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The benefit of Indian jaggery over sugar on human health

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Abstract

The noncentrifugal sugar which is prepared from sugarcane juice is called as Jaggery and is known by different name in the world such as Panela, Kokuto, and Muscovado. The nutrient value of jaggery is increased while preparing with different methods from sugarcane juice. The micronutrients which are present in Jaggery have many nutritional and medicinal aspects such as its anticarcinogenic and antitoxic activity. Jaggery has proved itself better when compared with white sugar. Jaggery is known to produce heat and give instant energy to a human body. Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular throughout the world, increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for individuals to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing chronic disease such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Multiple prevention strategies could be adopted to decrease the white sugar consumption from various stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers) by different methods such as increasing taxation on sugar-sweetened beverages and increasing promotion for the consumption of jaggery and related products.
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The benefit of Indian
jaggery over sugar on
human health 16
Abhai Kumar1, Smita Singh2
DBT-BHU Interdisciplinary School of Life Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi,
India1Department of Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi, India2
16.1 INTRODUCTION
The reference of sugar which was supposed to be invented in India can be found
from ancient Indian text like “Atharva Veda.” The sugar was introduced to world
after the invasion of Alexander the Great in 327 BCE, when they found an alterna-
tive to honey to sweeten food and described it as a “reed that gives honey without
bees” [1]. Jaggery is noncentrifugal sugar (NCS) obtained by evaporation of water in
sugarcane and is known by different name such as panela (Latin America), jaggery
(South Asia) and kokuto (Japan), Hakura (Srilanka), rapadura (Brazil), and Gur/Desi
(Pakistan) [2].
Jaggery, a product of sugarcane, is rich in important minerals (calcium:
40–100 mg, magnesium: 70–90 mg, potassium: 1056 mg, phosphorus: 20–90 mg,
sodium: 19–30 mg, iron: 10–13 mg, manganese: 0.2–0.5 mg, zinc: 0.2–0.4 mg, cop-
per: 0.1–0.9 mg, and chloride: 5.3 mg per 100 g of jaggery), vitamins (vitamin A:
3.8 mg, vitamin B1: 0.01 mg, vitamin B2: 0.06 mg, vitamin B5: 0.01 mg, vitamin
B6: 0.01 mg, vitamin C: 7.00 mg, vitamin D2: 6.50 mg, vitamin E: 111.30 mg, and
vitamin PP: 7.00 mg), and protein: 280 mg per 100 g of jaggery, which can be made
available to the masses to mitigate the problems of mal nutrition and under nutrition
[2].
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is well-known crop of the family
Poaceae. India is the second largest producer of sugarcane, after Brazil. Saccharum
is derived from the Greek word Sakcharon, which means sugar especially sucrose. S.
officinarum Linn, is a perennial grass, indigenous to tropical South Asia and South-
east Asia. It has a thick longitudinal stalk, which is generally three to five meters in
height, approximately 5 cm in diameter, and is characterized by its sweet taste due
to its high sucrose content. It is also known as chewing and noble cane. The sugar-
cane crop grows well in tropical and subtropical regions. It will require well-drained
soil of pH 7.5–8.5 and high organic matter, along with a hot and humid environment
[3,4].
CHAPTER
Dietary Sugar, Salt and Fat in Human Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-816918-6.00016-0
Copyright © 2019.
1
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2CHAPTER 16
Sugarcane crop is cultivated for the production of sugar, but the processing of sug-
arcane yields various valuable products such as bagasse [5], brown sugar, molasses,
syrup, and jaggery, along with sugar (table sugar). However, other sugarcane prod-
ucts such as jaggery, brown sugar, and molasses are obtained in an unrefined form
[6]. On account of the unrefined form of these products, there must be a presence of
some phenolic compounds, which enhance their nutritional and medicinal value [6].
Sugar is of considerable cultural and hedonic relevance in India; nutritionally it pro-
vides only “empty” calories (1 g of sugar gives 4 kcal). It lacks the natural minerals
which are present in the beet root or sugarcane [1]. The current chapter will cover in
detail about the jaggery and its health benefit compared with sugar and its negative
impact on health.
16.2 COMPOSITION OF JAGGERY
The color of jaggery varies from golden brown to dark brown and its constitute of
50% sucrose, 20% invert sugar, 20% moisture, and remainder is insoluble matter
such as ash, protein, and bagasse fines. It contains all the vitamins. It is rich in im-
portant minerals (namely, calcium: 40–100 mg, magnesium: 70–90 mg, potassium:
1056 mg, phosphorus: 20–90 mg, sodium: 19–30 mg, iron: 10–13 mg, manganese:
0.2–0.5 mg, zinc: 0.2–0.4 mg, copper: 0.1–0.9 mg, and chloride: 5.3 mg per 100 g of
jaggery), vitamins (namely, vitamin A: 3.8 mg, vitamin B1: 0.01 mg, vitamin B2:
0.06 mg, vitamin B5: 0.01 mg, vitamin B6: 0.01 mg, vitamin C: 7.00 mg, vitamin
D2: 6.50 mg, vitamin E1: 11.30 mg, and vitamin PP: 7.00 mg), and protein: 280 mg
per 100 g of jaggery. The other form of jaggery is also called as Gur which is high
calorie sweetener and contains minerals, protein, glucose, and fructose and is health-
ier in intake when compared with white sugar. The good quality Gur contain more
than 70% sucrose, less than 10% of glucose and fructose and 5% minerals, 3% mois-
ture, and accumulate large amount of ferrous (iron) during its preparation in iron
vessel [7].
16.3 NUTRITIONAL CONTENT OF JAGGERY
Jaggery is far complex than sugar, as it is made up of longer chains of sucrose.
Hence, it is digested slower than sugar and releases energy slowly and not spon-
taneously. This provides energy for a longer time and is not harmful for the body.
Jaggery also gathers a considerable amount of ferrous salts (iron) during its prepa-
ration, as it is prepared in iron vessels. This iron is also good for health, particu-
larly for those who are anemic or lack iron. Jaggery also contains traces of min-
eral salts which are very beneficial for the body. Mineral salts present in jaggery
leaves a hint of salt on tongue. These salts come from the sugarcane juice where it
is absorbed from the soil. Furthermore, jaggery is very good as a cleansing agent.
It cleans lungs, stomach, intestines, esophagus, and respiratory tracts. Those who
face dust in their day-to-day life are highly recommended to take a daily dose of jag
The benefit of Indian jaggery over sugar on human health
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16.5 Types of jaggery
3
gery. This can keep them safe from asthma, cough and cold, congestion in chest, etc.
Gur is known to produce heat and give instant energy to a human body. Gur is sup-
plied to the workers for in order to protect them from dust allergies [8].
16.4 PRODUCTION OF JAGGERY
Jaggery manufacturing is done on a small scale by a group of farmers. The juice is
extracted from fresh sugarcane. Then it is filtered and boiled in wide, shallow iron
pans with continuous stirring and, simultaneously soda or bhindi juice is added in
required quantity. While boiling, brownish foams come at the top which are contin-
uously removed to get golden yellow color of jaggery. The consistency of the juice
becomes thick and then it is poured into the small to medium sized iron or aluminum
cans where blocks of jaggery are formed after cooling. Size of the blocks can vary
from 1 to 12 kg. Finally these blocks are packed in gunny bags. From 100 kg of sug-
arcane, 10 kg of jaggery is made. The process flowchart is as follows [9].
16.5 TYPES OF JAGGERY
The jaggery is produced in three forms: liquid, solid, and granular, which are de-
scribed subsequently in detail.
16.5.1 LIQUID JAGGERY
It is that product which is obtained during concentration of purified sugarcane juice
during jaggery making, and is semi liquid syrup like product. The quality of liq-
uid jaggery largely depends upon quality and composition of cane juice, type of
clarificants used, and striking temperature at which concentrating juice is collected.
For quality liquid jaggery, the juice concentrate is removed from boiling pan, when
it reaches striking point temperature of 103°C–106°C, depending upon the variety
and agroclimatic zone. To avoid crystallization and to make liquid jaggery attrac-
tive in color, citric acid is added at 0.04% (400 mg/kg of liquid jaggery), whereas
UNCORRECTED PROOF
4CHAPTER 16
to improve shelf life of liquid jaggery without deterioration in quality, potassium
metabisulphite at 0.1% (1 g/kg of liquid jaggery), or benzoic acid at 0.5% (5 g/kg of
liquid jaggery), is added. Liquid jaggery is then allowed to settle for period of 8–10
days at ambient conditions. Later after filtration, it is properly packaged in sterilized
bottles. Chemical composition of typical liquid jaggery could be: water 30%–36%,
sucrose 40%–60%, invert sugar 15%–25%, calcium 0.30%, iron 8.5–10 mg/100 mg,
phosphorus 05/100 mg, protein 0.10/100 mg, and vitamin B 14/100 mg [9,10].
16.5.2 GRANULAR OR POWDER JAGGERY
The process of making granular jaggery is similar up to concentration. The concen-
trating slurry is rubbed with wooden scrapper, for formation of grains. The gran-
ular jaggery is then cooled and sieved. It is yellow to golden brown in color and
3 mm sized crystals are found to be better for quality granular jaggery. Raising of
pH of cane juice with lime, up to 6.0–6.2, and striking point temperature of 120°C
was found to yield quality granular jaggery with high sucrose content of 88.6%, low
moisture of 1.65%, with good color, friability and crystallinity. Jaggery in the form
of granules (sieved to about 3 mm), sun dried and moisture content reduced to less
than 2%, and packed in polyethylene polyester bags or polyethylene bottles, can be
stored for longer time (more than 2 years), even during monsoon period with little
changes in quality [11,12]. The caloric value of jaggery is same when compared with
solid jaggery. The composition per 100 g of granular jaggery is 80–90 g sucrose,
5–9 g reducing sugar, 0.4 g protein, 0.1 g fat, 9 mg calcium,4 mg phosphorous, and
12 mg iron [13].
16.5.3 SOLID JAGGERY (CUBE SHAPE)
The filtered cane juice was pumped into open pans kept on triple pan furnace, and
heated with the bagasse as fuel. The juice was clarified with herbal clarificant (deola
extract at 45 g/100 kg juice), to make light colored jaggery by eliminating impurities
in suspension, colloidal and coloring compounds by accumulation. The juice was
then boiled and concentrated to make jaggery in desired shape and size. Mandal et
al. [10] studied the effect of common packing materials on keeping quality of sug-
arcane Jaggery during monsoon season. In their studies, it was revealed that the best
packing material for storing Gur during monsoon season was heat sealed low-den-
sity polyethylene (LDPE) packet of 150 gauge followed by glass jars. LDPE packets
prevented moisture ingress, fall in pH and inversion of sucrose in the stored Gur to
the maximum extent [10].
16.6 PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF JAGGERY
The phytochemistry of jaggery (NCS), brown sugar, and molasses, it is necessary
to explain the phytochemical profile of sugarcane juice. Before 1971, it was as
The benefit of Indian jaggery over sugar on human health
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16.7 Medicinal benefit of jaggery
5
sumed that the color of juice might be due to the presence of plant pigments. In
1971 several color components from sugarcane juice have been identified, with
chlorogenic acid [14], cinnamic acid [15,30], and flavones being some of them [16].
Following that, all the colored components from sugarcane juice were classified
into four major classes: Plant pigments, polyphenolic compounds, caramels, and
degradation products of sugars condensed with amino derivatives. Sugarcane juice
was then extensively studied for their flavonoid content. Thereafter, a large num-
ber of old and new flavonoids were isolated and identified [17–19]. High-perfor-
mance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection analysis of phenolic com-
pounds from sugarcane juice showed the presence of phenolic acids such as hydrox-
ycinnamic acid [20], sinapic acid [21], and caffeic acid [22], along with flavones
such as apigenin [23], luteolin [24], and tricin [25]. Among the flavones, tricin de-
rivatives accounted for the highest concentration [26]. Four new minor flavones
swertisin [27], tricin-7-O-neohesperoside-4′-O-rhamnoside [28], tricin-7-O-methyl-
glucuronate-4′-O-rhamnoside [29], and tricin-7-O-methylglucuronide [29] were iso-
lated and identified from sugarcane juice [14].
16.7 MEDICINAL BENEFIT OF JAGGERY
Sugarcane contains various phytochemicals including phenolic compounds, plant
sterols, and policosanols. Phenols help in the natural defense of plants against pests
and diseases, while plant sterols and policosanols are the components of wax and
plant oils. The phytochemicals have gained increased interest due to their antiox-
idant activity, cholesterol-lowering properties, and other potential health benefits.
Several workers have reported the different biological activities of sugarcane in var-
ious in vivo and in vitro test models.
16.7.1 ANALGESIC ACTIVITY
Ethanol extracts (95%) of both fresh leaves and shoots were administered intragas-
trically to mice at a dose of 1 g/kg. The leaf extracts were active against benzoyl
peroxide-induced writhing and tail-flick response, but ethanol extract of shoots were
active only against the tail-flick method [30].
16.7.2 ANTIHEPATOTOXIC ACTIVITY
The aqueous extract of dried stems administered intraperitoneally to mice, at a dose
of 25 mg/kg, was active against chloroform-induced hepatotoxicity [31].
16.7.3 ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY
The ethanol extract of both dried leaves and stems was administered intragastrically
to rabbits at a dose of 1 g/kg and 60 mg/animal, respectively. The ethanol extract of
leaves produced weak activity against alloxan-induced hyperglycemia [32] Further
UNCORRECTED PROOF
6CHAPTER 16
more, the juice of dried stems also exhibited hypoglycemic activity when adminis-
tered intraperitoneally to mice at a dose of 200 mg/kg [33].
16.7.4 DIURETIC ACTIVITY
The ethanol extract (50%) of fresh leaves administered intragastrically to rats at a
dose of 40 mL/kg, was active, while its decoction did not exhibit any diuretic activ-
ity [34,35].
16.7.5 ACETYLCHOLINE RELEASE
The effect of policosanols on the release of acetylcholine (ACh) at the neuromus-
cular junction in mice was examined. Results showed that policosanols enhanced
either the spontaneous or the evoked ACh release to a small extent. Furthermore it
was also observed that the rate of conformational changes induced at the nicotinic
receptor channel complex was also increased, which confirmed the release of Ach
[36].
16.7.6 ANTIINFLAMMATORY EFFECT
Mixtures of fatty acids isolated from sugarcane wax were examined for their an-
tiinflammatory effect on both rats and mice. Oral administration of this mixture
showed antiinflammatory activity in the cotton pellet granuloma assay and in the
carrageenan-induced pleurisy test, both in rats, as well as in the peritoneal capillary
permeability test in mice [37].
16.7.7 ANTIHYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC EFFECT
The antihypercholesterolemic effect of policosanols was examined on normocho-
lesterolemic New Zealand rabbits. Policosanols were administered orally at a dose
of 5–200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. Results showed that there was a significant decrease
in the level of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in
a dose-dependent manner. The serum triglyceride level was also reduced, but the
reduction observed was not dose dependent. The high-density lipoprotein level re-
mained unchanged [32]. The policosanols were also examined for prevention of ath-
erosclerosis in male New Zealand rabbits fed on a cholesterol-rich diet for 60 days
at doses of 25 or 200 mg/kg. Policosanol-treated rabbits did not develop marked hy-
percholesterolemia and the intima thickness was also significantly less compared to
the control animals [38].
16.7.8 ANTITHROMBOTIC ACTIVITY
Policosanols and D-003 were examined for their platelet aggregation and antithrom-
botic activity in rats. Oral administration of D-003 at a single dose of 200 mg/
kg and policosanols at a concentration of 25 mg/kg in rats significantly in
The benefit of Indian jaggery over sugar on human health
UNCORRECTED PROOF
16.9 Sugar consumption in India
7
creased the plasma level of 6 keto-PGF1-α (a stable metabolite of prostacyclin PGI
[2] when compared with the control group. Furthermore, D-003 also significantly
reduced the thromboxane, TxB [2], plasma levels and weight of venous thrombus
in collagen-stimulated whole blood of rats [27] The pharmacokinetic study showed
that the effect of D-003 was observed after 0.5 hours of dosing and the maximal ef-
fect exhibited after 1–2 hours of treatment [28].
16.8 SUGAR AND ITS CLASSIFICATION
The most popular sweetener in the world, sugar, was invented in India. There is ref-
erence to sugarcane cultivation and the preparation of sugar in an Indian religious
text, the Atharva Veda. The word sugar is a derivative of sarkara, meaning gravel in
Sanskrit. Sugar became known to the world when the army of Alexander the Great
came to India in 327 BCE. Interestingly they were surprised to see another alter-
native to honey to sweeten food, and described it as a “reed that gives honey with-
out bees” [1]. The term “added sugar” is sometimes used interchangeably with “free
sugar” but is considered to include sugars and syrups added to foods during pro-
cessing, food preparation, or at the table, but does not include honey or fruit juices.
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) include the full spectrum of aerated drinks, fruit
drinks, and energy and vitamin water drinks containing added sugars. Many of these
beverages are sweetened with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), the most common
added sweetener in processed foods and beverages, and some with sucrose or fruit
juice concentrates. The HFCS that is commonly used in beverages contains 55%
fructose and 45% glucose, while sucrose or table sugar consists of 50% fructose and
50% glucose. In the Indian context, available databases do not define sugars clearly;
however, from the data breakdown it appears that “sugar” means white sugar, honey,
or brown sugar but not syrups and “traditional sugars” such as jaggery (also called
gur in India) and khandsari [39].
16.9 SUGAR CONSUMPTION IN INDIA
India is the next largest producer of sugar after Brazil [40]. The data suggested
the consumption of traditional sugar consumption mainly jaggery and khandsari de-
clined in last decade [41]. The per capita sugar intake is defined as raw sugar con-
sumption per person of a given country or territory, it is calculated based on the sta-
tistical disappearance of sugar in the country or territory after adjustment for trade
and exports [42]. The assumption is made that the statistical disappearance of sugar
is equal to consumption after adjusting for utilization for nonhuman consumption.
Indian sugar production exceeded 27 million tons during 2012–13, a jump from 15
million tons in 2005 [41]. Overall sugar intake has not changed from 2008 to 2011;
however, a slight decrease in sugar intake from 19.6 kg in 2005 to 18.9 kg in 2011
has been recorded [41]. Interestingly while intake of “traditional sugars” has de-
clined, an increase in the intake of sugar from SSBs has been recorded. It is inter
UNCORRECTED PROOF
8CHAPTER 16
esting to note that when consumption from jaggery/khandsari and SSBs are added to
that of white sugar [41–43], the “total” sugar intake in Indians exceeded the average
global per capita consumption [41].
16.10 HEALTH EFFECT AND SUGAR
CONSUMPTION
The intake of fructose especially at high dose might increase the level of total cho-
lesterol, uric acid, and postprandial triglycerides under calorie matched conditions,
based on the metaanalyses of 20 controlled feeding trials in 344 participants [44].
However, its effects on the atherogenic aspects of the lipid profile (LDL-C, ApoB,
nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol:high-density lipopro-
tein cholesterol ratio), insulin, and markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver appear to be
no worse than those of glucose. Fructose may also have important advantages for
body weight, glycemic control, and blood pressure over glucose. But overall, mul-
tiple short-term studies find that sugar intake leads to the following adverse events,
mostly through accumulation of body fat [45] and intraabdominal fat [46] hype-
ruricemia [47], hypertriglyceridemia [48], insulin resistance [49], metabolic syn-
drome [49], diabetes [50], fatty liver [51], and high levels of free fatty acids [52].
High doses of fructose (>50 g/day at least) in humans have been implicated in in-
sulin resistance, postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, intraabdominal fat accumula-
tion, and elevated blood pressure mediated by high levels of nonesterified fatty acid
(NEFAs) [53]. Increased portal delivery of NEFAs increase hepatic glucose pro-
duction [54,55], impair β-cell function [56], and cause hepatic steatosis. Interest-
ingly SSBs increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus
(T2DM) not only through increasing adiposity but also by increasing the dietary
glycemic load, which causes insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and inflamma-
tion [57]. Specifically risk of T2DM associated with SSB consumption in humans
has been found to be statistically significant after adjustment for total energy con-
sumption and body mass index [58,59]. The above discussion suggests that sugar
intake contributes to multiple metabolic disorders due to accrual of body fat, as well
as directly through excess NEFAs, which in turn impair critical functioning of the
liver, pancreas, and cellular functions. In this context it is important to mention here
that Indians already have higher NEFAs, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and
dysglycemia than white Caucasians [60]. All these metabolic dysfunctions could
be further exacerbated by indirect (through obesity) and direct effects on multiple
metabolic organs. Importantly Indians are increasingly consuming traditional Indian
sweets along with SSBs, and westernized sugar-loaded food items, which are now
easily available due to globalization. Although research data are lacking, it would
not be irrational to presume that increasing intake of sugar/sugar-containing prod-
ucts may parallel the rapid rise of obesity and T2DM in Indians. In this respect,
it is important to note that Weeratunga et al. analyzed data from 165 countries to
study the associations between the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and per capita
The benefit of Indian jaggery over sugar on human health
UNCORRECTED PROOF
References 9
sugar consumption, utilizing data from International Diabetes Federation and from
the Sugar Year Book. They showed a stronger association between diabetes preva-
lence rates and per capita sugar consumption in Asia (P<.001; β=0.707) and South
America (P=.010; β=0.550) R2=0.568 when compared with the rest of the world.
A strong positive correlation coefficient (0.599; P<.001) was observed between the
prevalence of T2DM and per capita sugar consumption using data from all 165 coun-
tries. Asia had the highest correlation coefficient with a PCC of 0.660 (P<.001)
and lower correlations were observed for Africa (PCC=0.381; P<.007). The Eastern
European region demonstrated a positive correlation between per capita sugar con-
sumption and T2DM prevalence (PCC=0.608; P<.036) [42].
16.11 CONCLUSIONS
The current chapter emphasized that the sugarcane juice used for manufacturing jag-
gery/gur has various nutrients and beneficial health effects when compared with the
white sugar, although intake of sugar-added products is increasing immensely which
is leading to health problems mainly diabetes and obesity. The promotion of per
capita intake of jaggery and its related product might increase the beneficial health
of individuals and reduce the consumption of dietary sugar.
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The benefit of Indian jaggery over sugar on human health
... If we looking for another substitution for white sugar as simple carbohydrates, brown sugarcane could be a good option. Brown sugarcane is widely known as a traditional sugar and has different local names such as Panela (Latin America), jaggery (India), kokuto (Japan), hakura (Sri Lanka), rapadura (Brazil), gur (Pakistan), gula merah (Indonesia and Malaysia) 5,6 . Some researches show the benefits of brown sugarcane over granulated sugar 7,8 . ...
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Background: Carbohydrates supplementation before exercise is known to delay fatigue in athletes, especially for endurance type of sports. Brown sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) mostly contains sucrose. The breakdown of sucrose into glucose and fructose is used by the body as an energy-providing substrate, especially when exercising for a long duration – endurance. Consumption of brown sugarcane before exercise is expected to keep blood glucose in normal condition and preventing from muscle glycogen catabolism. Objectives: This research aimed to investigate the effect of carbohydrate supplementation with brown sugarcane and glucose on blood glucose and muscle glycogen levels. Methods: 36 male Sprague Dawley rats at 8 weeks old were involved in this study. There were 4 groups of intervention, brown sugarcane + swimming (BS), glucose + swimming (G), water + swimming (W), and brown sugarcane without swimming (S). The dose of intervention was 0,3 g sucrose/100 g body weight of rats. The supplementation was given 10 minutes before doing the swimming activity. A statistical test with SPSS software was used to analyze the results. One-way ANOVA and t-test were used to analyze before and after supplementation. Results: The results showed that the rats who were given sugar cane supplementation before swimming had a smaller increase in blood glucose than the other groups. The increasing of blood glucose in each group were BS = 7.95 mg/dl; G = 21.19 mg/dl; W = 35.64 mg/dl; S = 4.57 mg/dl; p=0.000. Muscle glycogen levels in the rats given sugar cane supplementation group were higher than in the other groups (p=0.000). Conclusions: Carbohydrate supplementation with brown sugarcane before endurance type of exercise was able to maintain blood glucose on normal condition and prevent muscle glycogen catabolism in experimental animals. Research on the development of sports spesific products based on brown sugarcane can be carried out to see its effects directly on humans. Keywords: brown sugarcane, glucose, glicogen, swimming, carbohydrates
... Jaggery is also known as panela, a type of unre ned sugar that is produced in Asia and Africa and is rich in minerals, proteins, and vitamins (A. Kumar & Singh, 2020). These nutrients form the essential constituents of a healthy diet. ...
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The research aimed to develop a new product using underutilized seeds; hence an energy bar was developed using Chironji ( Buchanania lanzan ) seeds. Chironji seeds, oats, puffed rice, dates, condensed milk, jaggery, butter, raisins, and almonds were combined to make the energy bars. Chironji seeds and Condensed Milk were added as major ingredients for the production of energy bars. Date paste was added to increase flavor and also as a binding agent. Butter and jaggery were added as preservatives and sweetener. The finished bars were preserved for nutritional and sensory analysis. Chironji seeds and condensed milk were used in varied proportions and a total of five samples were prepared. As per the analysis, Moisture content (8.00 ± 2.00% to 12.00 ± 2.00%), Ash content (1.33 ± 1.16% to 3.33 ± 1.16%), Fat content (24.00 ± 2.00% to 27.33 ± 1.16%), Protein content (10.57 ± 0.12% to 12.93 ± 0.58%), TSS (7.33 ± 0.58º to 8.00 ± 1.00º), and pH (5.26 ± 0.01 to 5.36 ± 0.01) were the physicochemical properties measured in all of the prepared energy bar samples. The L* value (51.23 ± 0.25 to 74.17 ± 0.21), a* value (7.90 ± 0.20 to 21.23 ± 0.25), and b* value (27.27 ± 0.25 to 52.27 ± 0.25) of the bar samples were determined using the CIE lab. Energy bars were rated on the 9-point hedonic scale for sensory evaluation and the attributes of color (7.67 ± 0.58 to 8.67 ± 0.58), texture (8.33 ± 0.58 to 9.00 ± 0.00), taste (7.67 ± 0.58 to 9.00 ± 0.00), aroma (8.00 ± 0.00 to 8.33 ± 0.58), and overall acceptability (8.17 ± 0.14 to 8.83 ± 0.14) were measured.
... Jaggery is made up of complex carbohydrates and digested slowly this feature of jaggery made it ideal for consumption as compare to sugar; jaggery is a rich source of minerals such as calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iron and other minerals. During production of jaggery in iron vessel it tends to absorb minerals from the vessel as well which makes it a good source of iron [12]. ...
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Energy bars have immense health potential and can be used as an alternative to meet the energy requirement; they are quick, convenient and easy go to food product compact with nutrients. Energy bars can be formulated with diverse ingredient that can add additional health benefits such as antioxidant, anti-flammantory and medicinal properties with high nutritional value. The objective of present study was to develop energy bar from underutilized Chironji seeds, and to analyze its nutritional and shelf life properties. Novel energy bar was formulated with chrionji, rolled oats, husked channa, roasted crushed peanuts, jaggery, raisin, popped rice and dates (binding agent). Proximate analysis of energy bar was determined as moisture (7.83%), ash (1.92%), protein (9.51%), fat (13.12%), carbohydrate (67.62%), total energy (430.08kcal), calcium (28mg/100gm), and potassium (22mg/100gm), sodium (26mg/100gm), iron (24mg/100gm). The shelf life analysis of energy bar was conducted on the basis of microbial testing, energy bar was kept at room temperature and cultured after 15 days and then after 30 days of formulation, total bacterial and mold colonies were estimated, thus the study concluded that the energy bar was highly nutritious and safe to consume within 15 days after production if kept at room temperature. Keywords: Energy bar, Chironji, Development, Nutritional Analysis, Shelf life Analysis
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Background: Vinegar, an acidic functional fermentation product and known for its diverse health benefits was developed using liquid jaggery. A study was conducted to standardize the method of vinegar production from liquid jaggery using two different sugarcane varieties viz., CoH160 and Co89003. Methods: The submerged fermentation of liquid jaggery was carried out using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and vinegar was produced using Acetobacter aceti. For the computation analysis of an optimized solution, a central composite rotatable design was applied which constituted three variables temperature (°C), inoculum concentration (%) and incubation time (days) and its influence on acetic acid percent as an important response was studied using Response Surface Methodology. Overall, twenty experimental trials were conducted as well as assessed on the vinegar quality indexes. Result: Vinegar prepared with 7.5 per cent inoculum concentration, incubated for a fermentation period of 12.5 days at 28.5°C was selected due to maximum acetic acid concentration achieved ( greater than 3.5% (w/v). The optimized vinegar contained total soluble solids (4.55-4.75 °Brix), reducing sugar (0.26-0.29%), total sugars (2.7-2.8%), titratable acidity (4.72-5.10%), pH (4.28-4.52), ascorbic acid (17.64-19.97%), alcohol content (0.68-0.79%), acetic acid (3.52-3.83%) and total phenols (36.69-38.22 mg/100 ml). The liquid jaggery vinegar had a bright yellow- brown color, cane flavor and vinegar aroma. It was found organoleptically acceptable.
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Jaggery is a kind of unrefined non-centrifugal sugar (NCS) used mainly in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Traditionally, jaggery is produced by concentrating sugarcane juice in open pans with the help of bagasse combustion. However, due to thermal energy loss with flue gases and an unscientific approach in plant construction, jaggery plants have a poor thermal efficiency of less than 25%, poor emission characteristics, and a high bagasse consumption rate. Advanced jaggery-making techniques use solar energy and heat pumps for jaggery production. However, these techniques are in the early stage of development, and the literature indicates that these techniques should be used in conjuction with traditional ones to improve the performance of jaggery making plants. This literature review describes advances in jaggery-making methods, critically analyzed them, and provides a qualitative comparison of these methods. Further, gaps in the existing literature are identified and reported for future research direction. In addition, efforts have been made to quantify and estimate the emissions reduction and bagasse consumption potentials from the traditional jaggery industry to make this rural industry a sustainable and profitable business for rural entrepreneurs. The comparison with the recently developed clean combustion device exhibits that the harmful emissions from the jaggery industry could be reduced drastically viz. 95%–98% of PM2.5; 92%–95% of CO, and 52–60% of CO2, while saving more than 35% of bagasse consumption. Implemented at a national scale, it may reduce nearly 3% of all harmful emissions in the country, which is equally applicable elsewhere.
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Traditional gur making is one of the important cottage industries in India, which is still continuing, needs protection and improvement. The main objective of this study was to analyse technical know-how used in gur preparation and its ecological and economical implications taking a case study in the Ganjam district of Orissa with a view to offer suggestions for possible improvement. The traditional technology involved for extraction of juice, furnace and gur preparation are described in detail. The total sugarcane production was 62.5Mgha−1 of crop. One kilogram of cane yielded 421ml of juice which came to 26.44×103lha−1. The total gur yield was 6.35Mgha−1 of crop, which was stored in earthen pots. Total energy input into sugarcane crop was 41.4GJha−1, while total energy input for gur preparation was 4.1GJ for the cane yielded per hectare of crop. Total monetary input for gur preparation was Rs. 64,920 while the output was Rs. 63,550 with an output–input ration of 0.98 indicating monetary loss in gur preparation.
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The quantitative analysis of flavonoids by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was investigated. Analytical conditions were varied to optimise the separation of the major flavone class of flavonoids in sugarcane. Separation of flavonoids from sugarcane was most influenced by the running buffer pH and addition of methanol. Best separation of sugarcane flavones was obtained with a running buffer of 25 mM borate, pH 9.5 with 20% methanol added. Using a simple acetonitrile-water extraction, CZE could be used to quantify flavonoids in sugarcane. R.S.D. values for the flavonoids detected in two cultivars of sugarcane ranged from 2.1 to 7.7, mean 4.8.
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To completely determine ferulic and p-coumaric acids and related phenolic compounds in the cell walls of sugarcane bagasse (SCB), a second mild alkaline hydrolysis of the alkali-soluble lignin preparations and acid hydrolysis of the 90% acidic dioxane-soluble lignin fractions were performed, which released 48.8% of the total ester-linked p-CA and 43.8% of the total esterified FA from the alkali-soluble lignin fractions, and 38.8% of the total ether-linked p-CA and 38.5% of the total ether-linked FA from the 90% acidic dioxane-soluble lignin preparations, respectively. Based on the dry weight, it has been found that the SCB contained 1.76% p-CA and 1.29% FA as well as minor quantities of related phenols. Further study of the solubilized lignin samples by combining with UV and FT-IR spectroscopy, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy confirmed that a predominant amount of p-CA (69.5–76.4%) is ester-linked to the cell wall components, mainly to lignin. On the other hand, about half of the FA (44.0–55.0%) is esterified to the cell wall hemicelluloses, and the remaining half of the FA is also be etherified through the phenolic oxygen to lignin component in the cell walls of SCB.
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Sugarcane juice is a common beverage in many Brazilian cities. At harvesting season most sugarcane plantation is burnt and this procedure has been shown as an important source of PAHs emission. In the present study 80 samples of sugarcane juice collected from two Brazilian cities, in two different periods, were analysed for the presence of four PAHs: benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene. PAHs were detected in 50% of the samples. The samples collected between harvests presented mean sums of PAHs of 0.013 μg/kg and 0.012 μg/kg, while the samples collected during harvest presented mean sums of 0.053 μg/kg and 0.055 μg/kg. A higher concentration and incidence of PAHs in the juices collected in the harvest period was verified, corroborating the burning of the crops as a source of sugarcane juice contamination.