Human remains collections can be found in museums, university departments, and even private collections across the UK. These collections pose many ethical challenges in their management and care, many unique to human remains, which can differ according to the type of holding institution, nature of the collection, and the way in which it is used or studied. These collections are often associated ... [Show full abstract] with legacies of poor ethical standards, particularly in terms of early collecting practices. This chapter will explore these factors and the challenges they pose. In the modern context of fluid socio-political and cultural change, museums and other holding institutions are faced with ever-changing external influences and must be able to respond in a dynamic and transparent way. This chapter will also discuss the ethical care and curation of human remains collections in UK museums and other repositories, with a focus on collections acquired and/or curated in England where reference to legislation concerning the care and management of collections is required. Finally, it will explore the concept of harm to communities, public and to science, that can be caused by a lack of transparency and poor decision and policy making with regard to human remains collections.