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Influence of biopreparations on biomass yield and grain efficiency of energy corn

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The possibilities of using resources of the plant biomass as an effective renewable energy source are analyzed. The issues of the current state of corn for grain production, peculiarities of its cultivation and the possibility of using agrarian residues in corn production to produce energy are considered in the study.
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Influence of biopreparations on biomass yield
and grain efficiency of energy corn
Zoya Pustova, Natalia Pustova, Serhii Komarnitskyi, Oleg Tkach, Stepan Zamoiskyi and
Alexander Olenyuk,
*
State Agrarian and Engineering University in Podilia, 32300 Kamianets-Podilskyi, Ukraine
Abstract. The possibilities of using resources of the plant biomass as an
effective renewable energy source are analyzed. The issues of the current
state of corn for grain production, peculiarities of its cultivation and the
possibility of using agrarian residues in corn production to produce energy
are considered in the study.
Introduction
Currently the dominant global trend in the energy sector is increasing the cost of natural
products and gradual replacement of traditional energy resources by the analogues of plant
origin, which, on the one hand, eliminates the dependence from the traditional fuels, and, on
the other hand, reduces the pollution of the environment, creates new strategies for using the
vegetable biomass crops. Undoubtedly Ukraine is looking for cheap biofeedstock, new
technological solutions and the necessary infrastructure for cultivation and biomass
processing on the basis of chemical and biological processes, thermo conversion,
bioconversion in various biofuels: liquid, gaseous and solid. Consequently, the use of
vegetable biomass (straw) is becoming increasingly important in the form of solid biofuels
to increase energy autonomy [1].
The significant growth of bioenergy in the EU from 74 million tons in 2005 to 140 million
tons in 2016 and the expected contribution of biomass to the energy balance, which in
accordance with the National Renewable energy action plans in general must be equal to 180
million tons in 2020 and 235 282 million tons in 2030 for the EU. The potential of the
biomass is large, but at the same time is characterized by strong uncertainty. For example, in
2030 it will be 235 375 million tons, and especially in the long-term estimate it will be
equal to 195 505 million tons until 2050. The researches carried out for the EU countries,
as well as Ukraine have defined the theoretical, as well as technical, ecological and
sustainable potential of crop residues, the necessity to collect the agricultural residues on the
basis of sustainability and taking into account the peculiarities of various plant varieties,
competitive use and annual fluctuations in yield, as well as the application of compensation
means for the maintenance of soil fertility (green and mineral fertilizers, manure) [2].
*
Corresponding author: pro-gp@pdatu.edu.ua
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
E3S Web of Conferences 154, 01008 (2020)
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A big potential of biomass in Ukraine belongs to agricultural residues, which also have
the name of harvest remains of agricultural products are represented, primarily, by cereal
straw and stems of maize.
The plant biomass resources are effective renewable source of energy in agriculture and
are available in all regions of Ukraine. What is important, they can be processed into energy
and fuel without any difficulties. Biomass is called an organic substance, which is produced
by plants as a result of photosynthesis. Wood and vegetable biomass of energy crops should
be attributed to ordinary forms of biomass. Much of biomass is formed in the production and
processing of crop production in the form of by-products: straw, stems, sunflower husk, corn
forks, etc. The ratio grain part of the crop and not grain (straw) is approximately 1:1 (for
corn, this figure is 1:1.3-1.5), so the annual volume of straw formation is close to the overall
production.
The use of vegetable biomass for bioenergy needs can be conducted through direct
combustion, biogas production from agricultural and domestic wastes, or ethyl alcohol
production to obtain motor fuels. The main potential is agricultural waste-straw of grain
crops, the stems of rapeseed, maize and sunflower. As a result of scientific analysis it has
been established that the highest economic potential of the plant biomass waste has by
products of oilseeds (rapeseed, sunflower), with the total coefficient of 1.34 1.40, somewhat
lower the stems of maize (0.74), and the smallest cereal straw and leguminous crops
0.10 0.13 [1].
If we consider the types of high-performance energy crops that can be used to produce
solid biofuel, they are: [1, 14].
- Permanent cereals (Miscanthus, Millet lososimilar, Kostrytsya, etc.), with the term
of collection and use in 2 3 years;
- Woody crops (hybrid willow, poplar, etc.). As a rule, these cultures are fast-growing
and can be used within 10 20 years after the planting;
- Agricultural crops (waste of production and processing). The volume of biological
waste crops is significant, and their specific weight depends on the type, methods of
collection, processing, etc.
- The last of the type of energy crops should paid close attention to as they have a
number of significant advantages, such as:
- the annual renewal and have a poorly used resource;
- Do not require special technologies for their cultivation, because they are by
products;
- Minimum capital expenditure on the purchase of mechanization funds for storing up
by products;
- Low cost of by crops products as the main raw material for biofuel production [1].
Soil and climatic conditions in most regions of Ukraine are favourable for cultivation of
both high-performance energy and agricultural crops, which in the process of processing can
serve as a source for biofuel production. In terms of energy biomass agricultural production
wastes make up about 4.8%, but their peculiarity is that they are renewed annually and are
not frequently used resources.
The purpose of the research was to determine the peculiarities of mycorhization, growth
regulators and plant development in the growth, development and formation of grain
productivity and biological waste of plants for the preparation of biofuel hybrids of maize in
the Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine.
Experiments were carried out in the field crop rotation of the experimental field of the
State Agrarian and Engineering University in Podillia, which, under the conditions of heat
supply and humidification, belongs to the southern moist agro-climatic region. Within the
framework of the following research subject: State Agrarian and Engineering University in
Podillia: «Agrobiomass of Ukraine for power potential of Central and Eastern Europe», corn
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was chosen as the basic culture for the research, because it is a promising source of raw
materials for energy both in the production of ethanol and vegetable oils, and as biomass for
increasing the resource of solid fuels.
Research methods
The soil of the State Agrarian and Engineering University in Podilia field is typical black
currant with little humus, heavy loamy on the loess. The experimental area was characterized
by the following agrophysical and agrochemical properties of the soil: the content of humus
(by Tyurin) - 3.8-4.4%, alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen (by Cornfield) - 122-126, the content
of mobile phosphorus by Chirikov - 90-120, exchangeable potassium 190-230 mg per kg
of soil, the capacity of absorption and the amount of absorbed elements, respectively, 32-34
and 30-33 mg/eq. per 100 g of soil. Hydrolytic acidity is 2.3-2.8 mg/eq. per 100 g of soil, and
the degree of saturation with the elements is close to absolute 94.7-99.0%. The sown area
of the unitary field was 45.0, and the accounting 25.2 m2 in four-time repetition.
The sown area of the unitary field was 45.0, and the accounting 25.2 m2 in four-time
repetition. Посів здійснювали в третій декаді квітня. Для посіву використовували
гібриди кукурудзи різних груп стиглості. Попередник – соя. Застосовували регулятори
росту Agrostimulin і Zeastimulin на кукурудзі звичайній (Zea mays) української і
закордонної селекції: Ariia, PR39H32 Pioneer, DK 315 Monsanto. The sowing was carried
out in the third decade of April. Corn hybrids of different groups of ripeness were used in
sowing. Predecessor was soya. Agrostimulin and Zeastimulin growth regulators were used
with corn ordinary (Zea mays) of Ukrainian and foreign breeding: ARIIA, PR39H32 Pioneer,
DK 315 Monsanto. In order to settle the root and root area with micorrhizal fungi and
saprophytic rhizospheric bacteria Melanoriz® (manufacturer of BTU-Center Ukraine) was
used. In our study, we conducted two spraying of crops during the vegetation of plants, in the
following periods: 1) 4-6 real leaves; 2) 8-10 real leaves. The mentioned phase was
established when at least 75% of the plants were included in it. Corn cultivation technology
is common for the zone, except the investigated elements of technology.
Results and Discussion
Corn is -high-performance plant of tropical origin. Its homeland is Middle and South
America, explaining the needs of plants in the heat for its growth and development. Maize
for a short period of time yields more organic mass than other cultivated plants. Thanks to
the progress in breeding areas the maize growing zones have advanced far northward in
recent years.
Corn grain is a valuable raw material and is widely used in various sectors of the
processing industry: starch, food, medical. We produce flour, grain, alcohol, glucose,
molasses, oil and many other products. Peeled forks are used for making furfurol, plastics,
and other products. We also get greens, juicy feed from corn. According to the content of
feed units per hectare it is somewhat inferior to the beet and all silage crops predominates
[5].
USA is a world leader in gross harvest and the yield of corn for grain. In 2014 2015
marketing year 361 million tons (36.4% global harvest of this crop) of corn was harvested in
this country, getting an average 107.3 c/ha. China also produces about 216 million tons of
corn for grain (Brazil - 85 million tons of corn for grain, EU 76 million tons of corn for
grain, Ukraine-28.5 million tons of corn for grain) in 2014 2015 marketing year.. Heavy
yield of maize is connected with the development of agricultural science and the use of
biotechnology to create hybrids, which since 2000 provides a growth of yields in the United
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States of 2% annually. At comparative tests American farmers reach the yield of corn for
grain over 250 c/ha. In 2015, the National Association of Corn Producers announced the
establishment of a world record in Virginia more than 334 c/ha of Grain Grade Pioneer®
P1197AM™ 1 corn [7, 8].
Corn for grain and grain-pivot mixture takes the gross second place among cereals in the
EU. Besides, corn is cultivated, primarily, for grain. 75.7 million tons of grains and 2.4
million tons of the grain-pivot mixture were harvested in 2014. France produces 18.4 million
tons of corn for grain (it is 24.3% of the EU gross collection in 2014, Romania-11.73 million
tons, Hungary-9.17 million tons and Italy-8.33 million tons. The highest yield was in Spain-
112.4 c/ha, Austria-107.9 c/ha, Germany-106.8 c/ha and France-103.8 c/ha [8].
The highest gross harvest of corn for grain in Europe is obtained in Ukraine. Gross
production of corn in 2018-2019 the marketing year was about 35.6 million tons, which is
almost 11 million tons more than in the previous marketing year (Table 1). Such a leap was
achieved through favourable conditions during the vegetation period of culture that caused
high yield culture at the average of 7.8 t/ha (at annual 5.5 6.6 t/ha). The record gross
collection resulted in the growth of export of culture almost 10 million tons in comparison
to 2017 18 marketing year [9].
Table 1. Production and consumption of corn in Ukraine
Balance of corn,
thousand tons
2014/15
2015/16
2016/17
2017/18
2018/19*
Початкові запаси
Initial inventories
1992
2130
1354
1796
1631
Collected area,
thousand ha
4627
4084
4252
4481
4557
Yield, tons/ha
6,2
5.7
6.6
5.5
7.8
Production
28497
23328
28075
24669
35569
Import
30
30
28
40
33
Total Offer
30518
25461
29457
26505
37232
Export
19683
16672
21281
17870
27589
Feed consumption
6475
5802
4629
4946
5889
Food processing
124
126
130
126
122
Industrial
consumption
535
471
631
893
516
Seeds
549
509
518
453
451
Loss
186
140
140
140
117
Internal
distribution
28415
24106
27662
24874
35582
Trailing balances
2103
1354
1796
1631
1650
*Predictive information
Source: The automated balance of supply and demand for grain in Ukraine, FAO/EBRD
There are four agricultural climatic zones for maize in Ukraine: steppe, forest -steppe,
forest area, mountainous areas of the Carpathians and the Crimea steppe. Each zone has soil
features, moisture conditions and temperature, which significantly affect the crop. The period
when corn can actively develop and accumulate organic matter, is limited by date of steady
transition of average daily air temperature at 10оC. An important feature of the thermal
regime of corn is its duration in conjunction with a high moisture adsorptivity [4].
When growing maize, except the basic products (grain), a lot of by products are formed
stems, leaves, wrappers and rests of cabbage heads, which can be used as raw material for
biofuel and biogas production. Modern technologies for harvesting corn on grain practice
leaving the by-products on the fields. If the combines are not equipped with choppers, there
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is a need to use cutters, aggregated with tractors, which allow to qualitatively grind and
distribute plant residues on the surface of the field
In Ukraine, the by-products of corn for grain are mainly used as fertilizer, for growing
mushrooms in protected ground, as well as by-products are traditionally used in livestock as
food and bedding and in some regions as solid biofuel, namely, rectangular and round totes,
granules and briquettes [1, 11]. The unused rests are often burned in the fields, which is
officially banned in Ukraine and is very harmful to the environment and soil [12].
For energy purposes, corn is used in various forms. Plant rests of corn in the form of leaf-
stalk mass, maize rods are often used for direct combustion or for the production of various
types of solid fuels. The grain part of the corn harvest is used to produce ethanol and
vegetable oils, which are the basis of liquid fuels. Therefore, when growing corn for grain its
energy potential can be fully used. For example, corn cods can be used to produce fuel
granules when threshing the beginnings of corn at stationary points. The characteristics of
granules represented in the Ukrainian market are as follows: diameter 6 8 mm, humidity
7.3%, ash content 2.6%, lower heat of combustion 4168 kcal/kg (17.4 mJ/kg) [1, 11, 13].
Biomass as energy resources is widely used in the agriculture of Poland, Hungary, the
Czech Republic, in particular, such agricultural by products as straw of cereals, corn and
sunflower stalks, etc. These energy resources can be effectively used if they are located at a
short distance from the heating facility. Thus, the straw is burned in the form of briquettes,
pressed rolls or bales of rectangular section or in crushed form. At the same time, harvesting
of straw is most effectively carried out when pressed in rolls or bales. Application of fixation
in the form rolls makes their energy usage easier.
The burning of biomass is the oldest and easiest way to obtain energy, but in many cases
this method is considered to be economically feasible. The heterogeneity of biomass, in terms
of chemical composition and physical properties, causes certain difficulties both in the
process of combustion and emission of components that are side products of the process [1,
11, 15, 16, 17, 18].
The industrial harvesting of byproducts of corn for grain is frequently used in the world.
Thus, in the US the plant specialized in the production of bioethanol from the lignocellulosic
raw materials of Du Pont Company (Nevada, Iowa) is able to process 375 thousand tons of
corn straw annually. At this, the alienation of biomass is carried out on the principles of
sustainable development in fulfilling the conditions and recommendations of natural
Resources Conservation Service of the USA. In determining the volume of harvesting of
byproducts of corn for grain in Ukraine the balance of humus and nutrients must be taken
into account, to avoid such consequences as erosion and deterioration of characteristics of
the soil. Recently high price for energy resources made the farmers to work out the
technology of corn for grains harvesting based on application of modern equipment, in
particular, high-performance Baling machines. You can expect the volume of byproducts
usage of corn for grain in the energy sector will increase, because it has better burning
characteristics than straw of grains.
According to the ash melting characteristics corn straw is similar to the wood biomass.
To harvest the byproducts of corn for grain for energy use it is necessary to reduce the
biomass humidity to 20 %. It is necessary to coordinate the working plans of the harvesting
company with the weather forecast. A properly selected technology and equipment are
important factors to ensure the proper quality of biomass [4].
The share of by-products of grain for corn for alienation and further energy use is
determined mainly by yields, but it can be adjusted by making reasonable norms of mineral
and organic fertilizers (Table 2) [5].
Table 2 Procedure for determining the byproducts volume of corn for grain for alienation
Condition
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Minimum
Maximum
Agroclimatic Zone
Forest Steppe, Forest area
Steppe
Crop rotation
Re-Corn
After sunflower and sugar
beets
Yield of basic Products
More than 8.0 t/ha
Less than 8.0 t/ha
Moisture
The degree of moisture supply
in the root soil layer is more
than 60%
Less than 30 mm of
precipitation per month
Erosion
Slope of the field surface to 4
°, presence of protective
timber strips
Tilt the field surface more than
4 °
Soil cultivation Technology
No-till, Minimum
Ploughing
Fertilizers
Organic and mineral
Only mineral
Balance of Humus
Positive
Negative
Weather conditions during
harvesting
Dry weather
Heavy rainfall
Significant reserve of increasing the yield of corn and the improvement of grain quality
are plant growth regulators and microbiological preparations that increase the yield of grain
and green mass by 10 20%, or 0.5 0.9 t/ha of grain and 3.0 9.0 t/ha of green mass. Seed
treatment regulators of growth are combined with treatment and microelements processing.
Effectiveness of growth regulators in the treatment of seeds and spraying of crops is almost
identical. It has been determined that growth regulators accelerate plant growth and
development, increase their resistance to high temperatures and dry weather. Spraying of
maize crops with the regulators of growth are carried out in the development phase of 3 9
leaves in tank mixtures with insurance herbicides. Rates of growth regulators per 1 hectare
are the following: Zeastimulin 15 ml, Agrostimulin 20 ml.
Crops are sprayed with flow rate of working solution 250 300 l/ha. The combination of
pre-seeding treatment of seeds and spraying of crops by regulators of growth accelerates the
development of plants, increases the resistance of plants to high temperatures, enhances the
development of the leaf surface, increases the content of chlorophyll, increases the content
of protein and fat, increases grain harvest by 0.7 1.5 t/ha and green mass by 5.0 10.0 t/ha
[6].
We also used mycorrhizal forming drug Melanorisis in our study.
Melanoriz® Complex mycorrhizal preparation for nutrition and protection against
diseases, detoxicant.
Application effect:
- activates colonization of root and rhizosphere by mycorrhizal fungi and saprophytic
rhizosphere bacteria;
- increases the area of absorption by the root system of plants due to formation and
development of mycorrhiza;
- neutralizes in soil the toxic effects of pathogenic microorganisms, pesticides, man-
made factors;
- contributes to development of natural antibiotics by colonized fungi and bacteria
and inhibition of pathogens development (fusarium blight, late blight, alternariosis,
black, basal bacteriosis, etc.) and pests (nematodes, etc);
- improves seed germination and survival of seedlings;
- improves plant immunity;
- provides plants with nutrients in an easily accessible form necessary for growth and
development.
According to the results of the research conducted at State Agrarian and Engineering
University in Podillia, the positive influence of bio stimulators and microbiological
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preparations, both on the gain of grain and the increase of the byproducts was revealed, and
consequently the potential resource of raw materials for different types of biofuels.
In conducted research the processing of corn crops on grain by growth regulators was
carried out in the following terms: 1) 4-6 real leaves; 2) 8-10 real leaves. This phase was
established when at least 75% of the plants were included in it.
The obtained results indicate a positive effect on the combination of preseeding treatment
of corn seeds by the Melanoriz-forming Drug® with the subsequent use of Agrostimulin and
Zeastimulin growth regulators in critical growth periods the crop. The increase in yield
control was Zeastimulin 0.57 1.32 t/ha, Agrostimulin 0.60 1.60 t/ha (Table 3). The
protein content in grain has also changed in positive way: Zeastimulin 5.58 6.60%, and
Agrostimulus 5.59 6.70%. The studied hybrids had different levels of yields: Ariia 9.60
11.01 t/ha, PR39H32 Pioneer 9.28 9.99 t/ha and DK 315 Monsanto 10.96 12.56
t/ha. The use of growth regulators in phase 4 -6 of leaves and in 8-10 of leaf phase activates
biochemical processes in plants, which causes not only increase in yield of corn for grain,
but also improvement of product quality.
The application of growth regulators on the basis of a microbiological product with corn
in our researches caused high grain productivity of plants and biomass. The better nutrition
of corn the more intensive is the process of growing.
The height of cereals characterizes the stem size, reflecting the general state of the plant,
including the size of the biomass, reflecting the conditions of cultivation. Positive correlation
dependence is set between yield and plant height. The most intensive increase in the length
of the stem is observed at 7-8 stages (increased growth of inflorescences) of organogenesis.
The results of the study on dynamics of biomass increasing showed a substantial increase in
corn biomass after application of growth regulators (Table 4). Obviously, in phase 4 6
leaves, when the corn plant passes to the root nutrition and begins to intensively build up
vegetative mass, foliage application of growth regulators intensifies the synthesis of organic
matter. In conducted researches the accumulation of biomass in plants was as follows:
Zeastimulin 0.21 1.30 t/ha, Agrostimulin 0.25 0.32 t/ha. The hybrids of corn in the
phase of complete ripeness provided a different amount of green mass, which can be used to
obtain biofuels: Ariia 23.52 29.98 t/ha, PR39H32 Pioneer 28.43-35.26 t/ha and DK 315
Monsanto 31.51 45.80 t/ha.
Table 3 Corn yield hybrids according to the processing of seeds and foliar application
Hybrid
(Factor A)
Presowing seed
treatment (factor
B)
Foliar
fertilizing
(Factor c)
Yield
Protein
content,
%
T/ha
± before
control
Ariia
Without
processing
1
9,60
-
5,66
2
10,26
+0,66
6,24
3
10,34
+0,74
6,25
Melanorii
1
10,22
+0,62
5,58
2
10,93
+1,33
6,62
3
11,01
+1,41
6,67
PR39H32
Pioneer
Without
processing
1
9,28
-
6,00
2
9,84
+0,56
5,63
3
9,99
+0,71
6,66
Melanorii
1
9,85
+0,57
5,58
2
10,44
+1,16
6,30
3
10,60
+1,32
6,60
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DK 315
Monsanto
Without
processing
1
10,96
-
6,00
2
11,59
+0,63
6.24
3
11,99
+1,03
6,67
Melanorii
1
11,56
+0,60
6,70
2
12,34
+1,38
5,59
3
12,56
+1,60
6,66
НІР0,5 т/га
А=0,090, В=0,064, С=0,078, АВ=0,127, АС=0,156, ВС=0,110, АВС=0,220
Note: 1. Without feeding (spraying water); 2. Zeastimulin 15 ml/ha; Agrostimulin 20 ml/ha.
Table 4 The dynamic of formation of corn green mass, t/ha
Hybrid
(Factor A)
Presowing seed
treatment (factor
B)
Foliar
fertilizing
(Factor c)
Phase of growth and development of corn plants
4-6
leaves
9-10
leaves
Ejection
of Panicon
Full
ripeness
Ariia
Without
processing
1
0,18
9,25
30,90
23,52
2
0,21
9,80
31,42
25,94
3
0,25
10,10
35,23
27,96
Melanorii
1
0,20
9,98
34,95
28,52
2
0,25
10,02
35,24
29,98
3
0,28
13,43
40,90
29,21
PR39H32
Pioneer
Without
processing
1
0,21
12,85
43,50
28,43
2
0,27
13,91
46,43
29,37
3
0,28
15,05
57,44
32,29
Melanorii
1
0,26
11,52
53,91
29,41
2
0,30
12,97
56,22
32,65
3
0,31
9,23
58,92
35,26
DK 315
Monsanto
Without
processing
1
0,19
12,35
32,65
31,51
2
0,24
14,31
36,11
35,25
3
0,26
15,63
37,24
36,85
Melanorii
1
0,21
13,65
36,03
35,43
2
0,23
14,86
43,76
42,90
3
0,25
16,89
48,36
45,80
Note: 1. Without feeding (spraying water); 2. Zeastimulin 15 ml/ha; Agrostimulin 20 ml/ha.
Conclusions and recommendations
Energy sector is one of the most important and integral components of the economic
complex of Ukraine. At the same time, energy security is one of the weakest components of
national security of our country. An up-to-date task is to reduce the consumption of expensive
imported fuel such as natural gas and oil, and to create own alternative renewable of energy
sources with the simultaneous solution of ecological problems and development of energy
saving technologies. According to leading experts in the field of bioenergy, the economic
potential of biomass is about 30 million. tones per year, which can provide up to 14% of
Ukraine's needs in primary energy, of which 17 million tons are available today [1].
Biological drugs Zeastimulin and Agrostimulin, as well as microbiological preparation
Melanoriz® used in our research positively influenced both the increase of biomass and grain
productivity of energy corn. The highest yield was fixed with the variant of hybrid of DK
315 Monsanto 12.56 t/ha, which provided the amount of green mass of waste 45.80 t/ha,
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respectively, the potential resource of raw materials for production of different types of
biofuels of energy corn became higher at 30%.
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corn for energy production in Ukraineu ABio Position Paper N 16 (2016)
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E3S Web of Conferences 154, 01008 (2020)
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The monograph covers current research in the field of using the biohydrogen energy potential as an alternative energy source. The issues of global opportunities for obtaining biohydrogen in Ukraine, the possibility of developing bio-water projects in the domestic and European markets, assessing the risks for investors in biohydrogen, possible environmental and economic aspects, connection with the use of these projects are highlighted. The presented materials are intended for masters, graduate students and scientists involved in the projects related to alternative energy and energy efficiency.
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Full-text available
KEYWORDS ABSTRACT renewable energy sources, marketing strategies, electric, biological fuel Recently, unconventional and renewable energy sources have become one of the most important criteria of energy security in the world. in the past, unclaimed ways of getting energy are actual now. Efficient energy conservation can not be imagined without the use of alternative energy sources. the use of renewable energy significantly improves the security of energy supply, improves the social and economic situation. In Ukraine, the main types of energy resources are coal, oil, gas, atomic and water energy. Recently, the search for alternative, environmentally safety energy sources have been actively pursued. Partial replacement of traditional types of fuel to biological fuel improves energy security of the country. in addition, it contributes to Ukraine's compliance with the emission reduction requirements of the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. it also provides an opportunity to obtain a guaranteed market for agricultural raw materials. Using the strategy of deep penetration into the market enables to produce and sell more energy to consumers from already existing renewable sources in the developed markets and to increase sales volumes, market share and profits. the market development strategy implies an increase in sales due to the exit of enterprises into a new market with available goods. it encourages the use of hydro energy resources for small rivers, which in Ukraine is about 63 thousand. the result of the product development strategy is the development of bioenergy, that is, the production of electric or thermal energy from new types of raw materials. to ensure the development of renewable energy, diversification of energy supply sources plays an important role by growing new, perspective energy crops.
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The paper presents the results of research work aimed at determining process parameters for production of quality briquettes from Miscanthus raw material. Raw material was obtained from southern Ukraine from the autumn harvest. The obtained results clearly indicate that adequate grinding, humidity reduction of less than 15% and application of agglomeration pressures above 37 MPa, results in obtaining satisfactory quality briquettes. Compliance with the developed technological assumptions should not in practice lead to technical problems that will have a significant impact on the dissemination of this activity in rural Ukraine.
Mikrobni preparaty u zemlerobstvi. Teoriia i praktyka
  • V V Volkohon
  • O V Nadkernychna
  • T M Kovalevska
Volkohon, V. V., Nadkernychna, O. V., Kovalevska, T. M. Mikrobni preparaty u zemlerobstvi. Teoriia i praktyka [Microbial preparations in agriculture. Theory and practice]. Kiev: Agrarian Science, 312 (2006)
Vyznachennia enerhetychnoho potentsialu solomy i roslynnykh vidkhodiv za period nezalezhnosti Ukrainy. Vidnovliuvana enerhetyka
  • S V Klius
S.V. Klius. Vyznachennia enerhetychnoho potentsialu solomy i roslynnykh vidkhodiv za period nezalezhnosti Ukrainy. Vidnovliuvana enerhetyka, N 3 (2012)
Prospects for the use of agricultural residues for energy production in Ukraine
  • Geletukha Georgiy
  • Zheliezna Tetiana
Georgiy Geletukha, Tetiana Zheliezna. Prospects for the use of agricultural residues for energy production in Ukraine. UABio Position Paper N7.
Myroslav Tysh Possibility of Using Automation Tools for Planting of the Energy Willow Cuttings Renewable Energy Sources: Engineering, Technology, Innovation
  • Yermakov Serhii
  • Hutsol Taras
  • Slobodian Sergii
  • Komarnitskyi Serhii
Serhii Yermakov, Taras Hutsol, Sergii Slobodian, Serhii Komarnitskyi, Myroslav Tysh Possibility of Using Automation Tools for Planting of the Energy Willow Cuttings Renewable Energy Sources: Engineering, Technology, Innovation. Springer International Publishing AG, ISSN 2352-2542 (electronic), ISSN 2352-2534. pp. 419-429 (2018) https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-13888-2_42
Оpportunities for harvesting by-productsof grain corn for energy production in Ukraineu ABio Position Paper N
  • S Dragnev
  • T Zheliezna
  • G Geletukha
S. Dragnev, T. Zheliezna, G. Geletukha Оpportunities for harvesting by-productsof grain corn for energy production in Ukraineu ABio Position Paper N 16 (2016) http://www.uabio.org/img/files/docs/position-paper-uabio-16-en.pdf
Perspektyvy vykorystannia kukurudzy na
  • S P Sokolik
Sokolik S.P. Perspektyvy vykorystannia kukurudzy na zerno v yakosti biopalyva http://dspace.khntusg.com.ua/bitstream/123456789/4240/1/25.pdf