... 10
4. Discussion and conclusions ......................................................................................................................... 15
References ....................................................................................................................................................... 17
Appendix ........................................................................................................................................................... 19
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Abstract
Automated bus systems are a promising means of future first- and last mile public transport solutions, and can even
possibly become a regular part of the public transport network. Therefore, many projects appear throughout Europe to
pilot the feasibility of automated bus system implementation on various locations. Keeping up with the rapidly
increasing pace in which these pilots appear, this report aimed to provide an overview of past, currently on-going, and
concretely planned pilots with automated bus systems in Europe. Via extensive internet searches, exhausting personal
networks, and gathering information from other sources, a detailed overview was developed. 118 pilots were found
which were characterized by vehicles with predominantly low speeds, low capacities, and short operation routes. The
search in itself proved to be difficult due to the often lacking detailed information of pilots, which was argued to be due
to most scientific pilots are of recent years, and therefore often still on-going, and have consequentially not published
any information yet on their research. Another difficulty arose due to the rapid increase of occurring pilots with
automated buses, which leads to the report already being out-of-date as this report is being written. Therefore, this
report will be updated early 2021. Currently, the vast majority of automated bus system pilots occur with the presence
of a steward on board, due to legislation, technological challenges, as well as passengers requesting them, raising
concerns regarding (e.g., economic) efficiency. Although there are a few automated bus systems that actively show
efficient operation without on-board stewards, this still appears to be a future development.
Acknowledgements
The inventory work was conducted by TU Delft as part of the Autobus project, https://www.toi.no/autobus/
funded by the Norwegian Research Council, and with additional support from the STAD project,
http://stad.tudelft.nl, and TU Delft researchers who conduct research on automated shuttles and in related
fields. Also thanks to all Autobus project partners for providing information and feedback on draft versions
of this inventory.
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1. Introduction
As is becoming increasingly apparent, driving is turning into a task for an automated system instead of a
human being. Public transport is considered as one of the more suitable candidates to benefit from
automating driving tasks (Shladover et al., 2016). Henceforth, an increasing number of automated (mini)bus
systems is entering our roads, often driving in mixed traffic environments including cyclists and pedestrians.
As a result, projects involving automated public transport systems are appearing with accelerating pace, and
keeping up to date about their current developments is becoming increasingly cumbersome. A
comprehensive overview of all these projects would provide valuable insights. Overviews like this do exist,
but are not always (kept) up-to-date and usually lack the detailed information needed for research purposes.
For instance, the Bloomberg.org Group created an interactive map on current and planned projects involving
autonomous vehicles (Bloomberg.org Group, 2020), and Connected and Automated Driving Europe’s
website gives an overview of European projects in the field of automated road transport (Connected and
Automated Driving Europe, 2020), but these are not exhaustive, and detailed information is often not
provided. When narrowing down to automated bus systems, finding an exhaustive and up-to-date overview
of completed, running, and planning projects becomes even more challenging. From a technological, energy
efficiency, and legality perspective, a recent overview article investigated predominantly European
completed and ongoing automated bus projects (Ainsalu et al., 2018). It is important to keep an even pace
with technology, and, if we want to have the consumer (keep) using promising novel technology, maintain
an up-to-date knowledge base of how humans (prefer to) interact with such technologies as automated bus
systems. As a first step, an inventory of what has been done, is going on, and will be investigated in the near
future, appears therefore warranted.
Henceforth, in the present document we present an inventory of real-life projects with automated bus
systems in urban settings. This work was conducted as part of the Autobus project
https://www.toi.no/autobus/ funded by the Norwegian Research Council. The inventory is not complete,
mainly because many new pilots and demo’s pop up all the time, and many of those are not well
documented. Pilots and projects in countries represented in the Autobus consortium (Norway, the
Netherlands, Belgium, & Sweden) are probably more complete than those in other countries. We have
attempted to collect as much information as possible in a systematic way. One more update of the inventory
is foreseen in January 2021.
Within the Autobus project, also other studies are conducted. Recently, two systematic reviews have been
performed. One with a focus on passenger experience and road user interaction (Heikoop et al., 2020) and
another on empirical studies from interviews, focus group discussions, surveys, and (video) observations
directly addressing the interactions between cyclists and autonomous vehicle (AV) shuttles (Hagenzieker et
al., 2019). Findings of these reviews include that:
Public and passengers are generally enthusiastic about the AV shuttles,
The AV shuttles are not mature; they stop when any object (e.g., road users, static object, etc.) is
within a certain distance from the bus,
The AV shuttlesspeed is slow; often slower than the speed of cyclists and other surrounding traffic,
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AV shuttles often drive on existing infrastructure, sharing the road with cyclists, or use the cycle
track,
Infrastructural characteristics (e.g., markings, shared or separate road) influence observed
interactions, which appear to be more risky on shared narrow roads,
Other studies within the project, also focusing on the interaction of road users with automated bus
systems, are in progress. These involve surveys among passengers, pedestrians, and cyclists related to
their interaction with automated bus systems driving in Norway and analyses of real-life observations on
various routes where automated bus systems interact with other road users. First preliminary findings
(Bjørnskau et al., 2019) show that:
Cyclists’ opinions and safety perceptions become more positive after having interacted with AV
shuttles,
Cyclists seldom force the bus to stop, but interactions change: cyclists give less often way to the AV
shuttles over time, whereas pedestrian behaviour does not seem to change,
Cyclists cross having a very short distance ahead of the AV shuttle,
The AV shuttles’ abrupt breaking can cause the cyclist to perform unexpected moves,
Slowness of bus leads to many overtakings by cyclists (and by motor vehicles),
A common observation is that cyclists ride alongside (left or ride) or overtake the AV shuttle, which
can cause abrupt braking (too short distance to shuttle).
Figure 1 – WePod and cyclists in the Netherlands. Picture: Delft University of Technology
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Figure 2 – Automated shuttle in Oslo, Norway. Picture: Marjan Hagenzieker
Figure 3 – Automated shuttle in Frankfurt, Germany. Picture: Roberto Giraldi
Figure 4 – Automated shuttle in Appelscha, the Netherlands. Picture: Reanne Boersma
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2. Methods
In- and exclusion criteria
The aim of this research was to inventory pilots and projects with automated bus systems throughout Europe
that are, will be, or have been running, to present an as complete picture of the current state-of-the-art
involving automated bus systems in Europe. This therefore excludes demos or showcases, as those are often
not well documented, and operating in optimal conditions and do not give a realistic view of long term
implementation of the vehicle. Although this research did not actively searched for short-term demos or
showcases, some can be included when they are deemed relevant to present in this overview, for instance
due to the abundance of information, or it being a landmark demo or showcase ushering in new possibilities.
This research was specified to find automated bus systems operating on public roads with mixed traffic.
Pilots on closed roads can be included, however, when they are (similar to above) deemed relevant enough
for presentation in this overview. The vehicle type was narrowed down to a vehicle that was able to transport
people as public transport. That excludes private automated cars such as the (concept) cars presented by
Google, Tesla, Volvo and Mercedes. Pilots that did not take place, such as the Citymobil project in Rome
(Delle Site, Filippi, & Giustiniani, 2011), were excluded from the report. The entire research took place
between January and March 2019 and between November 2019 and January 2020.
Step-by-step methodology
For the development of this report, several steps have been taken. First, several main online sources were
utilized (see Table 1), and complemented with other relevant online sources such as university- and news
websites. Second, a semi-structured review was conducted. Third, the results from this review were analysed
for relevant content. Fourth, this relevant content was used for both forward- and backtracking of other
relevant content (i.e., finding relevant citations leading to other pilots or projects, and finding additional
information through searching for keywords found in news articles). Lastly, personal networks were
broached to supplement the resulting data base with pilots and/or projects that are not (easily) retrievable
through an online research.
Table 1 Main sources of the online research used for developing the overview of pilots and projects with automated bus systems in Europe.
Title
Type
Implementing Automated Road Transport
Systems in Urban Settings
Book
State of the art of automated buses
Review journal article
Initiative on Cities and Autonomous
Vehicles
Online inventory
Cybercars
Blog
SPACE UITP
Project website
AVENUE
Project website
Easymile
Company website
Navya
Company website
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The semi-structured review was performed using various search engines, namely Google Scholar, Web of
Science, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and ResearchGate. Narrowing down the scope of the research, keeping the
method both valid and viable, the search was restricted to only pilots and projects on automated bus systems
in Europe. Next, a set of search terms was determined, seen in Table 2, which, combined, formed the search
queries that were used for this research. The results from this research were consequently filtered for relevant
topics, meaning that the content should be on public transport vehicles only, cover pilots or projects (i.e., not
demos or showcases), indicating (quasi-)long-term employment of the automated bus system, and provide
ample information for filling out at least most of the relevant details for the overview table of this report.
From these results, other relevant sources were extracted, namely references found in reference lists and
keywords from news articles. These sources were used as keyword search terms for a follow-up online
search, after which its results were added to the rest of the results.
The final method used in this research was utilizing the authors’ personal networks, meaning that the authors
gathered information by attending relevant conferences, project meetings, and workshops, conversed with
other relevant researchers and stakeholders, and took their own personal experience into account. These
results were also added to the rest of the results.
Table 2 Overview of terms used for the online search, complemented with the languages in which the searches were conducted.
Synonyms of automation
Synonyms of vehicle
Languages
Automated
Vehicle
English
Autonomous
Bus
Dutch
Driverless
Shuttle
French
Self-driving
People mover
Norwegian
Public transport
Italian
Public transport solution
Spanish
Road transport system
German1
Cybercar2
Cybernetic transportation system2
3. Results
Please note that at the time of finalising this research (November 2019 to January 2020) all the website links
used for this research were available. Information in this overview may be outdated at the time of
publication. Even though the authors tried to get a complete overview, some pilots might not be mentioned
because many new pilots keep coming up and many of those pilots are not well documented. Please feel free
1 Only limited use.
2 “Cybercar” and “Cybernetic transportation system” were separate entries in the online research.
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to share your information about pilots and projects in Europe if you have any (the authors can be contacted
via A.M.Boersma@tudelft.nl). The authors intend to update the inventory table early 2021.
The following presents a narrative of the pilots and projects found in this research. Its focus is to illustrate
the development of automated bus systems in Europe, based on the findings from this research. The
overview (in table form) of the found pilots and projects from this research can be found as appendix.
The idea of enhancing public transport systems with automated bus systems originates back to the 1990s
from the concept of the so-called 'cyber cars', which are in essence a low-passenger-capacity, flexible on-
demand service on dedicated infrastructure forming Cybernetic Transport Systems (CTS; Parent, 2019). A
demonstration and implementation of such a transport mode, named ParkShuttle, was realized in 1997 in the
parking area of Schiphol airport, the Netherlands, which stayed operational until 2004 (2getthere, 2019;
Parent, 2019).
Since the early 2000's, a series of research projects (CyberCars, CyberMove, CyberCars2, CityMobil,
CityMobil2, etc.) have been focusing on development, improvement, and testing of technology for
automated bus systems. From cyber cars with simple obstacle detection system (scanner, laser, and safety
bumper) on dedicated closed track (Delle Site, Filippi, & Giustiniani, 2011), it matured into more advanced
automated bus systems with complex sets of internal and external sensors for vehicle positioning and
navigation, to potentially allow for driving in mixed traffic (Ainsalu et al., 2018). Examples of the latter
vehicles are EasyMile’s EZ10, Navya’s Arma, Local Motors’ Olli, and the 3rd generation of ParkShuttle.
The only significant difference between the vehicles is that ParkShuttle uses artificial landmarks (i.e.,
magnets) which are embedded in the roadway for positioning (Boersma, Mica, van Arem, & Rieck, 2018).
One of some landmark pilots and projects actually involved a one-day trial in Svalbard, which was in 2019
the first autonomous vehicle operating in the arctic circle. Even though the methodology of this research
aimed at excluding short-lived trials like these, the contributory factor of this trial made it relevant enough to
include in this report, and is thus consequentially included in the overview to be found in the appendix.
Pilot descriptives
At the time of writing, a total of 118 pilots and projects have arisen, based on the results from this research.
Unfortunately, the information about the earliest trials and pilots is scarce, as most of the links to the
projectswebsites are not working anymore. Wherever possible, the pilots and projects that could be
described in enough detail are taken into account in this research, and are presented in the overview (see
appendix).
The 118 pilots and projects took place in 18 different countries. The amount of the projects per country is
shown in Figure 5, with France (32 projects), Germany (12 projects), and Norway (9 projects) being the
three leading countries. Note that the name of the organizing party(ies) or the purpose of the project were
used as an indicator of the country of the pilot, as the project itself was often not a clear enough indicator for
its location.
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Figure 5 Amount of pilots per country, listed alphabetically.
The starting and ending dates for each pilot were gathered, which are presented in the overview to be found
in the appendix. Some pilots report two different starting and ending date; in those cases, more pilots were
carried out for the same project in different times. Looking at the starting year of the pilots, the increasing
interest in automated bus systems starting from 2016 can be seen, with 2018 and 2019 as peaking years
(Figure 6). Those two years mark the introduction of a new collection of automated bus systems, such as the
minibuses I-Crystal (developed by Transdev and Lohr), Gacha (Miju and Sensible4), MILLApod (Intelligent
Systems For Mobility), and HEATbus (IAV), as well as the full-size buses Citywide LF (Scania) and
Enviro200 (ADL). This consequentially explains the fact of the dominance of the vehicle types EZ10
(EasyMile) and Arma (Navya), with 59 and 35 pilots, respectively, utilizing these types of vehicles, as those
two types have been around much longer (since April and September 2015, respectively). Notably, all
vehicles used in the pilots found in this research were fully electric, apart from one: the Mercedes-Benz
Future Bus, which operated between Schiphol Airport and the city of Haarlem.
Figure 6 Distribution of running pilots per year. Trend line in red dots. Note: the duration of each project is considered; hence, if a project
lasts for 2 years, the same project is added to both respective years.
6 8
2 3 8
32
12
1 1 2 2
9
1 2 6 8 8 7
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
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Passengers
Public transport is per definition intended to transport public. Therefore, this research evaluated the
characteristics the pilots have in light of its passengers. Although the maximum passenger capacity of
automated bus systems is usually higher, the number of allowed passengers is almost always limited to
seated places, with one place reserved for the steward. An overview of the maximum amount of passengers
that is allowed in the vehicle is seen in Figure 7. The presence of the steward is mandatory in all projects
except for the ParkShuttle (Rotterdam, the Netherlands). This procedure is mostly done for safety reasons,
since the automated driving technology is still developing. However, two private trials took place in Oslo,
Norway and in Salzburg, Austria without steward on board (see appendixcomments column for more
information). For 23 pilots it was not possible to find the maximum allowed seats; these pilots are therefore
not included in Figure 7. Of those pilots for which this data could be found, the vast majority (96%) would
only hold less than 20 passengers, while over 70% would not take more than 12 passengers at a time. The
three exceptions are one in Sweden and two in the United Kingdom (numbers 92, 116, and 118 in the
appendix), of which only one (#118) has been running.
Figure 7 – Maximum allowed passengers in the vehicle
Vehicle- and infrastructural characteristics
The infrastructural adaptations for the automated bus systems mostly include road markings and warning
signs, installation of the equipment for V2X communication (sensors, systems to communicate with a
control room and traffic lights), and temporary platforms for bus stops.
On the same line of reasoning of the available seats, the allowed speed of the automated bus systems is
usually lower than the design speed. Most pilots therefore report two different speed values: one referring to
the maximum allowed speed and one to the average operational speed. As with the information regarding
capacity, information regarding (operational) speed was not always present. Therefore, only the pilots who
reported information regarding operational speed of their automated bus system are taken into account (82 of
118 pilots). Figure 8 shows the average operational speed distribution of the considered pilots. As with the
capacity (Figure 7), the average operational speed is low (below 21 km/h) for the vast majority (78%) of the
pilots. Only two pilots exceeded 40 km/h (numbers 61 and 110 in the appendix).
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
4-8 9-12 13-16 17-20 21-24 25-28 29-32 33-36 37-40 40+
14
Figure 8 – Number of pilots per average operational speed of the automated bus system in kilometers per hour
The application cases of the automated bus systems are mostly fitting into the concept of first/last mile
transport solutions, to provide connections between public transport stops or stations and university
campuses, business/shopping districts, or within airports, parking facilities or city centres. A total 88 pilots
reported their route length, of which 50% was below 1500m (Figure 9). Five pilots were longer than five
kilometres (numbers 46, 49, 88, 92, and 116 in the appendix).
Figure 9 – Number of pilots per route length in meters
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
6-11 12-16 17-21 22-26 27-31 32-36 37-41 42-46 47-51
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
15
4. Discussion and conclusions
The development of automated transport systems is growing explosively, and is therefore difficult to keep
track of. This report was aimed at creating an overview of pilots with automated bus systems in Europe that
have occurred, are currently running, and will soon be started in the near future. Recent approaches (e.g.,
Ainsalu et al., 2019; Bloomberg.org, 2020) were either incomplete, had a different scope, or are not updated
regularly. Through an extensive search base, including Google and various academic search engines, 118
demonstrations of automated bus systems have been found throughout Europe. The results in this report, and
its accompanying overview table (to be found in the appendix) are intended to be updated early 2021,
allowing for (another) up-to-date overview of the current state-of-the-art.
The majority of the information provided in the appendix table was found through overviews of upcoming or
on-going pilots with automated bus systems, as these are commonly well-covered in the press. In contrast,
research reports, such as academic journal articles or other types of academic dissemination, during pilots is
usually either not documented or not shared. The number of pilots for which detailed documentation was
found was 33% of the total amount (i.e., 39 out of 118) of pilots that resulted from the research performed in
this report. This included 10 pilots with published research (8.5%), 25 pilots with project reports (21.1%)
and 4 pilots with both types of documentation (3.4%), and did not include any on-going studies. Also note
that it is likely that there are on-going projects the authors are unaware of. However, it is expected that most
of those will become known and its information available and added in the update of this report at the end of
2020.
It must be noted, however, that many more somewhat similar demonstrations have been found, but were
either too limited in their information, were technically not with automated bus systems, or did not actually
go beyond the planning phase. Another note is that the authors of this report acknowledge the timeliness of
this report, as it is highly likely that at the point of writing many more pilots have arisen, which is why this
report will be updated early 2021. During our research, we encountered several pilots that were never
realised, such as the one in Rome within the CityMobil project, in which a Robosoft vehicle was supposed to
ride for 2200 meters at a maximum speed of 30 km/h, transporting passengers from a carpark to the entrance
of the Rome Exhibition Centre (Delle Site, Filippi, & Giustiniani, 2011). It was decided to discard these
pilots from our research, in order to provide a detailed inventory of pilots that are and were conducted in
Europe, avoiding biased results for non-existing pilots. On the other hand, however, some pilots have been
included in the overview, despite the fact that it did not meet the search criteria of the methodology used in
this research. These exceptions were included when it was considered a landmark trial that proved invaluable
for future development of automated bus systems. For instance, the Svalbard trial was included, as this
marked the first trial with automated bus systems in the arctic circle; something that was deemed impossible
or at least incredibly hard due to the harsh weather circumstances.
The lack of a structured search strategy was largely due to the unstructured nature of the variety of pilot
goals (e.g., proof of concept, demonstration, pilot, etc.), and therefore regularly lacked a standard location of
providing information of said pilots. Therefore, the authors needed to predominantly trust on their own
network and expertise in the field, rather than trusting on the internet’s knowledge base. It would be
worthwhile to test whether a systematic literature review could come up with the same or different pilots on
this topic (cf. Heikoop et al., 2020). However, during this research, it was found that the amount of lacking
information was abundant, as, for instance, several pilots and/or projects would not clearly document their
starting and/or ending date. Therefore, these types of missing information occur regularly in the overview
16
(see appendix). However, when only an ending date was missing, it was assumed that the respective pilot
would run until the end of the year it was currently running.
As seen in Figure 6, pilots with automated bus systems are still on the rise. Only since 2016, there appears to
be an increase in interest in pilots with automated bus systems, and this interest does not yet seem to die out.
This report should therefore be seen as an initial stepping stone towards a systematically updated overview
of automated bus system pilots throughout Europe. Other similar attempts have also taken place, for example
specifically investigating literature on automated bus system-vulnerable road user interaction, with
comparable results (Hagenzieker et al., 2019; Heikoop et al., 2020). The authors of this report therefore
encourage the readers to contact the authors to provide them with additional information on this topic.
Despite abovementioned limitations, several conclusions can be made about automated bus system pilots in
Europe. The first is that proper documentation and information of performed pilots is currently lacking, and
any available info is distributed over many different sources. It would benefit practitioners, researchers, and
designers/engineers, as well as society as a whole, if detailed information regarding occurring struggles and
problems and the found solutions to those were to be provided. Furthermore, sharing results on public
perception and interaction with these automated bus systems could also help improving future automated bus
systems.
Second, the found pilots mostly show small buses to operate on an on-demand base and as access- and egress
mode for main facilities and/or public transport lines. In order to make automated bus systems more
accessible, future pilots should aim to roll out transit lines throughout larger (and denser) areas. For now,
predominantly first- and last mile problems are being solved with the current line of automated bus systems,
meaning technically feasible, but short route lengths and low speeds. Even though there appears to occur a
shift in pilot goals, from experimental to long term development, if automated bus systems are continued to
be placed and piloted at technically feasible locations instead of locations where there is actual demand for
them, the future of said systems is all but certain.
Third, although it has been shown that automated bus systems can operate without a steward on board (albeit
on closed tracks; see the Netherlands), most pilots still have stewards on board, due to national legislations
requiring them. These legislation challenges can also be seen from the results (and Figures 7 to 9), as the
passenger allowances, speeds, and route lengths are predominantly impractically slow, as current legislation,
rather than technical feasibility, withholds automated bus systems from reaching their limits and therefore
practical implementation and utilization. Although the policies exist for guarding the safety of passengers
and other road users by limiting the possibilities of automated bus systems (as accidents do occur; see e.g.,
Gibbs, 2017; Porter, 2019), until countries allow more freedom to automated bus systems, the development
of these systems will continue to be held back.
As a final point, it is surprising to see that even though the Netherlands is leading in automated driving
technology readiness, it is being outperformed by France, Germany, and Norway, in terms of number of
pilots with AV shuttles (32, 12, and 9, versus 8, respectively). Further investigation is needed to uncover
why this discrepancy exists. Plainly based on these results, it appears that current national legislation does
not need to hold back nationwide rollouts of automated bus systems. As has been done for this report, the
authors encourage researchers and engineers from different countries to work together, to learn from each
other in terms of possibilities and limitations, to facilitate a streamlined European-wide development of
publicly accepted and appreciated automated bus systems on locations where the demand for them is at its
highest.
17
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bus systems in Europe: A systematic review of passenger experience and road user interaction. In D.
Milakis, N. Thomopoulos, & B. van Wee, Policy Implications of Automated Vehicles Vol.5. Elsevier.
Kyriakidis, M., de Winter, J. C., Stanton, N., Bellet, T., van Arem, B., Brookhuis, K., Reed, N., Flament, M.,
Hagenzieker, M., Happee, R. (2019). A human factors perspective on automated driving. Theoretical
Issues in Ergonomics Science, 20(3), 223-249.
KPMG, (2018). Autonomous vehicles readiness index: Assessing countries’ openness and preparedness for
autonomous vehicles. KPMG International Cooperative, Report No. 135006-G.
18
Martens, M., Pauwelussen, J., Schieben, A., Flemisch, F., Merat, N., Jamson, S., & Caci, R. (2008). Human
Factors’ aspects in automated and semi-automatic transport systems: State of the art. European
Commission, City Mobil Deliverable D3. 2.1.
Navya. (2020). New mobility is here. Autonomous, shared and electric. Retrieved January 23, 2020, from
https://navya.tech/en
Nordhoff, S., De Winter, J., Kyriakidis, M., Van Arem, B., & Happee, R. (2018). Acceptance of driverless
vehicles: Results from a large cross-national questionnaire study. Journal of Advanced
Transportation.
Parent, M. (2019). Cybercars. Retrieved February 10, 2020, from: http://www.cybercars.fr/
Porter, J. (2019). Pedestrian collision puts Vienna’s driverless bus trial on hold. The Verge. Retrieved March
13, 2020, from https://www.theverge.com/2019/7/19/20700482/navya-self-driving-driverless-bus-
vienna-collision-pedestrian, July
Saffarian, M., de Winter, J. C., & Happee, R. (2012). Automated driving: human-factors issues and design
solutions. Proceedings of the human factors and ergonomics society annual meeting Vol. 56, No. 1
(pp. 2296-2300). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Shladover, S. E., Lu, X.-Y., Song, B., Dickey, S., Nowakowski, C., Howell, A., & Nelson, D. (2016).
Demonstration of automated heavy-duty vehicles. Berkeley, CA: Institute of Transportation Studies,
University of California.
Smartere Transport Bodø. (2020). Om prosjektet. Retrieved January 23, 2020, from
https://www.smarteretransportbodo.no/
SPACE UITP. (2020). The road to better mobility. Retrieved January 23, 2020, from https://space.uitp.org/
Stanton, N. A., & Marsden, P. (1996). From fly-by-wire to drive-by-wire: safety implications of automation
in vehicles. Safety Science, 24(1), 35-49.
Warren, R., & Kunczynski, Y. (2000). Planning criteria for automated people movers: Defining the issues.
Journal of urban planning and development, 126(4), 166-188.
Appendix
Country
Project
Location
Date
Vehicle
Capacity
Speed
Route
Length
Infrastructure
Research
More information
Comments
1.
Austria
auto.Bus -
Seestadt
Seestadt
June 2019 - end
date not mentioned
Navya Arma
Max 11
passengers
(11 seated and
0 standing)
Max 20
km/h
Test track leads from the subway
station Seestadt
via the stops
"Seeseiten", "Susanne-Schmida-
Gasse", "Schenk-Danzinger-Gasse"
and "Maria-Tusch-
Straße" to the
"FeelGood" Apar tments
2000 m
Not mentioned
To follow where the vehicle is
currently (as there is no timetable
yet):
https://www.wienerlinien.at/eport
al3/ep/channelView.do/pageType
Id/66533/channelId/-4400687
1.
https://www.ait.ac.at/en/news-
events/single-
view/detail/5318/?no_cache=1
2.
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autono
mer_Bus_(Wien)
2.
Austria
Digibus©
2017
Koppl (Salzburg
area)
April 2017 -
November 2017
Navya Arma
Max 11
passengers
(11 seated and
0 standing)
Max 16
km/h
Public road with mixed traffic in a
rural area.
1400 m
Road mostly lacking road
markings,
varying inclines,
varying mobile network
coverage, varying quality of
GNSS and correction signals,
other roa d users driving at s peeds
up to 60 km/h per hour or varying
weather condit ions
Salzburg Research
Forschungsgesellschaft
1. https://www.digibus.at/en/news/
2.
https://etrr.springeropen.com/articles
/10.1186/s12544-018-0326-4
3.
Austria
Digibus©
Austria
Koppl (Salzburg
area)
2017-2019
EasyMile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
(6 seated and 6
standing).
Max 9
passengers in
test operation
Max 20
km/h
City center
650 m
V2X base stations along the test
track (transmission of correction
data for h igh-precision satellite
positioning via ITS-G5),
communication steles with
passengers
Ways of communication with
passen
gers and technical
infrastructure
1.
https://www.digibus.at/en/news/
2.
https://salzburg.wirtschaftszeit.at/wir
tschaftsnews-detail/article/digibusR-
austria-mit-neuen-techn ologien-von-
heimischen-unternehmen-an-bord-
des-automatisierten-shuttles
4.
Austria
Digibus©
Austria
Wiener Neustadt,
Niederösterreich
May 2019
September 2019
EasyMile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
(6 seated and 6
standing).
Max 9
passengers in
test operation
Max 20
km/h
Wiener Straße between Hauptplatz
and St. Peter an der Sperr, at the
Lower Austrian State Exhibition
“WORLD IN MOTION” in the
centre of Wiener Neu stadt
560 m
Not mentioned
Salzburg Research
Forschungsgesellschaft
https://www.digibus.at/en/news/
5.
Austria
Digibus©
Austria
Teesdorf
13th of November
2019
2019/2020 (without
passengers)
EasyMile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
(6 seated and 6
standing).
Max 9
passengers in
test operation
Max 20
km/h
ÖAMTC Verkehr stechnikzentrum
Teesdorf
Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
Salzburg Research
Forschungsgesellschaft
1.
https://www.digibus.at/en/news/
2.
https://www.salzburgresearch.at/en/e
vent/digibus-demo-day-at-oeamtc-
verkehrstechnikzentrum-teesdorf/
Testing during winter.
Non-public tests. Networking
meeting for trade visitors and
demo rides with the Digibus®
including demonstration of
newly developed and proven
technologies for passenger
communication, V2X
communication, incident
management, capacity
management etc.
6.
Austria
Digibus©
Austria
Salzburg
September 2019
EasyMile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
(6 seated and 6
standing).
Max 9
passengers in
test operation
Max 20
km/h
Salzbur g Ring
Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
Salzburg Research
Forschungsgesellschaft
1.
https://www.digibus.at/en/news/
2.
https://www.salzburgresearch.at/en/p
resseaussendung/der-selbstfahrende-
digibus-faehrt-erstmals-fahrerlos/
Non-public tests without a
steward on 19th of September
2019 (supervision from control
room only) with 16 volunteers
in a test ride
20
Country
Project
Location
Date
Vehicle
Capacity
Speed
Route
Length
Infrastructure
Research
More information
Comments
7.
Belgium
ALEES
(Autonomo
us Logistics
Electric
EntitieS for
city
distribution)
Mechelen
25th of May 2018
Easymile EZ10
Not applicable
transportation
of goods in this
demo
Not
mentioned
City centre (shopping street De
Bruul) of Mechelen
Not
mentioned
Operating in cyclists/pedestrian
area. No infra changes but guided
by motorcycle/car (see video in
link)
Logistic distribution. Develop
possible applications, use cases,
technical framework conditions
and tests.
Fraunhofer IML
1.
http://www.easymile.com/alees-
project-autonomous-logistics-
electric-entitities-for-city-
distribution/
2.
https://www.iml.fraunhofer.de/en/ne
ws_archiv/alees---autonomous-
logistics-electric-entities-for-city-
distribu.html
3.
https://www.zelfrijdendvervoer.nl/sp
ecials/2018/05/30/autonoom-
voertuig-biedt-oplossing-voor -
winkeldistributie-mechelen/
4.
https://vil.be/project/alees/
VIL report (in Dutch)
available in VIL webshop (see
link 4 in More information
columns)
8.
Belgium
Test
Easymile
Formule 1-parcours
Francorchamps Spa
2017
Easymile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
(6 seated and 6
standing)
11 km/h
On circuit
Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
Vias Institute
1.
https://www.vias.be/nl/newsroom/eer
ste-test-in-belgie-van-een-autonome-
shuttle-zonder-bestuurder/
2.
https://www.zelfrijdendvervoer.nl/tes
ts/2017/10/03/belgie-test-voor-het-
eerst-zelfrijdende-shuttle/
9.
Belgium
Test Navya
Han-Sur-Lesse
2018
Navya Arma
Max 15
passengers
(11 seated and
4 standing)
25 km/h
From the parkinglot to the entrance
of the tourist attraction “Caves of
Han”.
500 m
Warning s igns
Vias Institute
https://www.verkeersnet.nl/smart-
mobility/27370/eerste-zelfrijdende-
shuttle-op-openbare-weg-van-belgie-
rijdt-in-han/
10.
Belgium
Test Navya
Eigenbrakel
2018
Navya Arma
Max 15
passengers
(11 seated and
4 standing)
Max 18
km/h
Average 15
km/h
From Leeuw van Waterloo to Hoeve
van Hougoum ont.
2400 m
Not mentioned
Vias Institute
1.
https://www.verkeersnet.nl/smart-
mobility/27686/tweede-test-met-
shuttle-in-belgie-stuk-uitgebreider/
2.
https://www.vias.be/nl/newsroom/bu
sje-zonder-bestuurder-rijdt-over-een-
traject-van-meer-dan-2-kilometer-
aan-de-leeuw-van-waterloo-/
11.
Belgium
Test durin g
salon
"Smart City
Wallonia"
Marche-en-
Famenne
24th of September
2019
2 shuttles from
different brands
-
Navya and
Easymile -
drove on the
same route
simultaneously
Not mentioned
Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
Not mentioned
https://mobilit.belgium.be/nl/nieuws/
nieuwsberichten/2019/een_nieuwe_s
tap_genomen_de_ontwikkeling_van
_autonome_shuttles
Test organized by Vias
institute & FOD Mobility and
Transport; both shuttles were
coordinated by Bestmile
software
12.
Belgium
Health
Campus
University
(VUB)
Brussels
23rd of August
2019 February
2020
Easymile EZ10
Not mentioned
Average 10-
15 km/h
University hospital campus, between
the student residences and the main
building of the Faculty of Medicine
and Pharmacy
Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
Free University Brussels (VUB)
& ULB
https://www.bouwkroniek.be/article/t
est-met-zelfrijdende-bus-op-
ziekenhuiscampus-in-jette.28745
Research focus on human-
machine interaction
13.
Belgium
Zaventem
airport
shuttle
Zaventem Airport,
Brussels
Planned for mid
2020
2getthere GRT
vehicle
Max 22
passengers
(8 seated and
14 standing)
Max 20
km/h
Between the airport terminal and the
cargo business zone and parking
areas in mixed traffi c
Not
mentioned
Fixed route that’s equipped with
magnets. Local modifications
may be needed to reduce traffic
complexity. In mixed traffic
Not mentioned
1. https://www.2getthere.eu/brussels-
airport-autonomous-shuttle/
2. https://www.2getthere.eu/maiden-
trip-at-brussels-airport/
14.
Belgium
TRIB
Brussels
28th of June 22nd
of September 2019
EasyMile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
(6 seated and 6
standing)
Max 10
km/h
In Parc de Woluwe
1800 m
5 stops
Fixed tracking elements (posts)
are installed along the route and
at the
stops with removable
platforms
Not mentioned
1.
https://smartcity.brussels/news-678--
stib-tests-autonomous-vehicles-from-
28-6-until-22-9-in-parc-de-woluwe
2.
https://easymile.com/stib-trials-the-
ez10-autonomous-shuttles-in-parc-
de-woluwe-brussels/
3.
https://www.themayor.eu/en/stib-
tests-autonomous-buses-in-brussels-
region
4.
http://www.stib-
mivb.be/article.html?l=fr&_guid=00
a66cc7-0769-3710-0e97-
803f4095ace7
21
Country
Project
Location
Date
Vehicle
Capacity
Speed
Route
Length
Infrastructure
Research
More information
Comments
15.
Denmark
Autonomou
s mobility
Aalborg Øst
December 2019
end date not
mentioned
(planned to run for
2 years)
Navya Arma
Max 15
passengers
(11 seated and
4 standing)
Max 18
km/h
On the Astrup Trail conn ecting
residential area with other local
transportation. 10 stops
2100 m
Newly designed area with shared
road for AV and cyclists.
Pe
destrians and vehicles are
separated.
Aalborg University involved
https://avenue.unige.ch/?portfolio
=copenhagen
1.
https://nordjyske.dk/nyheder/aalborg/
aftale--chauffoererne-bliver-smidt-
af-busserne/53f6a970-01fd-4157-
a1e4-cd7b81e7743d
2.
https://www.tv2nord.dk/aalborg/fore
rlos-busser-skal-laer e-finde-vej
3.
https://www.tv2nord.dk/aalborg/nu-
sker-det-groent-lys-til-selvkoerende-
busser
Planned for mid-2018 (delay
because of need for
permissions, finally obtained
in December 2019 )
16.
Denmark
Avenue
Nordhavn ,
Copenhagen
2019 – 2022
Navya Arma
Max 15
passengers
(11 seated and
4 standing
Max 25
km/h
Average 10-
15 km/h
(expected)
Circulating withing
residential/business area connecting
parking/metro in Nordhavn. No exact
route available as authorities
approval is not recei ved
Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
Not mentioned
1.
https://h2020-
avenue.eu/?portfolio=copenhagen
2.
https://h2020-avenue.eu/wp-
content/uploads/2019/04/h2020-
avenue-deliverable-d2.16_-final.pdf
17.
Estonia
Marking
Estonia’s
presidency
of the
Council of
the
European
Union
Tallinn
August 2017
Easymile EZ10
Max 8
passengers
12 km/h
From the city centre to the
Kultuurikatel
Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
Not mentioned
https://www.calvertjournal.com/artic
les/show/8713/near-misses-for-
tallinns-driverless-buses
18.
Estonia
Not
mentioned
Tallinn
April 2018
Easymile EZ10
Max 8
passengers
12 km/h
1. Between bus t erminals in Tallinn ’s
Old Port
2. From Mustamäe to the North
Estonian Regional Hospital and
Lepistiku
1. 600 m
2. Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
Not mentioned
https://www.calvertjournal.com/artic
les/show/9823/estonias-driverless-
buses-are-back-on -the-road-in-tallinn
19.
Estonia
Sohjoa
Baltic
project
Tallinn
August 2019 end
date not mentioned
Navya Arma
Max 15
passengers
(11 seated and
4 standing
Not
mentioned
The route conn ects the Kadriorg tram
stop to Kumu Art Museum and
follows Weizenbergi Street to Kumu,
then Mäekalda, Koidula and Poska
Streets back to Weiz enbergi Street
Not
mentioned
4 stops
Not mentioned
Not mentioned
https://e-estonia.com/driverless-
public-bus-tallinn/
20.
Finland
CityMobil2
Vantaa
July 2015 – August
2015
Easymile EZ10
Max 10
passengers
(6 seated and 4
standing)
Max 13
km/h
In new suburban centre Kivistö, from
the housing fair area to Kivistö
station (Ring Rail Line)
900 m
2 stops
Route was segregated by fence,
clear and identifiable marking of
the route (incl. warning signs).
There was a 100 m-long tunnel
on the route
Part of CityMobil2 project
1.
http://www.isinnova.org/wordpress/
wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Day1-
2-Demonstration_Vantaa-
Gilbert_Koskela.pdf
2.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/scien
ce/article/pii/S0967070X1730286X
21.
Finland
Sohjoa
Baltic
project
Helsinki
June 2019
September 2019
Navya Arma
Max 11
passengers
(11 seated and
0 standing)
Not
mentioned
From Vuosaari (Cirrus) metro station
to Aurinkolahti beach in Vuosaari
district
2500 m
7 stops
Not mentioned
Metropolia University of Applied
Sciences
1.
http://www.sohjoabaltic.eu/fi/2019/0
6/26/helsinki-vuosaari-aurinkolahti/
2.
https://www.epressi.com/tiedotteet/lo
gistiikka-ja-liikenne/robottibussi-vie-
uimarannalle-helsingin-
vuosaaressa.html
22.
Finland
Sohjoa
Baltic
project
Estoo
October 2017 –
November 2017
Easymile EZ10
Max 10
passengers
(6 seated and 4
standing)
Max 12
km/h
Between Otaniemi under ground
station and campus of Aalto
University in Otaniemi business
district
700 m
2 stops
At intersections other vehicles
were guided with manually
controlled traffic lights
Aalto University
https://www.mdpi.com/2071-
1050/11/3/588
23.
Finland
Sohjoa
Helsinki
October 2018 –
November 2018
Easymile EZ10
Max 6
passengers
(6 seated and 0
standing)
Max 12
km/h
In the Hernesaari district from
sauna/resta urant to other restaurants
500 m
4 stops
Not mentioned
Metropolia University of Applied
Sciences
1.
https://www.sohjoa.fi/
2.
https://www.metropolia.fi/en/about-
us/news-and-
events/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=
5936&cHash=9babd6277100ad110c
edb6891ddaf03e
22
Country
Project
Location
Date
Vehicle
Capacity
Speed
Route
Length
Infrastructure
Research
More information
Comments
24.
Finland
Sohjoa
Helsinki
April 2018 - end
date not mentioned
(31st of May 2018
end of Sohjoa
project)
Easymile EZ10
Not mentioned
Not
mentioned
From the gate of Suvilahti cultural
centre via Stadin Panimo to
Sörnäisten rantatie
Not
mentioned
Along with other traffic and in
narrow alleys, without clear road
traffic drivin g lines
Metropolia University of Applied
Sciences
1.
https://www.sohjoa.fi/
2.
https://forumvirium.fi/en/robot-
buses-taking-over-new-areas-in-
helsinki-2/
25.
Finland
Sohjoa
Tampere
November 2016
end date not
mentioned (31st of
May 2018 end of
Sohjoa pr oject)
Easymile EZ10
Max 8
passengers
11 km/h
The route in the Hervanta district
runs from the Tampere University of
Technology campus to Shopping
Centre Duo
500 m
Not mentioned
A particular focus is placed on
the way that self-directed buses
find their place within the wider
traffic s ystem
1.
http://www.tut.fi/interface/articles/20
16/2/robot-buses-in-operation-on-
campus
2.
https://www.sohjoa.fi/
26.
Finland
Robobus
(follow-up
from
Sohjoa)
Kivikko Helsinki
1. May - November
2018
2. Ma y - November
2019
Navya Arma
Max 8
passengers
18 km/h
1. (2018) From Kivikko's sports park
to bus stop K ivikontie. 2 st ops.
2. (2019) Circular route by the Redi
shopping center to the Isoisänsilta
bridge, in in Helsi nki Kalasatama
1. 1000 m
2. not
mentioned
Not mentioned
Metropolia University of Applied
Sciences
1.
https://www.helsinkirobobusline.fi/in
-english/
2.
https://globenewswire.com/news-
release/2018/05/14/1501889/0/en/Sel
f-driving-Bus-on-Helsinki-
RobobusLine-Goes-to-Scheduled-
Service.html
3.
https://forumvirium.fi/en/robotbus20
19/
27.
Finland
Not
mentioned
Estoo
September 2019
Gacha (Muji
and Sensible4
minibus)
Max 16
passengers
(10 seated and
6 standing)
Max 25
km/h
On Nokia’s campus
1500 m
Not mentioned
Not mentioned
1.
https://www.core77.com/posts/87813
/Mujis-Autonomous-Shuttle-Bus-
Debuts-in-Fin land
2.
https://www.sensible4.fi/gacha/
3.
https://www.luxturrim5g.com/new-
blog/2019/9/10/the-pilot-for-self-
driving-shuttle-bus-gacha-begins
28
France
CyberMove
Antibes
June 2004
ParkShuttle II
Max 20
passengers
Max 14
km/h
32km/h
(demo onl y)
On the Verdun Avenue
320 m (2x)
3 stops
Not mentioned
Part of CyberMove
http://www.advancedtransit.org/wp-
content/uploads/2011/08/ParkShuttle
-II-Review-of-the-Antibes-
Experiment-A.-Alessandrini-cs..pdf
29.
France
CityMobil
La Rochelle
(Showcase)
18th of September
28th of September
2008
CRF’s (only in
this one
passengers) and
TNO’s
Advanced city
cars, INRIA’s
and Robosoft’s
cybercars
Not mentioned
Max 10
km/h
Circuit in city centre; from the quay
of the electric “passeur" to the
University
800 m
5 stops
A test track was arranged, area
was fenced. Other arrangements
are not ment ioned
Part of CityMobil
1.
http://www.citymobil-
project.eu/downloadables/Newsletter
s%20and%20Leaflets/CityMobil_Fin
al_broch ure%20Nov-2011.pdf
2.
http://www.citymobil-
project.eu/downloadables/Deliverabl
es/D1.5.1.6-PU-
First%20Advanced%20city%20cars
%20showcase%20la%20rochelle-
CityMobil.pdf
30.
France
CityMobil
La Rochelle
(Demo)
2011 (3 months)
Yamaha-base d
electric
prototyp e
cybercars
(renamed
“Cybus”)
Max 5
passengers
Max 10
km/h
Circuit in city centre; from the quay
of the electric “passeur" to th e
University
800 m
5 stops
Wi-Fi transpon ders were installed
at the stops. Operating in
pedestrian ar ea
Part of CityMobil
1.
http://www.citymobil-
project.eu/downloadables/Newsletter
s%20and%20Leaflets/CityMobil_Fin
al_broch ure%20Nov-2011.pdf
2.
http://www.isinnova.org/wordpress/
wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Day1-
6-Demonstration_La_Rochelle-
Matthieu_Graindorge.pdf
31.
France
CityMobil2
Sophia Antipolis
January - Mar ch
2016
Easymile EZ10
Max 6
passengers
(6 seated and 0
standing)
Max 13
km/h
Average 7-8
km/h
Sophia Antipolis business park
950 m
5 stops
Clear and identifiable marking of
the route (incl. warning signs),
semi-
segregated lane w/
pedestrians, bi cycles
Part of Citymobil2 project
http://www.isinnova.org/wordpress/
wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Day1-
3-Demonstration_CASA-
Guillaume_Drieux.pdf
23
Country
Project
Location
Date
Vehicle
Capacity
Speed
Route
Length
Infrastructure
Research
More information
Comments
32.
France
CityMobil2
La Rochell e
November 2014 -
April 2015
Robosoft
Robucity
Max 12
passengers
(12 seated and
0 standing)
Max 12
km/h
Tourist route in the Minimes district,
partly with vehicle traffic on the
route and ped estrians
1710 m
7 stops
Clear and identifiable marking of
the route (incl. warning signs)
Installation of stations
Traffic lights at 6 crossings
giving priority
Part of Citymobil2 project
1.
http://www.isinnova.org/wordpress/
wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Day1-
6-Demonstration_La_Rochelle-
Matthieu_Graindorge.pdf
2.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/scien
ce/article/pii/S2352146516302435
3.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/scien
ce/article/pii/S2352146516302356
33.
France
EDF
Civaux
Civaux
Spring 2016 - not
mentioned
Navya Arma
Max 11
passengers
(11 seated and
0 standing)
Max 25
km/h
On site of EDF nuclear power plant
Not
mentioned
On priva te road
Not mentioned
1.
https://navya.tech/wp-
content/uploads/2017/09/NAVYA_B
rochure_Prin t_EN_Website.pdf
2.
https://www.busworld.org/articles/de
tail/2789/autonomous-navya-arma-
shuttles-run-on-the-edf-nuclear-
powerplant-in-civaux
3.
https://www.transdevna.com/services
-and-modes/autonomous-mobility/
34.
France
AVENUE
Lyon
2019 – 2022
Navia Arma
Max 15
passengers
(11 seated and
4 standing)
Max 25
km/h
From tram station Décines Grand
Large to th e Groupama Stadium
1350 m
4 stops
Public road, but prohibited for
cars.
Part of Aven ue project
1.
https://h2020-avenue.eu/portfolio-
item/lyon/
2.
https://h2020-avenue.eu/wp-
content/uploads/2019/04/h2020-
avenue-deliverable-d2.16_-final.pdf
35.
France
Keolis
Villeneuve d’Ascq
December 2018
December 2019
Navya Arma
Max 15
passengers
(11 seated and
4 standing)
Not
mentioned
Route on campus between two metro
stations
1400 m
4 stops
Route in cluded a roun dabout.
Not mentioned
1.
https://www.intelligenttransport.com
/transport-news/74340/electric-
autonomous-shuttle-france/
2.
https://www.keolis.com/en/media/ne
wsroom/press-releases/keolis-
deploys-electric-autonomous-
shuttles-two-university-campuses
36.
France
Intelligent
Mobility
Rennes
November 2018 -
ongoin g
Navya Arma
Max 15
passengers
(11 seated and
4 standing)
Not
mentioned
For the area around the campus of
Rennes 1 universi ty. Route on public
road and on a road reserved for soft
modes such as
cyclists and
pedestrians.
1300 m
6 stops
Not mentioned
Not mentioned
1.
https://www.keolis.com/en/media/ne
wsroom/latest-news/autonomous-
vehicles-start-running-university-
campus-rennes
2.
https://navya.tech/en/the-keolis-
autonoms-shuttles-put-into-service-
within-the-rennes-campus-1-on-
open-road/
Pilot was initially planned till
June 2019
37.
France
Intelligent
Mobility
(continued)
Rennes
November 2019
end date not
mentioned
EasyMile (Gen
3 shuttle) - in
addition to
Navya Arma
Max 15
passengers
(11 seated and
4 standing)
Not
mentioned
For the area around the campus of
Rennes 1 universi ty. Route on public
road and on a road reserved for soft
modes such as cyclists and
pedestrians.
1300 m
6 stops
Interoperability between different
manufacturers under single
supervision
Not mentioned
1.
https://www.keolis.nl/over-
ons/nieuws/keolis-versnelt-
ontwikkeling-in-autonome-mobilitei
2.
https://easymile.com/easymile-
launches-new-ez10-driverless-
shuttle-featuring-innovative-safety-
architecture-and-enhanced-
passenger-experience/
38.
France
Keolis
Paris
July 2017 - May
2019
Navya Arma
Max 15
passengers
(11 seated and
4 standing)
Max 7 km/h
La Defense business district
2000 m
Clear markings of the route
Not mentioned
1.
https://www.keolis.com/en/media/ne
wsroom/press-releases/keolis-starts-
operation-autonomous-electr ic-
shuttles-defense-paris
2.
https://space.uitp.org/initiatives/paris
-la-defense-av-france
3. https://innovationorigins.com/self-
driving-buses-paris-ends-
experiment-after-two-years/
Pilot was initially planned for
6 months
24
Country
Project
Location
Date
Vehicle
Capacity
Speed
Route
Length
Infrastructure
Research
More information
Comments
39.
France
Keolis
Paris
April - July 2018
Navya Arma
Max 15
passengers
(11 seated and
4 standing)
Max 25
km/h
Within the Roissypôle, the business
district of Charles-de-Gaulle Airport,
connecting the RER train station to
the Groupe ADP’s headquarters
700 m
Road infrastructure system that
uses traffic signals to
communicate dynamically with
the shuttles
Not mentioned
1.
https://navya.tech/en/the-
autonomous-shuttles-are-in-ser vice-
at-paris-charles-de-gaulle-airport/
2. https://navya.tech/en/press/groupe-
adp-launches-the-first-trial-of-
autonomous-shuttles-at-a-french-
airport/
40.
France
Last mile
shuttle
Versailles
10th of December
2018
Easymile EZ10
Not mentioned
Max 10
km/h
From Cité des cadres bus stop t o Les
Allées des Maronni ers
1000 m
Create smart infrastructure by
installing sensors for
communication with the vehicles
Vedecom Institute: test
communication and interactions
with various AV’s and
infrastructure. Research how to
modify existing infrastructure for
AV’s
https://www.adentis.fr/des-navettes-
autonomes-a-la-demande-a-
versailles/
If successful route will be
extended
41.
France
Navl y
(Keolis)
Lyon
September 2016 -
December 2017
Navya Arma
Max 15
passengers
(11 seated and
4 standing)
Max 20
km/h
On the banks of the River Saone in
the Confluence eco-district, between
the shopping centre and the
southernmost point of the district
1350 m
5 stops
Not mentioned
Not mentioned
1.
https://navya.tech/wp-
content/uploads/2017/09/NAVYA_B
rochure_Print_EN_Website.pdf
2.
https://www.keolis.com/en/media/ne
wsroom/latest-news/navly-first-
public-transport-service-by-
autonomous-electric-shuttle
3.
https://www.keolis.com/en/media/ne
wsroom/latest-news/successful-first-
year-world-first-conducted-by-
keolis-and-navya
42.
France
Caisse des
Dépôts,
Icade and
Transdev
Part of
Caisse des
Dépôts
demos
Paris
September
December 2017
Easymile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
Not
mentioned
Route on the open road in the Icade
Park of Orly-Rungis to connect the
Augusta, Robert Schuman and
Gustave Eiffel stations. For the
employees of Rungis Business Park
1250 m
None, un controlled inter section
Not mentioned
1.
https://www.transdev.com/wp-
content/uploads/2018/05/Yearbook-
1.pdf
2.
http://www.mobilicites.com/011-
6457-Transdev-experimente-un-
service-de-navette-autonome-en-
voie-ouverte-a-Rungis.html
43.
France
Renault
Trucks
Lyon
24th of October
23rd of November
2016
Navya
Max 15
passengers
(11 seated and
4 standing)
Not
mentioned
For employees of Renault on
industrial s ite of Saint Priest
Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
Not mentioned
1. https://navya.tech/wp-
content/uploads/2017/09/NAVYA_B
rochure_Prin t_EN_Website.pdf
2.
https://corporate.renault-
trucks.com/en/press-
releases/2016_14_11_renault_trucks
_celebrates_the_100th_anniversary_
of_its_lyon_site.html
44.
France
TLD -
Sorigny
Sorigny
November 2018
end date not
mentioned
Easymile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
25 km/h
TLD’s industr ial site
1500 m
Not mentioned
Not mentioned
https://www.aviationpros.com/news/
12422717/tld-deploys-autonomous-
bus
45.
France
Seine
Quayside
Rouen
December 2016
January 2017
Easymile EZ10
Not mentioned
Not
mentioned
Along the banks of the Seine
1600 m
Not mentioned
Not mentioned
https://presse.matmut.fr/file/105200/
Dossier-de-presse-Rouen-
Normandy-Autonomous-Lab-
2017.pdf
46.
France
Rouen
Normandy
Autonomou
s Lab
Rouen
September 2018
end date not
mentioned
I-Crystal
(Transdev with
Lohr)
Max 16
passengers
Not
mentioned
Connection of Rouen’s Technopole
du Madrillet, tech business cluster,
with city’s public transportation
system
10 000 m in
total (3
loops)
17 stops
Not mentioned
Not mentioned
1. http://transdev.ca/services-and-
modes/autonomous-mobility/
2.
https://www.zelfrijdendvervoer.nl/tes
ts/2018/06/15/autonome-voertuigen-
op-openbare-weg-in-rouen/
3.
https://www.transdev.com/en/press-
release/final-testing-before-the-
rouen-normandy-autonomous-lab-
on-demand-mobility-service-opens-
to-the-public/
25
Country
Project
Location
Date
Vehicle
Capacity
Speed
Route
Length
Infrastructure
Research
More information
Comments
47.
France
So Mobility
as part of
the “Grand
Paris de la
Mobilité”
[Greater
Paris
Mobility]
initiative
Issy-les-
Moulineaux
March April
2017
EasyMile EZ10
Not mentioned
Not
mentioned
Circuit in Ile Saint-Germain Park
between the car park and th e T2 tram
station
600 m
Not mentioned
Not mentioned
https://www.transdev.com/en/news-
en/inauguration-of-the-autonomous-
shuttle-at-issy-les-moulineaux/
48.
France
SESNA
Saclay
13th of Februar y
30th of Ma rch
2018
EasyMile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
(6 seated and 6
standing)
Not
mentioned
On the open road at the private
Saclay Nuclear Research Centre
(CEA) facility
2600 m
7 stops
The route includes intersections
and pedestrian crossings and
speed ramps
Not mentioned
https://www.ratpdev.com/sites/defaul
t/files/annexes/communiques/RATP
%20Group%20launches%20experim
ent%20in%20driverless%20shuttles
%20at%20CEA%20Paris%20GB.pdf
49.
France
Paris-
Saclay
Autonomou
s Lab
Saclay
15th of May 2019
end date not
mentioned
I-Crystal
(Transdev with
Lohr)
Max 16
passengers
Not
mentioned
Night collective transportation
service for the Saclay Plateau
neighborhoods bet ween the Massy
station and the Camille Claudel bus
station in Palaiseau to serve four
stops Massy Palaiseau, Palaiseau
Ville, La Vallée, Camille Claudel.
6000 m
4 stops
On public bus rapid transit lanes
The University of Paris-Saclay
1.
https://www.transdev.com/en/press-
release/paris-saclay-autonomous-lab/
2.
https://media.group.renault.com/glob
al/en-gb/groupe-
renault/media/pressreleases/2122579
1/paris-saclay-autonomous-lab-de-
nouveaux-services-de-mobilite-
autonome-electrique-et-partagee
50.
France
RATP
Group
Boulogne-sur-Mer
5th of April – 8th of
May 2017
EasyMile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
Not
mentioned
On Quai des Paquebots
300 m
Not mentioned
Research to obtain passen ger
opinions with improvement
suggestions. Information
regarding performance, reliability
and operating safety will also be
collected.
1.
http://www.ratp.fr/en/groupe-
ratp/newsroom/mobility-
news/driverless-shuttlesratp-group-
announces-new-experiments-after
2.
https://www.ratpdev.com/en/referenc
es/france-boulogne-sur-mer-bus-car
51.
France
RATP
Group
Paris
23rd of Januar y – 7th
of April 2017
EasyMile EZ10
Max 6
passengers
(6 seated and 0
standing)
Max 20
km/h
On the Charles de Gaulle bridge
between the Gare d’Austerlitz and
Gare de Lyon railway stations
250 m
On dedicated lan e
Not mentioned
1.
http://www.ratp.fr/en/groupe-
ratp/newsroom/mobility-
news/driverless-shuttlesratp-group-
announces-new-experiments-after
2.
http://aroundtherings.com/site/A__59
718/Title__Very-Promising-Results-
for-Auton omous-Shuttles-
Experimentation-on-th e-Charles-de-
Gaulle-Bridge/292/Articles
3.
https://www.wired.com/2017/01/tres
-dinky-self-driving-shuttle-nudges-
paris-future/#
52.
France
RATP
Group
Paris
November 2017
end date not
mentioned
EasyMile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
(6 seated and 6
standing)
Max 12
km/h
Between the station Château de
Vincennes (metro line 1) and the
Parc Floral de Paris (12th district in
Paris)
2000 m
Not mentioned
Not mentioned
1.
http://www.ratp.fr/en/groupe-
ratp/new-types-mobility/new-forms-
mobility-adapting-a-changing-
society
2.
https://www.apur.org/en/our-
works/dr iverless-vehicles-wh at-their-
future-paris (in maps to download)
53.
France
Smart City
Toulouse
January May
2018
EasyMile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
(6 seated and 6
standing)
Average 13-
14 km/h
Average 7-
8km/h
(taking i nto
consideratio
n the
duration of
the
intermediar
y stop )
Following Allees Jules Guesdes from
« Palais de justice » Metro/Tram
station to Grand-Rond public garden
850 m
3 stops
In pedestrian zone
Not mentioned
https://www.polisnetwork.eu/wp-
content/uploads/2019/06/4a_malicet.
pdf
26
Country
Project
Location
Date
Vehicle
Capacity
Speed
Route
Length
Infrastructure
Research
More information
Comments
54.
France
Smart City
Pibrac
14th of June – 5th of
September 2017
EasyMile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
(6 seated and 6
standing)
Average 6.3
km/h
City centre (Esplanade Sainte
Germaine)
340 m
3 stops
Not mentioned
Survey on u sers’ opinion
https://www.polisnetwork.eu/wp-
content/uploads/2019/06/4a_malicet.
pdf
55.
France
Transdev
Verdun
29th of May – 11th
of August 2018
EasyMile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
(6 seated and 6
standing)
Max 14
km/h
City centre
1400 m
5 stops
On open r oad
Not mentioned
1.
https://www.transdev.com/en/news-
en/discover-an-autonomous-city-
center-shuttle-in-verdun-during-the-
summer/
2.
https://www.cerema.fr/fr/centre-
ressources/newsletters/transflash/tran
sflash-ndeg-414-nov-2018/verdun-
bilan-positif-navette-autonome
56.
France
Transdev
Reims
2nd of May – 30th of
June 2018
EasyMile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
(6 seated and 6
standing)
10 km/h
Between the “Bezannes Champagne
Ardennes TGV” train station and the
“Gare
Champagne TGV” tram
station located on line B of the
transport network Citura
400 m
On steep slope
Users’ percepti ons by Transdev
1.
https://www.citura.fr/fr/navette-
autonome/1010
2.
https://www.transdev.com/en/news-
en/reims-when-shared-autonomous-
mobility-facilitates-intermodal-
transport/
3.
https://www.construction21.org/fran
ce/infrastructure/fr/service-de-
transport-autonome-a-reims.html
57.
France
ISFM
Velizy-
Villacoublay
March 2019 end
date not mentioned
MILLApod (by
Intelligent
Systems For
Mobility,
ISFM)
Max 6
passengers
(6 seated and 0
standing)
Max 30
km/h
From the Mozart and Le Clos
neighborhoods to the R. Wagner T6
station
4000 m
In mixed traffic alongside
motorists, bicycles, trams, etc.
The road network will be
equipped with sensors, allowing
MILLA to detect priorities on the
right, traffic lights, pedestrian
crossings. It can be called via
application
Users’ op inion survey
https://www.velizy-
villacoublay.fr/actualite/navette-
autonome-participez-a-l-
experimentation
1.
https://www.velizy-
villacoublay.fr/actualite/millapod-
navette-autonome
2.
https://pole-moveo.org/pme/la-
navette-autonome-milla-circule-
desormais-a-velizy/
58.
France
NASC
(autonomou
s shuttle
without
driver)
Velizy-
Villacoublay
1. 26th of June 2018
(for 3 weeks)
2. September 2018
EasyMile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
(6 seated and 6
standing)
Max 10
km/h
Villacoublay Air Base
1. Test rides
2. To transport airmen from
operational zones to the living zone
Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
Not mentioned
https://www.defense.gouv.fr/actualit
es/communaute-defense/une-navette-
autonome-sur-la-base-aerienne-de-
villacoublay
59.
France
TOTAL
Dunkirk
May 2018 end
date not mentioned
(Planned for 5
years)
Navya
Max 14
passengers
Max 20
km/h
In the international training site
Oléum
of TOTAL between the
guards’ post and the training centre
800 m
In industrial environment
Not mentioned
1.
https://www.lavoixdunord.fr/493289/
article/2018-11-22/sur-la-voie-des-
mobilites-nouvelles-total-fait-rouler-
une-navette-autonome
2.
https://www.travelnet.fr/focus/824-
la-navette-autonome-navya-lancee-
sur-le-site-de-total-a-dunkerque
3.
https://www.lesechos.fr/2018/05/bert
helet-parie-sur-le-transport-vert-
990628
Pilot pla nned for 5 years
60.
Germany
Continental
Frankfurt
17th of April – 19th
of April 2018
CUbE
(Continental
Urban Mobility
Exper ience)
Not mentioned
Not
mentioned
On the campus of University of
Applied Sciences
Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
Share knowhow among
Continental, Easymile and VGF.
Determine future requirements
for AV’s and usage models
1.
https://www.continental-
automotive.com/Landing-
Pages/CAD/CUbE/Driverless-
Mobility/Driverless-Mobility
2.
https://www.continental.com/en/pres
s/press-releases/cube-technologies-
74492
27
Country
Project
Location
Date
Vehicle
Capacity
Speed
Route
Length
Infrastructure
Research
More information
Comments
61.
Germany
HEAT
project
(Hamburg
Electric
Autonomou
s
Transportati
on)
Hamburg
Phase 1: 2019-
2020 (mid-2020
with passengers
and ste ward)
Phase 2: 2021
(without steward)
IAV vehicle
Max 10
passengers
Not
mentioned
Design
speed 50
km/h
In Hamburg’s HafenCity
1. Ring route: along the streets Am
Dalmannkai, Großer Grasbrook, Am
Sandtorkai and Am Sandtorpark.
2. On Am Kaiserkai and drive
directly past Hamburg’s new
landmark Elbe Philharmonic Hall
1840 m
5 stops
Supplementary intelligent
infrastructure along its route,
including sensors and a digital
communications system to
communicate with control room
and surrounding. There are 6
traffic lights and 9 intersections.
German Aerospace C enter
1.
https://www.hamburg-
news.hamburg/en/renewable-
energy/heat-pr oject-launches-
hamburg /
2.
https://www.hamburg.com/business/i
ts/12778724/heat/
3.
https://www.hochbahn.de/hochbahn/
hamburg/en/home/projects/expansio
n_and_projects/project_heat
4.
https://itseuropeancongress.com/201
9/07/31/heat-hamburg-electric-
autonomous-transportation/
62.
Germany
I-AT
Interreg
Deutschlan
d Nederland
(2017-
2020)
1. Airport Weeze,
Germany
2. Aachen
(Germany)-Vaals
(The Netherlan ds)
1. 21st of February
2019 – end dat e not
mentioned
2. End of 2019
1. Easymile
EZ10 from
WEpod proje ct
2. CM Mission
1. Not
mentioned
2. Max 15
passengers
Not
mentioned
Multiple locations - starting at
Airport Weeze fr om departure hall to
the parkinglot and airport hotel
Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
TU Delft
1.
https://www.i-at.nl/
2.
https://www.deutschland-
nederland.eu/nl/project/i-at-2/
3.
http://i-at.nl/iatnl/Living-Lab-Weeze-
shuttle-voor-passagiers
4.
http://i-at.nl/iatnl/Living-Lab-Aken-
Vaals-openbaar-vervoer-shuttle
63.
Germany
Südwestdeu
tsche
Landesverk
ehr-AG
(SWEG)
Lahr, Baden
Württemberg
14th of Jul y – 30th
of September 2018
Easymile EZ10
Max 6
passengers
(6 seated and 0
standing)
Max 15
km/h
From Otto-Hahn-Straße via
Mauerweg and Schwarzwaldstraße to
the roun dabout at Otto-Hahn-Straße
1500 m
2 stops
Mixed traffic, speed limited to 30
km/h valid between 9 am and 4
pm (when the shuttle is
operating)
Not mentioned
1.
http://www.easymile.com/ez10-
becomes-the-fir st-autonomous-
shuttle-to-operate-on-public-roads-
in-lahr-germany/
2.
https://vm.baden-
wuerttemberg.de/de/ministerium/pres
se/pressemitteilung/pid/erste-
autonom-fahrende-bus-im-
oeffentlichen-strassenverkehr-rollt-
in-lahr/
3.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/scien
ce/article/pii/S1361920919301944
64.
Germany
NAF Bus
Schleswig-Holstein
1. August 2018
2. May 2019
Easymile EZ10
Not mentioned
Not
mentioned
1. GreenTEC Campus Enge-Sande
(privat e grounds)
2. Public roads in the rural district
Nordfriesland and public roads on
North Sea islan d Sylt, Germany
1500 m
In mixed traffic conditions,
within the business park
Gain insight into user experience
and behavior, individual and
social acceptance, risk-benefit
considerations by consulatancy
EurA. Online opinion poll by
Christian-Albrechts-Univer sität
zu Kiel
1.
http://www.easymile.com/ez10-
driverless-shuttle-begins-operation-
in-greentec-campus-germany/
2.
https://www.naf-bus.de/
3.
https://www.eura-
ag.de/2019/10/24/the-autonomously-
driving-electric-bus-current-status-
of-our-project/
Expansion to Dithmarschen
planned
28
Country
Project
Location
Date
Vehicle
Capacity
Speed
Route
Length
Infrastructure
Research
More information
Comments
65.
Germany
Olli
Berlin
December 2016
April 2017
Olli
Not mentioned
Max 10
km/h
Average
speed 8
km/h
EUREF Campus, Berlin Schöneberg.
700 m
3 stops
Warning signs, shuttle has right
of way, overtaking the shuttle
was not allowed and 10m
distance from shuttle was
required. In
mixed traffic
(pedestrians, cyclists, occasional
cars and tru cks)
User acceptance. Sina Nordhoff,
TU Delft & Innovation Centre for
Mobility and Societal Change.
1.
https://archiv.berliner-
zeitung.de/berlin/verkehr/-olli--
erstmals-ist-in-berlin-ein-autonom-
fahrender-bus-unterwegs-25205714
2.
https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/ver
kehr-berliner-mobilitaetszentrum-
innoz-wird-
aufgegeben.769.de.html?dram:article
_id=447601
3.
https://euref.de/euref-
campus/#mobilitae
4.
https://www.researchgate.net/publica
tion/319253225_User_acceptance_of
_automated_shuttles_in_Berlin-
Schoneberg_A_questionnaire_study
5.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/scien
ce/article/abs/pii/S136984781830432
7
6.
https://www.researchgate.net/publica
tion/334803765_Passenger_opinions
_of_interactions_with_an_automated
_vehicle_An_accompanied_test_ride
_study
7.
https://www.researchgate.net/publica
tion/317497564_User_Acceptance_o
f_Driverless_Shuttles_Running_in_a
n_Open_and_Mixed_Traffic_Enviro
nment
66.
Germany
Pole
Position
Berlin
May 2016 April
2019
Easymile EZ10
Not mentioned
Not
mentioned
EUREF Campus
Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
High-power inductive energy
collector with full automated
recharging combined with on-
demand use and demonstration of
the vehicle.
https://www.emo-
berlin.de/de/projekte/pole-position/
67.
Germany
Ioki
Bad-Birnbach
25th of October
2017
still in
operation
Easymile EZ10
Max 6
passengers
(6 seated and 0
standing)
Max 15
km/h
From town centre to the thermal
baths on p ublic roads
700 meters
Since
October
2019
1400 m
Variable traffic sign system:
when bus is detect ed, there is a
change of traffic signs from 50
km/h to 30 km/h and the other
vehicles must slow down. Only
then the bus may drive 500
meters on the highway
Not mentioned
1.
https://ioki.com/en/uncategorized/firs
t-autonomous-vehicle-on-german-
public-roads/
2.
https://www.badbirnbach.de/en/stori
es/auton omous-minibus
3.
https://www.br.de/nachrichten/bayer
n/neue-strecke-fuer-fahrerlose-
elektrobusse-in-bad-
birnbach,ReBIt7z
68.
Germany
AutoNV_O
PR
Wusterhausen /
Dosse,
Ostprigtnitz-
Ruppin
End of 2017 – 30th
of June 2020
Easymile EZ10
Max 5
passengers
(5 seated and 0
standing)
Not
mentioned
From historic town centre to
trainstation and supermarkt. Possible
extension to Northern part of the
town.
3500 m
Mixed traffic
TU Berlin (traffic aspects) & TU
Dresden (acceptance and
economic/social aspects)
1.
https://www.autonv.de/
2.
https://tu-
dresden.de/bu/verkehr/ivs/vpsy/forsc
hung/projekte_aktuell
3. https://innovationorigins.com/self-
driving-buses-paris-ends-
experiment-after-two-years/
29
Country
Project
Location
Date
Vehicle
Capacity
Speed
Route
Length
Infrastructure
Research
More information
Comments
69.
Germany
See-Meile
Berlin
August end of
2019
Easymile EZ10
Max 6
passengers
(6 seated and 0
standing)
Max 15
km/h
Route between Alt-Tegel, Am
Tegeler Hafen, Wilkestraße and
Medebacher Weg
1200 m
Parking space and charging
infrastructure
Acceptance study by Ioki
1.
https://www.iamexpat.de/expat-
info/german-expat-news/try-berlins-
new-driverless-bus-free
2.
https://innovationorigins.com/project
-see-meile-berlin-experiment-with-
self-driving-bus-on-public-roads/
3.
https://ioki.com/en/news-
en/autonomous-bus-in-the-streets-of-
berlin/
70.
Germany
Projekt
Stimulate
Berlin
Summer of 2017
spring of 2020
Navya &
Easymile EZ10
Max 11
passengers
(Navya)
Max 6
passengers
(EZ10)
Max 12
km/h
1. Route on campus Charité Mitte
2. Two routes on campus Vir chow
Klinikum
1. 1200 m
2. 800 m
and 1500 m
Mixed traffic
Acceptance and practical
implications. City of Berlin in
collaboration with Charité and the
Institute of Medical Sociology
and Rehabilitat ion Science
1.
https://www.wir-fahr en-
zukunft.de/wp-
content/uploads/2017/09/PM_Stimul
ate.pdf
2.
https://www.wir-fahr en-
zukunft.de/en/2018/06/13/driverless-
buses-take-to-the-streets/
71.
Germany
Transdev
Leipzig
23th of May – 25th
of May 2018
EasyMile EZ10
Max 12
passengers
Max 20
km/h
During the International Transport
Forum Summ it 2018
Route along the water basins
(Merkurbrunnen) leading from the
vicinity of the tram line N°16
“Messegeländ e” stop to the Congress
Centre Leipzig main entrance hall
200 m
Dedicated track
Not mentioned
https://www.transdev.com/en/press-
release/transdev-presents-its-
autonomous-transport-service-at-the-
international-transport-forum-itf-
2018-summit/
72.
Greece
CityMobil2
Trikala
November /
December 2015 -
February 2016
Robosoft
Robucity
Max 12
passengers
Max 13
km/h
Trikala city centre, on a dedicated
lane alongside different transport
modes
2400 m
9 stops
Clear and identifiable marking of
the route (incl. warning signs)
Part of Citymobil2 project
1.
http://www.isinnova.org/wordpress/
wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Day1-
5-Demonstration_Trikala-
Odisseas_Raptis.pdf
2.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/
7995779
https://www.sciencedirect.com/scien
ce/article/pii/S1369847816301620
73.
Ireland
Smart
Docklands
Dublin
21st of September
22nd of September
2018
EasyMile EZ10
Max 15
passengers
Max 25
km/h
From Dublin convention centre to
Arena on North Wall Qu ay
1000 m
4 stops
Designated r oute
University College Dublin
1.
http://www.EasyMile.com/ez10-
debuts-as-first-driverless-shuttle-in-
ireland/
2.
https://www.rte.ie/news/2018/0921/9
95125-driverless-cars/
3.
https://www.rte.ie/news/2018/0921/9
95125-driverless-cars/
4.
https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/z2afc
5.
http://mural.maynoothuniversity.ie/9
353/1/LH-Interfaces-2018.pdf
74.
Italy
CityMobil2
Oristano
July August 2014
Robosoft
Max 12
passengers
Max 12
km/h
Seafront of Torre Grande
1300 m
5 stops
Clear and identifiable marking of
the route (incl. warning signs)
CityMobil2 project
Experiments concerned vehicle
performance, environmental
impact application in pedestrian
zones and people a cceptance
http://www.fotovoltaicosulweb.it/gui
da/primi-autobus-senza-conducente-
a-oristano-city-mobil-2.html
75.
Italy
ITC-ILO
Turin
January May
2020
Olli
Max 12
passengers
Max 25
km/h
ICT-ILO campus
Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
ITC-ILO
University of Turin
https://www.sustainable-
bus.com/smart-mobility/olli-debuts-
in-italy-turin-deploys-the-3d-printed-
driverless-shuttle/
Printed in 3D technology
Fully electric
30
Country
Project
Location
Date
Vehicle
Capacity
Speed
Route
Length
Infrastructure
Research
More information
Comments
76.
Luxembourg
Avenue
Pfaffenthal
September 2018
March 2019
Navya
Max 18
passengers
(14 seated and
4 standing)
Max 25
km/h
From Pfaffenthal lift to the cable-car
and the Val des Bons Malades
Cemetery
1000 m
Not mentioned
Avenue project
1.
http://luxembourg.public.lu/en/actual
ites/2018/09/21-
cityshuffle/index.html
2. http://www.revue.lu/der-pionier-
bus/
3.
https://h2020-
avenue.eu/content/luxembour g-site-
description
77.
Luxembourg
Avenue
Contern
16th of September
22nd of September
2018
Navya
Max 18
passengers
(14 seated and
4 standing)
Max 18
km/h
Connection from the train station to
the industria l zone
3500 m
Not mentioned
Avenue project
1.
https://h2020-
avenue.eu/content/luxembour g-site-
description
2.
https://delano.lu/d/detail/news/conter
n-test-bed-driverless-bus/190494
78.
Norway
Applied
Autonomy
Svalbard
21st of March 2019
EasyMile EZ10
Not mentioned
Not
mentioned
Airport area (Not specified)
Not
mentioned
None, integrated in existing
infrastructure
Applied Autonomy
1. https://EasyMile.com/first-ever-
autonomous-vehicle-operates-in-
arctic-circle/
2.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j
fTwpttVCY0
First autonomous vehicle
operating in the Arctic Circle
79.
Norway
Fabulos
Gjesdal
Planned for spring
2020
Not mentioned
Not mentioned
Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
Not
mentioned
Not mentioned
Fabulos pr oject
Forum Virium Helsinki
https://forumvirium.fi/en/fabulos-
brings-self-driving-buses-to-the-
streets-of-europe/
Procurement process in 3
phases: 1. Feasibility study, 2.
Development of well-defin ed
prototypes, 3. Verification and
comparison of the first end
products in r eal-life situations.
80.
Norway
Gjøvik
Municipalit
y/
NTNU/
Applied
Autonomy
Gjøvik
20th of July
October 2018
EasyMile EZ10
Gen2
Max 6
passengers
Max 13
km/h
From Fjellhallen to centre of Gjøvik
3 stops
900m
None, integrated in existing
infrastructure
Not mentioned
1.
https://www.gjovik.kommune.no/nyh
eter/forerlos-buss-i-gjovik-sentrum/
2.
https://bussmagasinet.no/?p=11283
3.
https://space.uitp.org/initiatives/auto
nomous-city-bus-av-pilot-gjovik-
norway
81.
Norway
Kolumbus/
Forus PRT/
Autobus
Stavanger
12th of June – 30th
of November 2018
EasyMile EZ10
Max 6
passengers
Max 12
km/h
Forus Næringspark
1200m
None, integrated in existing
infrastructure
Institute of Transport Economics
(TØI)
1.
https://sciencenorway.no/cars-and-
traffic-forskningno-
norway/driverless-busses-coming-to-
a-street-near-you/1443619
2. https://www.toi.no/autobus/
During the test the speed of the
vehicle incr eased to 15 km/h
82.
Norway
OBOS/Aca
ndo
Fornebu
June August 2018
EasyMile EZ10
Max 6
passengers
Max 12
km/h
From Forn ebu S and up to
Storøyodden
1500m
None, integrated in existing
infrastructure
Evaluation by Ruter
1.
https://norwaytoday.info/news/self-
driven-bus-tested-for nebu/
2.
https://www.obos.no/privat/samfunn
sansvar/obos-innovasjon/norges-
forste-selvkjoren de-badebuss
3. https://www.toi.no/autobus/
83.
Norway
Ruter/
Autonomou
s mobility/
Autobus
Oslo
Akershusstranda
May 2019
Oktober /November
2019
Navya Arma
Max 11
passengers
Max 18
km/h
Kontraskjær et - Vippetangen
1100m
None, integrated in existing
infrastructure
Evaluation by Ruter; Institute of
Transport Economics (TØI)
1.
https://ruter.no/en/about-
ruter/reports-projects-
plans/autonomous-vehicles/
2.
https://norwaytoday.info/news/oslos-
first-bus-route-with-driverless-bus-
opned/
3.
https://www.ovmagazine.nl/wp-
content/uploads/2019/05/NO_Report
_RUTER_Fr okostmoede-410-
gecomprimeerd.pdf
4. https://www.toi.no/autobus/
Self-driven buses are electric;
non-
public tests without
steward autumn 2019
Max passenger capacity
includes the stewar d
31
Country
Project
Location
Date
Vehicle
Capacity
Speed
Route
Length
Infrastructure
Research
More information
Comments
84.
Norway
Ruter/
Autonomou
s mobility/
Autobus
Oslo Ormøya
November 2019
end date not
mentioned
Navya Arma
Max 8
passengers
Max 18
km/h
Bækkelaget - Malmøya
1400m
None, integrated in existing
infrastructure
Evaluation by Ruter;
Institute of Transport Economics
(TØI)
1.
https://ruter.no/en/about-
ruter/reports-projects-
plans/autonomous-vehicles/
2.
https://www.toi.no/autobus/
85.
Norway
Sohjoa
Baltic/Tests
ite
Kongsber g/
Autobus
Kongsberg
Phase 1: 15th of
October 26th of
November 2018
Phase 2: 2nd of
December 2018
23th of April 20 19
Phase 3: 23th of
April - onward
Phase 3.1: 13th of
October 2019 -
onward
2 EasyMile
EZ10 Gen2
EZ10 Gen3
starting in
January 2020
Max 6
passengers
Max 16
km/h
To Teknopark: Knutepunktet -
Tråkka -Rådh uset - Buss edalen -
SvinegropaTekno logiparken. Fr om
Teknopark: Teknologipar ken-
Svinegr opa Busse dalen - Rådhuset
- Gågata Knute punktet
Phase 1:
900 m
Phase 2:
2000 m
Phase 3: to
Technol ogy
Par
k 4400
m;
Phase 3.1:
5500 m
None, integrated in existing
infrastructure
Institute of Transport Economics
(TØI), Forum Virum Helsinki
1.
https://www.sohjoabaltic-
kongsberg.com/kongsberg-
introduces-driverless-minibuses/
2.
https://www.brakar.no/prosjekter/test
prosjekt-med-selvkjorende-buss-i-
kongsberg/
3.
https://www.uitp.org/news/applied-
autonomy-operating-autonomous-
shuttles-norway
4. https://www.toi.no/autobus/
2 vehicles in operation 4 hours
every day; service integrated
with national travel planner
Entur and Brakar travel
planner & Brakar real-time
viewer of the buses;
commercial operation with
adult ticket requirements,
certain groups (e.g. children)
travel for free
86.
Norway
CityMobil
Trondheim
August 2009
INRIA
Max 6
passengers
Not
mentioned
From Elgeseter bridge following
Håkon Jarls gate (pedestrian and
cyclists street) to hospital entrance
170 m
3 stops