Article

What's on Job Seekers' Social Media Sites? A Content Analysis and Effects of Structure on Recruiter Judgments and Predictive Validity

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Abstract

Many organizational representatives review social media (SM) information (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) when recruiting and assessing job applicants. Despite this, very little empirical data exist concerning the SM information available to organizations or whether assessments of such information are a valid predictor of work outcomes. This multistudy investigation examines several critical issues in this emerging area. In Study 1, we conducted a content analysis of job seekers' Facebook sites (n = 266) and found that these sites often provide demographic variables that U.S. employment laws typically prohibit organizations from using when making personnel decisions (e.g., age, ethnicity, and religion), as well as other personal information that is not work-related (e.g., sexual orientation, marital status). In Study 2 (n = 140), we examined whether job seekers' SM information is related to recruiter evaluations. Results revealed that various types of SM information correlated with recruiter judgments of hireability, including demographic variables (e.g., gender, marital status), variables organizations routinely assess (e.g., education, training, and skills), and variables that may be a concern to organizations (e.g., profanity, sexual behavior). In Study 3 (n = 81), we examined whether structuring SM assessments (e.g., via rater training) affects criterion-related validity. Results showed that structuring SM assessments did not appear to improve the prediction of future job performance or withdrawal intentions. Overall, the present findings suggest that organizations should be cautious about assessing SM information during the staffing process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

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... Social media plays an ever-increasing role in recruitment and selection (Stoughton et al., 2015;Zide et al., 2014). Prior surveys reported that over 70% of hiring managers search job candidates' SMPs for recruitment and screening purposes, in which Facebook was used most often (Zhang et al., 2020). ...
... Moreover, they disclosed that recruiters using Facebook ratings tended to favour female and white applications, raising cautions of whether organizations can legally justify using SMPs in screening candidates. Most recently, Zhang et al. (2020) reported a multi-study investigation of how job candidates' SMPs information was used in recruiting and assessing job candidates . According to their findings, job candidates' SMPs can also reveal personal information prohibited by the U.S. employment law. ...
... Finally, structured SMP assessments do not help improve the methods' ability to predict job candidates' future job performance or withdrawal intentions. Hence, Zhang et al. (2020) recommended that organizations either eliminate using SMP information in employee selection or exercise such a practice with extreme caution. ...
Article
Guided by the Big Five personality traits and relevant literature, this qualitative study reports a content analysis of 11 semi-structured interviews with the human resource and operations managers in the hospitality industry regarding what types of information on job candidates' social media profiles (SMPs) may affect their hiring decisions. The results revealed that LinkedIn was the most preferred social media site. Hiring managers expected to observe extroversion, leadership, and professionalism from the candidates’ SMPs. Additionally, they favoured the posts with pictures about food, catering, and events but disliked those with inappropriate languages or content. The in-depth narrative insights reported in this study address a timely research topic in current literature and help hospitality stakeholders in the job market advance specific practical implications.
... With some potential applications of social media in mind, it should be noted that many of these techniques are not standardized or easily scalable, present possible ethical or legal challenges, and have the potential to incorporate information that is not job relevant (Vaughn et al., 2019). As just one example, Facebook profiles frequently contain information about race, gender, sexual orientation, disability status, political affiliation, national origin, and other protected or job-irrelevant characteristics (Zhang et al., 2020). However, much of the earlier empirical studies conducted to date have studied criterion-related validity evidence associated with Facebook profile information, perhaps due to Facebook's prominent position as the largest social networking site available to researchers and participants (e.g., Kluemper & Rosen, 2009;Kluemper et al., 2012;Van Iddekinge et al., 2016;Zhang et al., 2020). ...
... As just one example, Facebook profiles frequently contain information about race, gender, sexual orientation, disability status, political affiliation, national origin, and other protected or job-irrelevant characteristics (Zhang et al., 2020). However, much of the earlier empirical studies conducted to date have studied criterion-related validity evidence associated with Facebook profile information, perhaps due to Facebook's prominent position as the largest social networking site available to researchers and participants (e.g., Kluemper & Rosen, 2009;Kluemper et al., 2012;Van Iddekinge et al., 2016;Zhang et al., 2020). Although job-irrelevant information can be found on LinkedIn (e.g., identifiable information regarding protected class group membership), the focus of the present study is on evaluating information gleaned from LinkedIn for several reasons. ...
... Third, compared to platforms such as Facebook, information on protected class membership (e.g., age, national origin, disability) may be less visible on LinkedIn (Levashina et al., 2017). While some protected class information can be gleaned from LinkedIn profiles, Facebook readily allows users to explicitly display their birth year, gender identity, national origin (listed under "Hometown" or "Current City and Hometown"), religious affiliation or beliefs, political affiliation or beliefs, family members (listed under "Family and Relationships"), and sexual orientation (Zhang et al., 2020). This is important when considering that the use of such information as the basis for selection decisions is illegal (Brown & Vaughn, 2011;Vaughn et al., 2019), and can result in biased decisions and discrimination . ...
Article
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As social media use has grown over the past decade, both academics and practitioners have increasingly debated the appropriateness of using data from social networking sites in hiring contexts. Although the use of social media in recruitment and staffing processes has become commonplace, a corresponding increase in empirical investigations of this practice has not been achieved. Now more than ever, industrial-organizational (I-O) psychologists and data scientists are well positioned to offer evidence-based insights regarding this common practice. Despite being the most widely used professional social networking site, validity evidence of the relationship between LinkedIn profile elements and organizationally relevant criteria remains equivocal, and researchers have specifically called for more work on LinkedIn as the basis for social media assessments. Using a field sample of financial services professionals, the present study seeks to examine the criterion-related validity of LinkedIn incumbents' professional profiles (n = 486) using objective sales performance metrics. In addition to potential privacy and ethical concerns, and with few exceptions, the results largely suggest that LinkedIn profile characteristics are not strongly correlated with organizational metrics. Potential uses, recommendations, and limitations based on the criterion-related evidence are discussed herein.
... Additionally, both managers and students mainly want to use personal social media platforms (e.g., Facebook) to search for negative information or "red flags". Preliminary evidence also suggests that the reliability, validity, practicality, legality, and ethicality of cybervetting are mixed at best (Roulin & Levashina, 2019;Van Iddekinge, Lanivich, Roth, & Junco, 2016;Zhang et al., 2020). It is also unlikely that the selection systems put in place by organizations can evolve as quickly as social media does, which may make it difficult to establish standardized procedures for cybervetting that remain adequate and valid over time (Landers & Schmidt, 2016;Woods et al., 2019). ...
... However, behaviors, values, or competencies shown through group affiliations, friendships, photographs, and commentary are exactly what employers look for to determine the organizational fit of an applicant (Davison et al., 2016;Hartwell & Campion, 2019;Roulin & Bangerter, 2013;Tews et al., 2020;Zhang et al., 2020). Seminal privacy research from both Altman (1975) and Westin (1967) shows that there is a preference for boundaries between an individual and the environment in which they operate. ...
... This lack of standardization prevents consistent, reliable, and valid screening of an applicant's social media profile. Moreover, research suggests that even when raters follow a standardized approach, the obtained reliability and validity are only weak-to-moderate at best (Roulin & Levashina, 2019;Zhang et al., 2020). ...
Article
The present research describes the development and validation of a measure of job seekers’ attitudes toward cybervetting (ATC). Study 1 involved a sample of participants completing an initial pool of items focusing on one platform (i.e., Facebook) and conducting an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Study 2 included a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and an exploratory structural equation model (ESEM) to establish convergent and discriminant validity. Results of both studies confirmed that the hypothesized three-factor structure (perceived justice, privacy invasion, and face validity) provided a good fit to the data, explained over 67% of total variance, with all three factors demonstrating high internal consistencies. Study 3 examined the measurement equivalence of the ATC measure, and demonstrated its factor structure and reliability, across four social media platforms (Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and Instagram). Comparing applicants’ attitudes across platforms showed significantly more favorable perceptions toward LinkedIn-based cybervetting than for the other three platforms.
... SMAs using Facebook have shown some validity when measuring personality and predicting self-rated personality, supervisor-rater performance, and college GPA (Kluemper et al., 2012), and LinkedIn-focused SMAs show promise in validly measuring some general competencies (e.g., leadership, communication) and in predicting some career-related outcomes (promotions, degree-related jobs) (Roulin & Levashina, 2019). But other studies suggest SMAs may not have much criterionrelated validity Zhang et al., 2020). Given this lack of proven reliability and criterion-related validity, SMA utility may be limited. ...
Article
Social media assessments (SMAs) are a common, relatively new, practice in employee selection. However, SMAs are generally conducted in an informal way, leaving organizations with a practice low in reliability and validity, as well as opening up potential legal and ethical issues. We propose a framework of nine SMA structural components based on previously developed interview structural components. Effects of each component on reliability, validity, user reactions, and legality are discussed. We conduct two studies that measure the utilization of each structural component in research literature and in practice. Study 1 is a content analysis of prior SMA academic research. Results indicate the highest use for the procedural consistency and rating scales used and the lowest utilization of documentation. Study 2 surveyed hiring professionals to examine the structure level typically utilized for SMAs in practice. Results indicate low levels of structure for most components, which demonstrates a need for structural improvement when SMAs are used in hiring. We discuss the implications of our research and provide recommendations for structuring SMAs in both research and practice. What is currently known about the topic: SMAs are a common practice during employee selection processes. SMAs are typically done covertly and inconsistently, not formally part of the process. Adding structure increase reliability and validity of selection processes (e.g., interviews). SMAs are a common practice during employee selection processes. SMAs are typically done covertly and inconsistently, not formally part of the process. Adding structure increase reliability and validity of selection processes (e.g., interviews). What our paper adds to previous knowledge: Many structural components developed in an interviewing context can be applied to SMAs. SMA structural components are identified, with definitions of low, medium, and high levels. Usage of SMA structure in the research literature is examined using content analysis. Usage of SMA structure in practice is studied using a survey of hiring professionals. Many structural components developed in an interviewing context can be applied to SMAs. SMA structural components are identified, with definitions of low, medium, and high levels. Usage of SMA structure in the research literature is examined using content analysis. Usage of SMA structure in practice is studied using a survey of hiring professionals. Implications of our findings for practitioners: Implementing SMA structure could increase validity, reliability, user reactions, and legality. Low usage rates of SMA structure among practitioners demonstrate potential for improvement. The SMA structural framework provides a blueprint for how to add structure to SMAs. Implementing SMA structure could increase validity, reliability, user reactions, and legality. Low usage rates of SMA structure among practitioners demonstrate potential for improvement. The SMA structural framework provides a blueprint for how to add structure to SMAs.
... Participants were recruited via Qualtrics through their online panel aggregator service, and comprise a subset of the 1642 people (12.5%) who initially accessed the survey but were omitted from the study given they: (1) failed to meet the inclusion criteria (i.e., were not presently working, were male, were not a Canadian citizen or permanent resident, did not have a child ≤12 years); or (2) failed one of three attention verification questions. This proportion of acceptable completed responses aligns with similar findings from recent research partnerships with Qualtrics (e.g., Eberly et al., 2017;Zhang et al., 2020). To enhance statistical power, we used quota sampling (rather than true convenience or probability-based sampling) to establish nearequal group sizes despite population-level differences in the number of sole versus partnered mothers. ...
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Sole employed mothers and their families face numerous challenges. Yet, the unprecedented circumstances of the COVID‐19 pandemic may be adding additional risk to the already precarious day‐to‐day reality of this population. Thus, we examine the implications of this crisis for the mental health and job‐related well‐being of both sole and partnered working mothers. Participants were 206 mothers who continued to work during the pandemic. A moderated mediation model was analyzed. Work‐family conflict (WFC) during the pandemic differentially related to mothers’ parenting stress, based on romantic partnership status; when mothers were sole parents, the relationship between WFC and parenting stress was exacerbated. Moreover, this stress mediated the relationship between WFC and both poor mental health and decreased work engagement for sole employed mothers. Findings broaden our understanding of the implications of the COVID‐19 pandemic for sole and partnered employed mothers, and how this crisis may be increasing disparities between working sole‐parent and dual‐partner families.
... The reported percentage of the use of social media channels in recruiting has been increasing over the years (Nikolaou, 2014;Vicknair et al., 2010;Zhang et al., 2020). Many reports agree that in recruitment, seniority of a position makes a difference in how social media or social network sites (SNS) are used, but there are variations in the described directions of these differences: Ruggs, Walker, Blanchard, and Gur state "although SNS are generally not the sole recruitment tool for many organizations, the differences in applicant presence and organization recruitment on SNS may put older, educated, male applicants at an advantage during the early stages of talent acquisition, as there are more of these individuals receiving information about job openings at a quicker rate and being directly targeted for specific positions" (Ruggs et al., 2016, pp.292-293). ...
Article
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This cross-sectional study examines age related differences in the usage of (part 1) social media and (part 2) language behavior concerning job applications. To this end, 579 candidates were surveyed on their attitudes toward job-related social media and also their job applications were assessed. Firstly, the results show that older candidates consider social media less for application purposes and rather submit actual applications more often via offline channels. Secondly, the analysis of the application documents using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) showed that the choice of language can be regarded as a function of age. For example, with higher age, applicants make fewer self and time references. Additionally, the specific kind of the text form influenced the results: cover letters, CVs and complete application documents were analyzed separately. The findings of this study are discussed as a possible consequence of greater experience of older candidates as well as in the light of changes in personality. Conclusions regarding the use of language as a marker of aging and implications for both applicants and recruiters are considered.
... Age-related workplace discrimination and its negative impact on mental and overall health are well documented in the literature [3,5,9], though is unclear how factors such as malocclusion affect laypeople's perceptions of aging and esthetics and if these factors influence job or service finding. Studies assessing photographs and eye tracking are very important, particularly as many organizational representatives now review social media information (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) when recruiting and assessing job applicants [10]. LinkedIn is an additional popular resource for employers, which focuses on business connections and industry contacts for employers and working professionals and allows users to enhance their connectedness in their areas of expertise [11]; in this platform, the first contact and impression occurs through images. ...
Article
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Background: Smile esthetics has a strong influence on perception, attractiveness, and personal characteristics. It is unknown how malocclusions may influence the appearance of the individual's smile. This study aimed to investigate whether malocclusion affects the visual perception of esthetics, age, employability, honesty, intelligence and to meet its obligation in time in middle-aged adults. Facial frontal smiling photographs of a male and a female middle-aged adult with 3 different malocclusions were shown to and evaluated by 90 laypeople (non-dentists), divided into groups: young adults (14-44 years), middle-aged adults (45-59 years), and elders (over 60 years). The index of treatment need (IOTN) was used, and IOTN 1, 5, and 8 images were created in Photoshop using the male and female photographs. In total, 6 photographs were evaluated, 3 areas of interest (AOI)-eyes, nose, and mouth-were created for statistical comparison. The Ogama and Eye Tribe tracker were used in conjunction to measure eye tracking. A visual analog scale (VAS) was employed with a questionnaire surveying individuals' perception of age, employability, honesty, intelligence, and ability to meet obligations. Kruskal-Wallis, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's-chi-squared, and Pearson correlation test were applied. Results: No statistical difference was found in complete fixation time and time until the first fixation for each AOI for eye-tracking. VAS showed statistical differences in the male and female IOTN 1 images when compared with the IOTN 5 and 8 for both models, and there was no difference between genders in the IOTN 1. As the perceived age of the model increased, the chances of getting hired decreased. Employability, honesty, intelligence, and ability to meet obligations showed higher values for IOTN 1. There were significant differences between age ranges; perception of intelligence in the female IOTN 1 model (p = 0.002) and IOTN 8 model (p < 0.001) and honesty between young adults and middle-aged adults in the male IOTN 1 and 8 images (p < 0.001). Conclusions: There was a difference between age groups in the perception of honesty and intelligence. A well-balanced and attractive was perceived as more youthful and attractive in both genders and may increase the chance of being selected for a job interview or being hired.
... Employers may search the Internet or large databases for information, especially for evidence of inappropriate behavior that might signal poor judgment or other undesirable characteristics. However, such evidence may also contain irrelevant information, such as demographics (Zhang et al. 2020) and political affiliation . Applicants generally have increasingly less control over the type and relevance of personal data that organizations can extract from social media and other sources on the Internet. ...
Article
Full-text available
Organizations are increasingly turning toward personnel selection tools that rely on artificial intelligence (AI) technologies and machine learning algorithms that, together, intend to predict the future success of employees better than traditional tools. These new forms of assessment include online games, video-based interviews, and big data pulled from many sources, including test responses, test-taking behavior, applications, resumes, and social media. Speedy processing, lower costs, convenient access, and applicant engagement are often and rightfully cited as the practical advantages for using these selection tools. At the same time, however, these tools raise serious concerns about their effectiveness in terms their conceptual relevance to the job, their basis in a job analysis to ensure job relevancy, their measurement characteristics (reliability and stability), their validity in predicting employee-relevant outcomes, their evidence and normative information being updated appropriately, and the associated ethical concerns around what information is being represented to employers and told to job candidates. This paper explores these concerns, concluding with an urgent call to industrial and organizational psychologists to extend existing professional standards for employment testing to these new AI and machine learning based forms of testing, including standards and requirements for their documentation.
... For instance, in terms of technology experience, applicant reactions differ between platforms, and job seekers are more accepting of cybervetting done on professional platforms like LinkedIn than on personal platforms like Facebook or Instagram (Cook et al., 2020). In terms of technology behaviors, the way decision makers use social media content and the psychometric properties of social-media-based decisions also varies by platform, again in favor of professional platforms (e.g., Roulin & Levashina, 2019;Zhang et al., 2020). Cybervetting is thus arguably another area in which there might be limitations to how much "defragging" can be done and illustrates the importance of considering the novel role played by ICT in the applicant screening/vetting process. ...
... Often, this kind of information contains answers to questions that are not allowed to be asked during job interviews (Zhang et al. 2020). Thus, making employment decisions based on such restricted information can lead to adverse hiring decisions (Jones and Behling 2010) and is often prohibited by law Bentley 2013;Roth et al. 2016). ...
Article
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Companies have started using social media for screening applicants in the selection process. Thereby, they enter a low-cost source of information on applicants, which potentially allows them to hire the right person on the job and avoid irresponsible employee behaviour and negligent hiring lawsuits. However, a number of ethical issues are associated with this practice, which give rise to the question of the fairness of social media screening. This article aims to provide an assessment of the procedural justice of social media screening and to articulate recommendations for a fairer use of social media in the selection process. To achieve this, a systematic literature review of research articles pertaining to social media screening has been conducted. Thereby, the benefits and ethical issues relating to social media screening, as well as recommendations for its use have been extracted and discussed against Leventhal’s (1980) rules of procedural justice. It turns out that without clear guidelines for recruiters, social media screening cannot be considered procedurally fair, as it opens up way too many opportunities for infringements on privacy, unfair discrimination, and adverse selection based on inaccurate information. However, it is possible to enhance the fairness of this practice by establishing clear policies and procedures to standardize the process.
... Third, we study the effects of visible tattoos in a way that more closely replicates the hiring context than most previous studies by having participants evaluate simulated LinkedIn profiles of multiple applicants (within-subjects design). Most companies use social media for talent acquisition (SHRM, 2016), although the soundness of this practice has been questioned (e.g., Zhang et al., 2020), with LinkedIn being the most popular platform (Jobvite, 2018). However, in past research, participants are typically shown only a photo of the job applicant (e.g., Burgess & Clark, 2010;Timming, 2017;Timming, Nickson, Re, & Perrett, 2017) and are asked to evaluate only a single applicant (between-subjects design; e.g., Brallier, Maguire, Smith, & Palm, 2011). ...
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Although tattoos have increased in popularity, they may put individuals at a disadvantage when seeking employment. Drawing on the justification-suppression model and the stereotype content model, we propose that job applicants with visible tattoos experience prejudice in hiring and starting salary recommendations because they are stereotyped as less competent and warm than those without visible tattoos. In Study 1, we compared equally qualified Caucasian female applicants in their mid to late 20s with no visible tattoos, a mild visible tattoo, and extreme visible tattoos for the position of a sales manager. Tattooed applicants were less likely to be hired, especially if they had extreme visible tattoos, and were offered lower salaries and rated lower on competence (but not warmth) than applicants without visible tattoos. Furthermore, competence mediated the relationship between visible tattoos and hiring and salary recommendations. In Study 2, we examined if young Caucasian female applicants with visible tattoos can overcome prejudice through their job qualifications and found they were able to mitigate salary discrimination, but not hiring discrimination by being highly qualified. In Study 3, we proposed that young Caucasian female applicants with visible tattoos can neutralize discrimination by being highly qualified and having volunteer experience. However, volunteering did not mitigate prejudice related to visible tattoos. Our findings suggest that it is difficult for applicants with visible tattoos to overcome discrimination.
... In one of the first studies on this topic we explored how job seekers and recruiters use Social Networking Websites (Nikolaou, 2014), arguing that social media offer the opportunity to candidates for increased networking in a cheap and effective way, but also how useful they can be for recruiters as a means of attracting passive candidates, i.e., people who are not actively looking for a job, but who might pay attention to an interesting offer or suggestion by a recruiter. Nevertheless, recent studies have challenged the wide acceptance of social media, raising major concerns about their usefulness both among recruiters (Zhang et al., 2020) and job-seekers (Johnson & Leo, 2020). More research is urgently needed in this field, since there is no sign that the use of Linke-dIn especially is going to go away any time soon. ...
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We explore a number of new developments in the field of employee recruitment and selection with a focus on recent technological developments. We discuss examples of technological developments across the four stages of the recruitment and selection process. In the attraction stage we discuss how on-line/internet recruitment and especially social networking websites have changed dramatically the focus of attracting candidates effectively. In the next stage of screening, we discuss how cybervetting and applicant tracking systems offer opportunities but also threats for recruiters and candidates. In the third stage of employee selection, we focus especially on two new selection methods; the asynchronous/digital interview and gamification/games-based assessment, along with the critical role and impact applicant reactions have on the selection process. Finally, we briefly discuss the main technological developments in on-boarding and socialization, and we conclude with a few suggestions for future research in this field.
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Provides a reanalysis of the employment interview for entry-level jobs that overcomes several limitations of J. E. Hunter and R. F. Hunter's (see record 1984-30168-001) article. Using a relatively sophisticated multidimensional framework for classifying level of structure, the authors obtained results from a meta-analysis of 114 entry-level interview validity coefficients suggesting that (1) structure is a major moderator of interview validity; (2) interviews, particularly when structured, can reach levels of validity that are comparable to those of mental ability tests; and (3) although validity does increase through much of the range of structure, there is a point at which additional structure yields essentially no incremental validity. Thus, results suggested a ceiling effect for structure. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effect of race on employment interview evaluations. A meta-analysis of 31 studies found that both Black and Hispanic applicants received interview ratings that on average were only about one quarter of a standard deviation lower than those for White applicants. Thus, interviews as a whole do not appear to affect minorities nearly as much as mental ability tests. Results also suggested that (a) high-structure interviews have lower group differences on average than low-structure interviews, (b) group differences tend to decrease as the complexity of the job increases, and (c) group differences tend to be higher when there is a greater proportion of a minority in the applicant pool. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The résumé is the most commonly used selection tool for organisations. Past studies have demonstrated that recruiter hiring recommendations can be predicted based on the content of applicant résumés. However, the mechanisms underlying the links between résumé contents and hiring recommendations remain unclear. The present study extends previous research by examining the mediating roles of recruiters' multi-faceted fit perceptions in a field setting. Data were collected from 216 organisational recruiters who participated in campus recruitment at seven universities in Taiwan. The results showed that applicant work experience and educational background increased recruiter hiring recommendations through recruiter perceived person–job (P–J) fit. In addition, applicant work experience predicted recruiter perceived person–organisation (P–O) fit, which in turn enhanced recruiter hiring recommendations.
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Work values were examined as an antecedent of recruiters' judgments of applicant fit with the organization. Data were collected on the work values of recruiters, their organizations, and job applicants in actual job interviews conducted through the placement center of a large university. Following the interviews, recruiters evaluated applicants' general employability and organization-specific fit. Approximately 4 months following the interviews, data on whether the applicants were invited for a second interview were also obtained. Work value congruence between the applicant and the recruiter was found to be related to judgments of general employability and organization-specific fit. Congruence between the applicant and the organization (as perceived by the recruiter) was not related to judgments of employability and organization-specific fit. Recruiter ratings of employability were related to the decision to invite the applicant for a second interview. Work value congruence was not related to second interview decisions. It is concluded that if work values and judgments of applicant fit influence the personnel selection process, they are more likely to do so at later stages when job offer decisions are made. Work values and judgments of applicant fit seem to have minimal impact on decisions to retain the applicant for additional consideration in early stages of the selection process.
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The term future work self refers to an individual's representation of himself or herself in the future that reflects his or her hopes and aspirations in relation to work. The clearer and more accessible this representation, the more salient the future work self. An initial study with 2 samples (N = 397; N = 103) showed that future work self salience was distinct from established career concepts and positively related to individuals' proactive career behavior. A follow-up longitudinal analysis, Study 2 (N = 53), demonstrated that future work self salience had a lagged effect on proactive career behavior. In Study 3 (N = 233), we considered the role of elaboration, a further attribute of a future work self, and showed that elaboration motivated proactive career behavior only when future work self salience was also high. Together the studies suggest the power of future work selves as a motivational resource for proactive career behavior.
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Personnel selection involves exchanges of information between job market actors (applicants and organizations). These actors do not have an incentive to exchange accurate information about their ability and commitment to the employment relationship unless it is to their advantage. This state of affairs explains numerous phenomena in personnel selection (e.g., faking). Signaling theory describes a mechanism by which parties with partly conflicting interests (and thus an incentive for deception) can nevertheless exchange accurate information. We apply signaling theory to personnel selection, distinguishing between adaptive relationships between applicants and organizations, among applicants, and among organizations. In each case, repeated adaptations and counteradaptations between actors can lead to situations of equilibrium or escalation (arms races). We show that viewing personnel selection as a network of adaptive relationships among job market actors enables an understanding of both classic and underexplored micro- and macro-level selection phenomena and their dynamic interactions.
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Conclusions reached in previous research about the magnitude and nature of personality-performance linkages have been based almost exclusively on self-report measures of personality. The purpose of this study is to address this void in the literature by conducting a meta-analysis of the relationship between observer ratings of the five-factor model (FFM) personality traits and overall job performance. Our results show that the operational validities of FFM traits based on observer ratings are higher than those based on self-report ratings. In addition, the results show that when based on observer ratings, all FFM traits are significant predictors of overall performance. Further, observer ratings of FFM traits show meaningful incremental validity over self-reports of corresponding FFM traits in predicting overall performance, but the reverse is not true. We conclude that the validity of FFM traits in predicting overall performance is higher than previously believed, and our results underscore the importance of disentangling the validity of personality traits from the method of measurement of the traits.
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A model of person-organization fit and organizational hiring decisions is developed and tested, using data from 38 interviewers making hiring decisions about 93 applicants. Results suggest that interviewers can assess applicant-organization values congruence with significant levels of accuracy and that interviewers compare their perceptions of applicants' values with their organizations' values to assess person-organization fit. Results also suggested that interviewers' subjective person-organization fit assessments have large effects on their hiring recommendations relative to competing applicant characteristics, and that interviewers' hiring recommendations directly affect organizations' hiring decisions (e.g., job offers).
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This study examined the effect of overlapping scale content when certain items in the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) are used to predict turnover cognition measures. Analyses of judgmental data collected from 25 subject matter experts suggested that 6 OCQ items reflected a desire or an intent to retain membership in one's organization. Confirmatory factor analyses of survey data from 172 master of business administration alumni showed that the 6 OCQ retention items shared overlapping content with turnover cognitions items. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses of survey data from 330 hotel managers showed that (a) removing the 6 OCQ retention items caused a significant decrease in the variance explained in a measure of turnover cognitions and (b) the size of this effect is larger than that suggested by previous work.
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Previous research demonstrates that we tend to derogate individuals who are perceived to be in a social relationship with stigmatized persons. Two experiments examined whether this phenomenon also occurs for individuals seen in the presence of an obese person and whether a social relationship is necessary for stigmatization to spread. The results from both experiments revealed that a male job applicant was rated more negatively when seen with an overweight compared to a normal weight female and that just being in the mere proximity of an overweight woman was enough to trigger stigmatization toward the male applicant. Experiment 2 examined possible moderating effects of the proximity finding. Applicants seated next to heavy (vs. average weight) individuals were denigrated consistently regardless of the perceived depth of the relationship, the participant's anti-fat attitudes or gender, and whether or not positive information was presented concerning the woman. The profound nature of the obesity stigma and implications for impression formation processes are discussed.
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This article examines online recruitment via Facebook, Mechanical Turk (MTurk), and Qualtrics panels in India and the United States. It compares over 7300 respondents—1000 or more from each source and country—to nationally representative benchmarks in terms of demographics, political attitudes and knowledge, cooperation, and experimental replication. In the United States, MTurk offers the cheapest and fastest recruitment, Qualtrics is most demographically and politically representative, and Facebook facilitates targeted sampling. The India samples look much less like the population, though Facebook offers broad geographical coverage. We find online convenience samples often provide valid inferences into how partisanship moderates treatment effects. Yet they are typically unrepresentative on such political variables, which has implications for the external validity of sample average treatment effects.
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This timely resource offers fresh research on companies' use of social media platforms-from Twitter and Facebook to LinkedIn and other career sites-to find and hire personnel. Its balanced approach explains why and how social media are commonly used in both employee recruitment and selection, exploring relevant theoretical constructs and practical considerations about their appropriateness and validity. Contributors clarify a confusing cyberscape with recommendations and best practices, legal and ethical issues, pitfalls and problems, and possibilities for standardization. And the book's insights on emerging and anticipated developments will keep the reader abreast of the field as it evolves. Included in the coverage: · Social media as a personnel selection and hiring resource: Reservations and recommendations. · Game-thinking within social media to recruit and select job candidates. · Social media, big data, and employment decisions. · The use of social media by BRIC nations during the selection process. · Legal concerns when considering social media data in selection. · Online exclusion: Biases that may arise when using social media in talent acquisition. · Is John Smith really John Smith? Misrepresentations and misattributions of candidates using social media and social networking sites. Social Media in Employee Selection and Recruitment is a bedrock reference for industrial/organizational psychology and human resources academics currently or planning to conduct research in this area, as well as for academic libraries. Practitioners considering consulting social media as part of human resource planning or selection system design will find it a straight-talking guide to staying competitive. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. All rights reserved.
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It has recently been suggested that attribution theory expand its locus of causality dimension beyond internal and external attributions to include relational (i.e., interpersonal) attributions (Eberly, Holley, Johnson, & Mitchell, 2011). The current investigation was designed to empirically focus on relationship dynamics, specifically where 1 member of the relationship receives negative performance-related feedback. We use quantitative and qualitative data from 7 samples (5 samples for scale validation in Study 1 and 2 for hypothesis testing in Studies 2 and 3) that provide empirical support for the existence and impact of relational attributions. Our findings identify the circumstances under which relational attributions are likely to be formed and indicate that relational attributions are related to relational improvement behaviors, particularly when employees are of the same sex as their relationship partner and perceive sufficient time and energy to engage in relational improvement efforts. A personal attribute, relational self, contrary to expectations, did not moderate the link between relational attributions and improvement behaviors. These findings make an important contribution to attribution theory by providing evidence for the criticality of relational attributions within interdependent work relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Job embeddedness is predominately assumed to benefit employees, work groups, and organizations (e.g., higher performance, social cohesion, and lower voluntary turnover). Challenging this assumption, we examined the potentially negative outcomes that may occur if employees are embedded in an adverse work environment—feeling “stuck,” yet unable to exit a negative situation. More specifically, we considered two factors representing adverse work conditions: abusive supervision and job insecurity. Drawing from conservation of resources theory, we hypothesized that job embeddedness would moderate the relationship between these conditions and outcomes of voluntary turnover, physical health, emotional exhaustion, and sleep quality/quantity, such that employees embedded in more adverse environments would be less likely to quit, but would experience more negative personal outcomes. Results from two independent samples, one in Japan (N = 597) and one in the United States (N = 283), provide support for the hypothesized pattern of interaction effects, thereby highlighting a largely neglected “dark side” of job embeddedness.
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Judging others' personalities is an essential skill in successful social living, as personality is a key driver behind people's interactions, behaviors, and emotions. Although accurate personality judgments stem from social-cognitive skills, developments in machine learning show that computer models can also make valid judgments. This study compares the accuracy of human and computer-based personality judgments, using a sample of 86,220 volunteers who completed a 100-item personality questionnaire. We show that (i) computer predictions based on a generic digital footprint (Facebook Likes) are more accurate (r = 0.56) than those made by the participants' Facebook friends using a personality questionnaire (r = 0.49); (ii) computer models show higher interjudge agreement; and (iii) computer personality judgments have higher external validity when predicting life outcomes such as substance use, political attitudes, and physical health; for some outcomes, they even outperform the self-rated personality scores. Computers outpacing humans in personality judgment presents significant opportunities and challenges in the areas of psychological assessment, marketing, and privacy.
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We examined the psychometric properties of the Big Five personality traits assessed through social networking profiles in 2 studies consisting of 274 and 244 social networking website (SNW) users. First, SNW ratings demonstrated sufficient interrater reliability and internal consistency. Second, ratings via SNWs demonstrated convergent validity with self‐ratings of the Big Five traits. Third, SNW ratings correlated with job performance, hirability, and academic performance criteria; and the magnitude of these correlations was generally larger than for self‐ratings. Finally, SNW ratings accounted for significant variance in the criterion measures beyond self‐ratings of personality and cognitive ability. We suggest that SNWs may provide useful information for potential use in organizational research and practice, taking into consideration various legal and ethical issues.
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Organizations are increasingly relying on Internet searches and social networking websites to uncover detailed and private information about job applicants. Such Internet screening techniques have the potential to provide additional information beyond that found using traditional screening approaches. However, questions regarding the legality and appropriateness of this practice, as well as issues regarding the standardization, reliability, and validity of the information obtained, need to be addressed. The current work describes these issues associated with Internet screening and provides recommendations to help ensure this practice is used appropriately in organizations. Suggestions for future research on Internet screening are also discussed.
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Previous organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) research (a) has not demonstrated that extra-role behaviors can be distinguished empirically from in-role activities, and (b) has not examined the relative contributions of components ofjob satisfaction a nd organizational commitment to the performance of OCBs. Factor analysis of survey data from 127 employees' supervisors supported the distinction between in-role behaviors and two forms of OCBs. Hierarchical regression analysis found two job cognitions variables (intrinsic and extrinsic) to be differentially related to the two types OCBs, but affective variables and organizational commitment were not significant predictors. The link between the present findings and previous research is discussed, as are directions forfuture research.
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Differentiates among indices of agreement, reliability, and non-independence in organizational multilevel research and provides an overview of what each measure reveals about the group-level properties of one's data. Particular attention is devoted to the concept of non-independence and to the relationship between one form of the intraclass correlation coefficient and eta-squared. The 2nd purpose of this chapter is to extend the discussion of agreement, reliability, and non-independence from an exclusive focus on validating one's measurement model to a broader focus that includes testing substantive models and detecting emergent phenomena. In the discussion of bottom-up processes, particular attention is paid to a category that the author defines as "fuzzy" composition processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We used meta-analytic procedures to investigate the criterion-related validity of assessment center dimension ratings. By focusing on dimension-level information, we were able to assess the extent to which specific constructs account for the criterion-related validity of assessment centers. From a total of 34 articles that reported dimension-level validities, we collapsed 168 assessment center dimension labels into an overriding set of 6 dimensions: (a) consideration/awareness of others, (b) communication, (c) drive, (d) influencing others, (e) organizing and planning, and (f) problem solving. Based on this set of 6 dimensions, we extracted 258 independent data points. Results showed a range of estimated true criterion-related validities from .25 to .39. A regression-based composite consisting of 4 out of the 6 dimensions accounted for the criterion-related validity of assessment center ratings and explained more variance in performance (20%) than Gaugler, Rosenthal, Thornton, and Bentson (1987) were able to explain using the overall assessment center rating (14%).
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Virtually every previous review has concluded that structuring the selection interview improves its psychometric properties. This paper reviews the research literature in order to describe and evaluate the many ways interviews can be structured. Fifteen components of structure are identified that may enhance either the content of the interview or the evaluation process in the interview. Each component is explained in terms of its various operationalizations in the literature. Then, each component is critiqued in terms of its impact on numerous forms of reliability, validity, and user reactions. Finally, recommendations for research and practice are presented. It is concluded that interviews can be easily enhanced by using some of the many possible components of structure, and the improvement of this popular selection procedure should be a high priority for future research and practice.
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Information provided on applicants’ resumes provides a convenient, cost–effective means for applicant screening. We sought to determine if recruiters’ assessments of the presence of certain types of information on job applicants’ resumes was related to applicants’ general mental ability and personality traits. Forty recruiters from 35 organizations assessed the extent to which specified items were present on the resumes of job applicants. Results indicated relationships between recruiters’ judgments regarding applicants’ resume information and applicants’ cognitive ability and Big Five personality characteristics. Implications for the use of resume information in the selection process are discussed.
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The resume is the first contact between an organization and a job seeker, but little empirical evidence exits to guide resume development. This study examined the impact of resume characteristics on decisions to interview graduates. It was found that resume characteristics provided an advantage in obtaining an invitation to interview.
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This chapter discusses job market signaling. The term market signaling is not exactly a part of the well-defined, technical vocabulary of the economist. The chapter presents a model in which signaling is implicitly defined and explains its usefulness. In most job markets, the employer is not sure of the productive capabilities of an individual at the time he hires him. The fact that it takes time to learn an individual's productive capabilities means that hiring is an investment decision. On the basis of previous experience in the market, the employer has conditional probability assessments over productive capacity with various combinations of signals and indices. This chapter presents an introduction to Spence's more extensive analysis of market signaling.
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This study identifies stigma as a potential precursor to self-fulfilling prophecies in training interactions. Expectations held by leaders often result in actions that elicit expectancy-confirming behaviors from their subordinates. The results of the present study suggest that trainee weight (manipulated with a photograph depicting the trainee as either obese or average weight for height) influenced female trainer expectations and evaluations of the training and trainee. Furthermore, the results suggest that negative expectations held by trainers were related to trainee evaluations of the training and the trainer and, for less flexible trainers, to decrements in trainee performance on the trained task. Overall, the results suggest that trainer expectations can be influenced by stereotypes held about trainee characteristics, thus undermining training effectiveness.
The top 500 sites on the web
Alexa.com. (2018). The top 500 sites on the web. Retrieved from https:// www.alexa.com/topsites
Be careful with social media-employers are watching
  • J Margolis
Margolis, J. (2017). Be careful with social media-employers are watching. Retrieved from https://www.ft.com/content/5b8bb3b0-6aca-11e7-b9c7-15af748b60d0