Article

The Effectiveness Differences Between Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Extract 100% and Carbamide Peroxide Gel 10% in Tooth Whitening (ex vivo)

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Abstract

Introduction: Discoloration can be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. One of the discoloration treatments is teeth whitening. Teeth whitening process usually uses chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide which can cause side effects, namely gingival irritation. Previous research has found that malic acid in strawberries can whiten teeth. Watermelons contain greater malic acid than strawberries. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of 100% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) extract on teeth whitening. Methods: The study was a laboratory experimental study with a total of 15 anterior post-extraction teeth which were discolored using black tea, divided into 3 groups. Group 1 was immersed in 100% watermelon extract, group 2 was immersed in 10% carbamide peroxide as positive control and group 3 was immersed in sterile aquades as negative control, for 56 hours, measured using a shade guide and spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using one way Anova. Results: The 100% watermelon extract was effective for teeth whitening. There was a significant difference between 100% watermelon extract compared to negative control (p < 0.05). However, there was also a significant difference between 100% watermelon extract, and 10% carbamide peroxide gel (p = 0.003). Conclusion: The watermelon extract has the ability as teeth whitening agent. However, further study is still needed to explore this result and determine the proper concentration for teeth whitening.

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... Another possible source of bleaching agents is plant extracts. Organic acids, such as malic acid, can promote the degradation of bacterial plaque and therefore help to remove colored compounds from them [26]. Herbal based products for dental hygiene have been also proved to have anti-inflammatory properties [27]. ...
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The growing interest in the appearance and color of teeth has led to the emergence of a wide range of teeth whitening methods, both in dental offices and in patients’ homes. Concerns about the possible side effects or toxic effects of peroxide-based whitening gels leads to the identification of alternative whitening methods, based on natural compounds with mild action on tooth enamel and remineralizing effect. In this context, this study describes the preparation and in vitro analysis of whitening gels based on natural active agents—bromelain, quince and whey—using organic (polyacrylate, polyethylene glycol) and/or inorganic (silicate) excipients. Five natural products gels were prepared, containing bromelain extract, quince extract and whey, in various proportions. Two supplementary gels, one containing Lubrizol and another containing SiO2, were prepared. All gels were submitted for multiple in vitro analysis such as: SDS-PAGE analysis, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy, SEM microscopy, antibacterial activity on Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The quince extract sample was the only one which completely discolored the blue dye on SDS-PAGE analysis. On the UV-vis spectra, the 303 nm band is assigned to an in situ modified form of bromelain. SEM images of gels containing SiO2 particles show evident marks of these particles, while the rest of the gels containing Lubrizol or whey are more uniform. Regarding antibacterial tests, the SiO2 gel samples did not show inhibition in any strains, but the other tested samples varied in the size of the inhibition diameter depending on the amicrobial strain tested; the protease activity of bromelain modulates the composition of the added whey proteins. Bromelain added as a nanoencapsulated assembly better preserves its integrity. The prepared gels showed antibacterial properties.
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