Journal of ConChology (2020), Vol.43, no.5 543
NEW EOSTROBILOPS PILSBRY, 1927 (EUPULMONATA:
STROBILOPSIDAE) OF CHINA
guoyi Zhang, Xuyun Qiu & TengTeng liu
College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China
Abstract Eostrobilops wuranicus Zhang, n. sp. is reported as a new species herein, with information on the species’ ecol-
ogy. This new species can be separated from other Eostrobilops species distributed in China, Korea, Japan and other adjacent
regions by the ribless shell, the four basal folds and the two lamellae. Inner shell structures, i. e., the basal fold and the lamella,
of Eostrobilops distributed among China, Russia, Japan and Korea are listed.
Key words Shandong, Korea, Russia, Far East
Eostrobilops Pilsbry, 1927, includes 14 recent spe-
cies worldwide (Páll- Gergely et al. 2015; Chen,
2019), mainly distributed in Russian Far East
(Schileyko, 1984), Korea (Pilsbry, 1908; Pilsbry,
1927; Kuroda & Miyanaga, 1939), Japan (Pilsbry,
1927; Minato & Tada, 1992), Vietnam (Maassen,
2006), Borneo (Vermeulen, 1992) and China (See
Five species of Eostrobilops were known from
China, mainly from southern China (Heude,
1885; Solem, 1968; Minato & Tada, 1992; Páll-
Gergely et al. 2015; Chen, 2019). No Eostrobilops
were reported from northern China, except one
fossil species, Eostrobilops sinensis Yen, 1969, from
Shandong reported by Yen (1969). However,
the fossil species may not belong to Eostrobilops
due to its flat apex. Solem (1979, 1981) reported
that the fossil species and the extant species
of Eostrobilops lived far away from each other
(Manganelli et al. 1989; Páll- Gergely et al. 2015).
Little research on terrestrial Mollusca in
Shandong Province has been carried out since
Yen (1935), especially on micro- snails, i.e., Yen
(1969). Here we describe one new species of
Eostrobilops based on shell morphology from
Shandong Peninsula, representing the first extant
species distributed in northern China.
MaterIal and Methods
Living adults were relaxed in 5% ethanol for
six hours and then preserved in 75% ethanol.
Photographs of shells were taken with a ster-
eomicroscope (Leica S6D). Shells were measured
to the nearest 0.1mm with vernier calipers. The
whorl number was recorded with 0.125 whorl
accuracies as described by Kerney and Cameron
(1979). The measurements and body color
descriptions were based on specimens fixed in
75% ethanol. The nomenclature follows Pilsbry
(1927). The angles were measured by tpsDig ver.
2.05 (Rohlf, 2005).
All type specimens are deposited in the
Zoological Collection, Shandong Normal
University, Jinan, China (SDNU).
ANSP The Academy of Natural Sciences of
Philadelphia, Philadelphia, USA
a. s. l. above sea level
fma fully matured animal(s)
MCZ Museum of Comparative Zoology at
Harvard College, UK
sa subadult animal(s)
SDNU The Zoological Collection, Shandong
Normal University, Jinan, China
Genus Eostrobilops Pilsbry, 1927
Type species: Strobilops hirasei Pilsbry, 1908, by
Eostrobilops wuranicus Zhang, n. sp.
Figs 1, 2E, 3–4
Holotype 1 fma, Wuransi, Kunyu Mountain,
Weihai, Shandong Province, China, 37.228°N,
Contact author : email@example.com
g Zhang et al.
121.767°E, 300m a. s. l., 16 July, 2018, coll. G.
Zhang, X. Qiu & J. Qi, SDNU.GAS.0221.01.01.
Paratypes 5 fma and 5 sa, as holotype, registered
nos. SDNU.GAS.0221.01.02–11. The shells of four
fully mature animals were broken for describing
inner shell structures, but not dissected (regis-
tered nos. SDNU.GAS.0221.01.02–05).
Diagnosis Shell undepressed, with a blunt keel.
Spiral furrows present. Callus distinct. Basal
folds four, outer one longer and stronger than
inner two. Lamella two, parietal lamella, long,
Measurements Holotype, width 2.7mm; height
1.8mm. Shell 5.25 whorls, protoconch 1.5
whorls. Paratypes, width 2.75 ± 0.009mm, height
1.975 ± 0.062mm, whorls 5.313 ± 0.020, protoconch
not examined (SDNU.GAS.0221.01.02–04).
Description Shell (Fig. 1) Depressed, with
low dome- shaped spire, thin, dextral, glossy,
brownish- yellow. Whorls convex, suture
impressed, without any zone. Umbilicus mod-
erately wide. Columella oblique. Columella lip
dilated, never covering umbilicus. Protoconch
smooth. Spiral furrows present, regularly dis-
tributed on body whorl. Shell surface ribless, not
perforated. Growth lines distinct, fine. Subadult
shell smooth, without any periostracum deriva-
tives. Teleoconch without other microscopic
structures. Adult body whorl rounded, with
blunt keel at the periphery, with bottom convex.
Aperture lunate, without ring- like thickening,
oblique, somewhat sinuate, not reflexed, equally
expanded. Peristome thick, continuous. Callus
distinct. Basal folds four; the first one and the sec-
ond one short, weak; the first one extending ca.
20°; the second one extending ca. 25°; the third
Figure 1 Dorsal (apical), apertural, lateral and umbilical view of the holotype of Eostrobilops wuranicus. Arrows
point to basal folds. Bar = 1mm.
new eostrobilops speCies from China 545
longer than the first and the second, extending
ca. 35°; the fourth longest and strongest, extend-
ing ca. 40° (Fig. 2E, Fig. 4A). Lamellae two,
both towards the aperture, extending for about
1 whorl; parietal lamellae stronger than infra-
parietal lamellae (Fig. 2E, Fig. 4B). Columellar
Animal Living animals and animals in alcohol
all brownish- red.
Etymology This species is named after the type
locality, Wuransi, a Buddhist temple.
Distribution Known only from the type locality.
Figure 2 A & C Holotype of Eostrobilops nipponicus nipponicus; B & D Holotype of E. coreanus coreanus. E inner
shell structure of E. wuranicus (SDNU.GAS.0221.01.04). Arrows point to basal folds. Bar = 1mm.
g Zhang et al.
Ecology This species inhabits deep layers of
leaves in the shade (Fig. 3). The number of colo-
nies in the type locality is fewer than other spe-
cies of micro- snails, for example, Kaliella sp.
Taxonomic remarks This is the first ribless spe-
cies among the Eostrobilops distributed in main-
land China (Heude, 1885; Páll- Gergely et al. 2015;
Chen, 2019). The inner structure of E. diodontinus
is unknown, but the basal fold extends for 1/4
body whorl (Syntype, MCZ 167133). The new
species is closely related to those from Korea and
the Russian Far East based on geographical his-
tory (Hay et al. 1999). The inner structures of all
these species are listed (Table 1).
Compared to E. coreanus coreanus (Pilsbry,
1927) (Holotype, ANSP 99967) (Fig. 2B, D) and
E. nipponicus nipponicus (Pislbry, 1927) (Holotype,
ANSP 99966) (Fig. 2A, C), E. wuranicus lacks the
columellar lamella which is present in the former
two species. And the fourth fold of E. wuranicus
is the longest and strongest, instead of the sec-
ond fold in E. coreanus coreanus and E. nipponicus
nipponicus. E. kongoensis (Kuroda & Miyanaga,
1939) shares the same quantities of folds and
lamellae with E. wuranicus. The third and the
fourth folds are stronger than the first one and
the second one, but central fold(s) (the third or
the second and the third) of E. kongoensis is (are)
longest. And the height- width ratio of E. kongoen-
sis is 0.597 which is lower than E. wuranicus (the
mean height- width ratio is 0.716, the standard
deviation is 0.005). From E. kanjiokuboi (Minato
& Tada, 1992) (mean height- width ratio is 0.608),
E. taiwanicus (Minato & Tada, 1992) (the mean
height- width ratio is 0.5625) and E. nipponicus
reikoae Matsumura & Minato, 1998 (the mean
height- width ratio is 0.593), which have the same
quantities of the lamellae to E. wuranicus, the
new species can be separated by the higher spire
Figure 3 A Scenery of the Wuransi temple; B Habitat of Eostrobilops wuranicus.
new eostrobilops speCies from China 547
and the number of folds. From E. koreans echo
(Kuroda & Miyanaga, 1939), which has the same
numbers of folds as the new species, the latter
can be distinguished by the numbers of lamellae.
We are grateful to the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia and Dr. Páll- Gergely
Barna for access to the photographs of the
Figure 4 A Basal folds of Eostrobilops wuranicus, paratypes, registered nos. SDNU.GAS.0221.01.02–05; B lamella
of E. wuranicus, paratype, registered nos. SDNU.GAS.0221.01.02–05. The line drawing mainly based on SDNU.
Table 1 Inner shell structures of Eostrobilops distributed in China, Russia, Korea and Japan
Eostrobilops Folds Lamella Distribution Reference
E. coreanus coreanus (Pilsbry, 1927) 3 3 Pyong, Korea; Cedar,
Pilsbry, 1927; Schileyko,
E. coreanus echo (Kuroda & Miyanaga,
4 3 outer Kumgang
Kuroda & Miyanaga,
E. diodontinus (Heude, 1885) – – Chengkou, Chongqing,
E. hirasei (Pilsbry, 1908) 2 3 Quelpart Island, Korea Pilsbry, 1908
E. humicolus Páll- Gergely & Hunyadi,
3 4 Hechi, Guangxi, China Páll- Gergely et al. 2015
E. kanjiokuboi (Minato & Tada, 1992) 3 2 Nantou, Taiwan, China Minato & Tada, 1992
E. kongoensis (Kuroda & Miyanaga,
4–5 2 Kumgang Mountains,
Kuroda & Miyanaga,
E. nipponicus nipponicus (Pislbry, 1927) 3–4 3 Yonezawa, Japan Pilsbry, 1927
E. nipponicus reikoae Matsumura &
3 2 Takatsuki- shi, Osaka,
Matsumura & Minao,
E. taiwanicus (Minato & Tada, 1992) 3 2 Nantou, Taiwan, China Minato & Tada, 1992
E. wuranicus Zhang, n. sp. 4 2 Yantai or Weihai,
E. yaeyamensis (Habe & Chinen, 1974) 2 2 Irimote Island, Ishigaki
Habe & Chinen, 1974
E. zijinshanicus Chen, 2019 3 3 Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Chen, 2019
g Zhang et al.
type specimens. This study is supported by the
National Students’ innovation and entrepreneur-
ship training program (201910445019).
CHEN Z 2019 A new species of Eostrobilops Pilsbry,
1927 from China (Gastropoda: Pulmonata:
Strobilopsidae). Folia Malacologica 27 (2): 107–110.
HABE T & CHINEN M 1974 Land molluscan fauna of
Ishigaki and Iriomote Islands, with Notes on bio-
geography of Ryukyu Archipelago. Memoirs of the
National Science Museum 7: 121–128.
HAY WW, DECONTO R, WOLD CN, WILSON KM, VOIGT
S, SCHULZ M, WOLD- ROSSBY A, DULLO W-C, Ronov
AB, Balukhovsky AN & Soeding E 1999 Alternative
Global Cretaceous Paleogeography, in Barrera E
& Johnson C (eds.), The Evolution of Cretaceous
Ocean/Climate Systems, Geological Society of
America Special Paper 332: 1–47.
HEUDE PM 1885 Mémoires concernant l’histoire
naturelle de l’Empire Chinois par des pères de la
Compagnie de Jésus. Notes sur les mollusques
terrestres de la vallée du Fleuve Bleu. III; Mission
Catholique, Chang- Hai, 89–132.
KERNEY MP & CAMERON RAD 1979 A field guide to
the land snails of Britain and north- west Europe.
Collins, London, 288 pp.
KURODA T & MIYANAGA M 1939 New land shells from
Northern Tyo¯sen (Korea). Venus 9: 66–85.
MAASSEN WJM 2006 Four new species of terres-
trial gastropods from Tonkin, North Vietnam
(Gastropoda, Diplommatinidae, Strobilopsidae and
Ariophantidae). Basteria 70: 13–18.
MANGANELLI G, CAVE LD & GIUSTI F 1989 Notulae
malacologicae. XLII: Strobilopsidae (Gastropoda,
Pulmonata), a family new to the Villafranchian land
snail fauna of Apenninic Italy. Basteria 53: 3–13.
MATSUMURA I & MINATO H 1998 Eostrobilops nipponica
reikoae n. ssp. (Pulmonata: Strobilopsidae) from
the Northern Region of Osaka, Japan. Venus 57 (1):
MINATO H & TADA A 1992 Two new species of
the genus Enteroplax from Taiwan (Pulmonata:
Strobilopsidae). Venus 51(3): 159–162.
PÁLL- GERGELY B, HUNYADI A & ASAMI T 2015 A new
Chinese species of Eostrobilops Pilsbry, 1927 with a
checklist of Eostrobilops and Enteroplax Gude, 1897
species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Strobilopsidae).
ZooKeys 508: 85–95.
PILSBRY HA 1908 Two genera of land snails new to
Japan and Korea. The Conchological Magazine 2:
PILSBRY HA 1927–1935 Manual of Conchology,
structural and systematic, with illustrations of
the species. Second series: Pulmonata. Volume
28. Geographic distribution of Pupillidae;
Strobilopsidae, Valloniidae and Pleurodiscidae.
Conchological Department, Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia, Philadelphia 28(1): 1–48
(1927), 28(2): 49–96 (1931), 28(4): 161–226 (1935).
ROHLF FJ 2005 tpsDig, digitize landmarks and outlines,
version 2.05. Department of Ecology and Evolution,
State University of New York at Stony Brook.
SCHILEYKO AA 1984 Molluscs. Terrestrial molluscs of
the suborder Pupillina of the fauna of the USSR
(Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Geophila). Fauna S.S.S.R
(N.S.) 130: 1–399. [In Russian]
SOLEM A 1968 “Ptychodon” misoolensis Adam and Van
Benthem Jutting, 1939, A New Guinea Strobilopsis
land snail and review of the genus Enteroplax.
Veliger 11: 24–30.
SOLEM A 1979 Biogeographic significance of land
snails, Paleozoic to Recent. In: Gray J, Boucot AJ
(Eds) Historical biogeography, plate tectonics, and
the changing environment. Oregon State University
Press, Corvallis, 277–287.
SOLEM A 1981 Land snail biogeography: a true snail’s
pace of change. In: Nelson G, Rosen DE (Eds)
Vicariance and biogeography: a critique. Columbia
University Press, New York, 197–237.
VERMEULEN JJ 1992 Notes on the non- marine mol-
luscs of the island Borneo 4. The genus Eostrobilops
(Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Strobilopsidae). Basteria
WADE CM, MORDAN PB & NAGGS F 2006 Evolutionary
relationships among the Pulmonate land snails and
slugs (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora). Biological
Journal of the Linnean Society 87: 593–610.
YEN TC 1935 The Non- Marine Gastropods of North China.
Part I. Publications du Musie Hoangho Paiho de
Tien Tsin. 34: 1–57, 5 pls.
YEN TC 1939 Die Chinesischen Land- und Süsswasser-
Gastropoden des Natur- Museums Senckenberg.
Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden
Gesellschaf 444: 131–156.
YEN TC 1969 Fossile nicht-marine Mollusken-Faunen
aus Nordchina. In Fossile nicht-marine Mollusken-
Faunen aus Nordchina. Sitzungsberichten der
Österr. Akademie der Wissenschaften 177: 21–64.