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Context: Plyometric training promotes a highly effective neuromuscular stimulus to improve running performance. Jumping rope (JR) involves mainly foot muscles and joints, due to the quick rebounds, and it might be considered a type of plyometric training for improving power and stiffness, some of the key factors for endurance-running performance. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of JR during the warm-up routine of amateur endurance runners on jumping performance, reactivity, arch stiffness, and 3-km time-trial performance. Methods: Athletes were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 51) or control (n = 45) group. Those from the control group were asked to maintain their training routines, while athletes from the experimental group had to modify their warm-up routines, including JR (2-4 sessions/wk, with a total time of 10-20 min/wk) for 10 weeks. Physical tests were performed before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period and included jumping performance (countermovement-jump, squat-jump, and drop-jump tests), foot-arch stiffness, and 3-km time-trial performance. Reactive strength index (RSI) was calculated from a 30-cm drop jump. Results: The 2 × 2 analysis of variance showed significant pre-post differences in all dependent variables (P < .001) for the experimental group. No significant changes were reported in the control group (all P ≥ .05). Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship between Δ3-km time trial and ΔRSI (r = -.481; P < .001) and ΔStiffness (r = -.336; P < .01). The linear-regression analysis showed that Δ3-km time trial was associated with ΔRSI and ΔStiffness (R2 = .394; P < .001). Conclusions: Compared with a control warm-up routine prior to endurance-running training, 10 weeks (2-4 times/wk) of JR training, in place of 5 minutes of regular warm-up activities, was effective in improving 3-km time-trial performance, jumping ability, RSI, and arch stiffness in amateur endurance runners. Improvements in RSI and arch stiffness were associated with improvements in 3-km time-trial performance.
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Jump-Rope Training: Improved 3-km Time-Trial Performance
in Endurance Runners via Enhanced Lower-Limb Reactivity
and Foot-Arch Stiffness
Felipe García-Pinillos, Carlos Lago-Fuentes, Pedro A. Latorre-Román, Antonio Pantoja-Vallejo,
and Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo
Context:Plyometric training promotes a highly effectiveneuromuscular stimulus to improve running performance.Jumping rope
(JR) involves mainly foot muscles and joints, due to the quick rebounds, and it might be considered a type of plyometric training
for improving power and stiffness, some of the key factors for endurance-running performance. Purpose:To determine the
effectiveness of JR during the warm-up routine of amateur endurance runners on jumping performance, reactivity, arch stiffness,
and 3-km time-trial performance. Methods:Athletes were randomly assigned to an experimental (n =51) or control (n =45) group.
Those from the control group were asked to maintain their training routines, while athletes from the experimental group had to
modify their warm-up routines, including JR (24 sessions/wk, with a total time of 1020 min/wk) for 10 weeks. Physical tests
were performed before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period and included jumping performance (countermovement-
jump, squat-jump, and drop-jump tests), foot-arch stiffness, and 3-km time-trial performance. Reactive strength index (RSI) was
calculated from a 30-cm drop jump. Results:The 2 ×2 analysis of variance showed signicant prepost differences in all
dependent variables (P<.001) for the experimental group. No signicant changes were reported in the control group (all P.05).
Pearson correlation analysis revealed a signicant relationship between Δ3-km time trial and ΔRSI (r=.481; P<.001) and
ΔStiffness (r=.336; P<.01). The linear-regression analysis showed that Δ3-km time trial was associated with ΔRSI and
ΔStiffness (R
=.394; P<.001). Conclusions:Compared with a control warm-up routine prior to endurance-running training,
10 weeks (24 times/wk) of JR training, in place of 5 minutes of regular warm-up activities, was effective in improving 3-km
time-trial performance, jumping ability, RSI, and arch stiffness in amateur endurance runners. Improvements in RSI and arch
stiffness were associated with improvements in 3-km time-trial performance.
Keywords:rope jumping, running, plyometric exercises, resistance training, stretch reex
The importance of resistance training (RT) for endurance
runners has been extensively demonstrated in the last decade.
This has 2 main goals: maximizing athletic performance (eg,
running economy [RE] or velocity at VO
max [vVO
max]) and
minimizing the risk of injury.
Specically, RT focused on neural
adaptations has been shown as one of the most efcient strategies
for improving sport performance in athletes.
The benets of RT
include improvements also in RE (from 3.0% to 8.1%) through
different mechanisms, such as changes in mechanical efciency,
muscle coordination, or motor recruitment patterns.
these adaptations affect positively to athletic performance, with
some previous studies
reporting improvements in 3- to 5-km
runs after a protocolized RT program. However, endurance runners
still doubt about the advantages of RT
and still think more is
betterby accumulating greater running volumes per week.
reasons for not including RT in their trainings might be the fear of
interference effects, the lack of knowledge, time, equipment and
facilities, or enjoyment.
One of the most frequently studied types of RT in endurance
runners is plyometric training (PT), with or without external loads.
This type of training promotes a highly effective neuromuscular
stimulus. Whereas a traditional heavy RT program induces neural
and hypertrophic adaptations, leading to a dilution of the mito-
chondrial volume density, PT may lead preferentially to adapta-
tions like increased rate of activation of motor units
with the
advantage of requiring reduced physical space, time, and equip-
ment to complete the training sessions.
Furthermore, it produces
improvements in running performance and RE.
For instance,
Berryman et al
compared PT with dynamic weight training in
runners, showing that the former induced a higher efciency in the
energy cost of running. This can be explained because of improve-
ments in motor unit recruitment and synchronization after PT.
However, these PT protocols have shown some limitations such
as not related with running technique (box jumps), an elevated
volume (ie, 2000 jumps in 6 wk), low number of participants, poor
description of PT protocols, among others.
That is, PT can be a
good type of training for endurance runners compared with other
traditional RT, but coaches should be cautious about the afore-
mentioned considerations.
Jumping rope (JR) is a consecutive jump exercise with turning
the rope, involving mainly foot muscles and joints, due to the quick
Therefore, JR might be considered a type of PT for
improving power and stiffness, some of the key factors for
García-Pinillos is with the Dept of Physical Education, Sports and Recreation,
University of La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. Lago-Fuentes is with the Faculty of
Education and Sport Sciences, University of Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain, and the
Faculty of Health Sciences, European University of the Atlantic, Santander, Spain.
Latorre-Román is with the Dept of Corporal Expression, and Pantoja-Vallejo, the
Dept of Pedagogy, University of Jaén, Jaén, Spain. Ramirez-Campillo is with the
Laboratory of Human Performance, Quality of Life and Wellness Research Group,
Dept of Physical Activity Sciences, University of Los Lagos, Osorno, Chile.
Ramirez-Campillo ( is corresponding author.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, (Ahead of Print)
© 2020 Human Kinetics, Inc. ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION
endurance running performance.
Furthermore, the rope enables to
combine PT with running technique (eg, skipping, dynamic rope
jumping, unilateral jumps),
reducing the time to achieve both
goals, with a high level of adherence and enjoyment
that can be
used during warm-ups. Therefore, it seems that, compared with
other types of PT as box or hurdle jumps, JR can improve the
athletic performance on endurance runners with low-cost invest-
ments and time efciency.
However, there are few research reports that focus on the
effects of including JR in the warm-up routines of training ses-
For instance, besides the positive effects of PT on
endurance runners,
more than 70% of amateur endurance
runners included only continuous run during warm-ups, using
low-intensity running as the most common strategy.
Related to
this, running exposure has been strongly correlated with overuse
injuries in endurance runners.
Taking this context into account,
low-time cost strategies to improve stiffness and performance have
the potential to be included during warm-ups.
To the authorsknowledge, there are no studies focused
on analyzing the effects of a PT warm-up protocol on amateur
endurance runners. Furthermore, no previous studies exist about
including low-cost strategies to improve athletic performance in
endurance runners. For these reasons, the aim of this study is to
determine the effectiveness of incorporating JR during the warm-
up routine of amateur endurance runners on jumping performance,
reactivity, arch stiffness, and 3-km time-trial performance.
A total of 96 amateur endurance runners (51 males and 45 females;
age range: 1840 y) successfully completed the study (Table 1).
Participants met the following inclusion criteria: (1) should be 18
years and older; (2) able to run 10 km in less than 50 minutes;
(3) recreationally trained (35 running sessions per week); (4) not
to be involved in any RT program, including PT; and (5) have not
suffered from any injury within the last 6 months before data
collection. Initially, 105 participants who fullled the inclusion
criteria were selected to participate in this study. To be included in
the nal analyses, each participant needed to complete the training
program and attend prepost assessments. Related to these strict
requirements, 9 participants were excluded from data analysis
(N =96; Figure 1). Participants were randomly assigned to the
experimental group (EG; n =51, women =24) or the control group
(CG; n =45, women =21). A research assistant who was not
involved in the data collection, using random numbers generated
in Microsoft Excel 2016, conducted randomization independently.
After receiving detailed information on the objectives and proce-
dures of the study, each participant signed an informed consent
form, which complied with the ethical standards of the latest
version of the World Medical Associations Declaration of
Helsinki (2013); it was made clear that the participants were
free to leave the study if they were unt. The University of Jaéns
Ethics Committee approved the study.
The study was conducted between January and April 2019. Using a
between-group design (EG and CG), 96 athletes were assessed.
Testing was completed at week 0 (pre) and at week 11 (post) to
monitor changes over the course of a 10-week training program.
Thus, physical tests were performed before (pretest) and after
(posttest) the 10-week intervention period.
Athletes from the CG were asked to maintain their training
routines, whereas athletes from the EG modied their warm-up
routines, but maintained their running routines (see Table 2for
more information about training background of both EG and CG).
Athletes from the EG included JR during their warm-up routines
(ie, just after the running-based exercises in the warm-up, 24
sessions per week, with a total time of 1020 min/wk) for 10
weeks. Since athletes replaced 5 minutes of their habitual warm-
up routines with JR drills, 2 to 4 times per week, the current JR
training was easily incorporated into the regular training sche-
dules of the participants. Before starting the training program
(week 0), the EG participants were instructed with technical key
points about JR. These included (1) rope rotation should be gener-
ated by the wrists with minimal movement of the elbows and
shoulders, (2) jump height should be maximized and ground contact
time should be minimized, and (3) landing should be softened on the
forefoot and with the knees slightly exed. More details about the
10-week JR training program can be checked in Table 3.The
participants from the CG maintained their training plans, whereas
the athletes from EG just changed the content of the warm-up
routines, with no other changes in their training program.
The athletes were instructed to refrain from intense exercise
(ie, score of 15 in the rating of perceived exertion scale of
620) 2 days preceding testing (weeks 0 and 11, pretest and
posttest, respectively). Testing sessions were conducted 3 to 4
days before starting the intervention and 3 to 4 days after nishing
it (pretest and posttest, respectively). They were not allowed to eat
during the hour preceding the test or to consume coffee or other
products containing caffeine during the preceding 3 hours. Pre-
testing and posttesting were conducted at the same time of the day
to avoid the inuence of the circadian rhythm and under similar
environmental conditions (20°C24°C).
Either at pretest or posttest, athletes were tested individually, and
participation involved the execution of 3-km time trial on an outdoor
400-m synthetic track. The elapsed time (in seconds) for the 3-km
running was registered for the subsequent analysis. The only instruc-
tion given to participants was to nishtheraceasfastastheycould.
Before starting the running trial, body height (in centimeters)
and body mass (in kilograms) were determined using a precision
stadiometer and mechanical scale (Seca 222 and 634, respectively;
Seca Corp, Hamburg, Germany). All measurements were taken
with the participants wearing underwear. Also, the arch height and
the arch stiffness of the right foot were assessed. Arch height
Table 1 Descriptive Characteristics of the Participants
Variable EG (n =51) CG (n =45) P
Age, y 27.2 (8.6) 26.1 (6.3) .467
Height, m 1.72 (0.1) 1.71 (0.1) .790
Body mass, kg 66.0 (10.4) 65.7 (9.1) .852
BMI, kg/m
22.3 (2.0) 21.9 (2.2) .472
Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CG, control group; EG, experimental
group. Note: Data are presented as mean (SD).
Chi-square test was conducted.
(Ahead of Print)
2García-Pinillos et al
was dened as the height of the dorsum of the foot normalized to
truncated foot length. Truncated foot length was dened as the length
of the foot from the heel cup (most posterior portion of the calcaneus)
to the center of the medial joint space of the rst metatarsal
phalangeal joint.
Arch stiffness, a measure of the amount of
deformation per unit of load, was dened as the change in arch
height index (AHI) due to the increase in load between sitting and
standing conditions. Measurements were taken by a single
Figure 1 CONSORT diagram of the full recruitment and randomization process.
Table 2 Characteristics of the Training Plans of the Participants During 2 Periods
Variable EG (n =51) CG (n =45) P
10 wk before intervention
Number of running sessions per week 4.0 (0.7) 4.1 (0.4) .772
Running volume,
km/wk 41.3 (5.1) 42.4 (6.9) .373
Running volume,
h/wk 4.6 (1.3) 4.7 (1.3) .801
10 wk of intervention
Number of running sessions per week 4.2 (0.6) 4.4 (0.5) .690
Running volume,
km/wk 42.1 (6.5) 40.5 (5.6) .493
Running volume,
h/wk 4.8 (1.1) 4.5 (1.2) .352
Abbreviations: CG, control group; EG, experimental group.
Two periods: (1) 10 weeks before starting the intervention and (2) 10 weeks of intervention.
Warm-up and cooldown
routines are included.
Table 3 Jump-Rope Training Program
per week
Time per
session, min
ratio, s
rpm Type
Total weekly
time, min
12 2 5 30:30 100120 Bilateral 10
34 3 5 30:30 100120 Bilateral 15
56 3 5 30:30 120140 Unilateralalternating 15
78 4 5 30:30 120140 Unilateralalternating 20
910 4 5 40:20 12014 Unilateralalternating 20
(Ahead of Print)
Jump-Rope Training in Endurance Runners 3
investigator using the AHI Measurement System.
Butler et al
reported high intrarater and interrater reliability. Participants were
asked to sit in a height-adjustable chair. Then, the chair was adjusted
to keep knees and hips under a 90° alignment and with slight contact
between plantar foot surface and the measurement platform. A
specially designed platform for undertaking this measurement was
The dorsum of the foot at 50% of total foot length was
measured with a digital caliper. The total foot length was considered
from the most posterior aspect of the calcaneus xed at a heel cup to
the most distal aspect of the longest toe. It was repeated in a bipedal
stance position assuming body weight. Both feet were xed in the
heel cups positioned 15 cm apart. The dorsal arch height difference
was calculated as the difference between dorsal arch in bipedal
standing and in sitting position, known as sit-to-stand difference,
whereas the AHI was calculated as follows
AHI =Dorsum height=Truncated foot length (1)
Based on a previous study,
the arch stiffness was calculated by
assuming a 40% change in load between seating and standing
conditions (that value of change reected the difference between
half the body weight and the weight of the foot +shank) as follows:
Arch stiffness =ð0.40 ×Body massÞ=ðAHI ½seated
AHI ½standingÞ (2)
The average of 3 repeated measurements was computed and used for
subsequent analysis. The static foot posture and foot mobility
measures have reported moderate to good intrarater reliability (in-
traclass correlation coefcient =.81.99) and moderate to good
interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefcient =.58.99),
After anthropometric and foot measurements, at both pretest
and posttest, the participants performed a standardized warm-up
(ie, mobility, continuous low-intensity running, jumping, and
sprinting bouts) and a battery of jumping tests (squat jump [SJ],
countermovement jump [CMJ], and 30-cm drop jumps [DJ30]).
The participants were unexperienced athletes in terms of plyomet-
ric drills and jumping test. To make sure the execution was correct,
2 familiarization sessions were carried out during the previous
week before testing. The SJ, CMJ, and DJ30 tests were recorded
using the OptoGait system (Microgate, Bolzano, Italy), which has
been previously used in a similar study.
This device measures the
contact time on the oor and the ight time using photoelectric
cells. Flight time was used to calculate the height of the rise using
the bodys center of gravity. Athletes performed 2 trials of every
test, with a 15-second recovery period between them, with the best
trial being used for the statistical analysis. As described by a
previous study,
during SJ, participants were instructed to adopt
aexed knee position (approximately 90°) during 3 seconds before
jumping, whereas during CMJ, no restriction was imposed over the
knee angle achieved before jumping. Jumping tests were executed
with arms akimbo. Takeoff and landing were standardized to full
knee and ankle extension on the same spot. The participants were
instructed to maximize jump height. For the DJ30, participants
were instructed to maximize jump height and minimize ground
contact time after dropping down from a 30-cm drop box.
Reactive strength index (RSI) was calculated as follows:
RSI =Flight time ðmsÞ=Contact time ðmsÞ(3)
Statistical Analysis
Data are presented as group mean values (SDs). After data normality
assumption was veried with the Levene test, analyses of variance
were used to detect differences between study groups in all variables
at pretest and posttest. Measures of dependent variables were
analyzed in separate 2 (groups) ×2 (time [pre, post]) analyses of
variance with repeated measures on time, with Bonferroni-adjusted
α. The magnitude of the differences between values was also
interpreted using the Cohen deffect size (ES) (between-group
differences). ESs are reported as follows: trivial (<0.2), small
(0.20.49), medium (0.50.79), and large (0.8). A Pearson corre-
lation analysis was conducted between changes (Δ; eg, 3-km time
trial at pretest minus 3-km time trial at posttest) experienced in
athletic performance, RSI, and stiffness. Finally, a simple linear
regression analysis was used to determine the association between
the improvement in the 3-km test (dependent variable: Δ3-km time
trial) and the improvements in RSI and arch stiffness (independent
variables: ΔRSI and ΔStiffness) during the intervention. Data anal-
ysis was performed using the SPSS software (version 21; SPSS Inc,
Chicago, IL). Signicance levels were set at α=5%.
No signicant between-group differences (P.05) were found in
age, anthropometric characteristics, and sex distribution at baseline
(before training intervention; Table 1). Table 2presents the char-
acteristics of training plans of athletes from both CG and EG before
starting the 10-week intervention period and during that period, and
no signicant between-group differences were found (all Ps.05).
The effects of the intervention on dependent variables are
displayed in Table 4. The main group ×time effect revealed signi-
cant differences in all variables (P<.001). The post hoc analysis
showed signicant differences in all variables (all Ps<.001, small
ES [arch stiffness, SJ, and 3-km time trial] and moderate ES [CMJ,
DJ30 cm, and RSI]) for the EG, whereas no signicant changes
were reported in the CG (all Ps.05, trivial ES).
A Pearson correlation analysis revealed signicant relation-
ship between Δ3-km time trial and ΔRSI (r=.481; P<.001) and
ΔStiffness (r=.336; P<.01). The linear regression analysis
showed that Δ3-km time trial was associated with ΔRSI and
ΔStiffness (R
=.394; P<.001).
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 10-
week JR training program, incorporated into the warm-up routines
of amateur endurance runners, on jumping performance, reactivity,
arch stiffness, and 3-km time-trial performance. The main ndings
indicate that JR training was effective for the improvement of
jumping performance, reactivity, arch stiffness, and 3-km time-trial
performance. Although previous studies incorporated JR training
as a strategy to improve the physical tness of athletes,
to our
knowledge, this is the rst study to analyze the effects of a JR
training approach in endurance runners. Moreover, the current JR
training approach incorporated an ecological-valid (practical)
approach. In this sense, athletes replaced 5 minutes of their habitual
warm-up routines with JR drills. In addition, the replacement was
applied only 2 to 4 times per week. Therefore, the current JR
training approach was easily incorporated into the regular training
schedules of the participants.
(Ahead of Print)
4García-Pinillos et al
One of the main ndings from the current intervention was the
signicantly greater improvement of 3-km time-trial performance
in the JR training group (3%, ES =0.4) compared with the CG
(1.5%, ES =0.1). Such improvement has been previously reported
in endurance runners, from different tness levels, after PT inter-
and may be related to adaptations in several physiologi-
cal and biomechanical determinants of endurance running
with the most relevant being probably RE.
fact, improvements in RE have been associated with increased RSI
and stiffness,
which is in line with the results obtained in the
current study (ie, Δ3-km time trial was signicantly associated with
ΔRSI and ΔStiffness). Although improvements in neuromuscular
factors presumably mediated the improvement in the 3-km time-
trial performance, the high jumping frequency involved in the
current JR training intervention may have also induced an impor-
tant cardioventilatory stimulation (eg, 90% of VO
with a
potential positive impact on vVO
Future studies may
elucidate if high-frequency JR training, such as the one applied
in this intervention, may contribute to improvements in cardio-
ventilatory parameters (eg, VO
max, VO
peak, or vVO
The relationship between jumping performance and running
endurance performance has been previously established.
In this
regard, an important nding in the current study was the greater
increase of explosive strength performance requiring slow stretch-
shortening cycle (SSC) action (ie, CMJ) and fast SSC action
(ie, DJ30) in the JR training group compared with the CG.
Improved reactivity (ie, DJ30) may be related to increased neural
drive to the agonist muscles, improved intermuscular coordination,
changes in muscle size and/or architecture, changes in single-ber
mechanics, among others.
Such improvements may reduce the
time the athletes foot spends in contact with the ground during
favorably affecting performance during running endur-
ance events.
Another nding from this study was the signicantly greater
improvement of arch stiffness in the JR training group (7.8%)
compared with the CG (0.1%). Such improvement is similar to the
one previously reported for endurance runners after PT.
ments in stiffness at the muscle ber level may occur mainly on
fast-twitch bers.
It may be possible that endurance runners, who
usually have a relatively more developed slow-twitch ber pheno-
had greater ceiling for improvements in their fast-twitch
Although improvements in stiffness have been observed in
previous PT studies, including endurance runners,
others have
found mixed ndings
or not such an improvement.
Part of the
disagreement among studies might be related with the assessment
technique and the structures assessed. Whereas the current work
evaluated arch stiffness, dened as the change in AHI due to the
increase in load between sitting and standing conditions, Spurrs
et al
obtained musculotendinous stiffness of the lower limb
through the oscillation technique by performing an isometric
contraction on an instrumented seated calf raise machine. Likewise,
Fouré et al
focused on passive stiffness of the gastrocnemii
dened as the slope of the lengthtension relationship for the
common range of gastrocnemii length. In this regard, current
results suggest that the assessment of arch stiffness may be a
sensitive measurement technique for stiffness changes in endur-
ance runners.
It seems logical that those improvements in jumping ability
and arch stiffness are linked to improvements in reactivity (ie, RSI
in the current work). Previous studies have revealed a strong
association between those parameters and running perfor-
Current results demonstrated that the JR training group
improved the RSI (13%) when compared with the CG. This index
denotes that per each unit of time the foot is on the ground, greater
jump height (ight time) is achieved, an indirect marker of greater
rate of force development. Additionally, the linear regression
analysis showed that Δ3-km time trial was associated with ΔRSI
and ΔStiffness (R
=.394; P<.001), which reinforces the associa-
tion between lower body stiffness and reactivity with athletic
performance in endurance runners.
Of note, the improvements in jumping performance in the JR
training group were achieved after an intervention with a focus
on jump repetitions with short contact time. In this context, it is
tempting to speculate that the time the athletes foot spends in
contact with the ground during jumps can modulate training-related
adaptations in endurance runners. However, this should be tested in
future studies comparing interventions with different contact times
during the jumps.
Table 4 Effects of a 10-Week Jump-Rope Training Program on Arch Stiffness, Jumping, and 3-km Time-Trial
Performance of Amateur Endurance Runners
Variable Groups
mean (SD)
mean (SD)
Post pre
(group ×time)
Bonferroni post
hoc P(Cohen d)
Arch stiffness
(body mass/AHI units)
EG (n =49) 925.5 (388.7) 997.95 (373.17) 72.4 (7.8) <.001 <.001 (0.23)
CG (n =45) 947.7 (418.8) 949.01 (427.31) 1.33 (0.1) .944 (0.01)
CMJ, cm EG (n =47) 28.59 (5.79) 31.59 (6.01) 3.0 (10.5) <.001 <.001 (0.52)
CG (n =44) 29.46 (7.15) 29.30 (7.07) 0.2 (0.5) .165 (0.01)
Squat jump, cm EG (n =47) 23.72 (3.90) 25.08 (3.76) 1.4 (5.7) <.001 <.001 (0.41)
CG (n =44) 24.75 (5.70) 24.66 (4.35) 0.1 (0.4) .525 (0.02)
DJ30, cm EG (n =47) 25.40 (3.47) 26.84 (3.18) 1.4 (5.7) <.001 <.001 (0.54)
CG (n =44) 26.65 (4.96) 26.76 (4.58) 0.1 (0.4) .193 (0.02)
RSI, ms/ms EG (n =47) 1.92 (0.45) 2.17 (0.42) 0.3 (13.0) <.001 <.001 (0.62)
CG (n =44) 1.91 (0.41) 1.92 (0.41) 0.01 (0.5) .280 (0.03)
3-km time trial, s EG (n =44) 774.6 (79.5) 751.7 (65.8) 22.9 (3.0) <.001 <.001 (0.44)
CG (n =42) 762.1 (87.5) 750.8 (83.6) 11.3 (1.5) .136 (0.12)
Abbreviations: AHI, arch height index; CMJ, countermovement jump; DJ30, 30-cm drop jumps; RSI, reactive strength index.
(Ahead of Print)
Jump-Rope Training in Endurance Runners 5
Practical Applications
The replacement of 5 minutes of regular warm-up routines, 2 to
4 times per week, with JR training drills might be an effective and
safe resource to incorporate into the training schedule of amateur
endurance runners as a time-efcient strategy to improve several
proxies associated with endurance running performance, such as
jumping, RSI, stiffness and, mostly, 3-km time trial. Moreover,
JR training drills are probably related to lower mechanical stress
than other plyometric exercises like drop jumps performed from
high heights. This may help to preservethe musculoskeletal
system from excessive loading, especially before habitual running
When compared with a control warm-up routine previous to
endurance running, 10 weeks (24 times per week) of JR training,
in replacement of 5 minutes of regular warm-up activities, was
effective in improving 3-km time-trial performance, jumping
ability involving concentric (SJ), slow SSC (CMJ), fast SSC
(DJ30), RSI, and arch stiffness in amateur endurance runners.
Moreover, improvements in RSI and arch stiffness were associated
with improvements in 3-km time-trial performance.
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Jump-Rope Training in Endurance Runners 7
... Intervention programs involving PJT may provide an exercise mode that can be adapted for populations according to their age, sex, health, physical fitness and/ or SSP level [17][18][19][20]. Indeed, PJT emphasises the use of jumping drills, such as hops, depth jumps, bouncing, or skipping exercises. ...
... The implementation of PJT in schools or sports clubs may enhance physical fitness and additionally improve students' perception of physical activity [21,22]. Interventions using PJT have proven to be effective to promote markers of health such as bone mineral content [17,23], measures of physical fitness (e.g., linear sprint speed) [8,[24][25][26][27][28] and SSP in a time-efficient manner e.g. two to four 5-min training sessions per week [20]. Further, PJT may induce improvements in neuromuscular, cardiovascular and body composition-related measures of physical fitness and SSP [20,[29][30][31][32][33]. ...
... Interventions using PJT have proven to be effective to promote markers of health such as bone mineral content [17,23], measures of physical fitness (e.g., linear sprint speed) [8,[24][25][26][27][28] and SSP in a time-efficient manner e.g. two to four 5-min training sessions per week [20]. Further, PJT may induce improvements in neuromuscular, cardiovascular and body composition-related measures of physical fitness and SSP [20,[29][30][31][32][33]. Moreover, PJT is safe for youths and a key element of injury prevention programs [34]. ...
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Abstract Background Among youth, plyometric-jump training (PJT) may provide a safe, accessible, and time-efficient training method. Less is known on PJT effectiveness according to the maturity status. Objective This systematic review with meta-analysis set out to analyse the body of peer-reviewed articles assessing the effects of PJT on measures of physical fitness [i.e., maximal dynamic strength; change of direction (COD) speed; linear sprint speed; horizontal and vertical jump performance; reactive strength index] and sport-specific performance (i.e., soccer ball kicking and dribbling velocity) according to the participants’ maturity status. Methods Systematic searches were conducted in three electronic databases using the following inclusion criteria: (i) Population: healthy participants aged
... Jump rope training (JRT) may provide a mode of exercise that is accessible to all as it has been shown to be an effective, safe, and time-efficient training method. This form of training can be easily adapted for populations based on sex, age, health, and physical fitness status (Aagaard, 2012;Ache-Dias et al., 2016;Arnett & Lutz, 2002;Chen et al., 2011;Garcia-Pinillos et al., 2020). Indeed, JRT may overcome common barriers such as low-income, bad weather, reduced safety in outdoor conditions which makes it difficult for a large proportion of the population to engage in physical activity programsprogrammes (Withall et al., 2011). ...
... Ha et al., 2014). Moreover, JRT might be equally or even more effective compared to other training methods (e.g., running, high-intensity interval training) to stimulate cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance time-trial events Ducrocq et al., 2019;Garcia-Pinillos et al., 2020;Kramer et al., 2019;Laurson et al., 2008;Racil et al., 2015). Further, JRT resembles the neuro-musculoskeletal effects of traditional more intense plyometric-jump training methods (Markovic & Mikulic, 2010). ...
... Further, JRT resembles the neuro-musculoskeletal effects of traditional more intense plyometric-jump training methods (Markovic & Mikulic, 2010). For example, JRT may favour improvements in bone health-related markers such as bone mineral content (Arnett & Lutz, 2002), and neuromuscularrelated outcomes such as reactive strength and stiffness (Garcia-Pinillos et al., 2020). Even trained individuals may achieve meaningful physical fitness improvements with 5-min JRT sessions applied two-fourtwo to four times per week (Garcia-Pinillos et al., 2020). ...
The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to assess the available body of published peer-reviewed articles related on the effects of jump rope training (JRT) compared with active/passive controls on health- and sport-related physical fitness outcomes. Searches were conducted in three databases, including studies that satisfied the following criteria: i) healthy participants; ii) a JRT programprogramme; iii) active or traditional control group; iv) at least one measure related to health- and sport-related physical fitness; v) multi-arm trials. The random-effects model was used for the meta-analyses. Twenty-one moderate-high quality (i.e., PEDro scale) studies were meta-analysed, involving 1,021 participants (male, 50.4%). Eighteen studies included participants with a mean age <18 years old. The duration of the JRT interventions ranged from 6 to 40 weeks. Meta-analyses revealed improvements (i.e., p = 0.048 to <0.001; ES = 0.23-1.19; I2 = 0.0-76.9%) in resting heart rate, body mass index, fat mass, cardiorespiratory endurance, lower- and upper-body maximal strength, jumping, range of motion, and sprinting. No significant JRT effects were noted for systolic-diastolic blood pressure, waist-hip circumference, bone or lean mass, or muscle endurance. In conclusion, JRT, when compared to active and passive controls, provides a range of small-moderate benefits that span health- and sport-related physical fitness outcomes.
... In a recent meta-analysis [7], jump training was found to improve the running speed for endurance runners by reducing the ground contact time during running. In fact, five-minute regular rope skipping has been suggested as a favorable warm-up protocol to enhance running endurance [8] and horizontal jumping capacity [9]. ...
... In terms of motor competence, previous studies have shown that incorporating submaximal rope skipping (120 skips·min −1 ) into warm-up routines can improve young soccer players' balance and motor coordination [6]. A five-minute-interval rope-jumping program (100-140 skips·min −1 with a work-rest ratio of 30s:30s) has also been shown to be effective in improving endurance runners' jump performance and 3 km running results, and in reducing foot-arch stiffness [8]. Therefore, all-out skipping-specific protocols may have varied benefits for different populations and should be further investigated. ...
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Rope skipping has been well documented for eliciting positive effects on various health outcomes and contributing to overall physical activity levels. However, the specific health benefits may depend on the duration and intensity of the exercise bouts. This study aimed to compare the (1) metabolic and (2) perceptual responses between short (30 s) and long (3 min) bouts of all-out rope skipping, and to (3) evaluate the reliability and validity of a newly invented electronic rope (E-rope). A total of 23 young adults (13 males and 10 females; aged 23.23 ± 2.62 y) repeated short and long skipping bouts on two testing days. The oxygen consumption (V·O2), peak respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and post-exercise muscle soreness were assessed during each trial. Longer skipping bouts (148.33 skips·min−1) resulted in significantly greater metabolic responses (p < 0.01, d = 1.00–3.27), higher rates of perceived exertion (p < 0.01, d = 2.28), and more post-exercise muscle soreness (p < 0.01, d = 0.66–1.49) compared to shorter bouts (165.83 skips·min−1). The E-rope demonstrated sufficient concurrent validity (r > 0.9) and between-day reliability (ICC3,1 = 0.89–0.95) but slightly overestimated the number of skips. Both long and short all-out skipping bouts were considered moderate-to-vigorous exercise, but longer bouts resulted in higher metabolic and perceptual demands. These findings may be useful for practitioners to strategically apply different skipping bouts to improve physical activity levels and facilitate training adaptation. The E-rope could serve as a self-monitoring and self-evaluating tool.
... We considered them as a single study per one research group, and consequently, a total of 21 studies were finally adopted, in which running economy [63-68, 70-75, 78-83] and running time trial performance [65, 67, 69, 76-78, 80-82, 84] were assessed in 18 and 10 studies, respectively. The selected 22 articles were divided into the following training categories: 13 included heavy resistance training [63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75] and 9 included plyometric training [76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84]. ...
... The CON-SORT score ranged from 13 to 24, and the mean score was 18.3 ± 2.9. Based on the Oxford evidence level, all studies were appraised as 2b, except for three studies [66,76,84] which were rated as 1b. The results of the assessment of the risk of bias are shown in Table 1 and Fig. 2. With respect to publication bias, all funnel plots indicated a low risk of publication bias (Figs. 3 and 4). ...
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Background As an adjunct to running training, heavy resistance and plyometric training have recently drawn attention as potential training modalities that improve running economy and running time trial performance. However, the comparative effectiveness is unknown. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine if there are different effects of heavy resistance training versus plyometric training as an adjunct to running training on running economy and running time trial performance in long-distance runners. Methods Electronic databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus were searched. Twenty-two studies completely satisfied the selection criteria. Data on running economy and running time trial performance were extracted for the meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were performed with selected potential moderators. Results The pooled effect size for running economy in heavy resistance training was greater ( g = − 0.32 [95% confidence intervals [CIs] − 0.55 to − 0.10]: effect size = small) than that in plyometric training ( g = -0.13 [95% CIs − 0.47 to 0.21]: trivial). The effect on running time trial performance was also larger in heavy resistance training ( g = − 0.24 [95% CIs − 1.04 to − 0.55]: small) than that in plyometric training ( g = − 0.17 [95% CIs − 0.27 to − 0.06]: trivial). Heavy resistance training with nearly maximal loads (≥ 90% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM], g = − 0.31 [95% CIs − 0.61 to − 0.02]: small) provided greater effects than those with lower loads (< 90% 1RM, g = − 0.17 [95% CIs − 1.05 to 0.70]: trivial). Greater effects were evident when training was performed for a longer period in both heavy resistance (10–14 weeks, g = − 0.45 [95% CIs − 0.83 to − 0.08]: small vs. 6–8 weeks, g = − 0.21 [95% CIs − 0.56 to 0.15]: small) and plyometric training (8–10 weeks, g = 0.26 [95% CIs − 0.67 to 0.15]: small vs. 4–6 weeks, g = − 0.06 [95% CIs 0.67 to 0.55]: trivial). Conclusions Heavy resistance training, especially with nearly maximal loads, may be superior to plyometric training in improving running economy and running time trial performance. In addition, running economy appears to be improved better when training is performed for a longer period in both heavy resistance and plyometric training.
... Alternatively, a lack of training specificity may also explain the lack of endurance improvement. Some exercises such as jump-rope may have provided greater endurance stimulation [31]. Thus, future studies should analyze if greater volume and density of treatment might have favored improvements. ...
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This study aimed to compare the effects of two 8-week in-season strength-training programs on handball players’ physical and technical parameters. Thirty-six male athletes were randomly separated into three groups: a control group (n = 12), a plyometric training group (PG, n = 12), and an eccentric-overload training group (EG, n = 12). The PG and EG performed upper- and lower-limb plyometric or eccentric-overload exercises, respectively, three times per week. Control groups performed regular handball training. The athletes were assessed for counter movement jump (CMJ) and Abalakov vertical jump (ABK) height, 15 m linear sprint time, handball-throwing speed (i.e., penalty throw; 3-step running throw; jump throw), and cardiorespiratory endurance through the 20 m shuttle-run test. Heart rate and blood lactate were measured at the end of the endurance test. No baseline differences were noted for dependent variables between groups. The session rating of perceived exertion was similar between the intervention groups (PG = 361 ± 12.2 AU; EG = 370 ± 13.3 AU). Compared to the control group, the ANOVA revealed significant (p<0.05; Δ=5–9%; effect size = 0.45–1.96) improvements for the experimental groups for CMJ, ABK jump, penalty throw, 3-step running throw, and jump throw. However, interventions did not affect 15 m, cardiorespiratory endurance, nor heart rate or blood lactate after the endurance test. In conclusion, an 8-week handball intervention by performing plyometric or eccentric-overload training in-season improves the physical and technical parameters of male players when compared to regular handball practice.
... Similarly, a recent meta-analysis reported a non-significant impact (ES = 0.37) of jump training on stride rate in endurance runners [52]. The literature states that running speed improvement is usually accomplished by increasing stride length rather than stride frequency [147,148]. Therefore, it is not unexpected that PT can enhance time trial performance without a significant improvement in stride rate performance. Furthermore, there is currently no evidence in the literature to suggest that neuromuscular adaptations resulting from plyometric exercises lead to changes in running biomechanics, such as stride rate [149]. ...
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Background: The literature has proven that plyometric training (PT) improves various physical performance outcomes in sports. Even though PT is one of the most often employed strength training methods, a thorough analysis of PT and how it affects technical skill performance in sports needs to be improved. Methods: This study aimed to compile and synthesize the existing studies on the effects of PT on healthy athletes' technical skill performance. A comprehensive search of SCOPUS, PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, and SPORTDiscus databases was performed on 3rd May 2023. PICOS was employed to establish the inclusion criteria: 1) healthy athletes; 2) a PT program; 3) compared a plyometric intervention to an active control group; 4) tested at least one measure of athletes' technical skill performance; and 5) randomized control designs. The methodological quality of each individual study was evaluated using the PEDro scale. The random-effects model was used to compute the meta-analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed (participant age, gender, PT length, session duration, frequency, and number of sessions). Certainty or confidence in the body of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). Results: Thirty-two moderate-high-quality studies involving 1078 athletes aged 10-40 years met the inclusion criteria. The PT intervention lasted for 4 to 16 weeks, with one to three exercise sessions per week. Small-to-moderate effect sizes were found for performance of throwing velocity (i.e., handball, baseball, water polo) (ES = 0.78; p < 0.001), kicking velocity and distance (i.e., soccer) (ES = 0.37-0.44; all p < 0.005), and speed dribbling (i.e., handball, basketball, soccer) (ES = 0.85; p = 0.014), while no significant effects on stride rate (i.e., running) were noted (ES = 0.32; p = 0.137). Sub-analyses of moderator factors included 16 data sets. Only training length significantly modulated PT effects on throwing velocity (> 7 weeks, ES = 1.05; ≤ 7 weeks, ES = 0.29; p = 0.011). The level of certainty of the evidence for the meta-analyzed outcomes ranged from low to moderate. Conclusion: Our findings have shown that PT can be effective in enhancing technical skills measures in youth and adult athletes. Sub-group analyses suggest that PT longer (> 7 weeks) lengths appear to be more effective for improving throwing velocity. However, to fully determine the effectiveness of PT in improving sport-specific technical skill outcomes and ultimately enhancing competition performance, further high-quality research covering a wider range of sports is required.
... It impacts on the articular, muscular and psychological preparedness of athletes (McGowan et al., 2015;Emery et al., 2022). Furthermore, warm-ups contribute to improving sports performance by promoting the acceleration of metabolic reactions, increasing muscle temperature, heart rate, blood flow and oxygen transport to peripheral muscles, post-activation potentiation, nerve conduction rates, and joint lubrication (Bishop, 2003;García-Pinillos et al., 2020). ...
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Warm-up protocols with high intensities before continuous running provide potential benefits for middle-distance runners. Nevertheless , the effect of high-intensity warm-ups on long-distance runners remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of a high-intensity warm-up protocol on 5000 m performance in trained runners. Thirteen male runners (34 ± 10 years, 62 ± 6 kg, 62.7 ± 5.5 ml/kg/min) performed two 5000 m time trials, preceded by two different warm-ups. One high-intensity warm up (HIWU: 1x 500 m (70% of the running intensity) + 3x 250 m (100% of the running intensity) and one low-intensity warm up (LIWU: 1x 500 m (70% of the running intensity) + 3x 250 m (70% of the running intensity)), where the running intensities were calculated using the results obtained in the Cooper test. Physiological and metabolic responses, and endurance running performance parameters, were evaluated by the Counter Movement Jump (CMJ), running rating of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate concentration (BLa), and performance running. Total time for the 5000 m was lower using HIWU when compared to LIWU (1141.4 ± 110.4 s vs. 1147.8 ± 111.0 s; p = 0.03; Hedges' g = 0.66). The HIWU warm-up led to an improvement in pacing strategy during the time trial. After warm-up protocols, the performance on the CMJ was improved only when applying HIWU (p = 0.008). Post warm-up BLa was significantly higher for HIWU vs. LIWU (3.5 ± 1.0 mmol⸱L-1 vs. 2.3 ± 1.0 mmol⸱L-1 ; p = 0.02), with similar behavior for the RPE (p = 0.002), internal load of the session (p = 0.03). The study showed that a high-intensity warm-up protocol can improve performance in the 5000 m in trained endurance runners.
... Score a Study quality Ando et al. 2021 [85] 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 5 Moderate Beattie et al. 2017 [86] 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 5 Moderate Bogdanis et al. 2019 [24] 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 6 Good Byrne et al. 2010 [88] 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 5 Moderate Byrne et al. 2022 [87] 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 6 Good Chaabene et al. 2021 [89] 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 5 Moderate Chaouachi et al. 2014 [90] 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 6 Good Coşkun et al. 2022 [91] 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 5 Moderate Dallas et al. 2020 [92] 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 5 Moderate Davies et al. 2021 [93] 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 4 Moderate Faude et al. 2013 [94] 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 5 Moderate Fiorilli et al. 2020 [95] 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 6 Good Garcia-Pinillos et al. 2020 [96] 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 6 Good Hoffren-Mikkola et al. 2015 [97] 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 7 Good Hutchinson et al. 1998 [98] 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 In brief: item 1, eligibility criteria were specified; item 2, participants were randomly allocated to groups; item 3, allocation was concealed; item 4, the groups were similar at baseline; item 5, there was blinding of all participants regarding the plyometric jump training programme being applied; item 6, there was blinding of all coaches responsible for the application of plyometric jump training programme regarding its aim toward the improvement of reactive strength index; item 7, there was blinding of all assessors involved in measurement of reactive strength index; item 8, measures of reactive strength index were obtained from more than 85% of participants initially allocated to groups; item 9, all participants for whom reactive strength index was available received the treatment or control condition as allocated or, data for reactive strength index was analysed by "intention to treat"; item 10, the results of between-group statistical comparisons are reported for reactive strength index; and item 11, point measures and measures of variability for reactive strength index are provided. Taek: taekwondo. ...
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Background: The reactive strength index (RSI) is meaningfully associated with independent markers of athletic (e.g., linear sprint speed) and neuromuscular performance (e.g., stretch-shortening-cycle [SSC]). Plyometric jump training (PJT) is particularly suitable to improve the RSI due to exercises performed in the SSC. However, no literature review has attempted to meta-analyse the large number of studies regarding the potential effects of PJT on the RSI in healthy individuals across the lifespan. Aim: The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to examine the effects of PJT on the RSI of healthy individuals across the lifespan compared with active/specific-active controls. Methods: Three electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, WoS) were searched up to May 2022. According to the PICOS approach, the eligibility criteria were: i) healthy participants, ii) PJT interventions of ≥3 weeks, iii) active (e.g., athletes involved in standard training) and specific-active (e.g., individuals using heavy resistance training) control group(s), iv) a measure of jump-based RSI pre-post training, and v) controlled studies with multi-groups in randomized and non-randomized designs. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale was used to assess the risk of bias. The random-effects model was used to compute the meta-analyses, reporting Hedges’ g effect sizes (ES) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Statistical significance was set at p ≤0.05. Subgroup analyses were performed (chronological age; PJT duration, frequency, number of sessions, total number of jumps; randomization). A meta-regression was conducted to verify if PJT frequency, duration, and total number of sessions predicted the effects of PJT on the RSI. Certainty or confidence in the body of evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). Potential adverse health effects derived from PJT were researched and reported. Results: Sixty-one articles were meta-analysed, with a median PEDro score of 6.0, a low risk of bias and good methodological quality, comprising 2,576 participants with an age range of 8.1 to 73.1 years (males, ~78%; aged under 18 years, ~60%), 42 studies included participants with a sport background (e.g., soccer, runners). The PJT duration ranged from 4 to 96 weeks, with 1-3 weekly exercise sessions. The RSI testing protocols involved the use of contact mats (n=42) and force platforms (n=19). Most studies reported RSI as mm/ms (n=25 studies) from drop jump analysis (n=47 studies). In general, PJT groups improved RSI compared to controls: ES= 0.54, CI= 0.46-0.62, p< 0.001. Training-induced RSI changes were greater (p= 0.023) for adults (i.e., age ≥18 years [group mean]) compared with youth. PJT was more effective with a duration of >7 weeks vs. ≤7 weeks, >14 total PJT sessions vs. ≤14 sessions, 3 weekly sessions vs. <3 sessions (p= 0.027 – 0.060). Similar RSI improvements were noted after ≤1,080 vs. >1,080 total jumps, and for non-randomized vs. randomized studies. Heterogeneity (I2) was low (0.0-22.2%) in nine analyses and moderate in three analyses (29.1-58.1%). According to the meta-regression, none of the analysed training variables explained the effects of PJT on RSI (p=0.714-0.984, R2 = 0.0). The certainty of the evidence was moderate for the main analysis, and low-to-moderate across the moderator analyses. Most studies did not report soreness, pain, injury, or related adverse effects related to PJT. Conclusions: The effects of PJT on the RSI were greater compared with active/specific-active controls, including traditional sport-specific training as well as alternative training interventions (e.g., high-load slow-speed resistance training). This conclusion is derived from 61 articles with low risk of bias (good methodological quality), low heterogeneity, and moderate certainty of evidence, comprising 2,576 participants. PJT-related improvements on RSI were greater for adults vs. youths, after >7 training weeks vs. ≤7 weeks, with >14 total PJT vs. ≤14 sessions, and with 3 vs. <3 weekly sessions.
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Background: Altering moderator variables during a jump rope training (JRT) program can provide a novel training modification that can be used to modify the specific training outcomes. JRT is commonly implemented as a traditional game activity in many countries as an old culture of physical activity in school-age participants (SAP). However, strength and conditioning professionals need to know how JRT moderator variables affect these health- and physical fitness outcomes. Thus, an evidence-gap map (EGM) could provides a clearer picture of the design of an appropriate JRT based on scientific evidence. Objective: the purpose of this systematic review secondary analysis was to assess the moderator variables related to JRT effectiveness for health and physical fitness-related outcomes in SAP. Method: literature searches were conducted in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Science and SCOPUS. The PICOS (participants, intervention, comparators, outcomes, and study design) approach was used to rate studies for eligibility. An EGM will be constructed to graphically represent the body of evidence and the current research gaps. Results: 10,546 records were initially identified and finally, 8 studies were considered. A total of 186 participants were analysed in the intervention groups (16 groups). Five of seven studies measured health-related parameters and five of eight included fitness-related parameters. Conclusion: rope weight (e.g., weighted rope i.e. 695 g), adequate post-exercise recovery strategies (e.g., dark chocolate supplementation), type of jump (e.g., freestyle), and total number of jumps, can be manipulated into JRT programs to optimise health and physical related capacities among SAP.
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Context: Drop jumps and high-intensity interval running are relevant training methods to improve explosiveness and endurance performance, respectively. Combined training effects might, however, be achieved by performing interval drop jumping. Purpose: To determine the acute effects of interval drop jumping on oxygen uptake (V̇O2)-index of cardioventilatory/oxidative stimulation level, and peripheral fatigue-a limiting factor of explosiveness. Methods: Thirteen participants performed three 11-min interval-training sessions during which they ran 15 s at 120% of the velocity that elicited maximal V̇O2 (V̇O2-MAX) (ITRUN) or drop-jumped at 7 (ITDJ7) or 9 (ITDJ9) jumps per 15 s, interspersed with 15 s of passive recovery. V̇O2 and the time spent above 90% of V̇O2-MAX (TV̇O2-MAX) were collected. Peripheral fatigue was quantified via preexercise to postexercise changes in evoked potentiated quadriceps twitch (ΔQT). Power output was estimated during ITDJs using optical sensors. Results: All participants reached 90% of V̇O2-MAX or higher during ITRUN and ITDJ9, but only 11 did during ITDJ7. TV̇O2-MAX was not different between ITRUN and ITDJ9 (145±76 vs 141 ± 151 s; P = .92) but was reduced during ITDJ7 (28 ± 26 s; P = .002). Mean ΔQT in ITDJ9 and ITDJ7 were not different (-17% ± 9% vs -14% ± 8%; P = .73) and greater than in ITRUN (-8% ± 7%; P = .001). No alteration in power output was found during ITDJs (37±10 Conclusion: Interval drop jumping at a high work rate stimulated the cardioventilatory and oxidative systems to the same extent as interval running, while the exercise-induced increase in fatigue did not compromise drop-jump performance. Interval drop jumping might be a relevant strategy to get concomitant improvements in endurance and explosive performance.
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Recently, there has been a proliferation of published articles on the effect of plyometric jump training including several review articles and meta-analyses. However, these types of research articles are generally of narrow scope. Furthermore, methodological limitations among studies (e.g., lack of active/passive control groups) prevent the generalization of results and these factors need to be addressed by researchers. On that basis, the aims of this scoping review were to i) characterize the main elements of plyometric jump training studies (e.g., training protocols), and ii) provide future directions for research. From 648 potentially relevant articles, 242 were eligible for inclusion in this review. The main issues identified related to: an insufficient number of studies conducted in females, youths and individual sports (~24.0%, ~37.0% and ~12.0% of overall studies, respectively); insufficient reporting of effect size values and training prescription (~34.0% and ~55.0% of overall studies, respectively); studies missing an active/passive control group and randomization (~40.0% and ~20.0% of overall studies, respectively). Furthermore, plyometric jump training was often combined with other training methods and added to participants' daily training routines (~47.0% and ~39.0% of overall studies, respectively), thus distorting conclusions on its independent effects. Additionally, most studies lasted no longer than 7 weeks. In future, researchers are advised to conduct plyometric training studies of high methodological quality (e.g., randomized controlled trials). More research is needed in females, youth, and individual sports. Finally, the identification of specific dose-response relationships following plyometric training are needed to specifically tailor intervention programs, particularly in the long-term.
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Purpose: To analyse the influence of training exposure and the utility of self-report questionnaires on predicting overuse injuries in adolescent endurance athletes. Methods: 5 adolescent male endurance athletes (15.7 ± 1.4 yr) from a full-time sports academy answered 2 questionnaires (Recovery Cue; RC-q & Oslo Sports Trauma Research questionnaire; OSTRC-q) on a weekly basis for one season (37 wks) in order to detect (1) signs of overtraining and under-recovery (RC-q) and (2) early symptoms of lower limb injuries (OSTRC-q). All overuse injuries were retrospectively analysed in order to detect which variations in the questionnaires in the weeks preceding injury were best associated. Overuse incidence rates were calculated based on training exposure. Results: 73% of injuries were lower limb overuse injuries. The incidence rate for overuse training-related injuries was 10 injuries/1000h. Strong correlations were observed between individual running exposure and overuse injury incidence (r(2)=0.66), number of overuse injuries (r(2)=0.69) and days lost (r(2)=0.66). A change of 20% or more in the RC-q score in the preceding week was associated with 67% of the lower limb overuse injuries. Musculoskeletal symptoms were only detected in advance by the OSTRC-q in 27% of the episodes. Conclusions: Training exposure (specially running exposure) was shown to be related to overuse injuries, suggesting that monitoring training load is a key factor for injury prevention. Worsening scores in the RC-q (but not the OSTRC) may be an indicator of overuse injury in adolescent endurance runners when used longitudinally.
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The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials to determine the effect of strength-training programs on the running economy (RE) of high-level middle- and long-distance runners. Four electronic databases were searched in September 2015 (Pubmed, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE and CINAHL) for original research articles. After analyzing 699 resultant original articles, studies were included if the following criteria were met: (a) participants were competitive middle- and/or long-distance runners; (b) participants had a VO2max > 60mL·kg-1-·min-1; (c) studies were controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals; (d) studies analyzed the effects of strength-training programs with a duration greater than 4 weeks; (e) RE was measured before and after the strength-training intervention. Five studies met the inclusion criteria, resulting in a total sample size of 93 competitive, high-level middle- and long-distance runners. Four out of five of the included studies used low to moderate training intensities (40-70% one-repetition maximum), and all of them used low to moderate training volume (2-4 resistance lower-body exercises plus up to 200 jumps and 5-10 short sprints) 2-3 per week for 8-12 weeks. The meta-analyzed effect of strength training programs on RE in high-level middle- and long- distance runners showed a large, beneficial effect (standardized mean difference [95%Confidence Interval] = -1.42 [-2.23, -0.60]). In conclusion, a strength-training program including low to high intensity resistance exercises and plyometric exercises performed 2-3 times per week for 8-12 weeks is an appropriate strategy to improve RE in highly training middle- and long-distance runners.
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General physical practice and multidimensional exercises are essential elements that allow young athletes to enhance their coordinative traits, balance, and strength and power levels, which are linked to the learning soccer-specific skills. Jumping rope is a widely-used and non-specific practical method for the development of athletic conditioning, balance and coordination in several disciplines. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term training protocol including jumping rope (JR) exercises on motor abilities and body balance in young soccer players. Twenty-four preadolescent soccer players were recruited and placed in two different groups. In the Experimental group (EG), children performed JR training at the beginning of the training session. The control group (CG), executed soccer specific drills. Harre circuit test (HCT) and Lower Quarter Y balance test (YBT-LQ) were selected to evaluate participant’s motor ability (e.g. ability to perform rapidly a course with different physical tasks such as somersault and passages above/below obstacles ) and to assess unilateral dynamic lower limb balance after 8 weeks of training. Statistical analysis consisted of paired t-test and mixed analysis of variance scores to determine any significant interactions. Children who performed jumping rope exercises showed a significant decrease of 9% (p < 0.01, ES = 0.50-0.80) in the performance time of HCT. With regard to the CG, no differences were highlighted (p > 0.05, ES = 0.05-0.2) from pre- to post-training. A training-by-group interaction was found for the composite score in both legs (p < 0.05, Part η2 > 0.14). Our findings demonstrated that JR practice within regular soccer training enhanced general motor coordination and balance in preadolescent soccer players. Therefore, the inclusion of JR practice within regular soccer training session should encouraged to improve children’s motor skills.
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Economy, velocity/power at maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) and endurance-specific muscle power tests (i.e. maximal anaerobic running velocity; vMART), are now thought to be the best performance predictors in elite endurance athletes. In addition to cardiovascular function, these key performance indicators are believed to be partly dictated by the neuromuscular system. One technique to improve neuromuscular efficiency in athletes is through strength training. The aim of this systematic review was to search the body of scientific literature for original research investigating the effect of strength training on performance indicators in well-trained endurance athletes-specifically economy, [Formula: see text] and muscle power (vMART). A search was performed using the MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science search engines. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria (athletes had to be trained endurance athletes with ≥6 months endurance training, training ≥6 h per week OR [Formula: see text] ≥50 mL/min/kg, the strength interventions had to be ≥5 weeks in duration, and control groups used). All studies were reviewed using the PEDro scale. The results showed that strength training improved time-trial performance, economy, [Formula: see text] and vMART in competitive endurance athletes. The present research available supports the addition of strength training in an endurance athlete's programme for improved economy, [Formula: see text], muscle power and performance. However, it is evident that further research is needed. Future investigations should include valid strength assessments (i.e. squats, jump squats, drop jumps) through a range of velocities (maximal-strength ↔ strength-speed ↔ speed-strength ↔ reactive-strength), and administer appropriate strength programmes (exercise, load and velocity prescription) over a long-term intervention period (>6 months) for optimal transfer to performance.
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Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems. To determine whether physical activity exercises can reduce sports injuries and perform stratified analyses of strength training, stretching, proprioception and combinations of these, and provide separate acute and overuse injury estimates. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and SPORTDiscus were searched and yielded 3462 results. Two independent authors selected relevant randomised, controlled trials and quality assessments were conducted by all authors of this paper using the Cochrane collaboration domain-based quality assessment tool. Twelve studies that neglected to account for clustering effects were adjusted. Quantitative analyses were performed in STATA V.12 and sensitivity analysed by intention-to-treat. Heterogeneity (I(2)) and publication bias (Harbord's small-study effects) were formally tested. 25 trials, including 26 610 participants with 3464 injuries, were analysed. The overall effect estimate on injury prevention was heterogeneous. Stratified exposure analyses proved no beneficial effect for stretching (RR 0.963 (0.846-1.095)), whereas studies with multiple exposures (RR 0.655 (0.520-0.826)), proprioception training (RR 0.550 (0.347-0.869)), and strength training (RR 0.315 (0.207-0.480)) showed a tendency towards increasing effect. Both acute injuries (RR 0.647 (0.502-0.836)) and overuse injuries (RR 0.527 (0.373-0.746)) could be reduced by physical activity programmes. Intention-to-treat sensitivity analyses consistently revealed even more robust effect estimates. Despite a few outlying studies, consistently favourable estimates were obtained for all injury prevention measures except for stretching. Strength training reduced sports injuries to less than 1/3 and overuse injuries could be almost halved.
This study aimed at examining the presence of running-based exercises in the warm-up and cool-down routines for recreational endurance runners and to determine the training volume (i.e. time and distance) orientated to warm-up and cool-down. Recreational endurance runners filled a questionnaire through an online Google Docs, which consisted in 12 items referred to demographic information, athletic performance, training contents, warm-up and cool-down routines. Five level groups were determined according to their personal best in a 10-km trial. Out of 1419 athletes, 80.6% were men and 19.4% were women. On average, participants trained 4.1 ± 1.6 sessions per week, with a weekly mileage of 47.3 ± 17.5 km. The 70.5% of participants always included continuous runs (CR) as a warm-up, with an average duration of ~13 min, with longer duration in higher level groups. Regarding the cool-down routines, 45.7% of the participants always included CR as a cool-down, whereas 43.4% just after high-intensity sessions. On average, participants spend ~7 min for cooling-down, ~3 times per week, with greater volumes (in terms of duration and frequency) in higher level groups. In summary, these data indicate that an average endurance runner spends ~18% of his/her total training time per week warming-up or cooling-down.
To investigate the effects of simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance training on physical performance characteristics, 10 experimental (E) and 8 control (C) endurance athletes trained for 9 wk. The total training volume was kept the same in both groups, but 32% of training in E and 3% in C was replaced by explosive-type strength training. A 5-km time trial (5K), running economy (RE), maximal 20-m speed ( V 20 m ), and 5-jump (5J) tests were measured on a track. Maximal anaerobic (MART) and aerobic treadmill running tests were used to determine maximal velocity in the MART ( V MART ) and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙o 2 max ). The 5K time, RE, and V MART improved ( P < 0.05) in E, but no changes were observed in C. V 20 m and 5J increased in E ( P < 0.01) and decreased in C ( P < 0.05).V˙o 2 max increased in C ( P < 0.05), but no changes were observed in E. In the pooled data, the changes in the 5K velocity during 9 wk of training correlated ( P< 0.05) with the changes in RE [O 2 uptake ( r = −0.54)] and V MART ( r = 0.55). In conclusion, the present simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance training improved the 5K time in well-trained endurance athletes without changes in theirV˙o 2 max . This improvement was due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved V MART and running economy.
This study analyzed the effect of four weeks of jumping interval training (JIT), included in endurance training, on neuromuscular and physiological parameters. Eighteen recreational runners, randomized in control and experimental group, performed 40 min of running at 70% of velocity at peak oxygen uptake (vVO2peak), three times per week. Additionally, experimental group performed the JIT twice per week, consisted by four to six bouts of continuous vertical jumps (30s) with five-minute interval. Three days before and after training period the countermovement (CMJ) and continuous jump (CJ30), isokinetic and isometric evaluation of knee extensors/flexors, progressive maximal exercise and submaximal constant-load exercise were performed. The JIT provoked improvement in neuromuscular performance, indicated by increased jump height (JHCMJ) (4.7%; Effect Size, ES = 0.99) and power output (≈3.7%; ES ≈ 0.82) of CMJ and rate of torque development of knee extensors in isometric contraction (29.5%; ES = 1.02); anaerobic power and capacity, represented by the mean of JHINI (7.4%; ES = 0.8) and peak power output (PPOINI) (5.6%; ES = 0.73) of the first jumps of CJ30 and the mean of JHALL (10.2%, ES = 1.04) and PPOALL (9.5%, ES = 1.1) considering all jumps of CJ30; and aerobic power and capacity, represented by peak oxygen uptake - VO2peak (9.1%, ES = 1.28), vVO2peak (2.7%, ES = 1.11) and velocity corresponding to the onset of blood lactate accumulation - vOBLA (9.7%, ES = 1.23). These results suggest that the JIT included in traditional endurance training induces moderate-to-large effects on neuromuscular and physiological parameters.