Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The Construction Industry is responsible for over 30% of the extraction of natural resources, as well as 25% of solid waste generated in the world. This happens because the construction sector mostly adopts a linear economic model of “take, make, dispose”, using materials to the construction of buildings and disposing them at the end of life, since they are assembled for one time use and don’t retain potential for reuse. Over the last decades, a paradigm shift has been occurring in the industry at large, with the adoption of a Circular Economy model, that aims at keeping the materials in a closed loop to retain their maximum value, therefore with a greater potential of reducing the waste generation and resources extraction for the Construction Industry. This article aims at finding the recent developments of how Circular Economy can be used inside the construction industry. To achieve this goal, a systematic literature review was conducted, including 45 articles that were divided into six areas of research: development of Circular Economy, reuse of materials, material stocks, Circular Economy in the built environment, LCA analysis and material passport. An analysis of the content of these articles was made and the knowledge gaps in this area were identified, as well as table with known Circular Economy practices for the Construction Industry was created divided by life cycle stages. Finally, a discussion of each area of research and their findings is made.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The vast quantity of resources used in the construction industry is responsible for several deleterious environmental impacts because of waste from materials, global greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental pollution (Coelho & de Brito, 2012). Due to these impacts, the circular economy (CE) model has been proposed by researchers as an impactful alternative production model meant to replace the existing linear model of production for resource-intense sectors, including the construction industry (Benachio et al., 2020;Osobajo et al., 2020;Ruiz et al., 2020). ...
... This study will also compare the results from an analysis using the existing linear construction model and the alternative model (CE). Three features of the construction process will be observed; the four key materials used in commercial buildings and their waste products will be assessed using MFA, their environmental impacts will be evaluated using LCA, and a cost comparison of the materials will be conducted (Benachio et al., 2020). The results will demonstrate the potential benefits of the circular construction model and related policy recommendations for the US and UAE. ...
... Although not yet widely adopted, building material passports (BMPs) offer a promising approach to the CE in construction materials and fill an essential need for the lack of building materials data (Benachio et al., 2020;Honic et al., 2019). BMPs would capture the stock of all building components throughout their lifecycle and associated social, economic, and environmental impacts. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The construction and demolition sector are responsible for nearly half of global materials use, which causes immense environmental pressures. The construction industry's circular economy is still in its infancy. The construction and demolition industry could benefit from improved access to detailed information regarding the lifecycle of buildings, the materials used, and their environmental impacts. This study observes a case of a building in the United States and calculates the key materials used, associated costs, and their lifecycle impacts. An alternative circular model is proposed, which employs construction and demolition matching, and is compared with a linear construction model. Waste savings, costs, and lifecycle analyses are calculated and compared and show the potential benefits of the circular model in several dimensions. The policy context related to the construction and demolition sector in the United States and United Arab Emirates are compared, and policy barriers and enablers are identified. Finally, innovations and solutions worldwide are recommended for the United States and United Arab Emirates.
... Statistics show that the building industry uses 40% of energy, 30% of raw material, and 25% of water globally (Bilal et al., 2020;UNEP, 2019). It is responsible for more than 25% of all waste generated in the European Union (EU), with even higher percentages in developing countries (Benachio et al., 2020). This is mainly because traditional design strategies (also called the cradle-to-grave approach) rely on the linear resource consumption model, which is "take-make-consume-dispose" (Esa et al., 2017). ...
... CE is mainly advocated by the EU and China and was further highlighted after the establishment of the Ellen MacArthur Foundation (EMF) in 2010. As a result, there is growing research on this topic recently (Benachio et al., 2020). ...
... Despite ample CE-focused research in the construction industry, its implication is limited due to social and technical barriers like lack of public awareness, technology, and assessment methodologies (Charef and Emmitt, 2021). The recent reviews by Munaro et al. (2020) and Benachio et al. (2020) highlighted that CE research in the construction industry is fragmented and mainly focused on material reuse and waste reduction. Several technical solutions targeting different building life cycle phases have been proposed for closing loops and recycling construction material (Akanbi et al., 2018). ...
Article
The circular economy (CE) paradigm can eradicate the problems caused by the traditional linear economic approach adopted by the building industry. But the efforts to implement CE in the building and construction industry are fragmented and lack consensus. If improved, the ability to measure and report on progress can help in effectively transiting to CE. In this regard, wide-ranging building circularity indicators (C-indicators) have been proposed. However, the extant literature highlights that the comprehensive research on existing CE assessment tools in the building industry is still lacking, while policymakers (e.g., European Commission) and standards (e.g., ISO) have emphasized the need for a universally recognized circularity framework for buildings. To help this cause, this review inventories and critically analyzes 35 existing tools through an extended systematic literature review of 51 carefully selected documents from both academic and grey literature. It is found that there is a sharp increase in publications in recent years, with Europe leading the way. Along with the academic community, government agencies and consulting companies have also developed several C-indicators. The content analysis suggests that most indicators are quantitative and can vary in terms of the scale of application, the adopted CE scope and definition, and the underlying key performance indicators (KPIs). The descriptive analysis reveals that most indicators are in the developing stage and substantially stress recycling and reuse, overlooking some important aspects like energy, emission, and water. Innovative technical solutions like the design for adaptability and disassembly are excessively used to measure the circular potential of structures. The existing sustainability and circularity tools are seen as a good starting point for developing new frameworks. This extensive review and critical analysis provide a synthesis and explanation of the developing research theme of building C-indicators and highlight the remaining key challenges. The findings can drive the standardization of a universally accepted framework.
... Transition to environmental sustainability requires CE practice implementation across the whole life cycle (Mura et al. 2020). Despite CE practice implementation across the whole life cycle of buildings drawing much interest in recent times (Lei et al. 2021), studies that propose a unified approach in the C&D industry of emerging economies are rare (López Ruiz et al. 2020;Benachio et al. 2020). Only a few studies such as Benachio et al. (2020) and Guerra et al. (2021) proposed a unified approach to guide CE practice implementation across the whole life cycle of buildings. ...
... Despite CE practice implementation across the whole life cycle of buildings drawing much interest in recent times (Lei et al. 2021), studies that propose a unified approach in the C&D industry of emerging economies are rare (López Ruiz et al. 2020;Benachio et al. 2020). Only a few studies such as Benachio et al. (2020) and Guerra et al. (2021) proposed a unified approach to guide CE practice implementation across the whole life cycle of buildings. However, the authors did not provide a hierarchical analysis of the identified CE practices to facilitate the strategic implementation in the C&D industry especially for emerging economies where firms lack sufficient resources Faibil et al. 2021;Asante et al. 2022). ...
... Therefore, to determine the appropriate life cycle stage applicable to this study, several discussions among ten purposively sampled experts were conducted to ascertain the expert's view on the identified life cycle categorizations in Table 2. The experts also characterize the life cycle stage-related CE practices identified from studies such as Adams et al. (2017), López Ruiz et al. (2020), Benachio et al. (2020), and others based on the 6R principles. A summary of the characterization of life cycle stage-related CE practices identified by the ten experts is presented in Table 3. ...
Article
Full-text available
The strategic implementation of circular economy (CE) practices in the construction and demolition (C&D) industry is critical for achieving environmental sustainability goals. Understanding CE practices based on reduce, reuse, recycle, recover, remanufacture, and redesign (6R) principles from the perspective of the whole life cycle can promote the implementation of CE practices in the C&D industry. However, studies that shed light on this subject especially in emerging economies are generally lacking. This study contributes to filling this gap by using a three-phase methodology consisting of a literature review and a hybrid best–worst method and grey relational analysis to give insights into practices and strategies to prioritize CE practice implementation. Specifically, the paper focuses on identifying CE practices based on 6R principles, the significance of the identified CE practices, and understanding how to prioritize the implementation of the significant CE practices. The study’s findings established that implementing CE practices based on reduce and recover principles at the design stage contributes significantly to environmental sustainability. Additionally, the study highlights the relevance of both bottom-up and top-down approaches in the implementation of CE practices.
... A simpler definition is offered by the European Parliament, recognizing CE as a production and consumption model, which relies on 'sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products as long as possible', which thereby lengthens products' and materials' life cycles (European Parliament, 2022). In the context of the AEC industry, a CE is referred to as an economic system that supersedes the conventional 'end-of-life' ethos (Benachio et al., 2020); the focus is on minimizing, creatively repurposing, recycling and salvaging materials from manufacturing or distribution and consumption practises to retain the materials for the longest possible time in the cycle, thus limiting the exploitation of natural resources in projects (Benachio et al., 2020;Guerra & Leite, 2021;Kirchherr et al., 2017). ...
... A simpler definition is offered by the European Parliament, recognizing CE as a production and consumption model, which relies on 'sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products as long as possible', which thereby lengthens products' and materials' life cycles (European Parliament, 2022). In the context of the AEC industry, a CE is referred to as an economic system that supersedes the conventional 'end-of-life' ethos (Benachio et al., 2020); the focus is on minimizing, creatively repurposing, recycling and salvaging materials from manufacturing or distribution and consumption practises to retain the materials for the longest possible time in the cycle, thus limiting the exploitation of natural resources in projects (Benachio et al., 2020;Guerra & Leite, 2021;Kirchherr et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry has a reputation for low resource efficiency worldwide. Policymakers are exploring various avenues to address the issue, with one option being a shift toward a circular economy (CE). However, first one must identify how the relevant stakeholders perceive the concept. Hence, this study aimed to elicit stakeholders’ perceptions about CE and identify the main barriers and enablers affecting its adoption in the Australian context. A total of 132 respondents representing various stakeholder groups were surveyed. The findings revealed that only participants’ awareness of CE has a meaningful link with adoption; and this has a statistically significant association with major CE adoption indicators (i.e. adoption, willingness to apply, level of agreement on considering CE as business ethics and that CE is beneficial). The top three barriers were a: ‘lack of incentives’; ‘lack of specific regulations’; and a ‘lack of knowledge’. The three top enablers were reported to be ‘R&D of enabling technologies’, ‘educate project stakeholders’ and ‘provide evidence for the CE added value’. This paper could inform policy development activities in the Australian context and provides the foundation for a roadmap to a CE within the national AEC industry.
... Relatively, the construction industry is identified as a major contributor to resource exploitation, waste generation, and toxic emissions due to its linear economic patterns (Gorecki, et al., 2019). The construction sector is accountable for more than 30% of the natural resource extraction while accounting for 25% of the global waste generation (Benachio, et al., 2020). By the early 20 th century, the construction sector was accentuated as the most unsustainable industry in the globe (Núñez-Cacho, et al., 2018). ...
... El Asmar, et al. (2018) argue that the financial benefits are uncertain related to a circular built environment, and it drastically complicates the decision-making process of the project stakeholders. Thus, a tool for measuring the economic benefits of a circular economy is important in addressing the low community interest and awareness of circular economy principles which is a barrier that primarily hinders the rise of a circular built environment (Adams, et al., 2017;Benachio, et al., 2020). Therefore, in empowering an effective transition to the circular built environment, proper strategies and tools must be established to measure the value of the operations in terms of economic aspects (Gorecki, et al., 2019;Adams, et al., 2017). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Attribute to the rapid expansion of the built environment, excessive resource consumption and waste generation aligned with the corresponding linear economy practices have impacted the preservation of the ecosphere. In addressing the shortcomings of the linear economy, the circular economy concept was introduced by prioritising the circular value streams of the resources which minimises resource extraction and waste generation. However, environmental concerns are often disregarded in construction processes where the priority is given to the cost and economic return of construction applications. Simultaneously, the absence of a proper methodology in assessing the economic aspects of circular economy principles is apparent in the built environment sector. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the importance of a proper value assessment tool in shifting to a circular built environment in Sri Lanka. Instigating from a literature survey, the existing knowledge on the study area was synthesised. A qualitative approach was followed in the empirical study where semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten experts in the field of circular economy in Sri Lanka. The manual content analysis technique was followed in analysing the collected qualitative data. The findings revealed that the extremely low maturity of circular economy practices in the Sri Lankan construction sector is mainly caused by the absence of a proper value assessment tool. Therefore, the introduction of a proper value assessment tool is important for circular built environment experts to encourage the fellow construction community towards the transition to a circular built environment in Sri Lanka.
... Circular Economy (CE) is an alternative to the linear economy and is focused on maintaining materials in closed loops, reducing consumption rates, and keeping products at their highest values instead of the traditional take-make-dispose approach (Benachio et al., 2020). Successful application of CE concepts in industry requires the transition to circular business models (Linder & Williander, 2017). ...
... Successful application of CE concepts in industry requires the transition to circular business models (Linder & Williander, 2017). Some of these circular business models include Design for Disassembly, Design for modularity, Sharing Platforms, Resell, Repair Waste as Resource, Urban mining, and Reverse Logistics, which can be applied to different lifecycle stages of a project or a product (Benachio et al., 2020). "Waste as resource" and "urban mining" are two of the applicable business models in the construction industry that are mainly focused on the recoverability of materials after their initial use through reuse or recycle. ...
... Indeed, many studies in the circular BE research focus on how to reuse and recycle materials from urban stocks as well as other industries for producing new construction products [32]. Correspondingly, BE scholars predominantly consider two life cycle stages [33]: (1) end-of-life stage to recover valuable materials for new construction and waste reduction, and (2) design stage for design for modularity, disassembly, reuse and optimization. ...
... Although the number of studies on circular BE is increasing in recent years [33], there is no widely accepted definition of the circular BE. In their seminal article, Pomponi and Moncaster [34] define circular buildings as the ones designed, planned, built, operated, maintained, and deconstructed in line with CE principles. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The world is facing an alarming housing crisis. The challenge for the construction industry is to find sustainable ways to meet this growing housing demand. The concept of Circular Economy could be an alternative approach as it aims to regenerate, narrow, slow, and close resources loops. Digital technologies are seen as enablers to implementing these looping strategies through their capabilities for managing information and supporting collaboration and new business model creation. In the built environment, many digital innovations have emerged that support the circular transition of the industry at various spatial scales. However, these innovations mainly focus on nano, micro, and macro scales and lack perspectives on the meso level (real estate portfolio). This research aims to understand how digital technologies can support circular strategies at the meso level by collecting empirical evidence from the European social housing organizations actively experimenting with circular strategies. We conducted a multiple-case study method and chose two cases from the UK and Belgium. We collected data through desk research and online group interviews. Our results indicate that housing organizations adopt a wide range of circular strategies for managing their housing portfolio. The support of digital technologies to perform the circularity is low. Our findings suggest five potentially enabling digital technologies at the meso level supporting the housing sector towards circularity: circular asset management tools, digital building logbooks, material passports, BIM, and collaboration tools.
... Recent evidence suggests that CE is being adopted across the industries covering manufacturing (Lieder and Rashid, 2016), construction (Benachio et al. 2020;Dadhich et al. 2015), power (Wang et al. 2020), maritime sector (Milios et al. 2019), textile and apparel industry (Saha et al. 2021, Jia et al. 2020, and services sector (Fernandes et al. 2020). Although the above studies are not particularly related to SMEs, the constructs are relevant to SMEs' CE adoption that covers various industries, multiple stakeholders' perspectives, technology enablers, and sustainability-oriented innovation. ...
... Recent research indicates wide scope for further contributions coveringcommon way of measuring micro level CE and development of industry specific indicators (Saidani et al. 2019); consideration of social sustainability within the CE framework (Pieroni et al. 2019); 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 developing business model for each phase of businesses (e.g. construction projects - Benachio et al. 2020); degree of circularity of the companies ; societal aspects of CE including social innovation and alternative economies (Turkeli et al. 2018); design for circularity, procurement and circular supply chain, biodegradable packaging, circular supply chain collaboration, drivers and barriers for circular supply chain, circular consumption, product liabilities, and producers' responsibility (Farooque et al. 2019); critical success factors, barriers, new business models and innovative framework for circular supply chain management (Lahane et al. 2020); case studies and prototypes using consensus building among the stakeholders through feasibility analysis to enable environmental sustainability (Fan et al. 2019); how green supply chain management theories facilitate to adopt CE and help build CE theories that not only help achieve environmental sustainability but also social sustainability (Liu et al. 2018); industry specific work on design, implementation and operational tools for 6R (redesign, reduce, reuse, recycle, remanufacture and repair) (Jia et al. 2020); revealing 3 levels of industrial ecology contribution to CEconceptual, technical and policy aspects (Saavedra et al. 2018); circular business model through integration of waste, natural resources, environmental and economic aspects Battini et al. 2017). This research intends to address some of the above highlighted challenges. ...
Article
Circular Economy (CE) practices have the potential to enhance sustainability performance of organisations and thus help respond to United Nations Sustainability Development Goals. The aim of this research is to examine the adoption of CE in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and its impact on sustainability performance. We analyze the current state of CE practices and its impact on sustainability performance across key CE fields of action (design, procurement, production, distribution, consumption and recover) of SMEs in France, Greece, Spain and the UK A mixed-methods approach (survey, interviews, case studies) is adopted to collect data from around 100 SMEs in each country, employing resource-based view as the theoretical lens. Our findings reveal that CE adoption can result into superior environmental performance compared to economic and social performance. Moreover, the ‘design’ function contributes the most towards the adoption of CE in SMEs, whereas the ‘recover’ function contributes the least, considering the current state-of-practices. From a theoretical perspective, we outline the issues and challenges, impact of support from customers and policymakers, and self-motivation of SMEs to adopt CE. Based on the findings, we propose an implementation framework for SMEs to develop organisation wide strategic initiatives for CE adoption in business operations.
... In this regard, studies from other sectors have reported contradictory findings regarding the effectiveness of training processes on SCPMs. While some studies have identified positive results of training courses aimed at the business sector (Kevin van Langen et al., 2021;Ormazabal et al., 2018), others argue that there is still a lack of knowledge on this topic (Benachio et al., 2020;Peralta et al., 2020). This could be due to the complexity of understanding the concepts of circular economy and bioeconomy and the different interpretations that exist about them (Kirchherr et al., 2017;Stegmann et al., 2020;Velenturf and Purnell, 2021). ...
... On the contrary, the findings of this study do not coincide with the results of other research suggesting that there is still a lack of knowledge about the circular economy in companies. These differences may be because those studies focus on the industrial (Peralta et al., 2020) and construction (Benachio et al., 2020) sectors, which may not have the same degree of prioritization as the fruit and vegetable sector. Also, contrary to Stahel (2016), it is evident that knowledge about circular economy is not concentrated in one type of organization. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to conduct an exploratory and comparative analysis between Fruit and Vegetable Producer Organizations (FVPOs) and fruit and vegetable producers that are not part of these organizations (Non-FVPOs) regarding the prioritization, perception, and adoption of sustainable and circular practices. For this purpose, data was collected from both groups through an online survey. Statistical techniques for the comparison of two independent groups (chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney U test) were used to examine the differences on a sample of 14 FVPOs and 22 Non-FVPOs from Spain. Although the results show more similarities than differences between the two groups, they highlight that FVPOs are more likely to prioritize environmental factors and implement both green manuring and biodegradable raffia as the main Agricultural Waste Biomass (AWB) reduction and/or valorization practices. In addition, the findings point to the relevance of environmental considerations and specifically to the Sustainable and Circular Production Models (SCPMs) as an alternative to the traditional fruit and vegetable production system. Theoretically, the results mainly contradict resource and first mover advantage arguments by revealing that more resourceful organizations do not necessarily possess better environmental management. This study also provides innovative information and relevant contributions for governments. It allows them to identify aspects that should be strengthened in relation to policies, regulatory frameworks, and/or strategies that promote sustainable and circular production systems for both FVPOs and Non-FVPOs. In addition, it contributes with implications, for organizations and farmers, how to improve actions and opportunities to advance the transition to SCPMs.
... recovery and reuse, material passports, and design aspects, including disassembly, the long life of the building and its components (Benachio et al., 2020;Hossain et al., 2020). Successful implementation of CE in CI requires reforms in each value chain, starting from design and business models to developing new customer values and habits (Tomaszewska, 2020). ...
... However, even if there is sufficient awareness regarding the need to shift toward CE, the lack of standardized practices and methods hinders the real-life application of the concept in CI (Benachio et al., 2020). Moreover, CI lacks a CE model that guarantees economic benefits for all involved stakeholders (Yu et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Intending to close the loop of product life cycles and substitute for the linear economy, a new concept of circular economy (CE) has emerged. Although relatively novel, the concept of CE has gained significant momentum worldwide. CE can potentially help to solve the problem of resource depletion and environmental degradation. However, measuring circularity remains a question and a challenge for various stakeholders. This work aimed to propose an assessment tool to measure the circularity of construction projects. Through a systematic literature review, existing circularity measurement methods, tools, and actions associated with circularity in the construction industry were reviewed. A list of critical circularity actions was identified. Kazakhstan was selected as an emerging economy country to validate the tool. A survey was conducted among professionals in the construction industry to determine the importance of every action and the legislative readiness of local laws to support those actions. The proposed tool (CAT2022) was tailored to measure the circularity degree of construction projects in the selected emerging economy country. As part of the proposed circularity measurement tool, the study also provided several assessments to demonstrate the criteria in the evaluation and their fulfillment of the actions concerning circularity. The results show that projects perform notably differently in terms of circularity depending on methods of construction, technologies implemented, company business model, energy and material efficiency practices. In line with the common assumption that projects certified by green building rating systems are more “circular” than others, our findings indicated that LEED-certified buildings and buildings implementing modular construction methods tend to receive high circularity scores.
... However, CE through the lens of sustainability (Geissdoerfer et al., 2017;Schroeder et al., 2019) is a concept widely studied in China (Geng et al., 2012;Su et al., 2013;Yong, 2017) and the European Union (Kirchherr et al. 2018;McDowall et al., 2017), with scope for analysis beyond these countries. While there are works in larger organisations (see Leider and Rashid, 2016), studies on SMEs' adoption of circular economy is scant at the micro-level (Benachio et al., 2020;Dey et al., 2020;Dey et al., 2022;Farooque et al., 2019;Goyal et al., 2016;Kristensen and Mosgaard, 2020;Lahane et al., 2020;Saidani et al., 2019). The purpose of this article, thus, is to bridge this critical knowledge gap. ...
... Circular economy is being adopted across various industries, including manufacturing and service sectors (Benachio et al. 2020;Jia et al., 2020;Lieder and Rashid, 2016;Milios et al., 2019;Wang et al., 2020), but it is difficult to find studies on CE implementation in SMEs (Liakos et al., 2019). Several researchers have identified key issues in adopting CE approach in SMEs of developing countries such as India (Singh et al., 2018). ...
Article
Circular Economy (CE) adoption in Indian SMEs is still nascent, irrespective of various initiatives, policies, and trans-national strategic partnerships of the Indian government. The existing research has outlined the benefits of CE adoption within organisations (regardless of the size and sector) to achieve sustainable business performance in emerging markets. This paper employs resource-based view as a theoretical lens to examine the factors influencing and inhibiting CE adoption in Indian manufacturing and process-based SMEs by conducting twelve case-studies. The within and cross-case analysis shows that lack of business process analysis, skills and expertise, digital transformation and multi-stakeholder cooperation within the supply chain inhibits CE adoption, while government initiatives, competitive advantage, environmental regulation, and customer pressure are the drivers. The study proposes a CE implementation guide comprising six principles for the SMEs’ managers in India to achieve resource efficiency, cost savings, multi-stakeholder collaboration and sustainable outcomes across the CE fields of action.
... Existing review studies significantly contribute to the CE literature (Benachio et al., 2020;Ciliberto et al., 2021;Sparrevik et al., 2021), but key limitations are also apparent. Most review studies focus on CE practices in the construction sector and omit any holistic contextualization of CE practical applications in the built environment (i.e. ...
... what has been achieved and what else requires future investigation). For example, Benachio et al. (2020) conducted a literature review after collecting 45 construction articles on CE and focused on CE practices to only assess the project life cycle (LC). Sparrevik et al. (2021) focused their literature review on presenting different methods for assessing the built environment, including the LC perspective and the salvage value of asset's elements. ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to explore the emerging relationship between Industry 4.0 (I4.0) digital technologies (e.g. blockchain, Internet of Things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI)) and the construction industry’s gradual transition into a circular economy (CE) system to foster the adoption of circular economy in the construction industry. Design/methodology/approach A critical and thematic analysis conducted on 115 scientific papers reveals a noticeable growth in adopting digital technologies to leverage a CE system. Moreover, a conceptual framework is developed to show the interrelationship between different I4.0 technologies to foster the implantation of CE in the construction industry. Findings Most of the existing bodies of research provide conceptual solutions rather than developing workable applications and the future of smart cities. Moreover, the coalescence of different technologies is highly recommended to enable tracking of building assets’ and components’ (e.g. fixtures and fittings and structural components) performance, which enables users to optimize the salvage value of components reusing or recycling them just in time and extending assets’ operating lifetime. Finally, circular supply chain management must be adopted for both new and existing buildings to realise the industry's CE ambitions. Hence, further applied research is required to foster CE adoption for existing cities and infrastructure that connects them. Originality/value This paper investigates the interrelationships between most emerging digital technologies and circular economy and concludes with the development of a conceptual digital ecosystem to integrate IoT, blockchain and AI into the operation of assets to direct future practical research applications
... In the circular economy model, the aim is to reduce waste generation, resource extraction and reuse, so as to keep the resources in a loop rather than "take, make and dispose of." (Benachio et al. 2020) For these reasons, many papers have been published highlighting the focal points that deserve research attention in order to achieve effective circularity in construction and demolition waste management (Hoang et al. 2020;Bao and Lu 2020;Benachio et al. 2020). In some other papers (Yuan and Shen 2011;Aslam et al. 2020;Zhao et al. 2021), the authors also called for more regulations, policies, and strategies, with little or no clarity on what strategies are actually needed to achieve true circularity. ...
... In the circular economy model, the aim is to reduce waste generation, resource extraction and reuse, so as to keep the resources in a loop rather than "take, make and dispose of." (Benachio et al. 2020) For these reasons, many papers have been published highlighting the focal points that deserve research attention in order to achieve effective circularity in construction and demolition waste management (Hoang et al. 2020;Bao and Lu 2020;Benachio et al. 2020). In some other papers (Yuan and Shen 2011;Aslam et al. 2020;Zhao et al. 2021), the authors also called for more regulations, policies, and strategies, with little or no clarity on what strategies are actually needed to achieve true circularity. ...
... Recent evidence suggests that CE is being adopted across the industries covering manufacturing (Lieder and Rashid, 2016), construction (Benachio et al. 2020;Dadhich et al. 2015), power (Wang et al. 2020), maritime sector (Milios et al. 2019), textile and apparel industry (Saha et al. 2021, Jia et al. 2020, and services sector (Fernandes et al. 2020). Although the above studies are not particularly related to SMEs, the constructs are relevant to SMEs' CE adoption that covers various industries, multiple stakeholders' perspectives, technology enablers, and sustainability-oriented innovation. ...
... Recent research indicates wide scope for further contributions coveringcommon way of measuring micro level CE and development of industry specific indicators (Saidani et al. 2019); consideration of social sustainability within the CE framework (Pieroni et al. 2019); 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 developing business model for each phase of businesses (e.g. construction projects - Benachio et al. 2020); degree of circularity of the companies ; societal aspects of CE including social innovation and alternative economies (Turkeli et al. 2018); design for circularity, procurement and circular supply chain, biodegradable packaging, circular supply chain collaboration, drivers and barriers for circular supply chain, circular consumption, product liabilities, and producers' responsibility (Farooque et al. 2019); critical success factors, barriers, new business models and innovative framework for circular supply chain management (Lahane et al. 2020); case studies and prototypes using consensus building among the stakeholders through feasibility analysis to enable environmental sustainability (Fan et al. 2019); how green supply chain management theories facilitate to adopt CE and help build CE theories that not only help achieve environmental sustainability but also social sustainability (Liu et al. 2018); industry specific work on design, implementation and operational tools for 6R (redesign, reduce, reuse, recycle, remanufacture and repair) (Jia et al. 2020); revealing 3 levels of industrial ecology contribution to CEconceptual, technical and policy aspects (Saavedra et al. 2018); circular business model through integration of waste, natural resources, environmental and economic aspects Battini et al. 2017). This research intends to address some of the above highlighted challenges. ...
Article
The aim of this research is to facilitate small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to achieve superior performance through the adoption of circular economy (CE) principles. It analyses the current state of sustainability practices and performance across key CE areas of action (design, procurement, production, distribution, consumption and recover) in selected European countries (France, Greece, Spain and the UK), identifies issues and challenges for sustainability practices, and suggests improvement measures. We utilize the resource-based view (RBV) to examine reduce, reuse, and recycle principles of CE along with transformation of supply chains from linear to closed loop. A multi-method approach (involving survey, interviews, case studies) is adopted to collect data from around 100 SMEs in each country. The findings reveal that currently CE adoption in SMEs are likely to facilitate achievement of higher environmental performance compared to economic and social performance. Moreover, the 'design' function contributes the most towards the adoption of CE in SMEs, whereas the 'recover' function contributes the least. Additionally, SMEs receive more support from their customers for implementing CE compared to policymakers and their self-motivation for CE adoption needs improvement. This research offers a framework for CE implementation in SMEs. Circular economy (CE) helps achieve sustainability within SMEs. This study provides a framework for facilitating CE adoption in SMEs in European countries. Design function of closed loop supply chain of SMEs of participating European countries contributes the most for CE adoption, reverse logistics function does the least. Correlation among CE fields of action and sustainability performance enables to derive strategies, competence and resources for CE adoption The concerned stakeholders (e.g. policymakers, customers, and SMEs' owners / managers) have a key role to play in facilitating CE adoption in SMEs.
... Again, the valuations were, "We have not heard the term" to "We apply the strategy in all the projects". Different CE strategies for C&D described in [17], [28]- [30] were selected for evaluation: (S1) Industrial Symbiosis, (S2) Selection of material from origin, (S3) Using durable materials, (S4) Design for disassembly, (S5) Design to reduce waste, (S6) Layer construction and (S7) Material passports In the Practices module three, a specific investigation on data collection and availability was made. It was important to know if the C&D firms collected data about: (i) water usage, (ii) waste composition, (iii) energy consumption, (iv) waste weight and (v) recycled material used. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Construction and demolition (C&D) sector mobilise a significant number of resources and at the same time is responsible for a large fraction of waste worldwide (40%-60%). Although, the environmental impact of these by-products is low, waste generated finishes in landfills, is downgraded and because of its volume it has become a priority at different governmental levels. In this context, the Circular Economy (CE) provides a set of strategies to improve efficient use of resources, thus reducing the environmental footprint of C&D. Most academic literature has focused on China, Europe, or the US, but knowledge about CE practices and perceptions in global south countries is scarce. To reduce this knowledge gap, this study focuses on Argentina and explores what are the perceptions, challenges, and opportunities for adopting CE strategies by the C&D sector. To achieve this goal, a survey was developed and distributed with support from the Argentinean Chamber of Construction (CAMARCO), among members of the chamber and other C&D relevant networks. The survey was carried out in the Autumn of 2021 and 88 C&D firms representing different size, longevity and business cycle responded. The results of the survey show that most of surveyed firms are trying to engage with the concept of CE. Secondly, a lack of digitalisation and information are seen as important barriers to transition to CE. Finally, policy makers should focus on providing financial and tax incentives to secure a better environmental future.
... Furthermore, the opportunities for implementing a circular economy in the built environment and related businesses are primarily recognized by different organizations. According to World Economic Forum, it estimates that the adoption of circular economy principles by the construction sector could result in over U.S. $100 billion a year in savings due to improved productivity [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The common values of a circular economy are concentrated in decoupling economic growth from resource consumption; resource efficiency; waste management; sharing; reducing greenhouse gas emissions; lifecycle assessments and closing loops. With the increasing cost of natural resources as a real EU scenario, industries will significantly benefit from shifting towards a more circular approach. The aim of this paper is to analyses the waste management actions, especially for construction and demolition sector, in Romania in the EU-28 context by applying statistical methods and neural network modelling to find the best macroeconomic predictor for recovery rate of construction and demolition waste for period 2010-2020.
... The platform ecosystems for the circular economy in the built environment have also gained importance (European Commission, 2015;Berg and Wilts, 2019;Benachio et al., 2020;Chidepatil et al., 2020;Mosca et al., 2020). The circular economy is an emerging economic system based on business models that support the recycling and recovery of materials in production and consumption processes (Korhonen et al., 2018;Ghaffar et al., 2020). ...
Conference Paper
With the increasing importance of platform ecosystems for value creation and capture in the emerging economies, the platform ecosystems have also proliferated across the circular economy in the built environment. Platform ecosystems are a useful medium that connects and enables seemingly geographically dispersed and diverse businesses to exchange products and services. Initiating and designing a new platform ecosystem for the circular economy in the built environment is challenging. Thus, our case study explores the challenges of initiating and designing an emerging platform ecosystem for the recirculation of the construction waste materials and industrial production side streams across the built environment. This study presents the challenges of an initiative by the several platform owners that combined their capabilities and resources in one efficient network to support circular economy growth in the built environment. Specifically, we offer insights into how several platform owners initiative and design multi-platform ecosystems. A specific challenge identified in this study is the design of the multi-platform ecosystem for equal value creation and capture by the platform owners. This study further draws recommendations for the policymakers while contributing to the literature on the platformization for the circular economy in the built environment.
... For instance, according to the British not-for-profit company, Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP), the CE can reduce waste, drive greater resource productivity, address emerging resource security, and reduce the environmental impact of the built environment. Although the emulsion around the concept of CE seems quite recent (Benachio et al., 2020), it is rooted in different schools of thought that have emerged many years ago, such as the cradle to cradle (McDonough and Braungart, 2003), biomimicry (Benyus, 2002), performance economy (Stahel, 2006) among others. The earliest onset was identified in Japan in the 1990s, with continued government implication since, with the development of a "comprehensive legal framework for moving towards a recycling-based society" (Urbinati et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Although the construction sector is one of the least digitized sectors, the last decade has been a period that some qualify as the 4th industrial revolution, notably with the adoption of Building Information Modelling (BIM). However, the construction industry is still one of the most resource-intensive sectors, generating Megatons of waste every year. To decrease the impact of the construction on the environment, authorities are getting interested in adopting a circular economy (CE) approach, including servitization. Although there is an emulsion around the circular economy approach, organisational tools to help construction practitioners to move to a CE approach are dramatically lacking. The purpose of the paper is to develop a BIM-based trans-scalar theoretical frame work to support practitioners in their understanding and the implementation of the CE approach. The trans-scalar theoretical framework is established with data extracted from a research portfolio fuelled by three main databases, Scopus, RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects) Plan of Work and BIM standards. First, the RIBA framework and the information delivery cycle were adjusted to incorporate the sustainable end-of-life, as a phase in the CE context. Based on theoretical foundations, the main contribution of this paper is the trans-scalar theoretical framework developing and clarifying what are the main asset lifecycle phases (including the end-of-life), their related stakeholders, and the interplays between them, in the UK context. The paper also organizes holistically two scales, the asset lifecycle phases and the material flow, whether new or recovered, in the context of BIM and CE. Some future areas of research are presented, including how the BIM-based trans-scalar theoretical framework could be improved with inputs from construction experts.
... The associated intensive utilization of natural materials contributes heavily to the carbon footprint of the construction industry through the linear process of extraction, processing, and disposal of materials (Morseletto, 2020;Riekstins, 2020). Construction industry consumes about 30% of the extracted natural resources and is responsible for 25% of the generated solid waste across the globe (Benachio et al., 2020). Despite offering an immediate solution to the societal problems, this continual dependence on the natural materials for construction and maintenance of new pavements neglects imminent sustainability-related problems. ...
Article
The use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) for porous asphalts is a viable attempt towards waste management and sustainable conservation of natural resources. Installation of a porous asphalt wearing course is justified in highway pavements because it offers higher skid resistance, glare reduction, lesser traffic noise, reduction of hydroplaning, and mitigation of urban heat island phenomenon. The performance of porous asphalt mixtures containing 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of coarse RCA as replacement for granite was studied and reported in this paper. The mixture containing 0% RCA was used as the control. The skid properties, permeability, water susceptibility and mechanical behaviour of the mixtures under various loading conditions were investigated. Blending granite and RCA in the porous asphalt mixture gave better Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS), rutting resistance, and impact strength indicators. The mixture with 60% RCA achieved desirable results in all tests. It exhibited the best performance based on its ITS and impact strength of 431 kPa and 380 J, respectively. These values were higher than the control by 3% and 30%, respectively. Utilisation of RCA in porous asphalt pavements is recommended based on the results of this study.
... At this stage, accepted documents (23 articles) were fully read and assessed with the aid of qualitative content analysis (QCA) and statistical meta-analysis. QCA categorizes text data and identifies common themes and statements through coding and classification (Akomea-Frimpong et al., 2021c;Benachio et al., 2020). Relevant words, texts, and statements were extracted from the 23 articles. ...
Article
Recent world events have put a spotlight on inclusive project financing models that tackle climate change and reduce carbon emissions in the construction and management of buildings. A cardinal example of such models is green finance, a controversial term that integrates environmental protection and social justice with economic profits in green buildings. This paper probes into the terminology and links the concept of green finance to green buildings. The study utilizes a systematic literature review methodology to analyze and synthesize existing literature. The outcomes of the study show that increased economic returns, clear regulations, and awareness creation drive its acceptance in the built environment. However, as a developing concept, the major challenge is the contradictions of what constitutes green finance for green buildings. The results of this study draw the attention of key stakeholders to develop and merge the two concepts in research and practice to attain ecological balance in the financial market and the built environment.
... In the European Union, the building industry (including CDW) is incorporated as a key sector in both first and new CE Action Plans (European Commission, 2020. Moreover, research efforts within the adoption of CE in the construction sector present an emerging trend of publications since 2017 (Benachio et al., 2020;Eberhardt et al., 2020), mostly consisting of reviews, frameworks and analytical type papers (Hossain et al., 2020). However, there is a need of evaluation for supporting the transition towards a CE by providing quantification of the effects of implementing CE strategies (Bilal et al., 2020;Moraga et al., 2019;Rincón-Moreno et al., 2021). ...
Article
Construction and demolition waste (CDW) is identified by multiple circular economy (CE) policies as a key sector for implementing circularity strategies due to the high volume of waste produced and the large consumption of raw materials. However, CE is not widely applied in the sector because of the lack of solid estimations on its environmental and economic viability. The main aim of this study was to propose a set of methodological steps to identify the optimal circularity alternatives for CDW products based on a multicriteria analysis of their environmental and economic performance. This methodology is applied to evaluate concrete waste. In specific, high-grade applications of concrete waste were analyzed comprising the processing into recycled coarse aggregates (RCA) for their use in structural and non-structural concrete. Multiple scenarios with different RCA replacements (20%, 30% and 100%) and different types of sorting and recycling (on-site and off-site) were evaluated in accordance with the specific site conditions of the region of Catalonia, Spain. The Life Cycle Analysis methodology (LCA) was used to perform the environmental analysis, while a detailed cost analysis was conducted for the economic aspect. The multicriteria method VIKOR was used for the selection of alternatives considering three different criteria. The results of this study showed environmental and economic advantages of CE scenarios based on the use of RCA over conventional concrete, mainly due to the influence of landfilling and transport distances. RCA produced on-site showed a better performance than RCA from fixed plants.
... Existing review studies significantly contribute to the CE literature (Benachio et al., 2020;Ciliberto et al., 2021;Sparrevik et al., 2021) Rios et al. (2021) identified the US's barriers and enablers to circular building design. Similarly, Shooshtarian et al. (2022) identified the main opportunities and barriers to minimise construction waste disposal through a review of 62 articles of Australian literature. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 u c t i o n I n n o v a t i o n : I n f o r m a t i o n , P r o c e s s , M a n a g e m 4 Several studies explored how building information modelling (BIM) could augment construction waste management (Akanbi et al., 2019;Akinade and Oyedele, 2019b;Charef and Emmitt, 2021;Honic et al., 2021;van den Berg et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This paper explores the emerging relationship between Industry 4.0 (I4.0) digital technologies (e.g., blockchain, Internet of Things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI)) and the construction industry’s gradual transition into a circular economy (CE) system to foster the adoption of circular economy in the construction industry. Design/methodology/approach: A critical and thematic analysis conducted on 115 scientific papers reveals a noticeable growth in adopting digital technologies to leverage a CE system. Moreover, a conceptual framework is developed to show the interrelationship between different industry 4.0 technologies to foster the implantation of CE in the construction industry. Findings: Most of the existing body of research provides conceptual solutions rather than developing workable applications and the future of smart cities. Moreover, the coalescence of different technologies is highly recommended to enable tracking of building assets’ and components’ (e.g., fixtures and fittings and structural components) performance, which enables users to optimize the salvage value of components reusing or recycling them just-in-time and extending assets’ operating lifetime. Finally, circular supply chain management must be adopted for both new and existing buildings to realise the industry's CE ambitions. Hence, further applied research is required to foster CE adoption for existing cities and infrastructure that connects them. Originality/value: This paper investigates the interrelationships between most emerging digital technologies and circular economy and concludes with the development of a conceptual framework to integrate IoT, blockchain and AI into the operation of assets to direct future practical research applications.
... In the construction industry, the current LE model has resulted in approximately 25% of solid waste being produced and more than 30% of the world's natural resources being extracted [22]. The transition to the CE is expected to be a possible option for the industry in which production flows may be reintegrated as secondary resources [23], such as reusing and recycling building materials in order to prolong their life cycle. ...
Article
Full-text available
The traditional linear economy (LE) approach based on a “take-make-dispose” plan that has been used in building activities over a long period has a significant impact on the environment. In the LE approach, the used materials are usually sent to landfills rather than recycled, resulting in resource depletion and excessive carbon emissions. A circular economy (CE) is expected to solve these environmental problems by promoting material “closed-loop systems”. This study was intended to quantify and analyse the global warming potential (GWP) values of specific metal roofing and cladding products to promote CE thinking. A spatiotemporal model integrated with the life cycle assessment (LCA) tool was used to quantify the GWP value of the steel products in the investigated buildings. The study analysed ten case buildings located in six different cities in New Zealand: Auckland, Wellington, Hamilton, Palmerston North, Tauranga, and Christchurch. The production stages (A1–A3), water processing (C3), disposal (C4), and re-cycle, reuse, and recovery stages (D) were the focus of the study in analyzing the GWP values of the product’s life cycle. The study found that the production stages became the most significant emitters (approximately 99.67%) of the investigated steel products’ GWP values compared to other selected life cycle stages. However, when considering the recycling stages of the steel products, the GWP value was reduced up to 32%. Therefore, by implementing the recycling process, the amount of GWP can be reduced, consequently limiting the building activities’ environmental impacts. In addition, the integration of spatial analysis and LCA was found to have potential use and benefit in future urban mining and the development of the CE approach in the construction industry.
... There is a dearth of a complete CBM covering circular supply model, resource recovery model, product-life extension, sharing model, and product-service system. (Benachio Freitas & Tavares, 2020). This has however created a big challenge on the pathway to effective BCDW management in a CE. ...
Article
Waste generated by building construction and demolition (BCD) activities contributes to the major proportion of urban solid waste. A large amount of the waste is still sent to the landfill or downcycled globally. The adoption of circular economy (CE) in the building construction industry (BCI) could leverage significant gain in managing the waste from BCD activities. While studies have been conducted on CE in the BCI, a comprehensive review of the barriers to CE adoption in building construction and demolition waste (BCDW) management is thus far limited. Hence, to bridge this research gap and provide an improved understanding, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guideline was adopted to systematically explore related literature towards the development of a web of barriers, integrated framework, and implementation strategies for CE adoption in BCDW management. The barriers to CE adoption in BCDW management were gleaned from 23-countries and consolidated as institutional and regulatory barriers, technological and information barriers, and organizational barriers, among others. A blended conceptual framework indicating the causality and interrelationship among the groups of barriers was determined using the interpretive structural modeling (ISM) approach. Ultimately, integrated implementation strategies were put forward to combat the identified barriers. Theoretically, this study has created a distinct character of the barriers to and strategies for the comprehensive promotion, implementation, and diffusion of CE in BCDW management. It has made a useful contribution to the existing literature through the mapping of a comprehensive co-existence and relationship among the barriers. This study has triggered a variety of empirically based research studies on the barriers, and success factors to promote CE in BCDW from a developed and developing economies' perspective in the future.
... Considering the circular economy activities, it is possible to link circular economy practices with the life cycle assessment LCA in this stage because LCA is a tool that aims to assess the advantages of material reuse and the amount of reduction in natural resources [20]. LCA is an approach that describes the environmental impacts of a product through its lifespan, granting better information about the product, which will help to establish improved strategies [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The urbanization process adds to the increase in solid waste generation, increased environmental impacts, and solid waste management failures. Due to the restricted deployment and proper disposal of solid waste, the environmental implications are a concern. There has been an increase in interest in sustainable practices regarding waste management and recycling, which the civil construction sector has substantially absorbed. Plastic waste can be recycled and can be used in many applications. One such application is in concrete, for which the recycled-based plastic aggregates or plastic fibers can be substituted for natural aggregates or steel-reinforced mesh (SRM). Many researchers have investigated the mechanical properties of such concrete; however, the environmental assessments are limited in the literature. This research evaluates and consolidates environmental studies on recycled plastics in concrete-like aggregates and fibers. A summary of the applications of recovered plastics is presented. Following that, the works on environmental implications are thoroughly discussed and analyzed. In addition, research gaps and challenges related to environmental assessments are highlighted in this work.
... A economia circular é um conceito que sugere uma nova abordagem de produção, propondo uma mudança de paradigma que vem ocorrendo na indústria em geral, com iniciativas para minimizar os impactos do modelo linear de produção (Berardi & Dias, 2018) propondo uma substituição por um modelo circular, que visa manter os materiais em ciclo fechado para reter seu valor máximo (Benachio et al., 2020). A Figura 1 mostra o diagrama de borboleta que destaca os ciclos biológico e técnico (Velenturf et al., 2019), aos quais são incorporados os conceitos de nutrientes biológicos e técnicos, respectivamente. ...
Article
Full-text available
O modelo de produção linear baseado em extrair, produzir, usar e descartar está chegando ao seu limite devido aos impactos ambientais e escassez de recursos. A economia circular surge em oposição a este modelo de produção, com princípios baseados na eliminação de resíduos e poluição, mantendo os materiais em uso e recuperando os sistemas naturais. A simbiose industrial é indicada para colocar em prática os princípios da economia circular, por meio da criação de sinergias e cooperação mútua entre as indústrias, onde as mesmas podem compartilhar recursos e reaproveitar os resíduos da produção. Com o objetivo de compreender como a simbiose industrial pode contribuir para a implementação da economia circular, este trabalho avaliou o grau de maturidade da simbiose industrial em uma empresa produtora de vidro plano, por meio do indicador grau de maturidade da simbiose industrial, que contrapõe as sete barreiras da simbiose industrial com os cinco estágios de maturidade. Para quantificar o grau de maturidade da simbiose industrial, foi criada uma Equação, produção original deste trabalho, que identificou que a empresa possui atualmente 28,5% do grau de maturidade, possibilitando identificar o que pode ser melhorado e facilitando o processo de tomada de decisão.
... More recently, however, Lean principles and practices have been increasingly reviewed and used to create and preserve environmental, social and also political values [4], [5]. Consequently, many manufacturing companies have investigated the opportunity to transition from a linear economy to a Circular Economy (CE), i.e. business models that aim to drive the sustainability of a business network through produceconsume-reuse strategies [6], [7]. In recent decades, with the increasing importance of sustainable development, questions have been raised as to whether Lean not only contributes to customer value, but also to environmental benefits. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Efficient sustainable systems and circular economy models represent a new type of synergy to design modern productive systems that may lead to dematerialization. While a variety of scopes have been explored, the diffusion of the synergy between Lean and Circular Economy (CE) has been hampered due to the dynamic change of CE bases. The objective of this article is to address three challenges: (i) Identify the main boosters and key controllers of the adjusted production systems, as presented in literature, that may increase the adoption of the Lean philosophy in manufacturing companies. (ii) Develop a Lean implementation framework and analyze the interactions between the Lean approach main boosters and key controllers, and (iii) Provide tools to achieve a synergy between Lean and CE. The findings of this literature review are structured in a holistic framework that underlines a multidimensional approach to sustainability. The current available information is segmented in economic value, environmental, social, and politic aspects. This study provides an insight into these four aspects that allows professionals and academics to understand the different scopes affected by production models.
... The linear approach does not allow constructed facilities to be dismantled and reused. Therefore, they become obsolete when the facility ends its useful life [2]. However, this must change in the era of focus on sustainability and global greening initiatives. ...
... The transition to principles of circular economy necessitates incorporation of new values, such as short-term versus long-term financial gain or societal benefits instead of private ones. Benachio et al. (2020) have identified a paradigm shift during the last decade towards CE principles in CDWM literature, however they also recognized that so far, if the CE principles for the industry represent a great potential for reducing waste generation they are not yet implemented in practices. The practice-oriented shift towards CE would require major changes in how CDW is framed and organized as well as how the roles and responsibilities of the actors operating in the field are distributed. ...
... The linear approach does not allow constructed facilities to be dismantled and reused. Therefore, they become obsolete when the facility ends its useful life [2]. However, this must change in the era of focus on sustainability and global greening initiatives. ...
Article
Full-text available
Construction is a resource-intensive industry where a circular economy (CE) is essential to minimize global impacts and conserve natural resources. A CE achieves long-term sustainability by enabling materials to circulate along the critical supply chains. Accordingly, recent research has proposed a paradigm shift towards CE-based sustainability. However, uncertainties caused by fluctuating raw material prices, scarce materials, increasing demand, consumers’ expectations, lack of proper waste infrastructure, and the use of wrong recycling technologies all lead to complexities in the construction industry (CI). This research paper aims to determine the enablers of a CE for sustainable development in the CI. The system dynamics (SD) approach is utilized for modeling and simulation purposes to address the associated process complexity. First, using content analysis of pertinent literature, ten enablers of a CE for sustainable development in CI were identified. Then, causality among these enablers was identified via interviews and questionnaire surveys, leading to the development of the causal loop diagram (CLD) using systems thinking. The CLD for the 10 shortlisted enablers shows five reinforcing loops and one balancing loop. Furthermore, the CLD was used to develop an SD model with two stocks: “Organizational Incentive Schemes” and “Policy Support.” An additional stock (“Sustainable Development”) was created to determine the combined effect of all stocks. The model was simulated for five years. The findings show that policy support and organizational incentive schemes, among other enablers, are critical in implementing a CE for sustainable development in CI. The outcomes of this study can help CI practitioners to implement a CE in a way that drives innovation, boosts economic growth, and improves competitiveness.
... Past studies by Benachio et al. and Antwi-Afari et al. [25,26] made efforts to document the review of the circularity transition in the construction industry; however, there was no precise information on the shift from a linear economy to a CE through collaboration. Pomponi and Moncaster [27] also examined the key roles of bottom-up and top-down initiatives and multidisciplinary research in making the shift to "circular buildings" easier, but the private sector's role as a major stakeholder was not included in the scope of research. ...
Article
Full-text available
The United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda, borne from the most inclusive policy dialogue ever, emphasized partnerships built upon collaboration to achieve sustainable goals, as documented in SDG17. However, the building and construction sector has been experiencing sustainability issues, leading to several traditional government-led initiatives in the built environment. The private sector is critical to achieving the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the 2030 Agenda by interacting with societies, governments, and other actors for a circular built environment. The circular economy (CE) is a paradigm that is becoming increasingly popular to drive the movement to sustainability, requiring the partnership of the private sector to be implemented successfully. However, the application of CE initiatives in the private sector engagement has received less attention. Recognizing the interaction of multiple parties’ influence on the uptake of a CE, this study thus seeks to examine the participation of the private sector in the CE in the built environment using a mixed review approach (scientometric and content analysis). The findings reveal that the private sector faces barriers in terms of financial and economic, institutional and technological, and political and regulatory factors. This research also identified areas for greater private sector involvement in CE initiatives in the built environment, such as resource reduction, sharing, and the adaptive reuse of existing buildings.
... Therefore, suppliers' responsibility changes by being in charge of the maintenance of their products and obliged to adopt reverse logistics by taking back their products at their EOL. Innovative business models must be implemented (Benachio et al., 2020). PSS is beneficial for users by decreasing the price of goods that are leased and also for manufacturers by adding value to products and Table 3 Simplified definition of CLSC, CLMC and CSCM approaches: benefits and impacts, needs and requirements. ...
Article
In the context of shifting the built environment to a circular economy, this paper first provides a meta-synthesis of the literature that clarifies the strategies related to the asset lifecycle in the circular economy (CE) context. The definitions of forty-two approaches, classified into seven categories (A to G) were analysed to identify their differences and similarities using a text mining method. Based on the definitions, approaches’, their needs and requirements, and their benefits and impacts have been listed. Four variables have been identified: the asset phases (V1), the sustainable approaches (V2), the benefits and impacts (V3) and the needs and requirements (V4). As the main contribution to knowledge, two diagrams have been drawn to picture the relationships between, first, V1, V2 and V3 and secondly V1, V2 and V4. An additional contribution is semantic information captured and drawn in a Force Directed Graph (FDG) to clarify the diversity of existing approaches and their relationships. More than a hundred approaches/concepts are staged in a diagram and their links are identified. Particularly the importance of the design phase and its related approaches are developed. The FDG illustrates the complexity of the building projects involving multiple stakeholders. The paper also provides the limitations of the variety of approaches that should be overcome to achieve CE. In particular, the limitations of reuse (components cannot be reused indefinitely) and limitations of design-only approaches (like prefabrication where deconstruction is not prepared). Further research is recommended about the Product Service Systems associated with Extended Producer Responsibility that appears to be key enablers for the CE. Work is also needed to define the circularity of buildings and the associated circularity assessment tools. The outputs could be used to rationalise policies to foster those approaches to enable the construction sector to develop strategies to overcome the current obstacles to the transition to a circular economy.
... The decommissioning and recycling of materials at end-of-life is also dependent on knowledge of the production and service experience. For instance, the material passports approach recently implemented in the construction sector (Leising et al., 2018;Luscuere and Mulhall, 2018;Benachio et al., 2020) is gaining traction in steel industries for its envisioned ability to maintain a complete record of materials before, during and after manufacturing. In addition, this work acknowledges the presence of uncertainties caused by variables in the manufacturing process, which further result in microstructural heterogeneity. ...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid development of new infrastructure programmes requires an accelerated deployment of new materials in new environments. Materials 4.0 is crucial to achieve these goals. The application of digital to the field of materials has been at the forefront of research for many years, but there does not exist a unified means to describe a framework for this area creating pockets of development. This is confounded by the broader expectations of a digital twin (DT) as the possible answer to all these problems. The issue being that there is no accepted definition of a component DT, and what information it should contain and how it can be implemented across the product lifecycle exist. Within this position paper, a clear distinction is made between the “manufacturing DT” and the “component DT”; the former being the starting boundary conditions of the latter. In order to achieve this, we also discuss the introduction of a digital thread as a key concept in passing data through manufacturing and into service. The stages of how to define a framework around the development of DTs from a materials perspective is given, which acknowledges the difference between creating new understanding within academia and the application of this knowledge on a per-component basis in industry. A number of challenges are identified to the broad application of a component DT; all lead to uncertainty in properties and locations, resolving these requires judgments to be made in the provision of safety-dependent materials property data.
Article
Purpose This paper presents a systematic literature review of the various aspects of reverse logistics (RL) and closed-loop supply chains (CLSC) in implementing and achieving circular economy (CE) motives. CE is identified as a method of embracing imperishability into the economic structure, helping shift from a linear to a condition leading to ecological and social benefits. Design/methodology/approach Systematic literature was used to review a total of 80 peer-reviewed articles are included in the study and covers different concepts related to the implementation of CE, such as cost-saving, network design, sustainable RL, waste management and extended producer responsibility. Findings The findings reveal that the research in the domain is in a growing phase, and in recent years, a lot of attention has been given by researchers across the globe. However, further research is required in crucial areas for the adoption of CE, such as retail reverse logistics, pharmaceutical industries and resource recycling industry. Practical implications The study discusses the business needs and solutions for industries. Key enablers and barriers are listed along with the main activities involved in each sector in CLSC. Managers can design a pathway to decide which lever to use to overcome a particular challenge. Originality/value The work contributes theoretically by developing research themes in RL and CLSC practices applied to CE. It also provides theoretical and practical implications of the study, which can be used as a signboard for further research.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The presented research study tackles the topic of economic and material sustainable development in the built environment and construction industry by introducing and applying the concept and the potential of Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) on blockchain within the early stages of the design process via the interface of common design software. We present a digital infrastructure layer for architectural assets and building components that can integrate with AEC supply chains, enabling a more effective and articulated development of circular economies. The infrastructure layer consists of a combination of topology graphs secured with a blockchain. The paper concludes with a discussion about the possibilities of material passports as well as circular economy and smart contracts as an infrastructure for whole lifecycle BIM and digital encapsulation of value in architectural design.
Article
Full-text available
The construction and real estate industry is, directly and indirectly, responsible for circa 40% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, it is relevant to look upon the building sector as a focus area for a transition from Linear Economy to Circular Economy (CE), as outlined by the EU Commission through European Green Deal as a growth strategy for EU and, as a consequence of this, the EU Circular Economy Action Plan. This article aims to analyse current knowledge and methodologies for integrating life cycle thinking, namely Life Cycle Assessment (LCA),Life Cycle Costing (LCC), and Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) into Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA), as an integrated assessment methodology, that can support the transition of the construction and real estate industry to a circular economy. We conducted a literature review to address this effort, including forty-two articles, thirteen of which report on integrating all three methods. Furthermore, we analysed the content of these articles and identified knowledge gaps in this area.Conclusions are, that for CE to succeed, a comprehensive and circular view upon buildings' life cycle phases is necessary to give closer attention to the service life phase and the reuse/recycle phase of buildings. Such attention will impact the building's value chain, regarding the involvement of more stakeholders, not only in theearly phases of project development (decision-making) but particularly in the design phase; Further research in evaluating CE through the integration of life LCA, LCC and S-LCA into LCSA is necessary to support the transition; For this purpose, S-LCA needs even further maturation and development, as S-LCA will, through focus and development, become an essential lever for raising attention focussed upon the use phase and the reuse/recycle phase; A specific focus upon making integrated life cycle sustainability assessment operational and useable for practitioners in the building processes is necessary.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore circular economy (CE) initiatives and apply the stimulus-organism-response theory to find the socio-political drivers and enablers of CE in the pharmaceutical industry. CE as a concept was relatively not studied much with respect to socio-political interests from operations management perspectives. This was especially so in the pharmaceutical industry. Design/methodology/approach This research study was anchored in the theoretical conversation of stimulus-organism-response theory to find the socio-political interests and enablers of the regenerative CE principles. These were the functions of remanufacturing, reuse and recycle. For this research study, data was collected in two steps. First, eight industry practitioners were interviewed to understand the CE practices in the pharmaceutical industry. Then 166 chiefs of production and operations functions from 124 pharmaceutical companies were surveyed. The quantitative data was empirically analyzed using SmartPLS3 software. Findings This research study revealed that pressure from suppliers and other public stakeholders were driving regenerative CE practices in the pharmaceutical industry. The results further stated that CE enablers such as green information technology systems and internal environmental management were critical for making pharmaceutical manufacturing operations circular. Research limitations/implications This research study measured the constructs on a formative scale. Studies measuring socio-political interests, CE enablers and sustainability practices constructs on a formative scale were much required for the development of the CE theory. This research study output could be applied across geographies and industries to measure the indicators of CE. Practical implications This research study indicated that in the context of the pharmaceutical industry, there was an overemphasis on the remanufacture and reuse principles. However, the focus on recycling principles was mostly subdued. For managers and regulators in the pharmaceutical sector, this research study provided clear insights that for more effective CE implementation. This was based on an effective application of recycling practices in the critical functions in pharmaceutical industry. Originality/value Earlier research studies on green and environmental manufacturing were focused on linear production models. To provide clear and robust foundations for CE theory, this research study considered operations management from the perspective of the value chain. This comprised the entire circular production model. Earlier research studies had treated socio-political interests, CE enablers and sustainability practices as reflective constructs. This study was one of the foremost to measure these constructs on a formative scale.
Article
Full-text available
The construction industry plays a critical role in Circular Economy (CE) transition because of its significant resource intensity. However, construction CE is limited due to its unique industrial characteristics and the complex nature of CE. To tackle wicked CE challenges, Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) are recognised as promising solutions since they provide potential support to CE-oriented decision-making. However, the effectiveness and challenges of applying ICT to a broader decision-making context to implement CE in the built environment remain unexplored. Thus, this study provides a comprehensive overview of ICT-based decision support tools applied to implement construction CE. Through a systematic literature review, 62 papers published during 2010-2021 are selected, categorised, and analysed. First, the state-of-the-art of these tools is described. Then, a theoretical framework is proposed to articulate the mechanism of how ICT-based tools support construction/demolition practices throughout the building life-cycle. The research and development of ICT-based decision support tools are vital to successful construction CE implementation. However, scant attention has been devoted to integrating relevant technologies in a comprehensive information system by considering the complex landscape of CE. Based on critical literature analysis, challenges of applying ICT to support CE were identified from technology, business, and societal perspectives. Furthermore, recommendations for future research directions are provided including a conceptual reference architecture of a Circularity Information Platform that demonstrates the desirable technology integration. We encourage more interdisciplinary research to contribute to the development of a new research paradigm: Smart Circular Construction Ecosystems.
Chapter
This chapter defines circular construction, and how the construction industry should prepare and make interventions to promote the transition from a linear model to circular and sustainable ways of designing, constructing, maintaining and dealing with waste. Circular construction is an emerging business strategy that promotes the reuse and recycling of as many raw materials as possible in a bid to minimise CO2 emissions and waste to landfill. The chapter focuses on construction and demolition waste (CDW) and how potential new technologies developed for other applications can be utilised to bring circularity to CDW management. CDW alarming impacts have caused increased public concerns. Aiming to boost resource exploitation efficiency, circular construction should improve CDW waste management practices. However, transition and implementation of circular construction practices are slowed down by technical, social and legislative barriers. Circular construction, as an important component of sustainability, is a new business model that promotes the maximum reuse and recycling of raw materials and products to reduce waste and CO2 emissions. Reduce, reuse, recycle and recover are essential interventions for a circular construction, with a systemic shift in the culture and mindsets of stakeholders.
Article
Full-text available
The Circular Economy (CE) is gaining traction throughout all industries and nations globally. However, despite several attempts, no one-off solutions for assessing the benefits and pitfalls of CE have been established, and neither have any measures with which to determine decisions. In line with this general observation, the Built Environment (BE) is no different. A tendency is observed in which, for the assessment of the environmental impacts of CE, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been deemed suitable. This paper presents a scoping review, using the PRISMA statement extension for scoping reviews, documenting how LCA has been applied for assessment of CE in the BE. The review covers a broad scope of literature, scoping the landscape, and delimits it into publications where CE strategy has been defined explicitly and described as a CE investigation. Among the LCAs applied, the dominant system boundary choice is the attributional approach. The authors open the discussion on whether this is actually suitable for answering the questions posed in the CE paradigm. From the review, and the discussion, the conclusion suggests that there is no dominant procedure in applying LCA of CE in the BE, even despite commonly developed LCA standards for the BE. Few studies also present the consideration to reconsider the applied LCA, as CE puts new questions (and thereby a potentially greater system boundary, as CE may imply greater societal consequences) that do not necessarily fit into the linear LCA framework currently applied in the BE.
Article
Management of Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste from buildings has become essential to ensure sustainable infrastructural growth across the globe. The major proportion of C&D waste comprises of debris generated from the demolition activities, and their inadequate management can lead to disruption of natural resource cycles. Hence, there is a need to develop a holistic understanding of Demolition Waste Management (DWM) to reduce the impact of the building sector on the resources. Through a systematic literature review of 148 original journal articles, conference proceedings, and recent review papers (between the period 2000 to 2022) extracted from a scientific database, this study has identified 33 major global strategies for DWM guided by the Circular Economy (CE) framework through a perspective of the building lifecycle. A few of the strategies identified in this review are standardization of building components, incentivization of innovation, extended producer's responsibility, pre-demolition survey and audits, blockchain technology. Furthermore, the way ahead for the DWM in the Indian construction industry is discussed, and ten major challenges in CE implementation in India are discussed. The corrective actions are proposed against each challenge, and the extent of effort required for implementation with the impact created from each measure is also highlighted in this study. The review findings are valuable for both academicians and practitioners while establishing guidelines or framing policies during any stage of construction. The life cycle perspective of DWM proposed in this paper also attempts to chart a roadmap to reach various sustainable development goals.
Article
The transition from a linear to a circular economy (CE) is necessary, complex and requires a set of practices that develop resource value retention options (ROs). However, the current literature on the subject lacks studies that encompass and systematize practices aimed at the development of ROs along the value chain. The aim of this article is to propose a theoretical model that groups and explains how CE practices, carried out by companies from the perspective of the value chain, help to develop ROs. The model proposed in this article can be used to better understand how CE can be developed in the value chain, expanding current theoretical knowledge and helping stakeholders to establish and adopt strategies, plans and actions in their companies. This research applied the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) method resulting in 143 articles from which CE practices were identified and categorized using a mixed inductive-deductive coding approach, considering the meaning and similarity between them and views of the value chain. Finally, the relationships between these practices and the ROs were analyzed and identified according to the 10R classification scheme. As a result, 33 circular value chain practices (CVCP) were identified classified into 8 primary and 6 support categories. Examples for each practice were also presented pointing out their relationships with the ROs. Analyzing the results, it was observed that stakeholders must understand and highlight in their plans three relevant aspects of the relationship between these practices and ROs: the range of CVCP, the RO Loops developed and the supply chain perspective. In addition, support practices must be planned and implemented in conjunction with primary ones.
Article
The circular economy (CE) paradigm has piqued public interests worldwide as a significant innovative attempt to conserve finite resources, reduce waste, and shift away from the linear economy. An emerging shift to a CE model is unavoidable for resource conservation and efficient use of materials. Although CE is still at its early stage of managing building construction and demolition waste (BCDW), the scientific contribution of the CE agenda is significantly growing and augmenting in the construction industry. Therefore, this study aims to present the state-of-the-art research on CE adoption in BCDW management using a mixed review approach (quantitative and qualitative analysis). In addition to the existing trends and considerations, the main research themes and CE strategies adopted in BCDW management, are presented and discussed. Furthermore, CE indicators for BCDW and effective management operations for BCDW in a CE environment are put forward. Future research directions, including lifecycle assessment indicators for BCDW minimisation in a CE, application of advanced technologies for CE, and intelligent decision support tools for CE adoption in the BCDW management, are highlighted. It is believed that the analysed critical issues for CE adoption in BCDW management and identified future research directions would further help the development of CE research and help stakeholders and policymakers in advancing and adopting CE in the construction industry at large.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of soil by different percentages of coconut fiber powder in the manufacture of soil–cement bricks. The reference mix ratio of 10:1 (soil:cement) in volume was used for the manufacture of bricks, in addition to the partial replacement of soil mass by 5, 10, and 15% of coconut fiber. The characterization of the raw materials was performed with the analysis of the granulometry, together with technological tests, such as mechanical compressive strength and water absorption. As a result, it was observed that the soil has 34.30% clay and 62.80% sand, characterizing a sandy-clay soil type and the coconut fiber powder was characterized as a fine aggregate. The mechanical compressive strength tests showed a decrease in their average values according to the increase in the incorporation of coconut fiber into the bricks. It was concluded that the results of the mechanical compressive strength and some of the water absorption are in disagreement with the Brazilian technical standard. This conclusion corroborates other studies that show the difficulty in standardizing reference mixtures and working with soil, which is a highly heterogeneous material.
Article
The building and construction sector is a major contributor to human environmental impact on the planet. It follows that the sector's contribution is also crucial for transition towards a low carbon society and circular economy (CE). Mass timber products, are one of the sustainable alternatives to traditional building materials and have led to the recent revolution in timber construction. While environmental benefits of mas timber manufacturing and construction is well documented the end-of-life (EOL) and the post-EOL options for mass timber buildings, their environmental benefits and CE potential are discussed much less. Short history of construction technology involving prefabricated mass timber panels compared to traditional building types results in virtually no documented cases of panelized mass timber structures reaching the EOL stage and no practical examples of incorporating CE concepts in such projects. In this study, a two-step systematic literature review was used, to define and classify 23 CE-based governing principles from six categories in the construction industry, and to use those principles to analyze the state-of-the-art circular approach in mass timber research. The study covered a total of 90 papers, of which 68 focused on the general construction industry and 22 specifically on the mass timber construction. Results of this review suggest substantial gaps in knowledge and pressing research needs for the development of holistic approaches to prepare the mass timber construction for circular economy.
Article
Sheep wool is an environmentally friendly, renewable, and entirely recyclable resource that satisfies the standards of green building components. Consequently, it is increasingly employed in building material technology. The sound absorption characteristics of sheep wool render it a satisfactory building insulation material with desirable acoustic properties. This study investigates the effect of waste sheep wool fiber (WF) and modified WFs (MWF) on the acoustic and mechanical properties of concrete. Plain concrete and concrete mixtures containing 0.5–2.5% WF and MWF were tested for compressive strength, modulus of elasticity (MOE), ultrasonic pulse velocity, sound absorption, and transmission loss. The addition of WFs to concrete mixtures slightly reduced the compressive strength and MOE values. However, it significantly improved the sound insulation and noise reduction behavior of concrete specimens, with sound absorption coefficients of 0.66 and 0.75 for mixtures containing 2.5% WF and MWF, respectively, at a frequency of 2000 Hz. In general, the addition of WFs to concrete composites improved their overall acoustic qualities. The findings showed that sheep wool waste, as a sound insulation material, has acoustical properties similar to those of polymeric-based fibers, with the added advantages of being environmentally friendly, affordable, biodegradable, and abundant.
Article
Full-text available
Background. Laws that enable a circular economy (CE) are being enacted globally, but reliable standardized and digitized CE data about products is scarce, and many CE platforms have differing exclusive formats. In response to these challenges, the Ministry of The Economy of Luxembourg launched the Circularity Dataset Standardization Initiative to develop a globalized open-source industry standard to allow the exchange of standardized data throughout the supply cycle, based on these objectives: (a) Provide basic product circularity data about products. (b) Improve circularity data sharing efficiency. (c) Encourage improved product circularity performance. A policy objective was to have the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) voted to create a working group. Methods. A state-of-play analysis was performed concurrently with consultations with industry, auditors, data experts, and data aggregation platforms. Results. Problem statements were generated. Based on those, a solution called Product Circularity Data Sheet (PCDS) was formulated. A proof of concept (POC) template and guidance were developed and piloted with manufacturers and platforms, thus fulfilling objective (a). For objective (b), IT ecosystem requirements were developed, and aspects are being piloted in third party aggregation platforms. Objective (c) awaits implementation of the IT ecosystem. The policy objective related to the ISO was met. Conclusions and future research. In order to fully test the PCDS, it is necessary to: conduct more pilots, define governance, and establish auditing and authentication procedures.
Article
Forced by environmental implications and by legislation requirements, the cement sector is moving towards more circular economy practices, with the primary aim to enhance the sector sustainability. This commitment translates into product technology innovation, but also into innovative development perspectives for the industries involved in the supply chain. Moreover, dealing with recycled materials can modify the interaction among stakeholders from a conventional supply chain to an industrial symbiosis approach, where companies mutually exchange products and by-products into circular interactions. The purpose of this article is to investigate the circularity performances deriving from the production of a cement mortar reinforced with recycled synthetic fibers coming from artificial turf carpets. From the collection of artificial turf carpets at the end-of-life stage it is possible to recover several materials: plastic fibers used in the cement mortar, and in addition, silica sand, rubber, and bituminous membrane. The production of the innovative reinforced cement mortar leads to the connection between industries belonging to different sectors and consequently to uneven economic and environmental implications. Starting from the available literature, this study aims at evaluating the circularity potential of the unusual interactions among companies to support the development of an effective strategy, reducing environmental and economic pressures.
Article
Full-text available
Despite the relevance of building information modelling for simulating building performance at various life cycle stages, Its use for assessing the end-of-life impacts is not a common practice. Even though the global sustainability and circular economy agendas require that buildings must have minimal impact on the environment across the entire lifecycle. In this study therefore, a disassembly and deconstruction analytics system is developed to provide buildings’ end-of-life performance assessment from the design stage. The system architecture builds on the existing building information modelling capabilities in managing building design and construction process. The architecture is made up of four different layers namely (i) Data storage layer, (ii) Semantic layer, (iii) Analytics and functional models layer and (iv) Application layer. The four layers are logically connected to function as a single system. Three key functionalities of the disassembly and deconstruction analytics system namely (i) Building Whole Life Performance Analytics (ii) Building Element Deconstruction Analytics and (iii) Design for Deconstruction Advisor are implemented as plug-in in Revit 2017. Three scenarios of a case study building design were used to test and evaluate the performance of the system. The results show that building information modelling software capabilities can be extended to provide a platform for assessing the performance of building designs in respect of the circular economy principle of keeping the embodied energy of materials perpetually in an economy. The disassembly and deconstruction analytics system would ensure that buildings are designed with design for disassembly and deconstruction principles that guarantee efficient materials recovery in mind. The disassembly and deconstruction analytics tool could also serve as a decision support platform that government and planners can use to evaluate the level of compliance of building designs to circular economy and sustainability requirements.
Article
Full-text available
The building industry contributes to resource scarcity by consuming vast amounts of natural resources and produces in addition large amounts of waste, both contributing to a considerable portion of the environmental impacts induced by the demands of a growing world population. Manufacturing of most building materials require large amounts of material and energy resources. These materials are nevertheless either down-cycled or ends up as waste after demolition. Consequently, the building industry only manages to exploit an insignificant percentage of the building materials' inherent economic value and durability. Hence, the need for improved resource efficiency will increase parallel to the growing human demands to ensure that future needs. Circular economy principles can potentially facilitate minimising the aforementioned pending issues emanating from the building industry through recirculation of building materials. E.g. existing mechanical joint solutions can enable design for disassembly, thereby potentially prolonging the service life of building materials and components through reuse in subsequent building projects. The research presented in the paper at hand aims at identifying the main challenges of implementing circular economy principles, as well as potentials here-off, within the building industry through a literature review. Furthermore, a conventional Danish office building is used as case study to support the literature review by quantifying potential environmental and economic benefits of designing the buildings concrete structure for disassembly, with the purpose of reuse, as well as to exemplify how circular economy can be applied in future building projects. Moreover, the paper aims at suggesting a more industry focused approach towards circular economy in order to seize the inherent potentials. As a result, it was found that recycling and energy recovery are the most common circular economy practices in the building industry, even though the economic and environmental benefits of reuse are believed to be much higher. This observation is supported by the findings of the case study, which revealed that reuse of the concrete structure can potentially avoid a noteworthy portion of the building's embodied CO2 emissions and provide a reasonable economic gain. Moreover, increased impact savings were exhibited when substituting concrete with alternative materials e.g. wood, steel and glass, thereby enabling easier disassembly for both reuse and recycling. However, main challenges preventing the industry from seizing these potentials are identified as: focus on short term goals, complex supply chains, lack of collaboration between stakeholders and absence of a commonly agreed definition of circular economy within the industry. In conclusion, the study demonstrates an improved environmental performance of the office building when designed for disassembly. Furthermore, the choice of building materials has a noteworthy influence on the building's embodied environmental impacts. From the results obtained in this study it is estimated that the potential environmental impact savings as well as economic benefits can be further increased through a higher degree of design for disassembly.
Article
Full-text available
To promote the circular economy and resource efficiency in the construction industry, information on material flows and stocks is needed. The work presented describes a holistic and dynamic model for the determination of material flows and stocks in urban areas triggered by the construction of residential buildings. In addition to the classification of material stocks (raw material cadastre for residential buildings), it is of central interest to identify future waste streams in order to forecast potential secondary raw materials, determine recovery strategies and control mechanisms. Furthermore, the supply of exploitable fractions must be matched with demand to identify the degree of self-sufficiency of selected areas in order to reduce the use of primary resources and necessary transports. The model developed in this work is validated on the basis of the district of Munich / Freiham, one of the largest urban developments in Germany. In this case study it has been shown that under certain conditions a self-sufficient supply of steel (from 2036 onwards) and recycled aggregate for the production of recycled concrete (from 2031 onwards) for residential building construction can be achieved.
Article
Full-text available
Composite floor systems are frequently used for high-rise buildings and multi-storey car park buildings, mainly because of the competitive combination of the steel beam and the concrete deck. Traditionally, composite beams are cast in-situ and shear interaction between the concrete and steel beam is provided by welded headed studs. The application of welded headed studs prevents the non-destructive separation of the composite beam, which leads to a very low scoring in the sustainable assessment in terms of the reuse of structural components. An alternative to welded headed studs are bolted shear connectors, which allow for demountability and reusability of a (prefabricated) composite floor system. A key challenge for demountable and reusable composite beams consisting of prefabricated elements is to provide sufficient tolerances to allow for easy execution and demounting, but also to achieve a stiff and strong shear connection under live loads. The required tolerances can, for instance, be obtained by using large bolt-to-hole clearances. The, at first glance, contradictory requirement of a large hole clearance in the execution phase and high stiffness under live loading conditions was solved by using injection bolts. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate how the demountable and composite structures fit in the circular economy framework, and to show that such a demountable and reusable structure was successfully erected and demounted under laboratory conditions. In addition, a cost assessment will be addressed using a simple methodology based on estimated service life (ESL) factors to estimate the annual environmental costs of a composite floor system.
Article
Full-text available
As the construction industry consumes vast amounts of natural resources and in return produces large waste quantities, interest in circular economy has emerged as the means to reduce sector specific environmental impacts meanwhile ensuring continued economic growth. Life cycle assessment is a scientifically based and ISO standardized method for assessing resource consumptions and environmental impacts of products, systems or services over its entire life cycle and has been increasingly used in the construction industry and in some recently published circular economy studies. However, circular economy brings about 'rethinking' present well established building systems as well as the future life cycle scenario of these. Hence, this also means rethinking how life cycle assessments are performed on these building systems as it is suggested by some that life cycle assessment is a linear environmental impact assessment approach that misfits the circular economy idea of multiple product life cycles. The paper at hand aims at visually demonstrating variations in life cycle environmental impacts and material flows when supplying buildings with linear components compared to prospective circular designed building components for reuse and recycling and how they are modelled in life cycle assessments.
Article
Full-text available
Within the ReSOLVE framework, the concept of 'Looping' materials in an efficient way is a crucial theme to ensure environmental sustainability of circular economy. This paper investigates how current calculation practice of building LCA from the EN 15804/15978 standards affects the global warming potential (GWP) of building designs where material loops have been in focus. In this study, we calculate the environmental potentials of circular building design based on two cases; 1) a building constructed from primarily upcycled materials, and 2) a building constructed with principles of design for disassembly (DfD). Results from the two cases point to the significance of the EN standards' allocation approach in which a system's use of recycling/reuse is merited, rather than meriting a system providing recyclable/reusable materials. Hence, the upcycling strategy results in lower GWP, especially from the production stage, whereas the DfD strategy does not realize an environmental advantage within the framework of the EN standards. Results further shows that even though concrete elements are notable components of the DfD building, developing DfD-solutions for these exact elements might not be the preferred focus for optimizing the environmental benefits provided by the building. Instead, DfD focus could be on shorter-lived elements of high benefit potentials.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract. The aim of this paper is to explore successful paths and potential obstacles for introducing circular buildings to a region new to the strategy of Circular Economy (CE). For this, the process of circular buildings development in Taiwan is analysed. In 2016, the government of Taiwan passed an act that put a focus on CE. Taiwan entered this field with nearly no prior experience. This paper analyses three cases: The Holland Pavilion for the World Flora Expo Taichung; the TaiSugar Circular Village Tainan; and the CE Social Housing Taipei. Interestingly, Taiwan choose the Netherlands as a country for guidance on best practices and the path to implementation. Our analysis focuses on barriers and opportunities found in the initiation, commissioning, and the ongoing development process of these projects. Data is collected through interviews with 30 stakeholders, from government, industries and academia who are involved in the projects. International collaboration is shown to have speeded up the CE building innovation process in Taiwan.
Article
Full-text available
Circular economy can be considered not only in relation to building construction materials, but also in relation to resources that are used in the use phase of buildings, such as water, energy or even nutrients. On the other hand, some constructive solutions are becoming increasingly important in the current scenario of climate change, taking into account the need to increase the resilience of the urban environment and the mitigation of emissions. This is the case, for example, of green roofs and living façades, which are an alternative to traditional grey infrastructure, offering many benefits to both citizens and cities. Beyond the ability to improve environmental conditions and quality of life, they can augment the energy efficiency of buildings, reduce flood risks in urban areas and be combined with rainwater harvesting systems. So, taking into account these trends for constructive solutions in the future, this paper analyses the possibilities of a circular use of water in buildings, aiming to create in the future "zero water" buildings. Particular attention is given to the compatibility between new green roofing solutions and rainwater harvesting systems in buildings, but the reuse of grey water and the possibility of nutrient recovery in buildings, such as urine (phosphorus) - which can be used in the building itself on green roofs - living facades or urban agriculture, are also referred to.
Article
Full-text available
Roughly 90% of building materials for an 880sqm construction project were made from reused material components, existing structures and old shipping containers, and designed for disassembly. The paper is a case study that introduces the implementation of reuse in the project, a recently completed transformation of Hal7, a former industrial building. Two other undergoing projects are also introduced. These have not yet been completed but contain reused materials at the current stages, a series of Recycling Centers and the housing project Indfaldet. All three projects are part of the urban development of a former industrial area. Selected themes and courses of events are summarized from interviews with the project architects to list particular conditions in these cases with successfully implemented circular ambitions. End-user engagement is introduced to highlight a method to prioritise when maintaining a low budget. It is the argument that the city, represented by an individual employee, plays a central role to catalyse the implementation of reused materials and circular economy in construction. The city can guide to local resources to be mined, as well as provide the facilities and organization to handle the logistical issues when resources go from being waste to be built-in.
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces an innovative restructuring of the traditional Design-Bid-Build (DBB) project delivery method in the AEC industry, that enables the creative reuse of building materials and components. The restructuring intends to transform the DBB method into an Integrated Project Delivery approach by including building materials reuse stakeholders in the early phases of the design process. The model was developed by capturing the critical expert knowledge using a Delphi research protocol and the Business Process Modelling and Notation standards (BPMN). The proposed business process workflows are integrated with the BIM Project Execution Planning Guide. The study also identifies the critical decision nodes within the proposed process maps and suggests a decision-support framework that aid architects and building professionals when integrating sustainable building solutions regarding reusable building materials and components. The Knowledge Capturing Process (KCP) utilized in this study was applied using a qualitative method and a modified Delphi research protocol with the research participants. Triangulation with literature and built case studies were checked and the results were integrated in an illustrated detailed blueprint set of BPMN workflow maps, which were then used to reach consensus with the industry stakeholders research participants.
Article
Full-text available
After realizing the serious environmental problems caused by current linear economic model, designers, researchers and policy makers around the world started to look into the possibilities of a more sustainable model-circular economy. And the construction industry is no exception to this change. In recent years, not only in Europe, circular economy in the built environment has also become a key focus for public and private sectors in Taiwan. Several projects aiming at constructing circular buildings have been initiated. However, the understanding of circular buildings in Taiwan is very little. Furthermore, how Building Information Modeling (BIM), known as a powerful tool for circular buildings, contributes to these projects for building circularity is beyond exploration. Through one in-depth interview and case study, this paper aims at disclosing the current development, barriers and future potentials of circular economy in building sectors and related BIM applications in Taiwan. The current awareness of stakeholders, key challenges and enablers for circular economy in construction have been identified. How BIM is utilized for circular building design, and its benefits, limitations and potentials are also recognized.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Implementing practices for a circular economy transforms the way companies do business. Obtaining and processing systematized and optimized information facilitates decision making in order to innovate, create value and adopt measures to promote energy efficiency and sustainability in construction. Building Materials Passports (BMPs) are tools for inserting circular economy in buildings. They can be crucial in managing and providing information to stakeholders in industry value chains, with the aim of promoting the construction of more sustainable and resilient cities, where materials are identified in a database, removed and reused in order to maintain, recover or even increase value and useful life. This paper presents a proposal of a BMP applied to the wood frame system in Brazil, introducing the following guidelines: general information, safety, sustainability, use and operation, assembling directions, reuse and product service history. A case study was developed in a Brazilian company in order to test the application feasibility of the tool to the system. There were some barriers found in the development of the BMP regarding LCA data, as well as the end of life information of the material. This attempt to implement the BMP encourages practices of circular economy in the construction industry and, associated with the expanding use of wood frame in Brazil, contributes to flexible and renewable buildings. In addition, the main challenges for the introduction of BMP are discussed, emphasizing the need for joint action based on political initiatives and regulations that allow and facilitate circular practices in construction.
Article
Full-text available
Awareness of the huge environmental impact of buildings has created more interest in resource efficiency and in the potential of circular economy. This is not only relevant for new buildings. Also the existing building stock represents a great amount of building materials, which could become available for reuse and recycling in the future. Currently, there is no database in Belgium that reflects the potential of existing buildings as material banks. Nevertheless, existing databases, e.g. the EPC (Energy Performance Certificate) database of the Flemish Energy Agency (VEA), contain valuable information on the material content in the existing building stock. Therefore, this paper explores the possibility of combining existing databases to reflect the (future) potential of the existing building stock as material bank. The two main databases under study are: 1) the EPC database of VEA which contains general building characteristics, such as building volume, building typology, floor area and information on the building envelope of more than 1 million buildings in the Flemish region and 2) the database of Essencia Marketing, a marketing agency specialized in the construction sector, which contains general building characteristics as well as geometrical and material data on almost 6000 new residential buildings spread all over Belgium (constructed between mid-2010 and mid-2017). The data in the databases are discussed and possible methods to combine data from both databases are explored.
Article
Full-text available
The call for projects 'Be circular – Be Brussels' is held since 2016 and has already awarded 14 circular construction projects. On those projects, a focus is put on the better management of human and material resources. The companies in charge of the winning projects are freelances, very small businesses, SMEs and large companies. Each in its own way, applies circular measures, on site and inside its organization. Reuse, design for change and disassembly, training of workers and partnerships between companies are some of the measures implemented, which help highlight the current levers and obstacles to a circular economy in the construction sector. Many challenges still need to be addressed in order to generalize circular construction across the region, but the sector is moving and the signals it sends are positive. In particular, we notice a real transfer from investments related to the material resources (purchase of new materials and waste management) towards investments related to human resources (preliminary studies and on-site labor); this matches the regional ambition to put the human capital at the center of the work process. As practical cases, the (current and future) circular construction projects help to target the measures that should be implemented at regional and national levels, so that the circular economy becomes, indeed, the new economic model of Brussels.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The housing sector is responsible for more than 50% of global resource extraction, about 50% of world energy consumption, 1/3 of water consumption and furthermore generates about 1/3 of all produced waste. A new, circular approach is needed to enable better decision-making on the selection of innovative architectural solutions for all phases of a building’s life cycle. The current building sector’s business model must be redesigned to include the application of new and improved methods, solutions and innovative services, and advance a positive transition from a linear economy to a circular economy. We will present the circular interventions carried out on a centenary building located in Vienna in the framework of the HOUSEFUL project. HOUSEFUL is an EU-funded initiative with the objective to develop and demonstrate integrated circular services, focusing on the optimal management of resources throughout the life cycle of new or existing buildings. The demonstration will include technologies to circulate all process flows while reducing the overall energy demand. These technologies will be offered as integrated services to produce treated rain and wastewater for internal reuse, the generation of renewable energy from biogas, compost production combined with urban gardening and for the use of nutrients in a greenhouse. The design of more efficient processes, such as green walls, innovative conservatories, building-integrated solar thermal and photovoltaic panels will improve building energy efficiency. All process flows will be intensely monitored to ensure safety and collect data for further replication cases. The solutions will also include the use of sustainable and upcycled materials and the implementation will be based on the principles of reversibility and de-constructability. The final services of the building will be elaborated in co-creation workshops with a multitude of stakeholders. Additional service-oriented modelling facilitates replication for the transition to the circular housing sector.
Article
Full-text available
Buildings are responsible for a third of global greenhouse gas emissions, with much of their life cycle impacts stemming from embodied impacts of building materials. Both at EU and Member State level, circular economy and resource efficiency policies are promoting production of lower-impact building materials with secondary material input. However, secondary material strategies do not result in carbon saving by default, and depend on businesses developing effective and economic applications that can overcome the many barriers to closing material loops. This paper aims to advance understanding of the relevance of secondary material for dec-arbonisation of the building sector, as well as the interplay of business model innovation and policy instruments in this transition. We used a comparative case study of three pioneering Scandinavian companies that produce circular building materials to estimate the carbon saving potential of using secondary material. We also examined business model innovations to implement strategies, and companies' experienced and desired policies to help remove barriers. The results show clearly that all three cases offer potential for carbon savings. As the savings vary significantly, findings suggest that careful consideration of affected processes and markets is a key to attaining carbon savings. Business model innovations to enable secondary material use involve establishing key partnerships to access secondary materials, developing recovery process and technology, targeting customer segments that value lower environmental impacts, and considering life cycle costs. Public policies that can help companies remove barriers include 1) incorporating reuse of higher material value in construction and demolition waste targets, and 2) incentivising waste collection and recovery markets to offer recovered material at higher value.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose In a circular economy, the goal is to keep materials values in the economy for as long as possible. For the construction industry to support the goal of the circular economy, there is the need for materials reuse. However, there is little or no information about the amount and quality of reusable materials obtainable when buildings are deconstructed. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to develop a reusability analytics tool for assessing end-of-life status of building materials. Design/methodology/approach A review of the extant literature was carried out to identify the best approach to modelling end-of-life reusability assessment tool. The reliability analysis principle and materials properties were used to develop the predictive mathematical model for assessing building materials performance. The model was tested using the case study of a building design and materials take-off quantities as specified in the bill of quantity of the building design. Findings The results of analytics show that the quality of the building materials varies with the building component. For example, from the case study, at the 80th year of the building, the qualities of the obtainable concrete from the building are 0.9865, 0.9835, 0.9728 and 0.9799, respectively, from the foundation, first floor, frame and stair components of the building. Originality/value As a contribution to the concept of circular economy in the built environment, the tool provides a foundation for estimating the quality of obtainable building materials at the end-of-life based on the life expectancy of the building materials.
Article
Full-text available
The building industry is responsible for a large proportion of anthropogenic environmental impacts. Circular economy (CE) is a restorative and regenerative industrial economic approach that promotes resource efficiency to reduce waste and environmental burdens. Transitioning from a linear approach to a CE within the building industry will be a significant challenge. However, an insufficient number of quantitative studies exist to confirm the potential (positive) environmental effects of CE within the built environment as well as a consistent method for characterizing these effects. This paper considers key methodological issues for quantifying the environmental implications of CE principles and proposes a life cycle assessment (LCA) allocation method to address these issues. The proposed method is applied to a case study of a Danish office building where the concrete structure is designed for disassembly (DfD) for subsequent reuse. The potential environmental impact savings vary between the different impact categories. The savings are significantly influenced by the building’s material composition, particularly the number of component-use cycles as well as the service life of the building and its components. The substitution of other material choices (e.g. glass and wood) for the concrete structure exhibited a potential increase in impact savings.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a circular-economy framework is applied to the prefabricated building sector to explore the environmental advantages of prefabrication in terms of reduction, reusability, adaptability, and recyclability of its components. A qualitative approach is used to revisit the design, construction, and demolition stages of prefabricated buildings; in so doing, the circular-economy framework is applied to foster circular prefabricated modi operandi. Prefabrication of buildings can be divided into four entities: elements and components, panels (or non-volumetric elements), volumetric, and entire modules. Through an analysis of published research on how the circular economy can be applied to different industry sectors and production processes, seven strategies emerged, each of which revealed the potential of improving the circular economy of buildings. The first strategy is reduction of waste through a lean production chain. By reusing the waste, the second strategy investigates the use of by-products in the production of new components. The third strategy focuses on the reuse of replacement parts and components. The fourth strategy is based on design toward adaptability, respectively focusing on reusability of components and adapting components for a second use with a different purpose. Similarly, the fifth strategy considers the implications of designing for disassembly with Building Information Modeling so as to improve the end-of-life deconstruction phase. The sixth strategy focuses on design with attention to recyclability of used material. Finally, the seventh strategy considers the use of tracking technologies with embedded information on components’ geometric and mechanic characteristics as well as their location and life cycle to enable second use after deconstruction. It is demonstrated that prefabricated buildings are key to material savings, waste reduction, reuse of components, and various other forms of optimization for the construction sector. By adopting the identified strategies in prefabricated buildings, a circular economy could be implemented within the construction industry. Finally, seven guidelines were distilled from the review and linked to the identified strategies. Owing to their degree of adaptability and capacity of being disassembled, prefabricated buildings would allow waste reduction and facilitate a second life of components.
Article
Full-text available
The construction industry is among the sectors that need closer attention due to their environmental impact. The Circular Economy (CE) model promotes the transition to more sustainable production models, which are based on careful management of resources and the reduction of negative externalities generated by such businesses. Its application in this industry can foster significant improvements in sustainability. However, the measurement of the degree of implementation of CE is difficult, owing to an absence of psychometrically sound measures. In this paper, the development of the CE scale for the building industry was described, treated as an instrument that allows for a direct measurement of the importance of CE for companies. The processes used to generate items by applying the e-Delphi research technique were explained in the article, and the developed scale was tested and validated through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The final construction is composed of seven different weighted dimensions: four related to Resource Management: 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle), Efficient Management of Energy, Water, and Materials; two dimensions regarding environmental impact: Emissions and Wastes generated; and, one providing indicators of transition to the CE.
Chapter
Full-text available
The research on new ways to make our existing city more sustainable in economic and environmental terms has become a central theme at the national and international levels, with important implications for city management. The collective agenda is focused on retaining, refurbishing and recycling the existing elements by transforming wastes into new resources. This continuous cycle represented by the extension of the product life cycle and the enhancement of the discarded parts in the built environment is changing the economic system used for many centuries. The current linear economy model is going progressively to be converted into a more circular economy. Many sectors—like infrastructure, foods, enterprises, design etc.—are improving their efficiency by adopting a more circular pattern, but construction companies seem to be very far from this purpose. As one of the main sectors responsible of global energy consumption and waste production, the construction industry has to undergo a radical change in perspective on urban development, along with a new social, cultural, and economic interest in rebuilding the existing city in a sustainable way. The aim of this research is to highlight how to transform the construction industry through the circular economy to make urban reuse strategies more sustainable in social, economic and especially environmental terms. The paper considers not only the theoretical implications of the economic paradigm of circularity, but also case studies through which it is possible to evaluate its relevance in terms of design, production and management of such a new perspective. Through a critical analysis of the more relevant circular interventions in Europe to upcycle obsolete buildings, the research highlights the new fundamental rules for the construction industry to regenerate the existing cities. In particular, the cases studies show how the economic and environmental benefits apply to a circular model in the construction industry and how this system is able to generate new social and economic value in existing buildings. The second element is to show how to combine the circular economy with costs via technologies able to match circularity and environmental efficiency.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to develop a BIM-based Whole-life Performance Estimator (BWPE) for appraising the salvage performance of structural components of buildings right from the design stage. A review of the extant literature was carried out to identify factors that influence salvage performance of structural components of buildings during their useful life. Thereafter, a mathematical modelling approach was adopted to develop BWPE using the identified factors and principle/concept of Weibull reliability distribution for manufactured products. The model was implemented in Building Information Modelling (BIM) environment and it was tested using case study design. Accordingly, the whole-life salvage performance profiles of the case study building were generated. The results show that building design with steel structure, demountable connections, and prefabricated assemblies produce recoverable materials that are mostly reusable. The study reveals that BWPE is an objective means for determining how much of recoverable materials from buildings are reusable and recyclable at the end of its useful life. BWPE will therefore provide a decision support mechanism for the architects and designers to analyse the implication of designs decision on the salvage performance of buildings over time. It will also be useful to the demolition engineers and consultants to generate pre-demolition audit when the building gets to end of its life.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper outlines one approach to developing the potential for replaceable parts of buildings to be adapted to changes in user needs within the context of longer life infrastructure, and outlines the approach taken in the first live test. This idea may be realized by allowing ownership of moveable components to be reassigned via innovative business models. This would enable components, such as walls and doors, and elements such as façades, to be taken back by their providers for reuse or remanufacture, a circular process assisted by prefabrication, modularization and 'design for adaptability'. This evolving ownership paradigm requires a robust documentation regime to archive the new form of data it would generate. The use of automated Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), including the facility to update and interrogate 'on element' data storage, can enable data on building elements to be accessed and updated over their life-cycle. Furthermore, this seamless bi-directional transfer of whole-of-life design documentation allows existing building elements to be traceable and reused in new designs, thereby promoting 'cradle to cradle' thinking, in turn promoting open and changeable built environments. This new regime creates an ongoing dynamic data repository enabling a significant change in the paradigm of life-cycle information, capturing changes in condition, performance, ownership and location.
Article
Full-text available
Today, both resource efficiency in general and the efficient use of natural resources specifically in the building sector are major political issues. Recent studies on resource efficiency have found the "anthropogenic stock" of the building sector to outweigh natural resource stocks. To make the anthropogenic stock accessible, material quantities with their individual composition need to be estimated and extrapolated to regional level. A geographical information system (GIS) is used as tool to handle the building specific data and combine them on regional level to calculate the anthropogenic stock. The resulting resource cadaster reflects the material quantities, divided into sixteen material fractions, of a specific residential district in the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area-a typical urban area in Germany. The case study area was weighted in total between 103.5 kt and 93 kt, depending on the dataset. This paper offers a step-by-step description of this approach, whereby a consistent dataset was created throughout the process of data collection and validation. In order to demonstrate the broader application of the resource cadaster, the results were extrapolated to the residential building sector of the entire federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. In highly concentrated areas, like the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan area, both area-wide classification of material quantities and their regional localization are necessary to make the anthropogenic stock accessible. Information about toxic substances, however, also needs to be included in the process of data collection. This method of mapping could thus provide the foundation for future (re)uses of this stock. This study offers some concrete steps in the direction of achieving a circular economy.
Article
Full-text available
The application of the concept of circular economy thinking in construction, which is in its infancy, has been largely limited to construction waste minimisation and recycling. Little research on circular economy from a systems perspective including how new business models might enable materials to retain high residual values has been undertaken. Utilising the results from a survey and a follow-up workshop, this paper provides an analysis of an industrywide perspective of circular economy awareness, challenges and enablers. The survey results indicate that while there is industrywide awareness of the concept, clients, designers and subcontractors are the least informed and this is a key challenge for greater adoption. The absence of incentives to design products and buildings for disassembly and reuse at their end of life is a significant challenge. To encourage greater implementation of circular economy principles throughout the supply chain, a clear economic case is paramount, supported by metrics, tool...