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Mining and Environmental Degradation: a Gift Brings Grief Scenario for Mining Communities in Sierra Leone. Journal of Mining and Environment (JME) 10.22044/jme.2020.8808.1770

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Sierra Leone is blessed with abundant natural resources but yet prone to environmental degradation due to the mining operations. Most often, the mining communities are faced with social tensions, as a result of the possible trade-off between the expected employment impact and the cost of mining operations to the environment. Over the past decades, the contribution of the mining sector to the development of the country has been overshadowed by the fact that the mining operations have had adverse negative effects, mainly due to the country's weak environmental policies and the failure of the mine monitoring institutions, to supervise the operations of mining company operations. This article seeks to examine both the environmental and the social implication of mining operations on three mining edge communities in Sierra Leone. This paper also utilizes secondary data from the published articles, government's reports, workshops and conference proceedings, policy documents of non-governmental organizations, newspapers, and the like to generate this writer's view on the topic under review. The thrust of the review will be on the following: Sierra Rutile Limited, Koidu Holdings Limited, and Shandong Iron Ore Mines. The above mining companies have been carefully selected due to the fact that they are located close to dwelling communities, and have been mining in Sierra Leone over a long period of time. The environmental performance index and the mining impact framework are used to clearly show the impact of mining operations on the environment in Sierra Leone. As a result of mining operations, deforestation is skyrocketing, public discomfort and air pollution has worsened, and social unrest has increased as a result of some unacceptable consequences including pollution of water source without recourse to short-term remedy. The literature reviewed by this writer reveals that the mining activities have two faces in Sierra Leone. One is that it serves as a resource curse. An example to this sad reality is the outbreak of civil war, social unrest among others. On the other hand, the mining sector is one of the principal backbones of the economy. It contributes to the livelihood of the country. This paper introduces three-way approaches of mining sector operation remedies that include but not limited to: 1) sound Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) adoption before mining operations starts; 2) carrying out Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA); 3) regular engagement with all stakeholders of mining-affected communities. This article recommends that restoration activities by mining companies go along with extraction and adequate compensation.
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Corresponding author: moses.fayiah@yahoo.co.uk (M. Fayiah).
Shahrood
University of
Technology
Iranian Society
of Mining
Engineering
(IRSME)
Journal of Mining and Environment (JME)
journal homepage: www.jme.shahroodut.ac.ir
Published online: 6 March 2020.
DOI: 10.22044/jme.2020.8808.1770
Mining and Environmental Degradation: a Gift Brings Grief Scenario for
Mining Communities in Sierra Leone
M. Fayiah*
Department of Forestry, School of Natural Resources Management, Njala University, Njala, Sierra Leone
Received 6 August 2019; received in revised form 25 February 2020; accepted 27 February 2020
Keywords
Mining operations
Environmental
considerations
Environmental
degradation
Sierra Leone
Artisanal mining
Mineral resources
Abstract
Sierra Leone is blessed with abundant natural resources but yet prone to environmental
degradation due to the mining operations. Most often, the mining communities are faced
with social tensions, as a result of the possible trade-off between the expected
employment impact and the cost of mining operations to the environment. Over the past
decades, the contribution of the mining sector to the development of the country has
been overshadowed by the fact that the mining operations have had adverse negative
effects, mainly due to the country's weak environmental policies and the failure of the
mine monitoring institutions, to supervise the operations of mining company operations.
This article seeks to examine both the environmental and the social implication of
mining operations on three mining edge communities in Sierra Leone. This paper also
utilizes secondary data from the published articles, government’s reports, workshops
and conference proceedings, policy documents of non-governmental organizations,
newspapers, and the like to generate this writer's view on the topic under review. The
thrust of the review will be on the following: Sierra Rutile Limited, Koidu Holdings
Limited, and Shandong Iron Ore Mines. The above mining companies have been
carefully selected due to the fact that they are located close to dwelling communities,
and have been mining in Sierra Leone over a long period of time. The environmental
performance index and the mining impact framework are used to clearly show the
impact of mining operations on the environment in Sierra Leone. As a result of mining
operations, deforestation is skyrocketing, public discomfort and air pollution has
worsened, and social unrest has increased as a result of some unacceptable consequences
including pollution of water source without recourse to short-term remedy. The
literature reviewed by this writer reveals that the mining activities have two faces in
Sierra Leone. One is that it serves as a resource curse. An example to this sad reality is
the outbreak of civil war, social unrest among others. On the other hand, the mining
sector is one of the principal backbones of the economy. It contributes to the livelihood
of the country. This paper introduces three-way approaches of mining sector operation
remedies that include but not limited to: 1) sound Environmental Impact Assessment
(EIA) adoption before mining operations starts; 2) carrying out Strategic Environmental
Assessment (SEA); 3) regular engagement with all stakeholders of mining-affected
communities. This article recommends that restoration activities by mining companies
go along with extraction and adequate compensation.
1. Introduction
Mining provides raw materials that have been a
major source of revenue of Sierra Leone. This
sector has made life easy and comfortable, and
has equally been a major source of employment
for thousands from mainly rural indigenes.
However, the sector's benefit has not gone without
the acknowledgment of the fact that the sector has
exposed rural communities to pollution and other
environmental related problems [1]. Mining and
its environmental, social, and economic
Fayiah./ Journal of Mining & Environment, Published online
consequences are a global concern, and have
stimulated active debates among the
environmentalist in this 21st century [2]. Most
often, mining communities are faced with social
tensions as a result of the possible trade-off
between the expected job impact and the negative
consequences of environmental degradation [1].
Mining is synonymous to both the environmental
and social disorders on one hand, while, on the
other hand, it is an engine for the socio-economic
development of nations. Nonetheless, mining
operations have disfigured and impacted the
environment negatively, and are directly
connected with the social impacts and life
inequalities [3], especially in the adjacent
communities. Specifically, mining operations have
the potential to generate heavy environmental
externalities like water and air pollution, soil
erosion, chemical leakages, soil degradation and
compaction, biodiversity loss [1, 2], and
ecosystem functioning disturbance. Basically,
human health impacts, income disparity, and
environmental misuse of mining operations are
mostly felt at the local level, and these issues are
the source of tension between the affected mining
edge communities, governments, and mining
companies [4].
1.1. Background
Sierra Leone is endowed with a significant
amount of mineral resources such as bauxite,
gold, diamonds, and rutile, among others. Despite
the significance of these mineral resources, a large
school of thoughts believe that the exploitation of
these capital-intensive minerals have not benefited
local communities as expected [5]. Gold and iron
ores were the first to be discovered in the late
1920s, followed by diamonds in the early 1930s,
while bauxite and rutile were discovered in the
1960s [6] and Chromite in 1937 [7]. The
exploitation of diamonds in Sierra Leone is dated
back to the 1930s, and since then, it has played a
major role in the political and economic spheres
of the nation [8] but not without adverse
environmental effects. The heavy gains from
mineral extraction posed a serious environmental,
social, and human right uncertainty and safety [9]
to the least developing nations for which Sierra
Leone is no exception. The discovery and mining
of diverse mineral resources over the years have
given mix feelings among citizens across the
country. There are those who believe that the
nation’s catastrophe and environmental
degradation is deeply rooted in it abundant natural
resources; while another faction believe that the
abundance of these natural resources has helped to
shape the country’s economy and political
landscape [7]. Sierra Leone's diamond industry
was dubbed "blood diamonds" and believed to
help fuel the civil war and other atrocities in
Sierra Leone in the early 1990s [8]. Studies have
proven that a clear relationship exists between the
human insecurity and the environmental
degradation in Sierra Leone [10]. Understanding
the environmental, social, and economic
consequences of mining activities in Sierra Leone
is critical to combat future environmental
dilapidation due to mining operations. There is
justification for the understanding of the root
causes and the impacts of environmental
degradation given the number of mineral
resources Sierra Leone has, and also for the fact
that this will help in stimulating an efficient and
sustainable mining policy for the country that will
serve the test of time. Sierra Leone is being rated
as one of the least developing nations on the earth.
As a nation that had gone through civil war and
most recently natural disasters such as Ebola and
mudslides that killed over two thousand people, a
paper like this is very significant as the nation
requires a huge financial revenue source, for
which the mining sector is a key. In a similar vein,
environmental sustainability is crucial in the midst
of mining (large- and small-scale), and it has been
the greatest culprit of environmental degradation
in Sierra Leone since 1930, followed by shifting
agriculture. FAO [11] warns that inasmuch as the
government increases it emphasis on the
economic growth, it will definitely require sound
environmental policies, together with a
sustainable management to prevent uncontrolled
environmental damage, mostly caused by mining
and agriculture. There is virtually no doubt that
natural resources such as bauxite, diamond, gold,
and iron ore, among other deposits, can greatly
contribute to the economic growth and
development [12, 13] in regions where they are
found. However, such activities overtime have left
a devastating footprint on the environment for
decades.
The natural mineral composition in Sierra Leone
is made up of three sub-categories, stated as
follow: (1) large-scale production of non-precious
and precious minerals-rutile, bauxite, and
diamonds; (2) mechanized small-scale mines,
mostly diamonds; and (3) artisanal production of
precious minerals such as diamonds and, to a
much lesser extent, gold. The heavy use of
machineries in extracting minerals has a
destructive effect on the vegetation and can
Fayiah./ Journal of Mining & Environment, Published online
generate dust and noise pollutions [14]. The
extractive industry, by its very nature, has a
massive ecological footprint [15], and it has
affected the mining edge communities negatively.
While the mining industry provides job and
income to the local communities, its
environmental havoc far outweighs it output and
support. This is even more severe when the
government or relevant monitoring authorities pay
little or no attention to its operations and fail to
listen to the concerns of the affected community
members. In Sub Sahara Africa and other
developing countries, mining companies’ genuine
corporate-community engagement has been highly
questioned as a result of power inequities [16] and
the mining companies are inflexible to native
stakeholder’s authority preferences but focus on
the pre-defined ‘development’ goals of the mining
sector [17, 18]. Mining is the second largest and
important industry after agriculture regarding job
employment and revenue generation [19] in Sierra
Leone. In Sierra Leone, the weak implementation
of mining agreement by companies and the little
or no pressure by responsible government
agencies to force companies to adhere to the
sustainable mining protocols have contributed to
the irreversible environmental catastrophe in most
mining areas across Sierra Leone. The
environment is the natural resource giver
(mineral) and, at the same time, the receiver of
damages caused mainly by the extractive industry.
The extraction of natural resources is mostly a
catastrophic process that destroys the rainforest
ecosystem, hence causing problems for the nearby
residents and downstream rivers [20]. The
International Finance Corporation (IFC) [15]
caution is that although mining only employs 1%
of the world labor force, it is rated as the most
hazardous occupation and is responsible for 8% of
fatal accidents globally.
1.2. Overview of mining policies in Sierra
Leone
Over the past decades, the following
environmental instruments have been instituted to
help protect the environment in the midst of
mining and other land related activities. These
instruments include the National Environmental
Policy (NEP, 1990); National environmental
Action Plan (NEAP, 1995); National Commission
on Environment and Forestry (NaCEF, 2005), and
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
(2008). In addition to these policy instruments, the
Ministry of Lands and Country planning of Sierra
Leone equally has the mandate to protect the
environment [21]. Besides the above
environmental protection policies, the Mineral
Acts (1927), Revised Mineral Act (1960), Mines
and Mineral Decree (1994), Mines and Mineral
Acts (2009), National Mineral Agency (2012), and
Mines and Mineral Operation Regulations (2013)
have been equally in charge with the
responsibility to sustain the environment through
responsible mining [6] over the past decades.
However, the national environmental protection
policies have not been able to adequately guard
and protect the local communities from the
adverse impacts of mining operations, and this has
led not only to environmental degradation but
deepening the poverty levels among the local
population [22]. Mining operations have started in
Sierra Leone over a decade; however, the country
is still at the bottom of the development and
environmental performance index ranking. This
could be attributed to the poor adherence to
sustainably mining protocols. Unsustainably,
mining has adversely affected the environment
over the years to a crisis level involving major
degradation of the land, loss of biodiversity, and
health risks.
Valuable forest trees have been destroyed causing
the animals to migrate to areas of less threat or go
into extinction [22]. The environmental
performance index ranking of Sierra Leone over
the past years is listed below (Table 1). Sierra
Leone has been ranked at the bottom of the index
for years with 2018 ranking being the best year
among the rest. The worst rankings have been
seen in 2010, 2014, and 2016, respectively. This
ranking is a wakeup call for the concern of
authorities nationwide.
Table 1. Environmental Performance Index Ranking of Sierra Leone over the years. Source: Adapted from [23]
Environmental Performance Index Ranking and [24].
Date Country Ranking Total countries Scores
2006
Sierra Leone
49.70
2008
Sierra Leone
40.00
2010
Sierra Leone
32.10
2014
Sierra Leone
21.74
2016
Sierra Leone
45.98
2018
Sierra Leone
42.54
Fayiah./ Journal of Mining & Environment, Published online
Figure 1. Mining and its environmental impact framework.
Mining serves as a source of income through
taxes, royalties, land lease payment, employment,
and source of export with special reference to
Sierra Leone (Figure 1). This revenue improves
the livelihood in the mining communities and the
country as a whole. On the other hand, mining
leads to land degradation, erosion, run-off,
pollution, landscape transformation, etc. These
activities lead to low productivity, hence, making
the land barrel and impacting local livelihood
negatively.
2. Review of relevant literatures
A good number of scholarly publications
investigating the impacts of mining operations on
the social and environmental degradation have
been carried out over the years across the world.
Chandra [25] believes that societal benefit from
mining exceeds negative consequences but
emphasizes that a sound public policy is very
crucial in achieving this goal in a near future.
Madeley [26] and Nguyen et al. [27] have also
noted that mining is the fifth largest industry
worldwide and that it has contributed significantly
to the economic development, international trade,
and reduce poverty. Wilson [16] has cross-
examined the corporate social responsibility and
power relations and impediments to community
development in post-war Sierra Leone's diamond
and rutile mining areas in Sierra Leone. He has
concluded that “with the exception of the
establishment of Kimbadu, the resettled town,
implementation of corporate social responsibility
(CSR) initiative facilitated minimal, and at times,
unsustainable, community development [16].
Akiwumu and Butler [28] have evaluated the
environmental changes in parts of Sierra Leone,
from rutile (titanium dioxide) between 1967 and
1995. They used the available multi-data infrared
Landsat images supplemented with the field
hydrological and biophysical data. They
concluded that reservoir construction for mining
caused flooding of alluvial lowlands,
deforestation, and the creation of tailings and
stockpiles over mined out portions of lease.
Wilson [8] posed a critical question as to whether
diamond exploitation in Sierra Leone from 1930
to 2010 was a resource curse? He argued that the
impact of diamond exploitation in Sierra Leone
was not fixed but rather had two face; it serves as
blessing at some point and as a curse at certain
point throughout the history of the country. Lichte
[29] tried to understand the current environmental
awareness, practices, and attitudes of affected
populations and identify ideas, interest, and
current capacity for small changes at the artisanal
mine level to improve the social, economic, and
environmental wellbeing of diamond miners and
their communities. Wilson [30] has examined the
corporate social responsibility and power relations
and its influences on post-war Sierra Leone
diamond communities and rutile mining area
development. The author concludes that corporate
social responsibily expectations of companies are
unsustainable and minimal in terms of community
development. Other relevant publications like
Fayiah./ Journal of Mining & Environment, Published online
building peace via conflict diamond [31]; success
or failure of artisanal diamond mining in Sierra
Leone [32]; diamond, governance, and local
development in post-war Sierra Leone [33];
mining companies-communities conflict over
diamonds with special emphasis on Kono District
[34]; diamonds are forever, controversial, and
actors in the Sierra Leone civil war [35] have all
examined the consequences of mining on the
environment. Scholars such as Humphrey et al.
[36], Auty, [37], and Sachs and Warner [38] using
the “resource curse” hypothesis examined the
developing countries that were heavily endowed
with natural resources like oil and minerals. They
have discovered that the developing countries
endowed with great resource wealth mostly tend
to be poorer than those with few resources.
2.1. List of Major Mining companies in Sierra
Leone
As at 2014, there were five major registered
companies operating in Sierra Leone (Table 2).
Due to the drop in demand of iron ore globally,
the London Mining Company went bankrupt and
folded up. Alternately, there are many smaller
companies operating within the country, although
most of them are unregistered. The leading
companies among the major companies are Sierra
Rutile Ltd, Koidu Holdings Ltd, and Shandong
mining, respectively.
Table 2. List of Major Mining Companies operating in Sierra Leone. Source: (Ministry of Mines and Mineral
Resources [39].
Name of Company Location Mineral mine Lease Agreement date
1 Koidu Holdings Limited East Diamonds 2010
2 Sierra Rutile Limited Southeast Rutile 20th November, 2001
3 Shandong Mining Company (African Minerals) North Iron Ore 6th August, 2010
4 Sierra Leone Minerals Limited (Vimetco) South Diamonds 16th July, 2012
5 London Mining (Currently on hold) North Iron Ore 27th February, 2012
6 SL Mining Limited North Iron ore 2017
Although some studies have investigated the
negative and positive impacts of mining in Sierra
Leone, attempts to examine the impact of mining
on the environment and it livelihood implication
is scare. This paper seeks to synthesize and
examine the impact of mining on the environment
and it social implications to specifically mining
edge communities. Furthermore, this paper pays
close attentions not only to the negative impacts
of mining on the environment but also its effects
on local community livelihood, culture, and way
of life. This article, in addition, seeks to answer
the following research questions: 1) to what extent
has mining operations degraded the environment?
2) has mining operations in Sierra Leone
benefited the local communities? 3) what
measures should be put in place to ensure
sustainable mining in Sierra Leone?
3. Materials and Methods
Sierra Leone is a small country in the West Coast
of Africa with a population of slightly above 7
Million people. In this work, we examine the
activities of three mining companies in Sierra
Leone. These mining companies (Sierra Rutile
Limited, Koidu Hodings, and Shangdon Iron Ore
Mines) have been carefully selected because they
are located close to dwelling communities and
have been mining in Sierra Leone for a stipulated
period of time that is best suited for this peer
review. Sierra Rutile Limited is located in the
south, Koidu Holdings Ltd is in the east, and
Shangdon Iron Ore Ltd is in the north of Sierra
Leone. Synthesizing the impacts of mining on the
environment is essential for a sustainable
management, and can inform policy elites on the
status of the mining communities in Sierra Leone.
3.1. Data collection
The data collection strategy for this article was
secondary/desk review and field observation. The
secondary sources of data were mainly from the
published articles, newspapers, governments and
NGOs reports and documents, consultancy
reports, workshop and conference proceedings,
and personal observation. Keywords like mining
in Sierra Leone, environment consequences and
mining communities, and mining and conflicts in
Sierra Leone were used to search for the
secondary information. The collected data was
sorted, and the relevant information on mining
and environmental consequences was extracted
and analyzed to form the results and discussions.
This article is organized as follows: introduction
of Sierra Leone and its mineral resources followed
by background; the overview of mining policies in
Fayiah./ Journal of Mining & Environment, Published online
Sierra Leone; the list of major mining companies
in Sierra Leone; the environmental consequences
of mining operations in Sierra Leone; the social
and economic impacts of mining in Sierra Leone;
mining as a source of conflict in Sierra Leone; the
artisanal mining and its environmental
consequences; and the way forward and
conclusion.
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Environmental consequences of Koidu
holdings Ltd, Sierra Rutile Ltd, and Shandong
Iron Ore mining in Sierra Leone
Koidu Holdings Ltd is mainly engaged in
kimberlitic mining, which was discovered in 1948
by Sierra Leone Selection; Sierra Rutile is the
world’s largest rutile mining company producing
high quality minerals such as rutile, ilmenite, and
zircon rich concentrate [40] using dredge mining
methods; whereas, Shandong Iron Ore is engaged
in Iron Ore mining using heavy excavators and
machinery. The kimberlitic mining process
employed by Koidu Holdings Ltd involves the
bombardment of mines sites at least twice a week
when operation is in full gear (Figures 2). This
process has created many large pits, and has
negatively impacted the soil structure,
composition, fertility, and landscape. Negative
environmental impacts such as biodiversity loss
(wildlife, agro-diversity), loss of landscape,
aesthetic beauty, degradation, noise pollution, soil
contamination, surface water pollution/decreasing
water (physico-chemical, biological) quality are
some consequences of the Kimberlitic mining in
Koidu [41].
Sierra Leone’s rutile and ilmenite production
mines are located solely within the Special
Exclusive Prospecting License area comprising
580 km2 in Moyamba and Bonthe Districts,
Southern Province [42] (Figures 3). At Sierra
Rutile Ltd (SRL), the mining operations require
flooding mining areas prior to rutile extraction or
dredging. The aftermath of these operations are
worrisome and has affected over 13,000 ha
previously used for the agricultural purposes.
During the operation of the dredge, the soil
nutrient is washed away and the only particle left
is sand. This sand is then piled and rendered
useless for agricultural and other land use
activities for two or more decades if left alone.
Besides the dredge mining, the companying is
also engaged in dry mining, where the surface soil
materials are removed by heavy machineries,
thereby exposing the bare clay soil and removing
the top fertile soil used for agricultural production.
The environmental impact resulting from the
operation include: (i) the degradation of the vast
expanse of land exploited; (ii) the risk of flooding
of surrounding villages (caused by linkages from
the surrounding ‘dredging pond’): (iii) siltation in
tidal creeks; and (iv) dislocation of several
villages [43]. This type of mining has the
tendencies to create artificial flooding and ponds
in dry areas and destroy any living thing along its
operational route. These artificial lakes have the
tendency of harboring wild animals like
crocodiles, as well as serving as the breeding
ground for mosquitoes [44]. The landscape of
Rutile mining communities have changed
completely with lakes almost everywhere.
Equally, the waste water coming from the Sierra
Rutile factories are extremely toxic and polluted,
and yet, its disposal safety practices is questioned
by critics [45, 46]. These wastes are poorly
handled in most cases, thereby leading to
environmental pollution. Also these sites serve as
a mosquito breeding ground, thereby putting the
health of local residents at risk [47].
The Shandong Iron Ore mine contains an
estimated 11.2 billion tonnes of Iron ores [48] and
its extraction involves using big excavators and
machineries on a daily basis (Figures 4). The first
phase of operation by this company is large
surface area clearance with caterpillars and other
heavy machineries. The company has caused
serious environmental damages such as sinkholes,
soil contamination, biodiversity loss, mining
process sediments, surface and ground water
contamination, air pollution, landscape
transformation, and noise pollution. The
permanent loss of valuable lands for agricultural
activities and its degradation will lead to poverty
for the current and future generation since
agriculture is the major source of food and income
in these areas. The collective environmental
impacts of these mining company operations are
worrisome and require urgent interventions by
stakeholders. FAO/FRA [49] by presenting an
analysis of the change in the forest cover of Sierra
Leone between 1990 and 2010, concluded that the
country lost an average of 19,600 ha or 0.63% per
year. When put together, from 1990 to 2010, the
country lost 12.6% of its already limited forest
cover or around 392,000 ha and the main culprit is
mining both legal and illegal. Most of these losses
are linked with mining by both the heavy and
artisanal small-scale miners.
Mining on a larger scale, more especially, the
open-pit method like the one used by Koidu
Holdings Ltd and Shandong Iron Ore are causing
Fayiah./ Journal of Mining & Environment, Published online
serious land degradation and deforestation
through forest clearance for road construction
within mining sites, hence exposing forest areas to
illegal settlement, artisanal mining, and land
grabbing [20]. The use of heavy machineries by
these companies is a recipe for a greater
environmental abuse, and this has left hectares of
land bare and unproductive for the next decades.
Furthermore, the exposure of these lands renders
them susceptible to powerful erosion and run-off,
especially during the raining season, thereby
leading to environmental degradation. In most of
these communities, the local hydrological cycles
have also been affected either by company deposit
or exposure of catchment areas close to the
mining sites. Critics accuse the companies of
turning all the potential agriculture lands and
fields into useless piles of red earth and have
virtually diverted or block streams that use to flow
into the nearby residential areas. Heavy
machinery mining have resulted in excessive run-
off, loss of productive lands, massive gullies,
heavy erosion, water contamination, sink holes,
reduction into soil infiltration, and nutrient
leaching. This type of mining has the tendency of
rendering previous viable lands barred for
agricultural purposes as well as creating a non-
habitable birds and animal environment. Jackson
et al. [50] have concluded that mineral resource
exploitation most times results to extensive soil
degradation due to vegetation destruction and the
alteration of microbial communities, thereby
leading to low soil fertility and productivity.
Figures 2. Kimberlite mining and open-pits by Koidu Holdings Company [51, 52].
Figures 3. Sierra Rutile Dredge and artificial lakes and ponds [53, 54].
Fayiah./ Journal of Mining & Environment, Published online
4.2. Social and economic impacts of Koidu
Holdings Ltd, Sierra Rutile Ltd, and Shandong
Iron Ore mining in Sierra Leone
Although the mining companies provide jobs,
support the government through taxes, and pay
royalties and land use compensations, their
actions have not totally liberated the indigenes
from their suffering. According to DIARSL [57],
about 40% of Koidu Holdings Ltd profits is in the
form of corporation tax ($200,000 per annum),
annual surface rent of $25 per acre, and royalties
totaling, and 5% of diamond sales and 4% of
precious metal sales ultimately go to the state. For
example, National Advocacy Coalition on
Extractives (NACE) [58] has reported that the
Koidu Holdings employs approximately 600
workers with an average monthly salary of $250,
while the lowest being $130, and the company is
believed to be spending around $300,000 a month
on salary. According to the Koidu Holdings [59]
report, the company further spends around
$100,000 to support the two major football teams
and awarding scholarships to senior students in
the district. These companies employ many local
residents who are physically fit for labor jobs,
while at the same time, employ citizens with skills
from various parts of the country. Similar
sponsorship programs and employments are
undertaken by the Sierra Rutile and Shandong
Iron ore mining companies.
Figures 4. Iron ore mining and clearing [55, 56].
However, the social injustice may outweigh the
economic income earn from these companies. The
Environmental Justice Atlas (EJA) [41] have
reported that socio-economic impact such as
displacement increase in violence and crime,
militarization and increas police presence,
prostitutions, violations of human rights, land
dispossession, and loss of landscape are footprint
of mining operations. For example, the Koidu
Holding Ltd reports a compressive in balance and
injustice between the mining company and the
environment/community, especially in the recent
times, and has unimaginable consequences for the
human health and environmental security [61]. In
the Tonkolili District, for instance, Steinweg and
Römgens [60] have noted that for full
development and exploitation of iron ore mining,
the Shandong Iron Ore Company requires to
relocate the Ferengbeya, Foria, and Wondugu
villages with hundreds of families. Relocations of
families have proven to have negative impacts on
the social and cultural way of life of indigenes.
These relocations hampered the social, economic,
and cultural human rights of local residents,
especially the vulnerable families. The forceful
removal or relocation of certain communities from
their native’s lands and communities
automatically kill their livelihood and damages
their cultural heritages and way of life, inherited
from their ancestors [62]. Heritage sites such as
ancient caves and secret society shrines (sacred
groves) have all been destroyed along with all
forms of biodiversity. Arable land for agricultural
purpose has been destroyed together with
agricultural crops and economic trees forcing
farming communities into hostile alternative
livelihoods [22]. Additionally, the unchecked
actions of companies have led to the loss of
Fayiah./ Journal of Mining & Environment, Published online
plantation fields, cultural, spiritual, societal, and
monumental sites that once bind the local
indigenes together with strong cultural and
spiritual beliefs, as a village or community. The
nearby communities who were not relocated are
under constant discomfort caused by machines of
adjacent mines sites, as well as dust, and eroded
mine sediments. Abandoned mining sites and pits
serve as a mosquito breeding ground, thereby
putting the health of local residents at risk [47].
4.3. Mining as a source of conflicts in mining
edge communities
Minerals are one of the root causes of the bloody
civil war that lasting for more than a decade and
took over 50,000 lives [8] in Sierra Leone. Ross
[63] lend support and stated that “grievance
mechanism” is when resource extraction creates
grievances among the local population because of
land expropriation, environmental hazards,
insufficient job opportunities, and social
disruptions caused by labor migration.
Communities where mining operations are
ongoing in Sierra Leone are the epicenter for
conflicts and confrontations between companies’
securities and local residents. The current
population of Sierra Leone stands at 7.2 m [64]
with a majority living in rural areas, especially
mining communities. For example, the clashes
between protesters and company security
personnel in December, 2007 in the Koidu City,
where Koidu Holdings is in operation left two
people from the community dead [65], and in
Bumbuna in the north, clashes between the police
and the protesters left one dead, some arrested,
beaten, and many injured [66]. Upon their death, a
commission of inquiry was set up, and their
findings were that the main root causes were
relocation and resettlement, forceful evacuation
before blasting, lack of community benefits, and
lack of community participation, among others
[67]. Collier [68] argues that sometimes resource
wealth has contributed to the conflict trap; even
where the country stays at peace, it typically fails
to grow; indeed, the surplus from natural resource
exports significantly reduces growth. Similarly, In
2015, African Mineral now Shandong Iron Ore
company was sued for allegation ranging from
false imprisonment, assault and battering, land
theft, trespass, rape, and the killing of a 24-year
old local resident [62]. Several studies have
shown that accountability and transparency have
been a major challenge in mining industries across
Sub-Saharan Africa [69, 70], and hence, the
source of conflict. According to Wilson’s [16]
interview with the local residents of Imperi
Chiefdom, Bonthe District, the youth of the
community maintained that they were unaware of
any tangible development initiative undertaken by
the Sierra Rutile Limited and that the company
and the traditional leaders sideline youths in
decision-making. They have claimed that the
company engages and gives community
development funds to Paramount Chiefs and
traditional leaders, who, in turn, use such funds
solely for themselves. The omission of meaningful
community engagement by relevant stakeholders
and authorities in the extractive industry has
affected the mining communities’ development
[16]. Based on National Advocacy Coalition on
Extractives (NACE) [58], experience especially in
Africa, they warn that local benefits from mining
companies are usually much smaller in scale than
many people, governments, communities expect
or claim; at worst, but also common, is that people
are made poorer.
4.4. Artisanal mining and its environmental
and social consequences in Sierra Leone
The Artisanal mining sector in Sierra Leone plays
a significant role in extracting the country’s
mineral resources. This sector employs more
workers than the formal mining companies in
total. The employment advantage of this sector is
that it does not require formal education or job
connection. All that, it requires physical fitness
and willingness. Mensah et al. [13] opined that
surface mining was the major approach usually
adopted by small-scale mining artisans because of
its cheap and require low capital intensity with
little or no skill required. They stated that illegal
small scale mining operations were conducted in
open places with little or no protective gears or
environmental best practices, thereby polluting
and damaging the nearby vegetation and soils.
Although these types of mining approaches have
employed thousands of jobless youths in Sierra
Leone, their environmental consequences are
enormous and worrisome for environmental
sustainability. Artisanal mining operations have
contributed to massive deforestation and loss of
diverse biodiversity and wildlife habitats in Sierra
Leone. In the Kono District, for example, artisanal
mining operations have destroyed and converted
swamps that were once used for the agricultural
activities into abandoned lands with pits
everywhere. Sources of drinking waters have been
reported to be contaminated and properties
destroyed when diamonds are suspected at these
locations. Small-scale artisanal surface mining
Fayiah./ Journal of Mining & Environment, Published online
method can lead to the removal of large topsoil
deposits, thereby leaving the land bare and
exposing it to erosion [13]. The failure of the
central government to ensure that mining
companies abide by their commitments in the area
of corporate social responsibility is making
companies not to comply with the state mining
protocols [16]. Nguyen et al. [47] have opined that
a wide criticism have been directed to the mining
activities for their role in shattering economic
endeavors, subjecting local environments to
irreversible degradation and impacting the health
of local residents negatively. According to the
Wilson’s survey [71], 35 small scale mining
companies and five transnational mining
companies were operating in Sierra Leone as at
2010. Furthermore, the World Bank [19] has
reported that Sierra Leone artisanal miners range
of 200,000-300,000 mainly extracting diamonds
and gold with 1,800,000 dependent families [72].
A formalized small-scale gold/diamond mining
sector could generate significant employment
opportunities for thousands of young men and
women [73].
5. Way forward
Mining natural resources is actually not a crime
but is depleting the environment beyond its
potential to recover, and changing the landscape is
unacceptable, and it is against the set sustainable
development goals. Introducing a three-way
approach of 1) sound environmental impact
assessment (EIA) adoption before mining starts,
2) carrying out strategic environmental
assessment (SEA), and 3) regular engagement
with all community stakeholders in locations
where mining operations are in progress or will
commence are crucially significant to the
development of the sector. The above sets of
assessments should be done by different
consultancies, and their findings made public.
This will help the community people to be
prepared for the shock and future adjustment in
their livelihood activities as a result of the mining
operations.
Secondly, the companies should make provisions
for immediate restoration activities, rather than
waiting to do so after closure, as it is apparent
based on experience, they go bankrupt before the
stipulated date of closure of their mining
operations. Ecological restoration should be done
using the recent ecological restoration approaches
and by preferred plant species of the community
with the local communities included in the
process. Such species should be of economic
importance and have a shorter rotation period.
Effective community participation in
environmental decision-making should be ensured
at all times. Companies should engage in
environmental awareness campaigns in the mining
areas and the nearby communities. Environmental
oversight groups that will serve as the pressure
force to companies for environmental compliance
should be established by the communities. The
environmental protection agency (EPA) should
ensure the monitoring and assessment of
environmental protection compliance protocols by
all mining companies in Sierra Leone on a regular
basis. The government should ensure that all the
environmental management weaknesses and laps
in the environmental mining policies be rectified
on a regular basis. Sierra Leone should try and
incorporate environmental security aspects in its
post conflict development agenda and strategy to
reduce the negative environmental effects of
mining and abandoned mine sites.
6. Conclusions
The collective actions of mining companies in
Sierra Leone have led to land degradation, ground
water contamination, persistent noise, and air
pollutions. In a similar negative vein, the
harboring of contaminated waste water breeds
mosquitoes that are causing malaria and other
related illnesses. The unchecked actions of these
mining companies in Sierra Leone have led to the
reduction in farm lands, infertile lands, artificial
lakes, desertification, and conversion of forest to
grass lands, and the extinction of some plant and
animals species. Most importantly, the ecosystem
support function, provision, regulatory, and
cultural capability that support local communities,
especially in difficult times, is totally destroyed.
The root cause of environmental degradation due
to mining in Sierra Leone is due to: 1) severe lack
of logistic and human capacity in all government
departments associated with mine monitoring; 2)
lack of transparency by mine officials; 3) the
country lacks efficient mines monitoring the
mechanism to ensure that companies comply with
laid down environmental protection mandates by
companies; 4) policies and other mining
instruments have serious gaps and overlaps
mandates with similar ministries. Although there
are many environmental policies and regulation
designs to curb mining atrocities, still the
environment has not been free from abuse by
mining operations in Sierra Leone. The social and
economic injustice unleashed by mining
companies in Sierra Leone far outweighs the
Fayiah./ Journal of Mining & Environment, Published online
benefits realized from these companies.
Alternately, there are so many reasons for why the
mineral and mining companies have not been
complying with the best mining practices in the
three case studies. These include, but are not
limited to, the following major reasons:
corruption, illegal mining/trade, deficient state
capacity, political interference of top government
officials with company authorities behind the
scene, weak institutions and agencies; lack of
transparency in payment of royalties, taxes and
greed by stakeholders. The environmental
problems of mining are diverse, and can only be
solved by good government mining policies,
rigorous monitoring of mining operation, and the
inclusion of community stakeholders in all
environmental protection and management
decision-making processes. This paper
recommends that communities be adequately
informed about mine blasting in time, mining
edge communities should be adequately
compensated and should be given good health
care services, abandoned pits should be back-
filled, afforestation and enrichment tree planting
should be done on all mines sites, with species
that can adapt to degraded soil composition,
government should review and strengthen its
mining policies, institution, regulations, and
companies should be encouraged to implement
their corporate social responsibilities.
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حﺎﯿﻓﻂﯿﺤﻣ و نﺪﻌﻣ ﻪﯾﺮﺸﻧ /ﻦﯾﻼﻧآ پﺎﭼ ،ﺖﺴﯾز
ﺮﺨﺗ و نﺪﻌﻣ ﯿ زﺖﺴ :ﻪﯾﺪﻫﻪﮐ يا رﺎﻨﺳي اﺮﺑ ار هوﺪﻧاي رﺎﮑﻧﺪﻌﻣ ﻊﻣاﻮﺟي دﺳ رﯿنﻮﺌﻟاﺮ ﻣ نﺎﻐﻣرا ﻪﺑ
دروآ
حﺎﯿﻓ ﻪﺷﻮﻣ
*
راﺪﻠﮕﻨﺟ هوﺮﮔيﺪﻣ هﺪﮑﺸﻧاد ، ﺒﻃ ﻊﺑﺎﻨﻣﯿﻪﻟﺎﺠﻧ هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد ،، ﻪﻟﺎﺠﻧ، ﯿنﻮﺌﻟاﺮ
لﺎﺳرا13/08/2019 شﺮﯾﺬﭘ ،27/02/2020
:تﺎﺒﺗﺎﮑﻣ لﻮﺌﺴﻣ هﺪﻨﺴﯾﻮﻧ *moses.fayiah@yahoo.co.uk
ﯿﮑﭼ:هﺪ
ﯿنﻮﺌﻟاﺮ ﺒﻃ ﻊﺑﺎﻨﻣ زاﯿ ﻟد ﻪﺑ ﺎﻣا ﺖﺳا رادرﻮﺧﺮﺑ ناواﺮﻓﯿ ﻠﻤﻋﯿتﺎ رﺎﮑﻧﺪﻌﻣي ﺮﺨﺗ ﺪﻌﺘﺴﻣــﯾ ــﺤﻣﯿ زﺖــﺴ ﺑ .ﺖــﺳاﯿﺮﺘــﺸ ﺰﻫ ،تﺎــﻗواﻪــﻨﺎﻫ ــﺳآ وﯿﺎﻫي ﻪــﺑ هدراو
ﺤﻣﯿ زﺖﺴ ﻠﻤﻋ ﺮﺛا ردﯿتﺎ رﺎﮑﻧﺪﻌﻣي، ﻧﺪﻌﻣ ﻊﻣاﻮﺟ ﺎﻫ ﺶﻨﺗ ﺎﺑ اري ﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﻣ وﺮﺑورﻨﮐــﻃ . ﻪــﻫدﺎﻫي ﺖــﺤﺗ رﻮــﺸﮐ ﻪﻌــﺳﻮﺗ رد نﺪــﻌﻣ ﺶــﺨﺑ ﻢﻬــﺳ ،ﻪﺘــﺷﺬﮔ
ا عﺎﻌﺸﻟا ﻌﻗاوﯿ ﻠﻤﻋ ﻪﮐ ﺖﺳاﯿتﺎ ﻔﻨﻣ تاﺮﺛا نﺪﻌﻣ ﺤﻣ ﺮﺑﯿ زﺖﺴ ا هﺪﻤﻋ .ﺖﺳا ﻪﺘﺷاد ــﻔﻨﻣ تاﺮﺛا ﻪــﺑﻟدﯿ ﯿﺖــﺳﺎﺎﻫي ﻌــﺿﯿ زﺖــﺴ ﺤﻣﯿــﻄ و رﻮــﺸﮐ
ﻘﻓﻮﻣ مﺪﻋﯿ ﺖﮐﺮﺷ دﺮﮑﻠﻤﻋ و ندﺎﻌﻣ ﺮﺑ ﺮﻇﺎﻧ تﺎﺴﺳﻮﻣﺎﻫي ﻧﺪﻌﻣ ا .ﺖﺳا ﻪﺑ ﻪﻟﺎﻘﻣﺳرﺮﺑ لﺎﺒﻧد رﺎﮑﻧﺪﻌﻣ مﻮﻬﻔﻣي ﻪــﺳ ردﺪــﻌﺑ ﻧﺪــﻌﻣ ﻊــﻣاﻮﺟ ــﺳ ردﯿنﻮﺌﻟاﺮ .ﺖــﺳا
ﻨﭽﻤﻫﯿ ا هداد زا ﻪﻟﺎﻘﺎــﻫي ﻮﻧﺎﺛــﯾ ــﺘﻟود تﺎــﺷراﺰﮔ ،هﺪــﺷ ﺮــﺸﺘﻨﻣ تﻻﺎــﻘﻣ زا، هﺎﮔرﺎﺲﻧاﺮﻔﻨﮐ و ﺎــﻫﺎــﻫي ا ،هﺪــﺷراﺰﮔﺮﺳ دﺎﻨــﺳﯿــﺳﺎ نﺎﻣزﺎــﺳﺎﻫي ــﯿ ــﺘﻟود،
ﻪﻣﺎﻧزورد ﺎﺗ ﺖﺳا هدﺮﮐ هدﺎﻔﺘﺳا ﻪﺑﺎﺸﻣ دراﻮﻣ و ﺎﻫهﺎﮔ ا ﻮﻧهﺪﻨﺴ ﻣ عﻮﺿﻮﻣ درﻮﻣ رد اردرﻮ ﺳرﺮﺑ ــﺳرﺮﺑ درﻮﻣ ندﺎﻌﻣ .ﺪﻨﮐ ﺺﺨﺸﻣ ز حﺮــﺷ ﻪــﺑــﯾ هدوﺪــﺤﻣ :ﺖــﺳاي
Sierra Rutileهدوﺪﺤﻣ ،يKoidu Holdings ﻦﻫآ ﮓﻨﺳ ندﺎﻌﻣ وShandongهدوﺪﺤﻣ .ﺎﻫي ﻧﺪﻌﻣ ــﺴﺑ ﺖــﻗد ﺎﺑ هﺪﺷ ﺮﮐذﯿرﺎي هﺪــﺷ بﺎــﺨﺘﻧارﻮــﻄﺑ ﺪﻧاي ﻪــﮐ
دﺰﻧ رد ﺎﻬﻧآ مﺎﻤﺗﻖﻃﺎﻨﻣ ﻮﮑﺴﻣ اﺮﺑ و هدﻮﺑي ﻧﻻﻮﻃ نﺎﻣز تﺪﻣ ﺳ ردﯿــﻣ جاﺮﺨﺘــﺳا نﻮﺌﻟاﺮﺪﻧﻮــﺷﺤﻣ دﺮــﮑﻠﻤﻋ ﺺﺧﺎــﺷ زا .ﯿــﻄ ﺛﺄــﺗ بﻮﭼرﺎــﭼ وﯿ اﺮــﺑ ندﺎــﻌﻣي
ﻣ نداد نﺎﺸﻧﯿناﺰ ﺛﺄﺗﯿ ﻠﻤﻋﯿتﺎ رﺎﮑﻧﺪﻌي ﺤﻣ ﺮﺑﯿ زﺖــﺴ ــﺳ ردﯿنﻮﺌﻟاﺮ ﺘــﺳاﻪــﺑ .ﺖــﺳا هﺪــﺷ هدﺎﻔﭘ ناﻮﻨﻋﯿﺎﻫﺪــﻣﺎي رﺎﮑﻧﺪــﻌﻣي ــﻣناﻮــﺗ اﺰــﻓا ﻪــﺑ ﻞــﮕﻨﺟادزﯽﯾ،
ﺎﺿرﺎﻧ ﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﮐدﻮﻟآ و ﻨﭽﻤﻫ و دﺮﮐ هرﺎﺷا اﻮﻫﯿ ﺎﺿرﺎﻧ وﺎﻫي ﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﻟد ﻪﺑﯿ ــﺧﺮﺑ ﻏ ﺐــﻗاﻮﻋ زاﯿﻞــﺑﺎﻗﺮ ﮔدﻮــﻟآ ﻪــﻠﻤﺟ زا لﻮــﺒﻗ اﺰــﻓا بآ ﻊﺑﺎــﻨ ﻪــﺘﻓﺎ
ﺳرﺮﺑ عﻮﺿﻮﻣ ﻪﻘﺑﺎﺳ .ﺖﺳا ﻮﻧ ﻂﺳﻮﺗ هﺪﺷهﺪﻨﺴ ﻟﺎﻌﻓ ﻪﮐ دﺮﮐ رﺎﮑﺷآﯿﺎﻫي ﻧﺪﻌﻣ ﺳ ردﯿنﻮﺌﻟاﺮ .ﺪــﻧراد ور ودــﯾ وري ﻪــﺑ نآ ناﻮﻨﻋــﯾ ﺮــﻔﻧ عﻮــﻗو ﻪــﺑ ﻪــﮐ ﺖــﺳا
ﮓﻨﺟﺎﻫي ﻠﺧاد ﻣارآﺎﻧ و و ﺎﺿرﺎﻧﺎﻫي ﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟا ﻨﭽﻤﻫ .ﺖﺳا هدز ﻦﻣادﯿ رﺎﮑﻧﺪﻌﻣ ﺶﺨﺑي .ﺖﺳا دﺎﺼﺘﻗا تاﺮﻘﻓ نﻮﺘﺳﻨﻌ اــﯾ ﻌﻣ ﻪــﺑ ﺮــﻣاﯿﺖــﺸ ﮏــﻤﮐ رﻮــﺸﮐ
ﺪﻨﮐا رد . ،ﻪﻟﺎﻘﻣورﺎﻫدﺮﮑي شور ﻪﺒﻧﺎﺟ ﻪﺳﺎﻫي ﻧﺎﻣرد ﻓﺮﻌﻣ نﺪﻌﻣ ﺶﺨﺑ ز دراﻮﻣ ﻞﻣﺎﺷ ﻪﮐ ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷــﯾ :ﺖــﺳا1 - زراــﯾﺑﺎ ز تاﺮــﺛاﺖــﺴ ﺤﻣﯿــﻄ )EIA(
ﺮﺷ زا ﻞﺒﻗعو ﻠﻤﻋﯿتﺎ رﺎﮑﻧﺪﻌﻣي ﻮﺼﺗ .دﻮﺷ2 - زرا مﺎﺠﻧاﺑﺎ ﮋﺗاﺮﺘﺳا زﺖﺴ ﺤﻣﯿ (SEA).3 - ذ ﻪﻤﻫ ﺎﺑ ﻢﻈﻨﻣ ﻞﻣﺎﻌﺗنﺎﻌﻔﻨ ﺛﺄــﺗ ﺖــﺤﺗ ﻊــﻣاﻮﺟﯿ رﺎﮑﻧﺪــﻌي .
ا رد ﺻﻮﺗ ﻪﻟﺎﻘﻣﯿ دﻮﺷ ﻟﺎﻌﻓ ﻪﮐﯿﺎﻬﺘي زﺎﺳزﺎﺑي ﺎﻬﺘﮐﺮﺷ ﻂﺳﻮﺗي اﺰﻓا و شﺮﺘﺴﮔ ﺎﺑ نﺪﻌﻣ ﯿﺮﺘﺸي .ﺪﺷﺎﺑ هاﺮﻤﻫ
:يﺪﯿﻠﮐ تﺎﻤﻠﮐ ز تﺎﻈﺣﻼﻣﺖﺴ ﺤﻣﯿ ،ﺮﺨﺗ ﯿ زﺖﺴ ،ﯿاﺮنﻮﺌﻟ ،رﺎﮑﻧﺪﻌﻣي ﺎﻨﺻ ﺘﺳد، ﻊﺑﺎﻨﻣ ﻧﺪﻌﻣ.
... The mining sector is the second largest supporter of Sierra Leone's economy after agriculture. Furthermore, it accounts for the country's major export earnings, government source of earning, and foreign exchange (Alix, 2015).The country is rich in minerals such as; diamonds, rutile, gold, platinum, Iron ore, bauxite, gas, among others (Wilson, 2015;Fayiah et al., 2018;Maconachie, 2018;Alix, 2015;Fayiah et al., 2020). Basically, the mining sector in Sierra Leone is made up of three sub-sectors; 1) large scale precious mineral production; 2) large-scale nonprecious mineral production; 3) and precious mineral production via artisanal and small-scale mining (Arai et al., 2010;GoSL, 2008;ILO, 2008).In 1996, Sierra Leone was ranked 19th and scored 77.5 in the mining contribution index (MCI) whereas in 2016, it was ranked 15th and scored 87.1 (MCI) respectively (Ericsson and Lof, 2019). ...
... Although mining operation blueprint in Sierra Leone has been deemed environmentally unsustainable, yet there are positive landmarks of mining in Sierra Leone. Many scholars concentrate on the negative aspect of mining in Sierra Leone (Fayiah, 2020), but very little information or attention is given to the various contributions of mining proceeds to the sustainable and economic development of Sierra Leone. This gap in information has made the public in Sierra Leone to frown at mining operations in their localities and sometimes stage protest to resist their operations. ...
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Sierra Leone is endowed with abundant natural resources that have potential to transform the lives of its citizens if sustainably utilized. Although the blueprint of mining in Sierra Leone is characterized by environmental degradation, but the sector also has positive impact on society. Since 1930, mineral extraction incomes have been helping to forge socio-economic development in the small nation although critics argue that the impact is barely felt or seen.Over the years, mineral resources have been the main source of export and direct foreign exchange earning for Sierra Leone. Artisanal and large-scale mining have provided jobs for thousands of people in Sierra Leone over the past decades. Income from mining especially in rural communities support livelihood and regulate the local economy in mining communities. Revenues generated from mining in the form of taxes, exploration fees, environmental impact assessment and monitoring fees, surface rent, license fees and customs taxes among others have helped the government in undertaking massive infrastructural development across the country. Mining companies over the years have built schools, clinics, police stations, community centers, bridges, engaged in road maintenance, provide scholarship for outstanding students within the mining communities, support agribusiness ventures, support sporting activities and provided loan to local for business startups as part of their corporate social responsibilities. Nonetheless, improper reporting, corruption, civil war, weak mining policies, inadequate reporting of revenue collected from mining and the lack of transparency prompted public mistrust on benefits of mining in Sierra Leone. It is recommended that revenue generated by mining companies be made public and corporate social responsibilities (CSR) undertaken be published regularly
... As a way of enforcing compliance, mining companies should be committed to embarking on: (a) ecological restoration measures, including rehabilitation, reclamation, and restoration measures to be in place to mitigate deforestation and land degradation that have been exacerbated by mining. As pointed out by Fayiah [52], ecological restoration should be immediate, rather waiting after mine closure; done using the recent ecological restoration approaches and by preferred plant species of economic importance, with effective community participation in environmental decision-making ensured at all times. (b) on development projects such as construction of feeder roads, provision of potable water, and other facilities within the mining edge communities. ...
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Local resistance to mining’s negative impacts on development In the 1960s, villagers on the small island of Marinduque in the Philippines lived mainly on subsistence fishing and farming with copra, bananas, and marine products as their main sources of trade and income, until 1969 when the opening of a world-class copper mining operation co-owned and managed by Canada’s Placer Dome1 raised new expectations for economic prosperity in the region. However, nearly 30 years of large-scale open-pit mining in the mountains of Marinduque instead became a lesson learned by communities throughout the Philippines of how mining can erode the very basis of economic sustainability and development.
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