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Eostrobilops wuranicus [无染始球果螺] Zhang, n. sp. is reported as a new species herein, with information on the species’ ecology. This new species can be separated from other Eostrobilops species distributed in China, Korea, Japan and other adjacent regions by the ribless shell, the four basal folds and the two lamellae. Inner shell structures, i. e., the basal fold and the lamella, of Eostrobilops distributed among China, Russia, Japan and Korea are listed.
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Journal of ConChology (2020), Vol.43, no.5 543
NEW EOSTROBILOPS PILSBRY, 1927 (EUPULMONATA:
STROBILOPSIDAE) OF CHINA
guoyi Zhang, Xuyun Qiu & TengTeng liu
College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China
Abstract Eostrobilops wuranicus Zhang, n. sp. is reported as a new species herein, with information on the species’ ecol-
ogy. This new species can be separated from other Eostrobilops species distributed in China, Korea, Japan and other adjacent
regions by the ribless shell, the four basal folds and the two lamellae. Inner shell structures, i. e., the basal fold and the lamella,
of Eostrobilops distributed among China, Russia, Japan and Korea are listed.
Key words Shandong, Korea, Russia, Far East
IntroductIon
Eostrobilops Pilsbry, 1927, includes 14 recent spe-
cies worldwide (Páll- Gergely et al. 2015; Chen,
2019), mainly distributed in Russian Far East
(Schileyko, 1984), Korea (Pilsbry, 1908; Pilsbry,
1927; Kuroda & Miyanaga, 1939), Japan (Pilsbry,
1927; Minato & Tada, 1992), Vietnam (Maassen,
2006), Borneo (Vermeulen, 1992) and China (See
references below).
Five species of Eostrobilops were known from
China, mainly from southern China (Heude,
1885; Solem, 1968; Minato & Tada, 1992; Páll-
Gergely et al. 2015; Chen, 2019). No Eostrobilops
were reported from northern China, except one
fossil species, Eostrobilops sinensis Yen, 1969, from
Shandong reported by Yen (1969). However,
the fossil species may not belong to Eostrobilops
due to its flat apex. Solem (1979, 1981) reported
that the fossil species and the extant species
of Eostrobilops lived far away from each other
(Manganelli et al. 1989; Páll- Gergely et al. 2015).
Little research on terrestrial Mollusca in
Shandong Province has been carried out since
Yen (1935), especially on micro- snails, i.e., Yen
(1969). Here we describe one new species of
Eostrobilops based on shell morphology from
Shandong Peninsula, representing the first extant
species distributed in northern China.
MaterIal and Methods
Living adults were relaxed in 5% ethanol for
six hours and then preserved in 75% ethanol.
Photographs of shells were taken with a ster-
eomicroscope (Leica S6D). Shells were measured
to the nearest 0.1mm with vernier calipers. The
whorl number was recorded with 0.125 whorl
accuracies as described by Kerney and Cameron
(1979). The measurements and body color
descriptions were based on specimens fixed in
75% ethanol. The nomenclature follows Pilsbry
(1927). The angles were measured by tpsDig ver.
2.05 (Rohlf, 2005).
All type specimens are deposited in the
Zoological Collection, Shandong Normal
University, Jinan, China (SDNU).
abbrevIatIons
ANSP The Academy of Natural Sciences of
Philadelphia, Philadelphia, USA
a. s. l. above sea level
fma fully matured animal(s)
MCZ Museum of Comparative Zoology at
Harvard College, UK
sa subadult animal(s)
SDNU The Zoological Collection, Shandong
Normal University, Jinan, China
results
Strobilopsidae
Genus Eostrobilops Pilsbry, 1927
Type species: Strobilops hirasei Pilsbry, 1908, by
original designation
Eostrobilops wuranicus Zhang, n. sp.
Figs 1, 2E, 3–4
Holotype 1 fma, Wuransi, Kunyu Mountain,
Weihai, Shandong Province, China, 37.228°N,
Contact author : starsareintherose@gmail.com
g Zhang et al.
544
121.767°E, 300m a. s. l., 16 July, 2018, coll. G.
Zhang, X. Qiu & J. Qi, SDNU.GAS.0221.01.01.
Paratypes 5 fma and 5 sa, as holotype, registered
nos. SDNU.GAS.0221.01.02–11. The shells of four
fully mature animals were broken for describing
inner shell structures, but not dissected (regis-
tered nos. SDNU.GAS.0221.01.02–05).
Diagnosis Shell undepressed, with a blunt keel.
Spiral furrows present. Callus distinct. Basal
folds four, outer one longer and stronger than
inner two. Lamella two, parietal lamella, long,
strong.
Measurements Holotype, width 2.7mm; height
1.8mm. Shell 5.25 whorls, protoconch 1.5
whorls. Paratypes, width 2.75 ± 0.009mm, height
1.975 ± 0.062mm, whorls 5.313 ± 0.020, protoconch
not examined (SDNU.GAS.0221.01.02–04).
Description Shell (Fig. 1) Depressed, with
low dome- shaped spire, thin, dextral, glossy,
brownish- yellow. Whorls convex, suture
impressed, without any zone. Umbilicus mod-
erately wide. Columella oblique. Columella lip
dilated, never covering umbilicus. Protoconch
smooth. Spiral furrows present, regularly dis-
tributed on body whorl. Shell surface ribless, not
perforated. Growth lines distinct, fine. Subadult
shell smooth, without any periostracum deriva-
tives. Teleoconch without other microscopic
structures. Adult body whorl rounded, with
blunt keel at the periphery, with bottom convex.
Aperture lunate, without ring- like thickening,
oblique, somewhat sinuate, not reflexed, equally
expanded. Peristome thick, continuous. Callus
distinct. Basal folds four; the first one and the sec-
ond one short, weak; the first one extending ca.
20°; the second one extending ca. 25°; the third
Figure 1 Dorsal (apical), apertural, lateral and umbilical view of the holotype of Eostrobilops wuranicus. Arrows
point to basal folds. Bar = 1mm.
new eostrobilops speCies from China 545
longer than the first and the second, extending
ca. 35°; the fourth longest and strongest, extend-
ing ca. 40° (Fig. 2E, Fig. 4A). Lamellae two,
both towards the aperture, extending for about
1 whorl; parietal lamellae stronger than infra-
parietal lamellae (Fig. 2E, Fig. 4B). Columellar
lamella absent.
Animal Living animals and animals in alcohol
all brownish- red.
Etymology This species is named after the type
locality, Wuransi, a Buddhist temple.
Distribution Known only from the type locality.
Figure 2 A & C Holotype of Eostrobilops nipponicus nipponicus; B & D Holotype of E. coreanus coreanus. E inner
shell structure of E. wuranicus (SDNU.GAS.0221.01.04). Arrows point to basal folds. Bar = 1mm.
Aperture
Umbilicus
A
CD
B
E
1
4
3
2
g Zhang et al.
546
Ecology This species inhabits deep layers of
leaves in the shade (Fig. 3). The number of colo-
nies in the type locality is fewer than other spe-
cies of micro- snails, for example, Kaliella sp.
Taxonomic remarks This is the first ribless spe-
cies among the Eostrobilops distributed in main-
land China (Heude, 1885; Páll- Gergely et al. 2015;
Chen, 2019). The inner structure of E. diodontinus
is unknown, but the basal fold extends for 1/4
body whorl (Syntype, MCZ 167133). The new
species is closely related to those from Korea and
the Russian Far East based on geographical his-
tory (Hay et al. 1999). The inner structures of all
these species are listed (Table 1).
Compared to E. coreanus coreanus (Pilsbry,
1927) (Holotype, ANSP 99967) (Fig. 2B, D) and
E. nipponicus nipponicus (Pislbry, 1927) (Holotype,
ANSP 99966) (Fig. 2A, C), E. wuranicus lacks the
columellar lamella which is present in the former
two species. And the fourth fold of E. wuranicus
is the longest and strongest, instead of the sec-
ond fold in E. coreanus coreanus and E. nipponicus
nipponicus. E. kongoensis (Kuroda & Miyanaga,
1939) shares the same quantities of folds and
lamellae with E. wuranicus. The third and the
fourth folds are stronger than the first one and
the second one, but central fold(s) (the third or
the second and the third) of E. kongoensis is (are)
longest. And the height- width ratio of E. kongoen-
sis is 0.597 which is lower than E. wuranicus (the
mean height- width ratio is 0.716, the standard
deviation is 0.005). From E. kanjiokuboi (Minato
& Tada, 1992) (mean height- width ratio is 0.608),
E. taiwanicus (Minato & Tada, 1992) (the mean
height- width ratio is 0.5625) and E. nipponicus
reikoae Matsumura & Minato, 1998 (the mean
height- width ratio is 0.593), which have the same
quantities of the lamellae to E. wuranicus, the
new species can be separated by the higher spire
Figure 3 A Scenery of the Wuransi temple; B Habitat of Eostrobilops wuranicus.
AB
new eostrobilops speCies from China 547
and the number of folds. From E. koreans echo
(Kuroda & Miyanaga, 1939), which has the same
numbers of folds as the new species, the latter
can be distinguished by the numbers of lamellae.
acknowledgMents
We are grateful to the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia and Dr. Páll- Gergely
Barna for access to the photographs of the
Figure 4 A Basal folds of Eostrobilops wuranicus, paratypes, registered nos. SDNU.GAS.0221.01.02–05; B lamella
of E. wuranicus, paratype, registered nos. SDNU.GAS.0221.01.02–05. The line drawing mainly based on SDNU.
GAS.0221.01.04.
A
1
2
3
4
B
Table 1 Inner shell structures of Eostrobilops distributed in China, Russia, Korea and Japan
Eostrobilops Folds Lamella Distribution Reference
E. coreanus coreanus (Pilsbry, 1927) 3 3 Pyong, Korea; Cedar,
Russia
Pilsbry, 1927; Schileyko,
1984
E. coreanus echo (Kuroda & Miyanaga,
1939)
4 3 outer Kumgang
Mountains, Korea
Kuroda & Miyanaga,
1939
E. diodontinus (Heude, 1885) Chengkou, Chongqing,
China
E. hirasei (Pilsbry, 1908) 2 3 Quelpart Island, Korea Pilsbry, 1908
E. humicolus Páll- Gergely & Hunyadi,
2015
3 4 Hechi, Guangxi, China Páll- Gergely et al. 2015
E. kanjiokuboi (Minato & Tada, 1992) 3 2 Nantou, Taiwan, China Minato & Tada, 1992
E. kongoensis (Kuroda & Miyanaga,
1939)
4–5 2 Kumgang Mountains,
Korea
Kuroda & Miyanaga,
1939
E. nipponicus nipponicus (Pislbry, 1927) 3–4 3 Yonezawa, Japan Pilsbry, 1927
E. nipponicus reikoae Matsumura &
Minato, 1998
3 2 Takatsuki- shi, Osaka,
Japan
Matsumura & Minao,
1998
E. taiwanicus (Minato & Tada, 1992) 3 2 Nantou, Taiwan, China Minato & Tada, 1992
E. wuranicus Zhang, n. sp. 4 2 Yantai or Weihai,
Shandong, China
This study
E. yaeyamensis (Habe & Chinen, 1974) 2 2 Irimote Island, Ishigaki
Island, Japan
Habe & Chinen, 1974
E. zijinshanicus Chen, 2019 3 3 Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Chen, 2019
g Zhang et al.
548
type specimens. This study is supported by the
National Students’ innovation and entrepreneur-
ship training program (201910445019).
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Ptychodon" misoolensis Adam and Van Benthem Jutting, 1939, A New Guinea Strobilopsis land snail and review of the genus Enteroplax
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Historical biogeography, plate tectonics, and the changing environment
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Land snail biogeography: a true snail's pace of change
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