Jump-Rope Training: Improved 3-km Time-Trial Performance
in Endurance Runners via Enhanced Lower-Limb Reactivity
and Foot-Arch Stiffness
Felipe García-Pinillos, Carlos Lago-Fuentes, Pedro A. Latorre-Román, Antonio Pantoja-Vallejo,
and Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo
Context:Plyometric training promotes a highly effectiveneuromuscular stimulus to improve running performance.Jumping rope
(JR) involves mainly foot muscles and joints, due to the quick rebounds, and it might be considered a type of plyometric training
for improving power and stiffness, some of the key factors for endurance-running performance. Purpose:To determine the
effectiveness of JR during the warm-up routine of amateur endurance runners on jumping performance, reactivity, arch stiffness,
and 3-km time-trial performance. Methods:Athletes were randomly assigned to an experimental (n =51) or control (n =45) group.
Those from the control group were asked to maintain their training routines, while athletes from the experimental group had to
modify their warm-up routines, including JR (2–4 sessions/wk, with a total time of 10–20 min/wk) for 10 weeks. Physical tests
were performed before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period and included jumping performance (countermovement-
jump, squat-jump, and drop-jump tests), foot-arch stiffness, and 3-km time-trial performance. Reactive strength index (RSI) was
calculated from a 30-cm drop jump. Results:The 2 ×2 analysis of variance showed signiﬁcant pre–post differences in all
dependent variables (P<.001) for the experimental group. No signiﬁcant changes were reported in the control group (all P≥.05).
Pearson correlation analysis revealed a signiﬁcant relationship between Δ3-km time trial and ΔRSI (r=−.481; P<.001) and
ΔStiffness (r=−.336; P<.01). The linear-regression analysis showed that Δ3-km time trial was associated with ΔRSI and
=.394; P<.001). Conclusions:Compared with a control warm-up routine prior to endurance-running training,
10 weeks (2–4 times/wk) of JR training, in place of 5 minutes of regular warm-up activities, was effective in improving 3-km
time-trial performance, jumping ability, RSI, and arch stiffness in amateur endurance runners. Improvements in RSI and arch
stiffness were associated with improvements in 3-km time-trial performance.
Keywords:rope jumping, running, plyometric exercises, resistance training, stretch reﬂex
The importance of resistance training (RT) for endurance
runners has been extensively demonstrated in the last decade.
This has 2 main goals: maximizing athletic performance (eg,
running economy [RE] or velocity at VO
minimizing the risk of injury.
Speciﬁcally, RT focused on neural
adaptations has been shown as one of the most efﬁcient strategies
for improving sport performance in athletes.
The beneﬁts of RT
include improvements also in RE (from 3.0% to 8.1%) through
different mechanisms, such as changes in mechanical efﬁciency,
muscle coordination, or motor recruitment patterns.
these adaptations affect positively to athletic performance, with
some previous studies
reporting improvements in 3- to 5-km
runs after a protocolized RT program. However, endurance runners
still doubt about the advantages of RT
and still think “more is
better”by accumulating greater running volumes per week.
reasons for not including RT in their trainings might be the fear of
interference effects, the lack of knowledge, time, equipment and
facilities, or enjoyment.
One of the most frequently studied types of RT in endurance
runners is plyometric training (PT), with or without external loads.
This type of training promotes a highly effective neuromuscular
stimulus. Whereas a traditional heavy RT program induces neural
and hypertrophic adaptations, leading to a dilution of the mito-
chondrial volume density, PT may lead preferentially to adapta-
tions like increased rate of activation of motor units
advantage of requiring reduced physical space, time, and equip-
ment to complete the training sessions.
Furthermore, it produces
improvements in running performance and RE.
Berryman et al
compared PT with dynamic weight training in
runners, showing that the former induced a higher efﬁciency in the
energy cost of running. This can be explained because of improve-
ments in motor unit recruitment and synchronization after PT.
However, these PT protocols have shown some limitations such
as not related with running technique (box jumps), an elevated
volume (ie, 2000 jumps in 6 wk), low number of participants, poor
description of PT protocols, among others.
That is, PT can be a
good type of training for endurance runners compared with other
traditional RT, but coaches should be cautious about the afore-
Jumping rope (JR) is a consecutive jump exercise with turning
the rope, involving mainly foot muscles and joints, due to the quick
Therefore, JR might be considered a type of PT for
improving power and stiffness, some of the key factors for
García-Pinillos is with the Dept of Physical Education, Sports and Recreation,
University of La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. Lago-Fuentes is with the Faculty of
Education and Sport Sciences, University of Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain, and the
Faculty of Health Sciences, European University of the Atlantic, Santander, Spain.
Latorre-Román is with the Dept of Corporal Expression, and Pantoja-Vallejo, the
Dept of Pedagogy, University of Jaén, Jaén, Spain. Ramirez-Campillo is with the
Laboratory of Human Performance, Quality of Life and Wellness Research Group,
Dept of Physical Activity Sciences, University of Los Lagos, Osorno, Chile.
Ramirez-Campillo (firstname.lastname@example.org) is corresponding author.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, (Ahead of Print)
© 2020 Human Kinetics, Inc. ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION
endurance running performance.
Furthermore, the rope enables to
combine PT with running technique (eg, skipping, dynamic rope
jumping, unilateral jumps),
reducing the time to achieve both
goals, with a high level of adherence and enjoyment
that can be
used during warm-ups. Therefore, it seems that, compared with
other types of PT as box or hurdle jumps, JR can improve the
athletic performance on endurance runners with low-cost invest-
ments and time efﬁciency.
However, there are few research reports that focus on the
effects of including JR in the warm-up routines of training ses-
For instance, besides the positive effects of PT on
more than 70% of amateur endurance
runners included only continuous run during warm-ups, using
low-intensity running as the most common strategy.
this, running exposure has been strongly correlated with overuse
injuries in endurance runners.
Taking this context into account,
low-time cost strategies to improve stiffness and performance have
the potential to be included during warm-ups.
To the authors’knowledge, there are no studies focused
on analyzing the effects of a PT warm-up protocol on amateur
endurance runners. Furthermore, no previous studies exist about
including low-cost strategies to improve athletic performance in
endurance runners. For these reasons, the aim of this study is to
determine the effectiveness of incorporating JR during the warm-
up routine of amateur endurance runners on jumping performance,
reactivity, arch stiffness, and 3-km time-trial performance.
A total of 96 amateur endurance runners (51 males and 45 females;
age range: 18−40 y) successfully completed the study (Table 1).
Participants met the following inclusion criteria: (1) should be 18
years and older; (2) able to run 10 km in less than 50 minutes;
(3) recreationally trained (3–5 running sessions per week); (4) not
to be involved in any RT program, including PT; and (5) have not
suffered from any injury within the last 6 months before data
collection. Initially, 105 participants who fulﬁlled the inclusion
criteria were selected to participate in this study. To be included in
the ﬁnal analyses, each participant needed to complete the training
program and attend pre–post assessments. Related to these strict
requirements, 9 participants were excluded from data analysis
(N =96; Figure 1). Participants were randomly assigned to the
experimental group (EG; n =51, women =24) or the control group
(CG; n =45, women =21). A research assistant who was not
involved in the data collection, using random numbers generated
in Microsoft Excel 2016, conducted randomization independently.
After receiving detailed information on the objectives and proce-
dures of the study, each participant signed an informed consent
form, which complied with the ethical standards of the latest
version of the World Medical Association’s Declaration of
Helsinki (2013); it was made clear that the participants were
free to leave the study if they were unﬁt. The University of Jaén’s
Ethics Committee approved the study.
The study was conducted between January and April 2019. Using a
between-group design (EG and CG), 96 athletes were assessed.
Testing was completed at week 0 (pre) and at week 11 (post) to
monitor changes over the course of a 10-week training program.
Thus, physical tests were performed before (pretest) and after
(posttest) the 10-week intervention period.
Athletes from the CG were asked to maintain their training
routines, whereas athletes from the EG modiﬁed their warm-up
routines, but maintained their running routines (see Table 2for
more information about training background of both EG and CG).
Athletes from the EG included JR during their warm-up routines
(ie, just after the running-based exercises in the warm-up, 2–4
sessions per week, with a total time of 10–20 min/wk) for 10
weeks. Since athletes replaced 5 minutes of their habitual warm-
up routines with JR drills, 2 to 4 times per week, the current JR
training was easily incorporated into the regular training sche-
dules of the participants. Before starting the training program
(week 0), the EG participants were instructed with technical key
points about JR. These included (1) rope rotation should be gener-
ated by the wrists with minimal movement of the elbows and
shoulders, (2) jump height should be maximized and ground contact
time should be minimized, and (3) landing should be softened on the
forefoot and with the knees slightly ﬂexed. More details about the
10-week JR training program can be checked in Table 3.The
participants from the CG maintained their training plans, whereas
the athletes from EG just changed the content of the warm-up
routines, with no other changes in their training program.
The athletes were instructed to refrain from intense exercise
(ie, score of ≥15 in the rating of perceived exertion scale of
6–20) 2 days preceding testing (weeks 0 and 11, pretest and
posttest, respectively). Testing sessions were conducted 3 to 4
days before starting the intervention and 3 to 4 days after ﬁnishing
it (pretest and posttest, respectively). They were not allowed to eat
during the hour preceding the test or to consume coffee or other
products containing caffeine during the preceding 3 hours. Pre-
testing and posttesting were conducted at the same time of the day
to avoid the inﬂuence of the circadian rhythm and under similar
environmental conditions (20°C–24°C).
Either at pretest or posttest, athletes were tested individually, and
participation involved the execution of 3-km time trial on an outdoor
400-m synthetic track. The elapsed time (in seconds) for the 3-km
running was registered for the subsequent analysis. The only instruc-
tion given to participants was to ﬁnishtheraceasfastastheycould.
Before starting the running trial, body height (in centimeters)
and body mass (in kilograms) were determined using a precision
stadiometer and mechanical scale (Seca 222 and 634, respectively;
Seca Corp, Hamburg, Germany). All measurements were taken
with the participants wearing underwear. Also, the arch height and
the arch stiffness of the right foot were assessed. Arch height
Table 1 Descriptive Characteristics of the Participants
Variable EG (n =51) CG (n =45) P
Age, y 27.2 (8.6) 26.1 (6.3) .467
Height, m 1.72 (0.1) 1.71 (0.1) .790
Body mass, kg 66.0 (10.4) 65.7 (9.1) .852
22.3 (2.0) 21.9 (2.2) .472
Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CG, control group; EG, experimental
group. Note: Data are presented as mean (SD).
Chi-square test was conducted.
(Ahead of Print)
2García-Pinillos et al
was deﬁned as the height of the dorsum of the foot normalized to
truncated foot length. Truncated foot length was deﬁned as the length
of the foot from the heel cup (most posterior portion of the calcaneus)
to the center of the medial joint space of the ﬁrst metatarsal
Arch stiffness, a measure of the amount of
deformation per unit of load, was deﬁned as the change in arch
height index (AHI) due to the increase in load between sitting and
standing conditions. Measurements were taken by a single
Figure 1 —CONSORT diagram of the full recruitment and randomization process.
Table 2 Characteristics of the Training Plans of the Participants During 2 Periods
Variable EG (n =51) CG (n =45) P
10 wk before intervention
Number of running sessions per week 4.0 (0.7) 4.1 (0.4) .772
km/wk 41.3 (5.1) 42.4 (6.9) .373
h/wk 4.6 (1.3) 4.7 (1.3) .801
10 wk of intervention
Number of running sessions per week 4.2 (0.6) 4.4 (0.5) .690
km/wk 42.1 (6.5) 40.5 (5.6) .493
h/wk 4.8 (1.1) 4.5 (1.2) .352
Abbreviations: CG, control group; EG, experimental group.
Two periods: (1) 10 weeks before starting the intervention and (2) 10 weeks of intervention.
Warm-up and cooldown
routines are included.
Table 3 Jump-Rope Training Program
1–2 2 5 30:30 100–120 Bilateral 10
3–4 3 5 30:30 100–120 Bilateral 15
5–6 3 5 30:30 120–140 Unilateral—alternating 15
7–8 4 5 30:30 120–140 Unilateral—alternating 20
9–10 4 5 40:20 120–14 Unilateral—alternating 20
(Ahead of Print)
Jump-Rope Training in Endurance Runners 3
investigator using the AHI Measurement System.
Butler et al
reported high intrarater and interrater reliability. Participants were
asked to sit in a height-adjustable chair. Then, the chair was adjusted
to keep knees and hips under a 90° alignment and with slight contact
between plantar foot surface and the measurement platform. A
specially designed platform for undertaking this measurement was
The dorsum of the foot at 50% of total foot length was
measured with a digital caliper. The total foot length was considered
from the most posterior aspect of the calcaneus ﬁxed at a heel cup to
the most distal aspect of the longest toe. It was repeated in a bipedal
stance position assuming body weight. Both feet were ﬁxed in the
heel cups positioned 15 cm apart. The dorsal arch height difference
was calculated as the difference between dorsal arch in bipedal
standing and in sitting position, known as sit-to-stand difference,
whereas the AHI was calculated as follows
AHI =Dorsum height=Truncated foot length (1)
Based on a previous study,
the arch stiffness was calculated by
assuming a 40% change in load between seating and standing
conditions (that value of change reﬂected the difference between
half the body weight and the weight of the foot +shank) as follows:
Arch stiffness =ð0.40 ×Body massÞ=ðAHI ½seated
−AHI ½standingÞ (2)
The average of 3 repeated measurements was computed and used for
subsequent analysis. The static foot posture and foot mobility
measures have reported moderate to good intrarater reliability (in-
traclass correlation coefﬁcient =.81–.99) and moderate to good
interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefﬁcient =.58–.99),
After anthropometric and foot measurements, at both pretest
and posttest, the participants performed a standardized warm-up
(ie, mobility, continuous low-intensity running, jumping, and
sprinting bouts) and a battery of jumping tests (squat jump [SJ],
countermovement jump [CMJ], and 30-cm drop jumps [DJ30]).
The participants were unexperienced athletes in terms of plyomet-
ric drills and jumping test. To make sure the execution was correct,
2 familiarization sessions were carried out during the previous
week before testing. The SJ, CMJ, and DJ30 tests were recorded
using the OptoGait system (Microgate, Bolzano, Italy), which has
been previously used in a similar study.
This device measures the
contact time on the ﬂoor and the ﬂight time using photoelectric
cells. Flight time was used to calculate the height of the rise using
the body’s center of gravity. Athletes performed 2 trials of every
test, with a 15-second recovery period between them, with the best
trial being used for the statistical analysis. As described by a
during SJ, participants were instructed to adopt
aﬂexed knee position (approximately 90°) during 3 seconds before
jumping, whereas during CMJ, no restriction was imposed over the
knee angle achieved before jumping. Jumping tests were executed
with arms akimbo. Takeoff and landing were standardized to full
knee and ankle extension on the same spot. The participants were
instructed to maximize jump height. For the DJ30, participants
were instructed to maximize jump height and minimize ground
contact time after dropping down from a 30-cm drop box.
Reactive strength index (RSI) was calculated as follows:
RSI =Flight time ðmsÞ=Contact time ðmsÞ(3)
Data are presented as group mean values (SDs). After data normality
assumption was veriﬁed with the Levene test, analyses of variance
were used to detect differences between study groups in all variables
at pretest and posttest. Measures of dependent variables were
analyzed in separate 2 (groups) ×2 (time [pre, post]) analyses of
variance with repeated measures on time, with Bonferroni-adjusted
α. The magnitude of the differences between values was also
interpreted using the Cohen deffect size (ES) (between-group
differences). ESs are reported as follows: trivial (<0.2), small
(0.2–0.49), medium (0.5–0.79), and large (≥0.8). A Pearson corre-
lation analysis was conducted between changes (Δ; eg, 3-km time
trial at pretest minus 3-km time trial at posttest) experienced in
athletic performance, RSI, and stiffness. Finally, a simple linear
regression analysis was used to determine the association between
the improvement in the 3-km test (dependent variable: Δ3-km time
trial) and the improvements in RSI and arch stiffness (independent
variables: ΔRSI and ΔStiffness) during the intervention. Data anal-
ysis was performed using the SPSS software (version 21; SPSS Inc,
Chicago, IL). Signiﬁcance levels were set at α=5%.
No signiﬁcant between-group differences (P≥.05) were found in
age, anthropometric characteristics, and sex distribution at baseline
(before training intervention; Table 1). Table 2presents the char-
acteristics of training plans of athletes from both CG and EG before
starting the 10-week intervention period and during that period, and
no signiﬁcant between-group differences were found (all Ps≥.05).
The effects of the intervention on dependent variables are
displayed in Table 4. The main group ×time effect revealed signiﬁ-
cant differences in all variables (P<.001). The post hoc analysis
showed signiﬁcant differences in all variables (all Ps<.001, small
ES [arch stiffness, SJ, and 3-km time trial] and moderate ES [CMJ,
DJ30 cm, and RSI]) for the EG, whereas no signiﬁcant changes
were reported in the CG (all Ps≥.05, trivial ES).
A Pearson correlation analysis revealed signiﬁcant relation-
ship between Δ3-km time trial and ΔRSI (r=−.481; P<.001) and
ΔStiffness (r=−.336; P<.01). The linear regression analysis
showed that Δ3-km time trial was associated with ΔRSI and
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 10-
week JR training program, incorporated into the warm-up routines
of amateur endurance runners, on jumping performance, reactivity,
arch stiffness, and 3-km time-trial performance. The main ﬁndings
indicate that JR training was effective for the improvement of
jumping performance, reactivity, arch stiffness, and 3-km time-trial
performance. Although previous studies incorporated JR training
as a strategy to improve the physical ﬁtness of athletes,
knowledge, this is the ﬁrst study to analyze the effects of a JR
training approach in endurance runners. Moreover, the current JR
training approach incorporated an ecological-valid (practical)
approach. In this sense, athletes replaced 5 minutes of their habitual
warm-up routines with JR drills. In addition, the replacement was
applied only 2 to 4 times per week. Therefore, the current JR
training approach was easily incorporated into the regular training
schedules of the participants.
(Ahead of Print)
4García-Pinillos et al
One of the main ﬁndings from the current intervention was the
signiﬁcantly greater improvement of 3-km time-trial performance
in the JR training group (3%, ES =0.4) compared with the CG
(1.5%, ES =0.1). Such improvement has been previously reported
in endurance runners, from different ﬁtness levels, after PT inter-
and may be related to adaptations in several physiologi-
cal and biomechanical determinants of endurance running
with the most relevant being probably RE.
fact, improvements in RE have been associated with increased RSI
which is in line with the results obtained in the
current study (ie, Δ3-km time trial was signiﬁcantly associated with
ΔRSI and ΔStiffness). Although improvements in neuromuscular
factors presumably mediated the improvement in the 3-km time-
trial performance, the high jumping frequency involved in the
current JR training intervention may have also induced an impor-
tant cardioventilatory stimulation (eg, 90% of VO
potential positive impact on vVO
Future studies may
elucidate if high-frequency JR training, such as the one applied
in this intervention, may contribute to improvements in cardio-
ventilatory parameters (eg, VO
peak, or vVO
The relationship between jumping performance and running
endurance performance has been previously established.
regard, an important ﬁnding in the current study was the greater
increase of explosive strength performance requiring slow stretch-
shortening cycle (SSC) action (ie, CMJ) and fast SSC action
(ie, DJ30) in the JR training group compared with the CG.
Improved reactivity (ie, DJ30) may be related to increased neural
drive to the agonist muscles, improved intermuscular coordination,
changes in muscle size and/or architecture, changes in single-ﬁber
mechanics, among others.
Such improvements may reduce the
time the athlete’s foot spends in contact with the ground during
favorably affecting performance during running endur-
Another ﬁnding from this study was the signiﬁcantly greater
improvement of arch stiffness in the JR training group (7.8%)
compared with the CG (0.1%). Such improvement is similar to the
one previously reported for endurance runners after PT.
ments in stiffness at the muscle ﬁber level may occur mainly on
It may be possible that endurance runners, who
usually have a relatively more developed slow-twitch ﬁber pheno-
had greater ceiling for improvements in their fast-twitch
Although improvements in stiffness have been observed in
previous PT studies, including endurance runners,
found mixed ﬁndings
or not such an improvement.
Part of the
disagreement among studies might be related with the assessment
technique and the structures assessed. Whereas the current work
evaluated arch stiffness, deﬁned as the change in AHI due to the
increase in load between sitting and standing conditions, Spurrs
obtained musculotendinous stiffness of the lower limb
through the oscillation technique by performing an isometric
contraction on an instrumented seated calf raise machine. Likewise,
Fouré et al
focused on passive stiffness of the gastrocnemii
deﬁned as the slope of the length–tension relationship for the
common range of gastrocnemii length. In this regard, current
results suggest that the assessment of arch stiffness may be a
sensitive measurement technique for stiffness changes in endur-
It seems logical that those improvements in jumping ability
and arch stiffness are linked to improvements in reactivity (ie, RSI
in the current work). Previous studies have revealed a strong
association between those parameters and running perfor-
Current results demonstrated that the JR training group
improved the RSI (13%) when compared with the CG. This index
denotes that per each unit of time the foot is on the ground, greater
jump height (ﬂight time) is achieved, an indirect marker of greater
rate of force development. Additionally, the linear regression
analysis showed that Δ3-km time trial was associated with ΔRSI
and ΔStiffness (R
=.394; P<.001), which reinforces the associa-
tion between lower body stiffness and reactivity with athletic
performance in endurance runners.
Of note, the improvements in jumping performance in the JR
training group were achieved after an intervention with a focus
on jump repetitions with short contact time. In this context, it is
tempting to speculate that the time the athlete’s foot spends in
contact with the ground during jumps can modulate training-related
adaptations in endurance runners. However, this should be tested in
future studies comparing interventions with different contact times
during the jumps.
Table 4 Effects of a 10-Week Jump-Rope Training Program on Arch Stiffness, Jumping, and 3-km Time-Trial
Performance of Amateur Endurance Runners
hoc P(Cohen d)
(body mass/AHI units)
EG (n =49) 925.5 (388.7) 997.95 (373.17) 72.4 (7.8) <.001 <.001 (0.23)
CG (n =45) 947.7 (418.8) 949.01 (427.31) 1.33 (0.1) .944 (0.01)
CMJ, cm EG (n =47) 28.59 (5.79) 31.59 (6.01) 3.0 (10.5) <.001 <.001 (0.52)
CG (n =44) 29.46 (7.15) 29.30 (7.07) −0.2 (0.5) .165 (0.01)
Squat jump, cm EG (n =47) 23.72 (3.90) 25.08 (3.76) 1.4 (5.7) <.001 <.001 (0.41)
CG (n =44) 24.75 (5.70) 24.66 (4.35) −0.1 (0.4) .525 (0.02)
DJ30, cm EG (n =47) 25.40 (3.47) 26.84 (3.18) 1.4 (5.7) <.001 <.001 (0.54)
CG (n =44) 26.65 (4.96) 26.76 (4.58) 0.1 (0.4) .193 (0.02)
RSI, ms/ms EG (n =47) 1.92 (0.45) 2.17 (0.42) 0.3 (13.0) <.001 <.001 (0.62)
CG (n =44) 1.91 (0.41) 1.92 (0.41) 0.01 (0.5) .280 (0.03)
3-km time trial, s EG (n =44) 774.6 (79.5) 751.7 (65.8) −22.9 (3.0) <.001 <.001 (0.44)
CG (n =42) 762.1 (87.5) 750.8 (83.6) −11.3 (1.5) .136 (0.12)
Abbreviations: AHI, arch height index; CMJ, countermovement jump; DJ30, 30-cm drop jumps; RSI, reactive strength index.
(Ahead of Print)
Jump-Rope Training in Endurance Runners 5
The replacement of 5 minutes of regular warm-up routines, 2 to
4 times per week, with JR training drills might be an effective and
safe resource to incorporate into the training schedule of amateur
endurance runners as a time-efﬁcient strategy to improve several
proxies associated with endurance running performance, such as
jumping, RSI, stiffness and, mostly, 3-km time trial. Moreover,
JR training drills are probably related to lower mechanical stress
than other plyometric exercises like drop jumps performed from
high heights. This may help to “preserve”the musculoskeletal
system from excessive loading, especially before habitual running
When compared with a control warm-up routine previous to
endurance running, 10 weeks (2–4 times per week) of JR training,
in replacement of 5 minutes of regular warm-up activities, was
effective in improving 3-km time-trial performance, jumping
ability involving concentric (SJ), slow SSC (CMJ), fast SSC
(DJ30), RSI, and arch stiffness in amateur endurance runners.
Moreover, improvements in RSI and arch stiffness were associated
with improvements in 3-km time-trial performance.
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