Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Given the ever-increasing amount of work published on issues on topics of gender pertaining technology research and practice [60], that confidence is difficult to acquire. A query for "gender" in paper abstracts within the Guide to Computing Literature of the Digital Library of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM DL) matches almost 7500 papers. 2 Such an amount of potential sources can be in itself overwhelming for researchers unfamiliar with the topic who might struggle to identify works relevant to their specific context. ...
... With this binary view, their work aligns with most of traditional HCI research. Stumpf et al. recently published a conceptual review on gender-inclusive HCI research with a specific focus on cognitive and behavioural works as well as dangers of stereotyping in technological design [60]. However, even though the authors explicitly attend to issues surrounding a dominant binary notion of gender, their approach risks essentialising gender (cf. ...
... Additionally, if researchers are themselves part of the groups they analyse, this comprises another point of explicit representation and provides an additional level of lived expertise with a given subject matter [35]. As most prior work operates from a binary, essentialist understanding of gender [60], denaturalising prior work can also mean broadening representation and attending to cultural differences where appropriate (see [42]). ...
Article
Due to increased societal awareness of gendered dimensions of inequality, funding bodies in Western societies increasingly require researchers to address gender in their proposals — though often exclusively framed around binary notions. With oppressive power structures being prevalent and persuasive, these seep into current practices of Computer Science and Human-Computer Interaction(HCI) research. However, current curricula rarely provide actors in this space with grounded guidance on gender issues tied to their inquiries. Hence, developing an increased awareness of our societal responsibility towards equity can be challenging without an appropriate starting point. Drawing on a close reading of select literature discussing gender sensitivity in HCI research, we derived practical guidance in the form of recommendations for the design, proposal, conduct and presentation of research. Based on these recommendations, we then present the design of a card deck and initial tests thereof at ditact women’s IT summer university. Our analysis offers a starting point for HCI students and interested researchers to explore questions and issues around gender and to identify how gender relates to their research. This sensitisation may aid them in further reflecting on how they might better account for gendered implications of their work.
... Given the ever-increasing amount of work published on issues of equity and marginalisation, especially on topics of gender [60], that confidence is difficult to acquire. A query for "gender" in paper abstracts within the Guide to Computing Literature of the Digital Library of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM DL) matches almost 7500 papers. 2 Such an amount of potential papers can be in itself overwhelming for researchers unfamiliar with the topic who might struggle to identify relevant works. ...
... With this binary view, their work aligns with most of traditional HCI research. Stumpf et al. recently published a conceptual review on gender-inclusive HCI research with a specific focus on cognitive and behavioural works as well as dangers of stereotyping in technological design [60]. However, even though the authors explicitly attend to issues surrounding a dominant binary notion of gender, their approach risks essentialising gender (cf. ...
... Here, researchers can reflect on unmarked norms embedded in their visualisations and textual examples and diversify where possible. As most prior work operates from a binary, essentialist understanding of gender [60], denaturalising prior work can also mean broadening representation and attending to cultural differences where appropriate (see [42]). ...
... To bridge these gaps, we propose a playful exploration approach called "tinkering" [32,30] as a way of designing transparent algorithmic UI's by examining Facebook News Feed. There are a couple of benefits of our proposed approach: first, it is possible, that the exploratory nature of algorithm features (matrices) will not overwhelm the user by providing the user sufficient algorithmic control in the personalized interactive news feed experience; second, by enabling the measuring ability at the interface level of how much transparency is desired for each groups, we include the possibility of transparent interface designs that are inclusive (e.g., gender [33,34].) We do not intend to modify or suggest a new facebook ranking algorithm, instead, our main objective is to encourage a different perspective in the design of transparent algorithmic user interfaces. ...
... " [52], gender is one aspect of inclusive design. Informed and inspired by previous research [51,34,30,28], in this work, we will focus on only gender inclusiveness. ...
... Future work might take our design concept, expand (features/matrics) it, and test with the various users to see how tinkering plays out in achieving transparency. Third, we addressed tinkering approach to the design of transparent algorithmic system, however, there are other facets of cognitive styles such as riskaversion, information processing style (e.g., [49,34]) which might influence the use of transparent systems (especially for females), we did not address these complex relationships while designing our proposal. Thus, future work should examine other cognitive styles of problem solving and their influence on tinkering when designing transparent algorithmic system. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the widespread use of algorithms in interactive systems, it becomes inevitable for the users to apply these algorithms with caution. Algorithms are applied to make decisions in healthcare, hiring, the criminal justice system, and social media news feed among others. Thus, algorithmic systems impact human lives and society in significant ways. As a consequence, currently, the focus has been shifted toward designing transparent algorithmic user interfaces (UI's) -- to make the algorithmic aspects more explicit. Designing transparent algorithmic user interfaces requires the designer to bring the algorithmic aspects of control at the UI level without causing information overload. This research attempts to investigate this gap by proposing tinkering or playful experimentation as a means of designing transparent algorithmic UI's. Tinkering is a cognitive style related to problem-solving, decision making, enables exploration with the interactive system. The proposed approach of combining tinkering with transparent UI's serves two potential purposes: first, the exploratory nature of tinkering has the ability to make the algorithmic aspects transparent without hurting users experience (UX), while providing flexibility and sufficient control in the personalized interactive experience; second, it enables the designer to detect software inclusiveness issues in the design before they become part of the final software, by allowing us to measure how much algorithmic transparency is desired across different user groups.
... As with any offspring of InclusiveMag, the GenderMag method revolves around a small number of facets, each backed by foundational research [29,158]. These facets are useful for several purposes, one of which is as the basis of personas, which bring the facets to life. ...
... Self-efficacy can have numerous effects on the individual's ultimate success with the task, including whether they blame themselves for difficulties they encounter, and their willingness to persevere in the face of difficulty and try different approaches to the problem if their first attempt fails [18]. Such effects have been shown multiple times with technology/computer self-efficacy (e.g., [158]). Many studies have established differences in technology/computer self-efficacy tied to people's SES level. ...
... Technology self-efficacy is one of the five GenderMag facets because individuals with different genders tend to cluster around different technology self-efficacy values[158]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although inequities and biases relating to people in low socioeconomic situations are starting to capture widespread attention in the popular press, little attention has been given to how such inequities and biases might pervade technology user experiences. Without understanding such inequities in user experiences, technology designers can unwittingly introduce inequities tied to users' socioeconomic status (SES). To enable the HCI community to address this problem, in this paper, we consider a wide body of research that contributes to how a user's socioeconomic status potentially shapes their interactions and user experiences. We organize that research into 20 aspects of socioeconomic status; then derive a core set of five SES "facets" (attribute types and value ranges) with differing impacts on user experiences for different SES strata; and finally, present actionable paths forward for HCI researchers and practitioners to draw upon these facets, to bring socioeconomic awareness to HCI.
... People's cognitive problem-solving styles fall along 5 different spectra in the GenderMag method. the orange values are assigned to the Abi persona and the blue values are assigned to the Tim persona, as per statistical clusterings reported in underlying research (e.g., [12,72,79]). ...
... However, disaggregating participants' data by their computer selfefficacy was the only cognitive style where only the lower self-efficacy participants had significantly lower averages in 10 distinct experiments across all three categories of insights. Prior research with computer self-efficacy has uncovered information about how people solve problems, apply cognitive strategies, and how persistent they will be in getting through a problem [7,72]. To provide an example of different trade-offs participants underwent, Figure 7 (left) illustrates that disaggregating guideline 5's experimental data by participants' computer self-efficacy uncovered dependent variables where lower self-efficacy participants rated their suspicions of the Violation product significantly lower (t(67) = -2.0091, ...
... Notice that in total, there were 55 instances, and it took looking through all of the cognitive styles to see the whole picture. regarding people's computer self-efficacy, a failure to meet their needs could lead people with lower self-efficacy to not be as willing to use it in the future [72]. Table 7 shows through data triangulation just how prevalent the inclusiveness instances were across the 16 experiments. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is becoming more pervasive through all levels of society, trying to help us be more productive. Research like Amershi et al.'s 18 guidelines for human-AI interaction aim to provide high-level design advice, yet little remains known about how people react to Applications or Violations of the guidelines. This leaves a gap for designers of human-AI systems applying such guidelines, where AI-powered systems might be working better for certain sets of users than for others, inadvertently introducing inclusiveness issues. To address this, we performed a secondary analysis of 1,016 participants across 16 experiments, disaggregating their data by their 5 cognitive problem-solving styles from the Gender-inclusiveness Magnifier (GenderMag) method and illustrate different situations that participants found themselves in. We found that across all 5 cogniive style spectra, although there were instances where applying the guidelines closed inclusiveness issues, there were also stubborn inclusiveness issues and inadvertent introductions of inclusiveness issues. Lastly, we found that participants' cognitive styles not only clustered by their gender, but they also clustered across different age groups.
... The activities included those specifically designed for this study -see below -and others being conducted by the participants in ECM. We conducted PO because it should help us address and understand three core concepts in our research: (a) play, a socially constructed, dynamic and diverse cultural practice [14]; (b) gender, which is embedded and constructed in everyday interactions [17,22,25]; and (c) age, which is a biological attribute intertwined with social dimensions [2]. Ethical approval was granted by the ECM board. ...
... BFD might be very far removed from participants' interests, and old. Yet, BFD was a highly successful game in the 1990s, as it incorporated features that (most) girls tend to find appealing in games and is regarded as 'extended doll play' [22]. We used BFD as a 'provocation to thought' [24], since participants might have played it, or similar ones, with their grandchildren and children, or watched them playing it. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents work-in-progress that informs a current understanding of intersectional themes (age, gender, and digital games) that are important, but under-studied, in the player-computer interaction community. This paper draws on a 4-month participant observational study of game play and interest among active older women (aged 63-83, N=14). The results show how gender and age shape digital game interest and play among the participants. For them, being an older woman now means keeping up with the times, being active and helping others. They disregarded digital games that clashed with this identity. When the digital games projected their identity, their play was fun and productive; and led to recommending the games to others. Current and future research activities are outlined.
... Developing a gender balance Toolkit for MOOC design and development, to support females in pursuing STEM careers, based in our findings, is the very first step. Hence, we want to address instructional designers and teaching staff precisely when they prepare and design (Stumpf et al., 2020) the content for their MOOCs 32 so that new MOOCs will have a greater chance in being better gender-balanced in the future. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Why women are underrepresented in STEM and gender-balanced STEM MOOCs and how to use STEM MOOCs to fill the gap The FOSTWOM project FOSTWOM is a three-year project (2019-2022), co-funded by the European Commission's Erasmus+ for Higher Education (Erasmus+ KA2 Cooperation for Innovation and the Exchange of Good Practices-Strategic Partnerships for Higher Education). FOSTWOM intends to use the inclusive potential of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) to propose STEM subjects free of stereotypes on gender skills. FOSTWOM also intends to use MOOCS to propose STEM subjects free of stereotyping assumptions on gender abilities. The consortium is interested in attracting girls to STEM education and raising the number of young women that pursue careers in science and technology. The consortium consists of the following partners:-UNIVERSITAT POLITÈCNICA DE VALÈNCIA (Spain)-Coordinator-INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TÉCNICO (IST)-Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal)-METID-POLITECNICO DI MILANO (Italy)-CONSERVATOIRE NATIONAL DES ARTS ET MÉTIERS (CNAM) (France)-KTH ROYAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (Sweden)-COLÉGIO AMOR DE DEUS (Portugal)-I.I.S. BENEDETTO CASTELLI (Italy) http//fostwom.eu @fostwom @fostwom fostwom@fostwom.eu This work is licensed under a CC-BY license. More about this license at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/
... However, these are fundamental considerations to guide the field forward and, as HCI studies show (Vorvoreanu et al., 2019), concretely support the creation of gender-inclusive technology. Also, we invite the whole development process to be paired with bias-aware research methodology (Havens et al., 2020) and HCI approaches (Stumpf et al., 2020), which help operationalize sensitive attributes like gender (Keyes et al., 2021). Finally, MT is not only built for people, but also by people. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Machine translation (MT) technology has facilitated our daily tasks by providing accessible shortcuts for gathering, elaborating and communicating information. However, it can suffer from biases that harm users and society at large. As a relatively new field of inquiry, gender bias in MT still lacks internal cohesion, which advocates for a unified framework to ease future research. To this end, we: i)critically review current conceptualizations of bias in light of theoretical insights from related disciplines, ii) summarize previous analyses aimed at assessing gender bias in MT, iii)discuss the mitigating strategies proposed so far, and iv)point toward potential directions for future work.
... We decided to group participants as such for two reasons. First, cis and trans binary needs often align more than non-binary needs in terms of gendering and pronouns [90]. Second, binary genders, even trans binary genders, are more widely accepted than non-binary genders [88]. ...
... As previously suggested, we argue that HCI researchers are equipped to design such interventions efectively, as they can leverage the body of work in participatory and speculative design, to help esports communities engage in educational programs, shared conversations, and reshaping the future of this novel cultural phenomenon. As HCI is becoming more and more sensitive to gender inclusivity [140], the participatory interventions that we advocate for have already proven efective, for instance in queer and trans HCI design studies [57]. Furthermore, we suggest that esports organizers and practitioners look at fair-play procedures from traditional sports [96] to create clear fair-play guidelines in esports too, which although not directly discussed by our interviewees, we consider integral to efectively counter reiterated and systemic biases. ...
... Many digital tool designs are based on the assumption that users will learn the features through playful experimentation and learningby-doing. But research shows that women are less likely to explore new tools through playful exploration due to a higher risk aversion (Stumpf et al, 2020). These often unconscious design decisions based on assumptions about the learning style of users might heavily influence how women users engage with a tool. ...
... While we made no gender-specifc directional hypotheses, we investigated the potential relevance of gender to our research questions by including it as an exploratory variable in our models. We adhered to the best practices of inclusivity [70] when collecting data on participant gender. Two participants in our sample (0.3%) self-identifed as non-binary, roughly in line with the relatively small proportion of non-binary individuals in the adult US population (0.5%) [79]. ...
... Stumpf et al. performed a conceptual review on gender-inclusive HCI design that provides an overview of the motivations, the state of the art, and possible future work for this area [44]. Díaz et al. observed differences between women and men in effort and accuracy of elicited requirements, and concluded that mixed teams yield the most optimal results [10]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
As technologies revolutionize the way we live, overlooking gender perspectives in the development of digital solutions results in gender-biased technology that, instead of advancing gender inclusion, creates new barriers in achieving it. This paper proposes a conceptual model for gender inclusion in software development. We started by performing a systematic mapping study to gather the relevant concepts from the existing body of knowledge. This served as groundwork for the definition of a conceptual model of gender-inclusive requirements.
... These findings do not necessarily suggest a need to design separate software tools (e.g., Notebooks) specifically for journalists that differ from tools designed for expert data scientists. However, they do indicate that such tools should be tested further to detect software inclusiveness issues (e.g., inclusive HCI [46,92,97]), such that they support users with different computing expertise equally. Such testing can improve the tools' overall usability, not only for user groups such as data journalists, but also, potentially, for experts in data science work [16,75]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Investigative data journalists work with a variety of data sources to tell a story. Though prior work has indicated that there is a close relationship between journalists' data work practices and that of data scientists. However, these relationships and data work practices are not empirically examined, and understanding them is crucial to inform the design of tools that are used by different groups of people including data scientists and data journalists. Thus, to bridge this gap, we studied investigative reporters' data work practices with one non-profit investigative newsroom. Our study design includes two activities: 1) semi-structured interviews with journalists, and 2) a sketching activity allowing journalists to depict examples of their work practices. By analyzing these data and synthesizing them across related prior work, we propose the major phases in the data-driven investigative journalism story idea generation process. Our study findings show that the journalists employ a collection of multiple, iterative, cyclic processes to identify journalistically "interesting'' story ideas. These processes both significantly resemble and show subtle nuanced differences with data science work practices identified in prior research. We further verified our proposal through a member check with key informants. This work offers three primary contributions. First, it provides a close glimpse into the main phases of investigative journalists' data-driven story idea generation technique. Second, it complements prior work studying formal data science practices by examining data-driven investigative journalists, whose primary expertise lies outside computing. Third, it identifies particular points in the data exploration processes that would benefit from design interventions and suggests future research directions.
... In the HCI community, Burtscher and Spiel [4] provide a staring point for HCI researchers to explore questions and issues around gender. Stumpf et al. [52] give a conceptual review and provide some evidence for the impact of gender in thinking and behavior which underlines HCI research and design, and Schlesinger et al. [47] introduce a framework for engaging with complexity of users' multi-faceted identities including demographic information. Meanwhile, researchers in the social computing community have been studying the gender role in various social settings. ...
Preprint
People write personalized greeting cards on various occasions. While prior work has studied gender roles in greeting card messages, systematic analysis at scale and tools for raising the awareness of gender stereotyping remain under-investigated. To this end, we collect a large greeting card message corpus covering three different occasions (birthday, Valentine's Day and wedding) from three sources (exemplars from greeting message websites, real-life greetings from social media and language model generated ones). We uncover a wide range of gender stereotypes in this corpus via topic modeling, odds ratio and Word Embedding Association Test (WEAT). We further conduct a survey to understand people's perception of gender roles in messages from this corpus and if gender stereotyping is a concern. The results show that people want to be aware of gender roles in the messages, but remain unconcerned unless the perceived gender roles conflict with the recipient's true personality. In response, we developed GreetA, an interactive visualization and writing assistant tool to visualize fine-grained topics in greeting card messages drafted by the users and the associated gender perception scores, but without suggesting text changes as an intervention.
... In the HCI community, Burtscher and Spiel [4] provide a staring point for HCI researchers to explore questions and issues around gender. Stumpf et al. [52] give a conceptual review and provide some evidence for the impact of gender in thinking and behavior which underlines HCI research and design, and Schlesinger et al. [47] introduce a framework for engaging with complexity of users' multi-faceted identities including demographic information. Meanwhile, researchers in the social computing community have been studying the gender role in various social settings. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
People write personalized greeting cards on various occasions. While prior work has studied gender roles in greeting card messages , systematic analysis at scale and tools for raising the awareness of gender stereotyping remain under-investigated. To this end, we collect a large greeting card message corpus covering three different occasions (birthday, Valentine's Day and wedding) from three sources (exemplars from greeting message websites, real-life greetings from social media and language model generated ones). We uncover a wide range of gender stereotypes in this corpus via topic modeling, odds ratio and Word Embedding Association Test (WEAT). We further conduct a survey to understand people's perception of gender roles in messages from this corpus and if gender stereotyping is a concern. The results show that people want to be aware of gender roles in the messages, but remain unconcerned unless the perceived gender roles conflict with the recipient's true personality. In response, we developed GreetA, an interactive visu-alization and writing assistant tool to visualize fine-grained topics in greeting card messages drafted by the users and the associated gender perception scores, but without suggesting text changes as an intervention. CCS CONCEPTS • Human-centered computing → Visualization toolkits; Col-laborative and social computing design and evaluation methods .
... GenderMag, a method used to find and fix inclusivity bugs, provides a dual lens-gender-and cognitive-diversity-to evaluate workflows. It considers five dimensions ("facets" in GenderMag) of cognitive styles (Table 1), each backed by extensive foundational research [11,61]. Each facet has a range of possible values. ...
Preprint
Although some previous research has found ways to find inclusivity bugs (biases in software that introduce inequities), little attention has been paid to how to go about fixing such bugs. Without a process to move from finding to fixing, acting upon such findings is an ad-hoc activity, at the mercy of the skills of each individual developer. To address this gap, we created Why/Where/Fix, a systematic inclusivity debugging process whose inclusivity fault localization harnesses Information Architecture(IA) -- the way user-facing information is organized, structured and labeled. We then conducted a multi-stage qualitative empirical evaluation of the effectiveness of Why/Where/Fix, using an Open Source Software (OSS) project's infrastructure as our setting. In our study, the OSS project team used the Why/Where/Fix process to find inclusivity bugs, localize the IA faults behind them, and then fix the IA to remove the inclusivity bugs they had found. Our results showed that using Why/Where/Fix reduced the number of inclusivity bugs that OSS newcomer participants experienced by 90%.
Article
Full-text available
Machine translation (MT) technology has facilitated our daily tasks by providing accessible shortcuts for gathering, processing, and communicating information. However, it can suffer from biases that harm users and society at large. As a relatively new field of inquiry, studies of gender bias in MT still lack cohesion. This advocates for a unified framework to ease future research. To this end, we: i) critically review current conceptualizations of bias in light of theoretical insights from related disciplines, ii) summarize previous analyses aimed at assessing gender bias in MT, iii) discuss the mitigating strategies proposed so far, and iv) point toward potential directions for future work.
Conference Paper
In the field of Human-Computer Interaction there is considerable awareness on diversity and inclusion. At the same time topics such as gender and race have become more prominent recently. One aspect that has received little attention, however, is the possible reproduction of real-world socio-demographic inequality structures through recommendation systems in fashion. To investigate gender-specific differences in recommender systems, we utilise data from Amazon and use quantile regressions to calculate what price differences exist for the recommended products concerning the primary product. Our results show a bias in recommended pricing premiums about addressed gender. While a higher price in comparison to the viewed product is charged for all genders, product recommendations for women generally show a higher premium than those for men (about 5% more at the median, ceteris paribus). This can be influenced by the starting price and the popularity of the product, i.e. the sales ranking.
Article
Full-text available
Community + Culture features practitioner perspectives on designing technologies for and with communities. We highlight compelling projects and provocative points of view that speak to both community technology practice and the interaction design field as a whole. --- Sheena Erete, Editor
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Artificial intelligence is increasingly influencing the opinions and behavior of people in everyday life. However, the over-representation of men in the design of these technologies could quietly undo decades of advances in gender equality. Over centuries, humans developed critical theory to inform decisions and avoid basing them solely on personal experience. However, machine intelligence learns primarily from observing data that it is presented with. While a machine's ability to process large volumes of data may address this in part, if that data is laden with stereotypical concepts of gender, the resulting application of the technology will perpetuate this bias. While some recent studies sought to remove bias from learned algorithms they largely ignore decades of research on how gender ideology is embedded in language. Awareness of this research and incorporating it into approaches to machine learning from text would help prevent the generation of biased algorithms. Leading thinkers in the emerging field addressing bias in artificial intelligence are also primarily female, suggesting that those who are potentially affected by bias are more likely to see, understand and attempt to resolve it. Gender balance in machine learning is therefore crucial to prevent algorithms from perpetuating gender ideologies that disadvantage women.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The GenderMag cognitive walkthrough with gendered personas has been developed as an inspection method to improve the usability of software artefacts for diverse user groups. It can be used by design teams to evaluate their software and find usability issues. We studied the effectiveness of this method in 49 sessions with IT professionals and software engineering students. They used the method to find usability issues with a learning management system - some of them working with the persona displaying characteristics that are more commonly found in females ("Sarah"), the others with the persona that had attributes more typical for males ("Tim"). Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted and showed the effectiveness of the method when using the persona Sarah, with participants finding more usability issues and invoking the persona more often.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gender stereotypes are strong influences on human behavior. Given our tendency to anthropomorphize, incorporating gender cues into a robot's design can influence acceptance by humans. However, little is known about the interaction between human and robot gender. We focus on the role of gender in eliciting negative, ``uncanny" reactions from observers. We create a corpus of YouTube videos featuring robots with female, male and no gender cues. Our experiment is grounded in Gray and Wegner's (2012) model, which holds that uncanny reactions are driven by the perception of robot agency (i.e., ability to plan and control) and experience (i.e., ability to feel), which in turn, is driven by robot appearance and behavior. Participants watched videos and completed questionnaires to gauge perceptions of robots as well as affective reactions. We used Structural Equation Modeling to test whether the model explains reactions of both men and women. For gender-neutral robots, it does. However, we find a salient human-robot gender interaction. Men's uncanny reactions to robots with female cues are best predicted by the perception of experience, while women's negativity toward masculine robots is driven by perceived agency. The result is interpreted in light of the ``Big Two" dimensions of person perception, which underlie expectations for women to be warm and men to be agentic. When a robot meets these expectations, it increases the chances of an uncanny reaction in the other-gender observer.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent research has reported numerous studies bringing into question the gender inclusiveness of many kinds of software. Inclusiveness of software (gender or otherwise) matters because supporting diversity matters — it is well-known that the more diverse a group of problem-solvers, the higher the quality of the solution. To help software creators identify features within their software that are not gender-inclusive, we recently created a method known as GenderMag. In this paper, we investigate the experience of teams of software professionals using GenderMag to find problems with software they are building. Our results show a high engagement with GenderMag personas — more than twice that of other personas research — and a very high degree of accuracy (93%) most of the time. Finally, our results pinpointed situations that we term “detours” that were especially prone to errors, with teams 6 times more likely to make errors in detours than they did otherwise.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite an explicit commitment to epistemic diversity, making and makerspaces have struggled to serve a diverse population of creators and have become heavily dominated by men. Drawing on the construct of "ways of knowing" from the feminist tradition the Bots for Tots project explores the affordances of activity framings and structures that tap into alternate mental dispositions to broaden participation and interest in maker activities. In this paper I present data from a workshop with 9-10 year olds explicitly framed to be about making toys for children in the community. I show that when making is framed as being a set of practices, skills, and technologies to give back to and support members of one's community, young girls were highly motivated to engage in the maker activity, persisted through construction challenges, and showed interest in further exploring making and technology to help others.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The absence of women in IT has been a vexing issue for over two decades. Most attempts to broaden participation in computing have focused on " unlocking the clubhouse " to a more diverse group of participants. One popular approach has been to ask girls to program games, which developed into the Game Design Movement, a series of studies and tools to help develop and empower females as designers of interactive digital media. This paper examines the rationales and successes behind the Game Design Movement in order to outline new strategies for broadening participation in computing. Rather than simply " unlocking the clubhouses " through expanded game-making activities, we argue here that educators and researchers should devote themselves to " building new clubhouses " altogether by focusing on using new programmable materials, interactive activities, and both in-person and online communities that leverage the traditions of girls' play worlds and the cultural practices of women's crafting communities.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An ongoing stream of news reports heralds the dearth of women and minorities in technology; these stories are supported by numerous studies from industry and government sources. Now companies are investing resources to "fill the pipeline." While this is needed, it alone won't solve the diversity or gender challenge. Once they're in the workplace, research shows that women leave tech careers at a much higher rate than their male counterparts. While there are many reasons for this phenomenon, research indicates that daily workplace factors, along with the realities of what women want for their lives, contribute most significantly to women leaving tech careers. HCI is also affected by this phenomenon and the CHI community has been tackling the issue in several different ways. A panel of HCI professionals from different backgrounds will share personal insights, react to the research on challenges, suggest solutions, and solicit perspectives from the audience.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While extensive research has investigated the risks of children sharing their personal information online, little work has investigated the implications of parents sharing personal information about their children online. Drawing on 102 interviews with parents in the U.S., we investigate how parents decide what to disclose about their children on social network sites (SNSs). We find that mothers take on the responsibility of sharing content about their children more than fathers do. Fathers are more restrictive about sharing to broad and professional audiences and are concerned about sharing content that could be perceived as sexually suggestive. Both mothers and fathers work to leverage affordances of SNSs to limit oversharing. Building on prior work, we explore parental disclosure management, which describes how parents decide what to share about their children online. We also describe an emerging third shift of work that highlights the additional work parents take on to manage children's identities online. We conclude with theoretical and practical implications for designing SNSs to better support family life online.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gender inclusiveness in computing settings is receiving a lot of attention, but one potentially critical factor has mostly been overlooked -- software itself. To help close this gap, we recently created GenderMag, a systematic inspection method to enable software practitioners to evaluate their software for issues of gender-inclusiveness. In this paper, we present the first real-world investigation of software practitioners' ability to identify gender-inclusiveness issues in software they create/maintain using this method. Our investigation was a multiple-case field study of software teams at three major U.S. technology organizations. The results were that, using GenderMag to evaluate software, these software practitioners identified a surprisingly high number of gender-inclusiveness issues: 25% of the software features they evaluated had gender-inclusiveness issues.
Article
Full-text available
This article argues that because the home is so familiar, it is necessary to make it strange, or defamiliarize it, in order to open its design space. Critical approaches to technology design are of both practical and social importance in the home. Home appliances are loaded with cultural associations such as the gendered division of domestic labor that are easy to overlook. Further, homes are not the same everywhere---even within a country. Peoples' aspirations and desires differ greatly across and between cultures. The target of western domestic technology design is often not the user, but the consumer. Web refrigerators that create shopping lists, garbage cans that let advertisers know what is thrown away, cabinets that monitor their contents and order more when supplies are low are central to current images of the wireless, digital home of the future. Drawing from our research in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Asia, we provide three different narratives of defamiliarization. A historical reading of American kitchens provides a lens with which to scrutinize new technologies of domesticity, an ethnographic account of an extended social unit in England problematizes taken-for-granted domestic technologies, and a comparative ethnography of the role of information and communication technologies in the daily lives of urban Asia's middle classes reveals the ways in which new technologies can be captured and domesticated in unexpected ways. In the final section of the article, we build on these moments of defamiliarization to suggest a broad set of challenges and strategies for design in the home.
Article
Full-text available
In training assembly workers in a factory, there are often barriers such as cost and lost productivity due to shutdown. The use of virtual reality (VR) training has the potential to reduce these costs. This research compares virtual bimanual haptic training versus traditional physical training and the effectiveness for learning transfer. In a mixed experimental design, participants were assigned to either virtual or physical training and trained by assembling a wooden burr puzzle as many times as possible during a twenty minute time period. After training, participants were tested using the physical puzzle and were retested again after two weeks. All participants were trained using brightly colored puzzle pieces. To examine the effect of color, testing involved the assembly of colored physical parts and natural wood colored physical pieces. Spatial ability as measured using a mental rotation test, was shown to correlate with the number of assemblies they were able to complete in the training. While physical training outperformed virtual training, after two weeks the virtually trained participants actually improved their test assembly times. The results suggest that the color of the puzzle pieces helped the virtually trained participants in remembering the assembly process.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although there are many systems designed to engage people in programming, few explicitly teach the subject, expecting learners to acquire the necessary skills on their own as they create programs from scratch. We present a principled approach to teach programming using a debugging game called Gidget, which was created using a unique set of seven design principles. A total of 44 teens played it via a lab study and two summer camps. Principle by principle, the results revealed strengths, problems, and open questions for the seven principles. Taken together, the results were very encouraging: learners were able to program with conditionals, loops, and other programming concepts after using the game for just 5 hours.
Conference Paper
Non-binary people are rarely considered by technologies or technologists, and often subsumed under binary trans experiences on the rare occasions when we are discussed. In this paper we share our own experiences and explore potential alternatives - utopias, impossible places, as our lived experience of technologies' obsessive gender binarism seems near-insurmountable. Our suggestions on how to patch these gender bugs appear trivial while at the same time revealing seemingly insurmountable barriers. We illustrate the casual violence technologies present to non-binary people, as well as the on-going marginalisations we experience as HCI researchers. We write this paper primarily as an expression of self-empowerment that can function as a first step towards raising awareness towards the complexities at stake.
Conference Paper
The increasing corpus on queer research within HCI, which started by focusing on sites such as location-based dating apps, has begun to expand to other topics such as identity formation, mental health and physical well-being. This Special Interest Group (SIG) aims to create a space for discussion, connection and camaraderie for researchers working with queer populations, queer people in research, and those using queer theory to inform their work. We aim to facilitate a broad-ranging, inclusive discussion of where queer HCI research goes next.
Conference Paper
In recent years, research has revealed gender biases in numerous software products. But although some researchers have found ways to improve gender participation in specific software projects, general methods focus mainly on detecting gender biases -- not fixing them. To help fill this gap, we investigated whether the GenderMag bias detection method can lead directly to designs with fewer gender biases. In our 3-step investigation, two HCI researchers analyzed an industrial software product using GenderMag; we derived design changes to the product using the biases they found; and ran an empirical study of participants using the original product versus the new version. The results showed that using the method in this way did improve the software's inclusiveness: women succeeded more often in the new version than in the original; men's success rates improved too; and the gender gap entirely disappeared.
Article
Automatic Gender Recognition (AGR) is a subfield of facial recognition that aims to algorithmically identify the gender of individuals from photographs or videos. In wider society the technology has proposed applications in physical access control, data analytics and advertising. Within academia, it is already used in the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) to analyse social media usage. Given the long-running critiques of HCI for failing to consider and include transgender (trans) perspectives in research, and the potential implications of AGR for trans people if deployed, I sought to understand how AGR and HCI understand the term "gender", and how HCI describes and deploys gender recognition technology. Using a content analysis of papers from both fields, I show that AGR consistently operationalises gender in a trans-exclusive way, and consequently carries disproportionate risk for trans people subject to it. In addition, I use the dearth of discussion of this in HCI papers that apply AGR to discuss how HCI operationalises gender, and the implications that this has for the field's research. I conclude with recommendations for alternatives to AGR, and some ideas for how HCI can work towards a more effective and trans-inclusive treatment of gender.
Conference Paper
Although there is a large number of studies in the literature designed to analyze the low representation of women in technology and, especially, in information technology, studies to analyze how these technologies have been designed and constructed are scarce. In the area of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) there is an emerging and promising field of research that focuses on the study of gender differences in the use of computers and the Internet, as well as providing recommendations for the design of technology with gender perspective. In this article, we will present different methodological approaches that allow for the inclusion of a gender perspective in technology design, and, recommendations for the design and development of software focused on gender.
Conference Paper
Research has revealed that significant barriers exist when entering Open-Source Software (OSS) communities and that women disproportionately experience such barriers. However, this research has focused mainly on social/cultural factors, ignoring the environment itself --- the tools and infrastructure. To shed some light onto how tools and infrastructure might somehow factor into OSS barriers to entry, we conducted a field study with five teams of software professionals, who worked through five use-cases to analyze the tools and infrastructure used in their OSS projects. These software professionals found tool/infrastructure barriers in 7% to 71% of the use-case steps that they analyzed, most of which are tied to newcomer barriers that have been established in the literature. Further, over 80% of the barrier types they found include attributes that are biased against women.
Conference Paper
This paper presents an analytical case study using the "Computational Making" framework to critique three LEGO sets. These sets were marketed towards girls and focus on making. Our contribution is showing computational making can be used to investigate domains outside e-textiles. Further, we show these LEGO sets have the potential to teach computational making skills despite their feminine gender identity construction.
Conference Paper
Menstrual apps are digital versions of period calendars that support observation, analysis and interpretation of a variety of physical and mental states as well as behavioral patterns associated with menstrual cycles. The present paper discusses the preliminary results of a qualitative study addressing users' experiences of and responses to gendered design during app-supported menstrual tracking. The study demonstrates that some users are aware of and react to the gendered assumptions built into menstrual apps' graphic designs and technological features. Moreover, I show that users engage in alternative uses of menstrual apps thus broadening the forms of use intended by app designers and developers.
Conference Paper
Prior work examining technology usage and maintenance practices in homes describes division of labor in terms of technical expertise. In this paper, we offer a counter-narrative to this explanation for engagement with Ubiquitous Computing. Using feminist theory as an analytic lens, we examine how gender identity work is a determining factor of whether and how people engage with digital technologies in their homes. We present a model of gender & technical identity co-construction.
Conference Paper
To become effective in the field of computing, gender research must explain its concepts to non-gender studies scholars and to convince them of their relevance. Our title "Making IT Work" claims that both can be done: interlinking gender research and computing, and by that improving IT systems. We present the "Gender-Extended Research and Development" (GERD) model, a process model which combines gender and diversity aspects with all phases of computing research and development. The model with seven phases is a generalization of common process models in computing. Gender/diversity expertise has been condensed into a number of aspects that characterize the social context of computing research. They can be related to and reflected during every phase. This reflection is somewhat operationalized by providing a list of questions for each combination of phase and aspect. Case studies as part of the model illustrate either in what way such reflections may help in research and development or what may happen if no such aspects have been included.
Conference Paper
This panel aims to create a space for participants at CHI 2018 to see how far we have come as a community in raising and addressing issues of gender, and how far we have yet to go. Our intent is for open discussion to support the community's intentions to move towards greater equity, inclusivity, and diversity.
Conference Paper
We present a case study of persona development, foregrounding gender as a primary axis of design. In a participatory design process, we developed personas to represent users of a learning and networking platform for female IT professionals. These personas are a means of ensuring that the female perspective is represented in the design process. We consider the phases of persona development in the light of existing concepts to confront the gendered status quo. We then show how these considerations regarding gender were implemented in our project IT&me.
Conference Paper
Recent scholarship about technical communication on Instructables.com has focused on the genre features of the website, as well as how different groups use the space as a site for non-organizational technical communication. This paper takes a quantitative approach to analyzing narrative features on the website, and maps where women participate on the website across different categories of technology. This paper suggests that narrative elements are common features of technical communication on the website with the exception of several genres. Furthermore, this paper affirms prior research that situates Instructables.com as representative of larger DIY "maker" communities, in which technical experts from academia, industry, and hobbyists engage in technical communication. It provides additional evidence that women are being excluded from such communities, and are most represented by their use of traditionally feminine-gendered technologies and techniques such as sewing, jewelry, and fashion.
Conference Paper
This paper defines software fairness and discrimination and develops a testing-based method for measuring if and how much software discriminates, focusing on causality in discriminatory behavior. Evidence of software discrimination has been found in modern software systems that recommend criminal sentences, grant access to financial products, and determine who is allowed to participate in promotions. Our approach, Themis, generates efficient test suites to measure discrimination. Given a schema describing valid system inputs, Themis generates discrimination tests automatically and does not require an oracle. We evaluate Themis on 20 software systems, 12 of which come from prior work with explicit focus on avoiding discrimination. We find that (1) Themis is effective at discovering software discrimination, (2) state-of-the-art techniques for removing discrimination from algorithms fail in many situations, at times discriminating against as much as 98% of an input subdomain, (3) Themis optimizations are effective at producing efficient test suites for measuring discrimination, and (4) Themis is more efficient on systems that exhibit more discrimination. We thus demonstrate that fairness testing is a critical aspect of the software development cycle in domains with possible discrimination and provide initial tools for measuring software discrimination.
Conference Paper
Understanding users becomes increasingly complicated when we grapple with various overlapping attributes of an individual's identity. In this paper we introduce intersectionality as a framework for engaging with the complexity of users' "and authors" "identities", and situating these identities in relation to their contextual surroundings. We conducted a meta-review of identity representation in the CHI proceedings, collecting a corpus of 140 manuscripts on gender, ethnicity, race, class, and sexuality published between 1982-2016. Drawing on this corpus, we analyze how identity is constructed and represented in CHI research to examine intersectionality in a human-computer interaction (HCI) context. We find that previous identity-focused research tends to analyze one facet of identity at a time. Further, research on ethnicity and race lags behind research on gender and socio-economic class. We conclude this paper with recommendations for incorporating intersectionality in HCI research broadly, encouraging clear reporting of context and demographic information, inclusion of author disclosures, and deeper engagement with identity complexities.
Conference Paper
Education research has documented a trend that reflects gender based differences in the choice of fields of study. This, in turn, contributes to an imbalance in the representation of men and women in particular professions: In educational contexts, female teachers predominantly teach stereotypically female areas of study like social sciences and humanities, whereas male teachers are mainly represented in stereotypically male domains like . Research further provides evidence for the fact that this gender-stereotyped division of labor in education significantly impacts students’ learning and motivation. Would gender-related stereotypes also bias learning processes with robots? This is plausible in light of the fact that social robots become more and more popular in learning settings. Thus, should the next generation of educational robots be ‘gendered’ and what impact would robot gender have on task performance, particularly in the context of a gender-stereotypical human-robot interaction (HRI) task? To investigate these issues, we examined the influence of robot gender on learning when completing either stereotypically female or stereotypically male learning tasks. 120 university students (60 females and 60 males) completed either stereotypically female or stereotypically male tasks with the support of a male vs. female instructor robot. The manipulation check indicated that participants recognized the robot’s alleged gender correctly. Importantly, our results suggest that prevailing gender stereotypes associated with learning do not apply to robots that perform gender-stereotypical tasks. Interestingly, our findings indicated that a mismatch of robot gender and gender typicality of the respective task led to increased willingness to engage in prospective learning processes with the robot. We discuss these results with respect to future research on HRI and learning, and with regard to practical implications associated with the introduction of robots into higher education.
Chapter
This is the second title examining the benefits to be derived from organisational diversity, with the first one, Profiting from Diversity, having been published in 2010. The first book focused on the advantages diversity can offer organisations as well as the considerable obstacles to progress, while this volume continues the discussion, focusing on how organisations can best capture these benefits. The latter continues with a discussion of the advantages that diversity can provide organisations. Understanding difference is very much at the heart of this.
Article
A lack of diversity in the computing field has existed for several decades, and although female participation in computing remains low, outreach programs attempting to address the situation are now quite numerous. To begin to understand whether or not these past activities have had long-term impact, we conducted a systematic literature review. Upon discovering that longitudinal studies were lacking, we investigated whether undergraduate students believed that their participation in computing activities prior to college contributed to their decision to major in a computing field. From the 770 participants in the study, we discovered that approximately 20% of males and 24% of females who were required to participate in computing activities chose a computing or related major, but that males perceived that the activity had a greater affect on their decision (20%) than females (6.9%). Females who participated in an outreach activity were more likely to major in computing. Compared with females who chose to major in computing, females who did not were less likely to indicate that the majority of students participating in activities were boys and that they were a welcome part of the groups. Results also showed that female participants who do not ultimately major in computing have a much stronger negative perception of the outreach activities than male participants who also chose a non-computing major. Although many computing outreach activities are designed to diversify computing, it may be the case that, overall, boys receive these activities more favorably than girls, although requiring participation yields approximately the same net positive impact.
Conference Paper
With the increasing spread and pervasiveness of technologies, the role of gender in the design of these technologies is a topic of growing importance. Several conference panels and journal issues have focused on the contributions feminism, gender theory, and queer theory can make to HCI. This paper discusses the key developments in the sub-field of Gender HCI over the past five years. We discuss, in particular, how recent approaches to gender in HCI move past questions of how men and women interact differently with technologies. Scholars are focusing on activist, intersectional, and reflexive approaches to gender and identity in design that focus on inclusion and accountability in terms of who technologies are designed for and in what ways. This scholarship draws on a wide variety of theoretical approaches to gender not integrated or well-known in the general literature or education in HCI or computing. We recommend the implementation of a Gender 101 general education module for all computing students to provide fluency in gender theory as a way to promote discussion, inclusivity, and accountability in interaction design and computing practices and organizations.
Conference Paper
Pinterest is a popular social networking site that lets people discover, collect, and share pictures of items from the Web. Among popular social media sites, Pinterest has by far the most skewed gender distribution: women are four times more likely than men to use it. To better understand this, we examined two factors that generally affect whether people try a social site and whether they continue using it: the external perception of a site (e.g., as conveyed in popular media) and the site's initial user experience. For the latter, we focused on the role of social bootstrapping, importing contacts from one social site to another. We conducted a survey study, finding that: perceptions of Pinterest among users and non-users of the site differed significantly; trying Pinterest led to substantial changes in user perceptions of the site; social bootstrapping affected users' initial impression of Pinterest, generally improving it for women and harming it for men. We present implications of our findings for design and research.
Article
An encouraging aspect of the results from this study is that they are actionable. Ideally, more schools will work to reduce class sizes, particularly in large introductory computer science and STEM courses. If that's not an option, labs and discussion sections should be small to create an environment where students feel comfortable engaging. Harvey Mudd, which measured little gender-based confidence gap in our initial study, offers different introductory computer sciences classes based on experience. Students new to computer science do not take the same introductory classes as (mostly male) students with years of coding experience. Technology can also help by enabling anonymity. Research by Jong et al. found that anonymity increased classroom participation rates and improved learning performance. They wrote that “by using a system that helps group members conceal their identities, students are less affected by interpersonal relationships and peer pressure and are therefore more willing to participate fully in discussions, learning more from the process as a result”. There are numerous issues contributing to the gender gap in technology fields: women graduate in fewer numbers with computer science and engineering degrees, are hired in fewer numbers into technical roles by leading technology firms, and are less likely to stay in their fields. Research like this lends a window into specific actions school instructors and administrators can take to begin minimizing that gap. Reducing class sizes is a start, but should not be the end.
Article
In recent years, research into gender differences has established that individual differences in how people problem-solve often cluster by gender. Research also shows that these differences have direct implications for software that aims to support users' problem-solving activities, and that much of this software is more supportive of problem-solving processes favored (statistically) more by males than by females. However, there is almost no work considering how software practitioners—such as User Experience (UX) professionals or software developers—can find gender-inclusiveness issues like these in their software. To address this gap, we devised the GenderMag method for evaluating problem-solving software from a gender-inclusiveness perspective. The method includes a set of faceted personas that bring five facets of gender difference research to life, and embeds use of the personas into a concrete process through a gender-specialized Cognitive Walkthrough. Our empirical results show that a variety of practitioners who design software—without needing any background in gender research—were able to use the GenderMag method to find gender-inclusiveness issues in problem-solving software. Our results also show that the issues the practitioners found were real and fixable. This work is the first systematic method to find gender-inclusiveness issues in software, so that practitioners can design and produce problem-solving software that is more usable by everyone.
Article
Is it time to take a break from feminism? In this pathbreaking book, Janet Halley reassesses the place of feminism in the law and politics of sexuality. She argues that sexuality involves deeply contested and clashing realities and interests, and that feminism helps us understand only some of them. To see crucial dimensions of sexuality that feminism does not reveal--the interests of gays and lesbians to be sure, but also those of men, and of constituencies and values beyond the realm of sex and gender--we might need to take a break from feminism.Halley also invites feminism to abandon its uncritical relationship to its own power. Feminists are, in many areas of social and political life, partners in governance. To govern responsibly, even on behalf of women, Halley urges, feminists should try taking a break from their own presuppositions.Halley offers a genealogy of various feminisms and of gay, queer, and trans theories as they split from each other in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s. All these incommensurate theories, she argues, enrich thinking on the left not despite their break from each other but because of it. She concludes by examining legal cases to show how taking a break from feminism can change your very perceptions of what's at stake in a decision and liberate you to decide it anew.
Article
Since the days when women first began entering the work force scholars have studied perceived gender differences related to motivation in organizational settings. This paper first presents a brief overview of motivation theory and then examines the literature tracing gender related motivation-to-manage as it evolves through the 1950s and 1960s to the present. Studies have produced conflicting results with some finding that men have more motivation-to-manage then women and other studies finding the opposite. Such differences appear to be small and closely related to subordinate status and role stereotyping.
Article
Purpose We present a study about gender differences in the climate change communication on Twitter and in the use of affordances on Twitter. Design/methodology/approach Our dataset consists of about 250,000 tweets and retweets for which the authors’ gender was identified. While content of tweets and hashtags used were analyzed for common topics and specific contexts, the usernames that were proportionately more frequently mentioned by either male or female tweeters were coded 1) according to the usernames’ stance in the climate change debate into convinced (that climate change is caused by humans), sceptics, neutrals and unclear groups, and 2) according to the type or role of the user account (e.g. campaign, organization, private person). Findings The results indicate that overall male and female tweeters use very similar language in their tweets, but clear differences were observed in the use of hashtags and usernames, with female tweeters mentioning significantly more campaigns and organizations with a convinced attitude towards anthropogenic impact on climate change, while male tweeters mention significantly more private persons and usernames with a sceptical stance. The differences were even greater when retweets and duplicate tweets by the same author were removed from the data, indicating how retweeting can significantly influence the results. Practical implications On a theoretical level our results increase our understanding for how women and men view and engage with climate change. This has practical implications for organizations interested in developing communication strategies for reaching and engaging female and male audiences on Twitter. While female tweeters can be targeted via local campaigns and news media, male tweeters seem to follow more political and scientific information. The results from the present research also showed that more research about the meaning of retweeting is needed, as we have shown how retweets can have a significant impact on the results. Originality/value Our findings contribute towards increased understanding of both gender differences in the climate change debate and in social media use in general. Beyond that this research showed how retweeting may have a significant impact on research where tweets are used as a data source.
Article
Convergent evidence from the diverse lines of research reported in the present special issue of this journal attests to the explanatory and predictive generality of self-efficacy theory. This commentary addresses itself to conceptual and empirical issues concerning the nature and function of self-percepts of efficacy.
Article
Over the past 20 years, a large body of laboratory and field research has shown that, when people perform in settings in which their group is negatively stereotyped, they may experience a phenomenon called stereotype threat that can undermine motivation and trust and cause underperformance. This review describes that research and places it into an organizational context. First, we describe the processes by which stereotype threat can impair outcomes among people in the workplace. Next, we delineate the situational cues in organizational settings that can exacerbate stereotype threat, and explain how and why these cues affect stereotyped individuals. Finally, we discuss relatively simple empirically based strategies that organizations can implement to reduce stereotype threat and create conditions in which employees and applicants from all groups can succeed.