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Abstract

Products from natural sources are being used from thousands of years. Banana is famous for its traditional, medicinal, and nutritional uses. It is rich in carbohydrates (22.84 g/100 g), provides energy about 370 kJ/100 g and it is considered to be one of the best sources of potassium (358 mg/100 g) that fulfils 8% of the daily recommended value. Along with the unique nutritional profile, banana possesses excellent medicinal properties. Banana is one of those fruits whose all parts could be processed, including its flesh and peel like banana chips, banana powder, banana biscuits, and most commonly banana juice.

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... The banana is one of the most consumed fruits worldwide (Gomes et al., 2014). Its high consumption is due to its nutritional and energetic value, as it is rich in starch and sugar, vitamins A and C, potassium, calcium, sodium and magnesium (Ranjha et al., 2020), in addition to the pleasant taste, coming from groups ester, alcohols and phenolic compounds (Saha et al., 2018). ...
... The high-water content is a critical factor that reduces the time of storage and transportation of fruits in general. Drying is a method capable of prolonging shelf life, reducing the weight for transportation, reducing storage space and controlling microbiological and enzymatic reactions responsible for the degradation of bananas (Ranjha et al., 2020). Drying also provides a greater diversity of products, for example, bananas, powder, snacks and as part of breakfast cereals (Saha et al., 2018). ...
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The banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, but it has little shelf life due to its high water activity. Drying is able to increase shelf life and pre-treatments can optimize the process. The objective was to study the solar drying kinetics and evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on the drying kinetics and physico-chemical quality of ‘Prata’ bananas. The drying was carried out in a solar dryer and the pre-treatments consisted of immersing the samples in solutions of water, citric acid (1%) and lemon juice (10%). Water loss, drying kinetics, mathematical models and physical-chemical and colorimetric characteristics of fresh and dried bananas were evaluated. The drying rate was higher at the beginning and stabilized after 20 hours. The mathematical model of Midilli and Kucuk was the one that best fit the experimental data. The water content, ascorbic acid and the parameters L *, b *, C * and h ° reduced after drying. Reducing sugars and a * coordinate increased and the acidity was not changed with drying. The solar drying of ‘Prata’ bananas is a sustainable and economical way to make a product available with a longer shelf life.
... Research by David et al stated that bananas can be used to replace the function of energy drinks (Ranjha et al., 2022). Sufficient energy reserves during exercise, especially long duration exercise, can prevent fatigue. ...
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Muscle fatigue is a common problem experienced by athletes when undergoing exercise. Sports snacks are an effective solution for preventing them because they can be consumed between workouts without requiring a particular time. However, the availability of sports snacks is still rarely traded in the market. The purpose study is to produce a nastar based on a mixture of banana flour and tempeh (named B-Star Snack) as a sports snack that can prevent muscle fatigue. The research was carried out in July - December 2020 at the Food Technology Lab, Department of Nutrition, Denpasar Health Polytechnic, where wheat flour as the main ingredient for making nastar was substituted with tempeh flour and banana flour with the five combinations of banana flour and tempeh mixtures. All observations were analyzed by ANOVA. Especially for the results of the organoleptic test, in order to meet the assumption of a normal distribution, the data is transformed into an interval scale using the successive interval method. There was a significant difference in the preference for B-Star Snack between formulas (p = 0,014). The most preferred is the combination of tempeh and banana flour (40:60%). The B-Star Snack with a 40:60% combination contains the complete nutrition of both macro and micronutrients. The B-Star Snack with a tempeh and banana flour 40:60% as much as 100 grams per serving can be recommended to prevent muscle fatigue due to the exercise.
... Production of good quality food and safe evaluation by improved food sensing and good nanostructured ingredients is the aim of food processing (12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17). Silver, zinc, and calcium NPs have antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility, that's why are used as edible film (18). ...
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Nanomaterials exist as potential biocompatible materials in nature and are being synthesized to provide extraordinary characteristics in various food industry sectors. Synthesis of biocompatible nanomaterials requires modification in the shape, density, and size of nanomaterials. Biocompatible nanomaterials are synthesized to reduce toxicity, decrease adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract, and enhance immune response. Nanomaterials can target organs and tissues. Nanomaterials are found to be effectively compatible by interacting with functional foods and nutraceuticals. Applications of these nanomaterials are novel strategies in food industries such as food safety, food processing, food quality, food packaging, and food labeling. Various functions like detection of toxins and pathogens; production of biocompatible packaging; enhancement in color, flavor, and aroma; processing edible film, and sensing authenticity of food product are being accomplished with no toxicity. This review provides a systematic study on the biocompatibility of nanomaterials. It highlights the synthesis of biocompatible nanomaterials and advanced functions of these nanomaterials in the production area, processing industry, safety improvement, quality control, edible packaging films, biocompatibility, current developments, legislations and regulations for Nano-products, health and safety concerns, toxicity and public perceptions for use of nanomaterials.
... Products from natural sources are being used for centuries (Ranjha et al., 2020). Due to the current lifestyle of masses, convenient foods such as cereal/ dates/fruit bars are becoming very popular among consumers. ...
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Polyphenols are natural antioxidants and play a very vital role in inhibition of oxidative stress as induced by free radicals in the body. Apple and pomegranate peels are significant agro-industrial wastes. The waste could be utilized to extract polyphenols for processing various functional foods and nutraceuticals. An investigation was executed for extraction of polyphenols from apple and pomegranate peels by sonication and maceration. Three different polar solvents: methanol, ethanol, and acetone were used in the study at two different concentrations (50% and 75%). Yield (%), total polyphenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay were performed. The extracts were then utilized in processing functional date bars with 2% and 3% concentrations. The results from the current study articulated that extraction from sonication yields higher quantity of polyphenols than that of maceration technique. The highest polyphenols were extracted at acetone 75% (44.71 mg GAE/g) in apple peel and at methanol 50% (72.21 mg GAE/g) in pomegranate peel. The results also revealed that pomegranate peel has higher polyphenols and greater radical scavenging activity as compared to apple peel. It was concluded that apple and pomegranate peel polyphenolic extract fortified date bars could be utilized as a preventive therapeutic agent against certain oxidative stress degenerative diseases.
... As a result of the significant research in previous years which generated information about gluten-free products has allowed food processing firms to expand in competition to offer a high number of foodstuffs with gluten-free claims [36]. Currently, powdered bananas are preferred for their superior nutritional quality, diversity taste and applications to various dishes or products and their health benefits to reduce chronic illnesses [30]. ...
Article
The demand for gluten-free banana flour has led manufactures to enforce strict measures for quality control. A need has arisen for the development of more sensitive and reliable methods to test the quality of green banana flour (GBF). The objective of this study was to develop rapid visible to near-infrared (Vis-NIR) based spectroscopic models to detect gluten concentration, as a biomarker to detect wheat flour adulteration in green banana flour (GBF). Spectroscopic data were acquired using a desktop (FOSS®) Vis-NIR spectroscopy ranging from 400 to 2500 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. The spectral and reference data were submitted to principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) for the development of gluten adulteration detection models. Calibration models were constructed based on a full cross-validation approach, consisting of 51 samples for the calibration set and 21 samples for the test set. PCA scores plot discriminated gluten adulterated and unadulterated GBF samples with 100% accuracy for the first two principal components (PCs). The optimal prediction model was obtained after a combination of baseline (offset and baseline linear correlation) and standard normal variate (SNV) pre-processing technique. This model showed a 94% coefficient of determination of cross-validation (R²cv) and prediction (R²p); root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 3.7 mg/kg, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 3.9 mg/kg; and RPD value of 4. This work has demonstrated that Vis-NIRS method is a robust and feasible technology that may be used to ensure the safety of banana flour and that this product stays gluten-free by providing good and reliable gluten detection and quantification prediction models.
... The ripe banana is delicious in taste and a good source of vitamin C, potassium, riboflavin, and pyridoxine (Barthakur & Arnold, 1990;Ranjha, Irfan, Nadeem, & Mahmood, 2020;Watharkar et al., 2020). It also contains natural antioxidants to be beneficial against oxidative stress (Mudoi, Deka, Tamuli, & Dev, 2011;Watharkar et al., 2020). ...
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Foam-mat drying characteristics of wild ripe banana [Musa balbisiana (BB)] pulp on the attributes of the product were investigated. The effects of pulp concentration (PC), skim milk powder (SMP) and whipping time (WT) on foaming characteristics such as foam density, drainage volume and foam expansion were studied. The obtained optimum condition for the foaming process was 9.62°Brix of PC, 8.18% of SMP, and 145.54 s of WT. The hot air drying of banana foam was carried out at 50–70°C; the drying rate and moisture diffusivity (3.9–5.9 × 10⁻¹⁰ m²/s) increased with drying temperature. The physico-chemical properties of banana foam powder such as moisture content, water activity, bulk density, and Carr index decreased with an increase in drying temperature, whereas hygroscopicity, water solubility index, and water absorption index increased. The dried samples were moderately bright in color and had a porous microstructure. The present study is expected to be useful in the preparation of banana powder. Practical Applications Foam-mat drying technology is a pragmatic method to dry fruit juices and pulps. The concept behind the foam-mat drying is an increase in the surface area of material to be dried. The process depends on the material property of pulp/juice and the use of the additives to create a foam structure and ensuring its stability during the phase of drying to offer granular products having low bulk density.
... Plants continue to be a significant source of bioactive chemicals, and developing novel chemical compounds requires a multidisciplinary approach integrating ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and biological methods. Different varieties of Musa have been found to contain bioactive substances such as apigenin-7-glucoside, myricetin-3-O-galactoside, myricetin-3-O-rutinoside, naringenin-7-Oglucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, dopamine, N-acetyl serotonin, and rutin ( Figure 3) [6]. ...
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Background: Musa acuminata (Musaceae) is a perennial tree-like plant that is grown in many tropical and subtropical areas throughout the globe. Bananas, which may be consumed as a fruit or a vegetable, is one of the most significant crops in many nations owing to their nutrient-dense diet and diverse therapeutic properties. Introduction: Apigenin glycosides, myricetin glycoside, myricetin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, malvidin, naringenin glycosides, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, dopamine, N-acetyl serotonin, rutin, polyphenols, flavonoids, total dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber, lignin, hemicellulose, cellulose, lipids, proteins, and minerals are found in bananas. Objective: The primary goal of this research is to confirm and emphasize the therapeutic and nutritional value of M. acuminata. Methods: Fever, cough, bronchitis, dysentery, allergy infections, sexually transmitted infections, and certain non-communicable illnesses have all been linked to M. acuminata, according to a literature review. Result: M. acuminata has been reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, immunomodulatory, hypolipidemic, anti-cancer, and anti-microbial properties. Pharmacological studies back up the medicinal plant's traditional significance and suggest that indigenous peoples used M. acuminata to cure and heal a variety of illnesses and ailments. Individual bioactive constituent(s) from different sections of this plant, on the other hand, need to be studied further to validate various pharmacological claims and to investigate the potential of M. acuminata in drug development and usage in functional foods. Conclusion: A thorough examination of M. acuminata's biological activity is provided, as well as potential processes and phytochemicals involved, in order to develop effective disease prevention and management methods.
... Plants with complex structures contain phenolic compounds in cell vacuoles and a lipoprotein bilayer. However, the membrane envelope controls intracellular movement within the intact cells [1][2][3][4][5][6]. From medieval cultures, natural products and food have been extracted as an essential source of spiritual, cosmetic, and nutritious ingredients. ...
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Different parts of a plant (seeds, fruits, flower, leaves, stem, and roots) contain numerous biologically active compounds called "phytoconstituents" that consist of phenolics, minerals, amino acids, and vitamins. The conventional techniques applied to extract these phytoconstituents have several drawbacks including poor performance, low yields, more solvent use, long processing time, and thermally degrading by-products. In contrast, modern and advanced extraction nonthermal technologies such as pulsed electric field (PEF) assist in easier and efficient identification, characterization , and analysis of bioactive ingredients. Other advantages of PEF include cost-efficacy, less time, and solvent consumption with improved yields. This review covers the applications of PEF to obtain bioactive components, essential oils, proteins, pectin, and other important materials from various parts of the plant. Numerous studies compiled in the current evaluation concluded PEF as the best solution to extract phytoconstituents used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PEF-assisted extraction leads to a higher yield, utilizes less solvents and energy, and it saves a lot of time compared to traditional extraction methods. PEF extraction design should be safe and efficient enough to prevent the degradation of phytoconstituents and oils.
... Effective phytochemicals can be extracted from different parts of the plants such as barks, leaves, seed coat, seed, roots, pulps and flowers, and particularly nominated as the direct medicinal agent's sources. Phytochemistry explains that there are more secondary metabolites available in the plants [35][36][37][38][39]. Various techniques are applied to extract bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, keratin, tanshinone, terpenoids, tocols, xanthones, carrageenans, a-mangostin, isoflavones, apigenin, genistin and many others [40][41][42][43]. ...
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Traditional extraction techniques have lost their optimum performance because of risingconsumer demand and novel technologies. In this regard, several techniques were developed byhumans for the extraction of plant materials from various indigenous sources, which are no longerin use. Many of the techniques are not efficient enough to extract maximum plant material. By thistime, evolution in extraction has led to development of various techniques including microfiltration,pulsed electric fields, high pressure, microwave assistance, enzyme assistance, supercritical fluid,subcritical fluid and ultrasonication. These innovations in food processing/extraction are known as“Green Food Processing”. These technologies were basically developed by focusing on three universalparameters: simplicity, energy efficiency and economy. These green technologies are practical in anumber of different food sectors, mostly for preservation, inhibition of microorganisms, inactivationof enzymes and extraction of plant material. Like the others, ultrasonication could also be used for thesaid purposes. The primary objective of this review is to confine the potential use of ultrasonicationfor extraction of oils, pectin and phytochemicals by reviewing the literature systematically.
... Products from natural sources are being used from centuries (Mahmood, 2019;Ranjha et al., 2020aRanjha et al., , 2020b. Fruits and vegetables play an important role in nourishing and healthy life due to the presence of phytochemicals such as antioxidants, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, tannins and ascorbic acid (Gardner et al., 2000;Irfan et al., 2019;Ranjha et al., 2021). ...
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Non-thermal processing techniques not only prevent the nutritional losses but also improve the food quality and security. In recent years, consumers demand healthy, safe, and nutritious food. Ultrasound is one of the emerging techniques, which is being studied extensively on various food products. On the other hand, in microwave treatment heat transfer is rapid, so sensory characteristics, nutrients, vitamin content, flavor and color of food are well preserved. A study was conducted on combined effect of sonication and microwave processing on phalsa drink and stored for 120 days. The juice was filled in plastic bottles, sealed and after microwave treatment immediately chilled in ice cold water at 4 ± 1°C. It was observed that synergistic approach of sonication and microwave had shown positive impact on nutritional quality of phalsa drink as it increased (p ≤ 0.05) the total phenolic, flavonoids, reducing power and antioxidant properties of phalsa drink and reduced the microbial load with increase in sonication time from 2 to 8 min. It was concluded that combination of sonication and microwave can be employed without chemical preservatives for treatment of phalsa drink with better retention of nutritional attributes.
... Products from natural sources are being used from centuries [1][2][3]. Processing the natural products to get significant benefits have been the priority in every era of science Biotechnology is a wide-ranging science that uses modern technologies to construct biological processes, organisms, cells or cellular components. This article summarizes some of the social implications of biotechnology. ...
Article
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Biotechnology is a wide-ranging science that uses modern technologies to construct biological processes, organisms, cells or cellular components. The clinical new instruments, industry, and products developed by biotechnologists are useful in research, agriculture and other major fields. The biotechnology is as ancient as civilization. The food you buy, and the pets you love? Using artificial selection for crops, domesticated animals and other species, you may thank our distant ancestors for setting off the agrarian revolution. When Alexander Fleming discovered antibiotics, and when Edward Jenner invented vaccines, the biotechnology potential was harnessed. And, of course, without the mechanisms of fermentation that gave us beer, wine and cheese, it would not be possible to imagine modern society. This article summarizes some of the applications of biotechnology in food & agriculture. Graphical abstract: Applications of biotechnology in animal and plant sector.
... Good health is a fundamental need of human beings [1]. Humans' priority was to rely on natural resources for good health outcomes [2][3][4][5]. In the 20th century, it was observed that healthy children fed mothers' milk had Bifidobacteria in their gut microbiota [6]. ...
Article
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Several products consist of probiotics that are available in markets, and their potential uses are growing day by day, mainly because some strains of probiotics promote the health of gut microbiota, especially Furmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and may prevent certain gastrointestinal tract (GIT) problems. Some common diseases are inversely linked with the consumption of probiotics, i.e., obesity, type 2 diabetes, autism, osteoporosis, and some immunological disorders, for which the disease progression gets delayed. In addition to disease mitigating properties, these microbes also improve oral, nutritional, and intestinal health, followed by a robust defensive mechanism against particular gut pathogens, specifically by antimicrobial substances and peptides producing probiotics (AMPs). All these positive attributes of probiotics depend upon the type of microbial strains dispensed. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bifidobacteria are the most common microbes used, but many other microbes are available, and their use depends upon origin and health-promoting properties. This review article focuses on the most common probiotics, their health benefits, and the alleviating mechanisms against chronic kidney diseases (CKD), type 1 diabetes (T1D), type 2 diabetes (T2D), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and obesity.
... Usage of innovative techniques has become common for production and processing [20][21][22][23]. Recently, there is a growing interest in the use of natural antioxidants instead of synthetic ones due to consumer preference for natural ingredients [24][25][26]. Cinnamon is recommended as an ancient spice that encompasses cinnamaldehyde, has been exploited as an antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and insecticidal agent [27,28]. Additionally, it has been gained safe status by the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Committee on Food Additives [29]; thus, being used as an antioxidant in the nano-emulsified systems [30]. ...
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β-Carotene (vitamin A precursor) and α-tocopherol, the utmost energetic form of vitamin E (VE), are known to be fat-soluble vitamins (FSVs) and essential nutrients needed to enhance the growth and metabolic functions of the human body. Their deficiencies are linked to numerous chronic disorders. Loading of FSVs within nanoemulsions could increase their oxidative stability and solubility. In this research, VE and β-Carotene (BC) were successfully co-entrapped within oil-in-water nanoemulsions of carrier oils, including tuna fish oil (TFO) and medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), stabilized by modified starch and Tween-80. These nanoemulsions and free carrier oils loaded with vitamins were stored for over one month to investigate the impact of storage circumstances on their physiochemical characteristics. Entrapped bioactive compounds inside the nanoemulsions and bare oil systems showed a diverse behavior in terms of oxidation. A more deficiency of FSVs was found at higher temperatures that were more noticeable in the case of BC. VE behaved like an antioxidant to protect BC in MCT-based nanoemulsions, whereas it could not protect BC perfectly inside the TFO-loaded nanoemulsions. However, cinnamaldehyde (CIN) loading significantly enhanced the oxidative stability and FSVs retention in each nanoemulsion. Purity gum ultra (PGU)-based nanoemulsions comprising FSVs and CIN presented a greater BC retention (42.3%) and VE retention (90.1%) over one-month storage at 40 °C than Twee 80. The superior stability of PGU is accredited to the OSA-MS capabilities to produce denser interfacial coatings that can protect the entrapped compounds from the aqueous phase. This study delivers valuable evidence about the simultaneous loading of lipophilic bioactive compounds to enrich functional foods.
... Banana is one of the fruits rich in vitamin B6, and 100 g of a banana can provide 31% of the daily requirement (Ranjha, Irfan, Nadeem, & Mahmood, 2020). Destruction of this vitamin during the food processing reduces the quality of this fruit. ...
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Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), responsible for enzymatic browning, cause technological and also financial losses for producers. Through central composite design, the effects of time duration and voltage magnitude using cold atmospheric plasma (CP) were investigated on enzyme activity of banana slices. During CP treatment, PPO and POD activity decreased 70% and 100%, respectively. Total phenol and flavonoid content of the samples increased, particularly as a result of exposure time; which contributed to more than 50% increment in antioxidant activity. Optimum conditions for CP treatment was obtained at voltage 6.9 kV for 46 s. Vitamin B6 content was higher for optimal sample than untreated one and reached 0.8 μg/100 g. Slight decrease in hardness of treated sample was obtained which was in accordance with porous structure obtained through morphology testing. Considering efficient effect on enzyme inactivation and mild effect on physico-chemical properties, CP can be a promising non-thermal process for fresh fruits blanching.
... Products from natural sources have been used for centuries as functional and nutraceutical foods [1][2][3][4][5][6]. During the past years, scientists have been working on understanding the molecular-level effects of various nutrients on several chronic and deadly diseases [7][8][9]. ...
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Pumpkin is a well-known multifunctional ingredient in diet, full of nutrients, has opened up new vistas for scientists in past years. Not just the fruit of pumpkin, but the flower, seed as well as peel are rich source of primary and secondary metabolites including proteins, carbohydrates, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, tryptophan, delta-7-sterolsand many other phytochemicals. This climber is being used traditionally in many countries such as Austria, Hungary, Mexico, Slovenia, China, Spain, and several Asian as well as African countries as functional food and to promote health promising properties. Other benefits of pumpkin such as improving spermatogenesis, wound healing, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-ulcerative properties and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia have also been confirmed by researchers. For better drug delivery, nanoemulsions and niosomes made by pumpkin seeds have also been reported as a health promising tool but still more researches need to be done in this field. This review mainly focuses on compiling and summarizing most relevant literature to highlight the nutritional value, phytochemical potential and therapeutic benefits of pumpkin.
... It helps to retain healthy tissues through maintaining Ca, P, and N in the body [2]. The plant fruit helps body to control the blood pressure and sugar and keeps the bones strong, because of the amount of magnesium [3]. Banana is relatively low in calories, however, it is rich in carbohydrates, potassium, and vitamins (C, B6, and A) [4]. ...
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The excess of chemical fertilizers not only causes environmental pollution but also has many deteriorating effects including global warming and alteration of soil microbial diversity. In conventional research, chemical fertilizers and their concentrations are selected based on the knowledge of experts involved in the projects, which these kinds of models are usually subjective. Therefore, the present study aimed to introduce the optimal concentrations of three macro elements including nitrogen (0, 100, and 200 g), potassium (0, 100, 200, and 300 g), and magnesium (0, 50, and 100 g) on fruit yield (FY), fruit length (FL), and the number of rows per spike (NRPS) of greenhouse banana using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc LSD test and two well-known artificial neural networks (ANNs) including multilayer perceptron (MLP) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN). According to the results of ANOVA, the highest mean value of the FY was obtained with 200 g of N, 300 g of K, and 50 g of Mg. Based on the results of the present study, both ANNs models had high predictive accuracy (R 2 = 0.66-0.99) in both training and testing data for the FY, FL, and NRPS. However, the GRNN model had better performance than the MLP model for modeling and predicting the three characteristics of greenhouse bananas. Therefore, the genetic algorithm (GA) was subjected to the GRNN model in order to find the optimal amounts of N, K, and Mg for achieving the high amounts of the FY, FL, and NRPS. The GRNN-GA hybrid model confirmed that a high yield of the plant could be achieved by reducing chemical fertilizers including nitrogen, potassium, and magnesium by 65, 44, and 62%, respectively, in comparison to the traditional method.
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Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are potent carcinogenic compounds in-duced by Maillard reaction in well-done cooked meats. Free amino acids, pro-tein, creatinine, reducing sugars and nucleosides are major precursors involved in the production of polar and non-polar HAAs. The variety and yield of HAAs are linked with various factors such as meat type, heating time and temperature, cooking method and equipment, fresh meat storage time, raw material and additives, precursor’s presence, water activity and pH level. For the isolation and identification of HAAs, advanced chromatography and spectroscopy tech-niques have been employed. These potent mutagens are the etiology of several types of human cancers at ng/g level, and 100- to 2,000-fold stronger than that of aflatoxins and benzopyrene, respectively. This review summarizes previous studies on the formation and types of potent mutagenic and/or carcinogenic HAAs in cooked meats. Furthermore, occurrence, risk assessment and factors affecting HAAs formation have been discussed in detail. Additionally, sample extraction procedure and quantification techniques to determine these com-pounds are analyzed and described. Finally, an overview is presented on the promising strategy to mitigate the risk of HAAs by natural compounds and the effect of plant extracts containing antioxidants to reduce or inhibit the formation of these carcinogenic substances in cooked meats.
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The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ultrasound on the functional properties of citrus juices. Citrus fruits and juices were analyzed for physico-chemical properties. The 'Pamelo' excelled in terms of average fruit weight (451.83 ± 7.1 g), fruit volume (543.33 ± 9.1 cm 3) and rag percentage (68.64 ± 1.1%). 'Valencia late' (48.67 ± 0.3%), 'Flame' (48.38 ± 1.3%) and 'Kinnow' (35.95 ± 4.9%) were good in juice %. The juice was subjected to sonication treatment at 15°C for 5 min keeping pulse duration 5 s on and 5 s off (70% amplitude level and 20 kHz frequency). Total phenol, flavonoids, free radical scavenging activity, antioxidant capacity, and reducing power increased in fruit juices as a result of sonication. The total phenolic contents in the juices of all citrus cultivars ranged from 223.49 ± 4.5 to 590.47 ± 5.5 µg gallic acid equivalent/g and increased from 315.18 ± 6.1 to 645.44 ± 7.1 µg GAE/g after ultrasonic processing. The DPPH values of juices of all citrus cultivars ranged from 791.54 to 1251.93 µmol equivalent of trolox/mL and increased from 1001.54 to 1336.77 µmol equivalent of trolox/mL after applying ultrasound. The sonication is highly feasible for practical use in the industry for the production of citrus fruit juices with improved quality in terms of nutrients.
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Pomegranate (Punica granatum) acts as a therapeutic fruit possessing different bioactive compounds. Different compartments of pomegranate (P. granatum) like seed, peel, juice and leaves are rich in potential bioactive compounds. Pomegranate contains sinapyl, coniferyl, ellagic acid, cinnamic acid, genistein, linoleic acid, anthocyanin, gallic acid, catechin, quercetin, rutin, kaempferol, cyanidin, punicalin, delphinidin, punicalagin, chlorogenic acid, coumaric acid, luteolin and pelletierine alkaloids, flavonoids, anthocyanin and caffeic acid. Pomegranate also exhibits significant anti-oxidative, anti-hypertensive, cardioprotective and anti-diabetic properties and anti-carcinogenic possessions including prevention of prostate cancer; reduction in colon inflammation, prevention of skin tumorigenesis, improvement in renal function and reduction in metastatic melanoma growth. This review summarizes the current available data on the phytochemistry, bioavailability and therapeutic importance of potential bioactive compounds of pomegranate.
Chapter
Laser powder bed fusion technique has been considered as one of the best metal additive manufacturing processes considering the part quality and dimensional accuracy. However, the high cost of metal powders makes it difficult to afford for all kinds of applications. Reusability of the powders can overcome this issue, but the effect on various material properties is still in research stage. This paper analyzes the morphology and powder size distribution of 15-5 precipitation hardening stainless steel powders which were reused up to ten times. The powder size distribution was found to be slightly different for ten times reused powder as compared to raw powder and consisted of finer as well as agglomerated particles. The oxygen content was found to be more for the one time and five time recycled powder; however, for the ten time recycled powder, the oxygen content was found to be less.
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Fruits have been used as potential food ingredients for the 3D printing of customized food for the elderly or infants. However, the tailing effect observed in the long paste extrusion of fruits results in low resolution during the extrusion process, which complicates their use. In this study, the tailing effect due to the lack of extrusion continuity in a banana matrix was improved by the addition of a pea protein isolate (PPI). As the amount of PPI incorporation increased, a decrease in % recovery and elongation at break was observed and the tailing effect in the dash line printing test was suppressed. At up to 10% PPI incorporation, a collapse of the wedge-shaped parts and a long tail between the two objects were observed, while the banana paste containing 15% PPI matched best with the defined shape for optimal shape retention. However, the sample with 20% PPI showed discontinuous extrusion and decreased layer adhesion owing to excessive protein aggregation. The correlation between the new experimental methods and the two actual printed separate objects was successfully verified using a 3D printing test.
Chapter
Oleoresin is a mixture of volatile and nonvolatile components available in whole extract of natural herb or spice. It principally comprises essential oils and resin. Lemongrass oleoresins come from the Cymbopogon species, which grow in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Oleoresin of lemongrass is a dark green-colored viscous liquid having a characteristic lemon aroma and flavor and is mostly used as a flavoring ingredient. The lemon prefix in the lemongrass specifies the characteristic lemon-like odor, which is due to the availability of citral content (mixture of two isomeric aldehydes, geranial and neral). It has been utilized in synthesizing flavors, perfumes, cosmetics, detergents, and in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Different methods are used to extract the lemongrass essential oil, but steam distillation is the most suitable method as it doesn’t alter the quality of the obtained oil. The chemical composition of lemongrass oil varies depending on its extraction methods, genetic differences, harvest period, photoperiod, plant age, farming practices, and geographical origin. Lemongrass essential oil has shown several biological activities, including antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoan, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic, antiinflammatory, antimalarial, antinociceptive, antihepatotoxic activities, etc. Lemongrass oil is a potent food preservative because of its extraordinary antifungal and antibacterial activities.
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Background . This study sought to investigate the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Musa sapientum (Latundan banana) (MSL), Musa acuminata (Cavendish banana) (MAC), and Musa acuminate (Red Dacca) (MAR). Materials and Methods. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and glycemic index (GI) of the three banana cultivars were determined. Furthermore, total phenol and vitamin C contents and α -amylase and α -glucosidase inhibitory effects of banana samples were also determined. Results . MAC and MAR had the highest starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and estimated glycemic index (eGI) with no significant different while MSL had the lowest. Furthermore, MAR (1.07 mg GAE/g) had a higher total phenol content than MAC (0.94 mg GAE/g) and MSL (0.96 mg GAE/g), while there was no significant difference in the vitamin C content. Furthermore, MAR had the highest α -amylase (IC 50 = 3.95 mg/mL) inhibitory activity while MAC had the least (IC 50 = 4.27 mg/mL). Moreover, MAC and MAR inhibited glucosidase activity better than MSL (IC 50 3.47 mg/mL). Conclusion . The low sugar, GI, amylose, and amylopectin contents of the three banana cultivars as well as their α -amylase and α -glucosidase inhibitory activities could be possible mechanisms and justification for their recommendation in the management of type-2 diabetes.
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Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is required for cellular function and skeletal mineralization. Serum Pi level is maintained within a narrow range through a complex interplay between intestinal absorption, exchange with intracellular and bone storage pools, and renal tubular reabsorption. Pi is abundant in the diet, and intestinal absorption of Pi is efficient and minimally regulated. The kidney is a major regulator of Pi homeostasis and can increase or decrease its Pi reabsorptive capacity to accommodate Pi need. The crucial regulated step in Pi homeostasis is the transport of Pi across the renal proximal tubule. Type II sodium-dependent phosphate (Na/Pi) cotransporter (NPT2) is the major molecule in the renal proximal tubule and is regulated by hormones and nonhormonal factors. Recent studies of inherited and acquired hypophosphatemia which exhibit similar biochemical and clinical features, have led to the identification of novel genes, phosphate regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome (PHEX) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), that play a role in the regulation of Pi homeostasis. The PHEX gene encodes an endopeptidase, predominantly expressed in bone and teeth but not in kidney. FGF-23 may be a substrate of this endopeptidase and inhibit renal Pi reabsorption. In a survey in the United States and in Japan, the amount of phosphorus from food is gradually increasing. It is thought that excess amounts of phosphorus intake for long periods are a strong factor in bone impairment and ageing. The restriction of phosphorus intake seems to be important under low calcium intake to keep QOL on high level.
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The research aims to get the best local banana from several aspects (rendement total sugar content, organoleptic and nutritional value) in the process into banana flour (BF). Research conducted in July-September 2010 and mature green bananas were collected from the farmer’s field of Pardasuka Village, Ketibung District, South Lampung Regency. Research conducted using randomized design with four banana types , a). Janten, b). Kepok Manado, c). Muli and d), Raja Nangka.. Analyses carried out on rendement, nutritional value, total sugar and whiteness. Organoleptic test was done for knowing customer preferences (color, flavor and texture) by 20 panelists with score 1 to 7 (very not like s/d really like). Results showed that rendement of BF from Janten was the highest (range of recovery 35-36%) followed by BF from Raja Nangka (20-21%), Kepok Manado (20%) and Muli (16-17%). The highest total sugar was BF from Muli i.e .7.784% followed by Raja Nangka (4.985%), Kepok Manado (4.961%) and Janten (3.732%), whereas whiteness ranges from 42.85 to 61, 55% with the highest levels of whiteness of BF from Kepok Manado (61.55%), followed Janten (54%), Raja Nangka (43.25%) and the lowest of Muli (42.85%). The BF contained protein (from 2.545 to 3.407%), fat (from 0.433 to 0.583%), carbohydrate (from 83.400 to 88.005%), ash (from 2.053 to 3.031%), crude fiber (from 0.524 to 1.897) and moisture content (from 5.586 to 6.603%). The BF from Raja Nangka showed good characters (color = 5.92), (texture = 5.69), and (flavor = 5.31) and panelist acceptance. Based on consideration of several aspects such as rendement, total sugar, consumer preferences, availability of raw materials and business analyses, the best bananas to be processed into flour in Lampung was the Raja Nangka banana and be able to increase the added value of > 15% with B/C ratio of 1.32 and competent to be developed.
Book
Magnesium is an essential mineral which is required for growth and survival of humans. Since magnesium is a mineral and not synthesizable it must be obtained through dietary foods and/or supplements. Magnesium in Human Health and Disease reviews the benefits of magnesium supplementation to reach recommended intakes as well as provides new research that suggests how reaching levels above the recommended intakes can promote health and treat various diseases. Magnesium deficiency can cause low serum potassium and calcium levels, retention of sodium, and low circulating levels of regulatory hormones. These changes in nutrients cause neurological and muscular symptoms such as tremor and muscle spasms. Further magnesium deficiency causes loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, personality changes and death from heart failure. Causes of magnesium deficiency include alcohol abuse, poorly controlled diabetes, excessive or chronic vomiting and/or diarrhea. Thus the effects of inadequate and deficient intakes or levels of magnesium is critical to health and are reviewed by the expert clinicians in this book. Magnesium in Human Health and Disease provides the most current research to support the potential benefits or lack thereof for normal and high supplementation with magnesium. Animal model research and early human trials are reviewed to document other disease states such as hypertension, cholesterol level, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease that would benefit from increased magnesium. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. All rights reserved.
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The compositional changes in banana (musa spp) fruits were investigated. Banana fruits were collected, dried, ground and ashed. The moisture content and mineral elements composition was determined as ripening proceeds. The mineral elements analyzed included magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and cobalt (Co). Their composition was found to be 0.68, 0.66 and 0.60% in unripe, ripe and overripe banana fruits, respectively. The moisture content and ash values for the selected mineral elements were 73.47 and 0.68%; 77.19 and 0.80%; 79.22 and 0.78% in unripe, ripe and overripe banana fruits, respectively. The results showed that the nutritional composition of banana pulp was diversely affected by ripening. Changes in mineral composition varied and were not consistent with the stages of ripeness. Bananas are considered a good source of Mg in the diet, and the data obtained herein support these assertions. Zn and Mn are other minerals of nutritional importance in bananas and this study has shown that their average values are adequate to support its nutritive value at the various ripening stages. The result obtained in this study showed that banana fruits at any ripening stage (unripe, ripe or overripe) can be a potential source of mineral elements supplement in the diet especially for Mg.
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Banana crop is a great lover of nutrient elements and it exhausts major and micronutrients from the soil in large quantities and the banana soils require a continuous replenishment. Split application of inorganic fertilizers along with organic manures increases the leaf nutrient status, uptake and distribution of nutrients and ultimately it results in better growth and yield. In general, under TamilNadu conditions a fertilizer dose consisting of 20t FYM, 5 kg Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria/ha, 250g neem cake/ plant (basal dose at the time of planting) + 200:35:330 g NPK/plant (three split doses during 3 rd , 5 th and 7 th month after planting) along with foliar application of 0.5% ZnSo 4 , 0.2% FeSo 4 , 0.2%CuSo 4 and Borax 0.1% (at 3 rd , 5 th and 7 th month after planting) is recommended to get higher yield and quality fruits in banana. Banana is one of the oldest fruits known to mankind and it is a rich source of carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals essential for human diet. By nature banana is a heavy consumer of nutrient for growth and development. To ensure high yield of superior quality bananas, adequate application of nutrients is of paramount importance besides other improved cultural practices. Under tropical conditions, soil nutrients will be leached rapidly due to various factors and therefore it should be applied in small doses at shorter intervals. The increasing fertilizer costs and the demand for food have emphasized the need for full exploitation of biological sources of nutrients on a global scale. Therefore, literature relevant to the subject has been reviewed.
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Since vitamin A deficiency is prevalent in many developing countries, we sought to focus research on local, affordable and well-accepted sources of provitamin A carotenoids. As dessert bananas are consumed fresh round the year and processed as products, this study investigated whether post-climacteric biochemical changes are linked to carotenoid degradation in four Indian varieties, one commercial (Cavendish, AAA), one Red banana (genome AAA) and two locally-important ones (genome AAB). Despite large differences in their ripening characteristics, textural loss was lesser in AABs than AAAs. High levels of carotenoids (21.0 μg/g FW), β-carotene (9.14 μg/g FW) and α-carotene (9.32 μg/g FW) were found in Red banana accounting for retinol activity equivalent of 114 μg/100 g FW. The carotenoid levels were lower in two local varieties and lowest in Cavendish, with no post-climacteric loss. Dry grits, prepared using Red banana pulp, milk powder and sugar, retained about 70% carotenoids and appeared useful in confectionaries.
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Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic effect of syringic acid, a natural phenolic compound on the levels of glycoprotein components in plasma and tissues of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg b.w). Syringic acid (50 mg/kg b.w) was administered orally for 30 d. The effects of syringic acid on plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, plasma and tissue glycoproteins were studied. Results Oral administration of syringic acid (50 mg/kg b.w) for 30 d positively modulates the glycemic status in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The levels of plasma glucose were decreased with significant increase of plasma insulin and C-peptide level. The altered levels of plasma and tissue glycoprotein components were restored to near normal. No significant changes were noticed in normal rats treated with syringic acid. Conclusions The present findings suggest that syringic acid can potentially ameliorate glycoprotein components abnormalities in addition to its antidiabetic effect in experimental diabetes, further clinical studies are required to evaluate the use of syringic acid as an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
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Laboratory studies were conducted to assess the ethanol production potential from waste bananas. Over a 10-day ripening period, there was a 9% loss of fresh weight by day 6 and a 15% loss by day 10. Ethanol yields from normal ripe bananas were: whole fruit—0.091, pulp—0.082, and peel—0.006 l/kg of whole fruit. Ripeness effects on ethanol yield were measured as green—0.090, normal ripe—0.082, and overripe—0.069 l/kg of green whole bananas. Enzymatic hydrolysis was necessary for maximum yields. Dilution water was not essential for effective fermentation. Waste parameters of the banana stillage were measured.
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Banana is one of the most important tropical fruits, and India ranks first in its world production. Banana cultivars rich in provitamin A carotenoids may offer a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency, particularly in developing countries. With a view to exploit banana peels as a source of valuable components, in the present study, proximate composition, carotenoids, beta-carotene and some anti-oxidative enzymes as well as carbohydrate content of selected Indian banana varieties were determined. Karpooravalli cultivar of banana showed the maximum accumulation of carotenoid content in the non-edible (68 μg g−1 d.w.) portion of banana, while being the second highest in beta-carotene content (143.12 μg per 100 g). However, Red Banana ranked highest in total carotenoid contents for pulp (4 μg g−1 d.w.) and beta-carotene was estimated to be the highest in the case of peels (241.91 μg per 100 g) and in pulp (117.2 μg per 100 g). Karpooravalli cultivar of banana is also rich in carbohydrate content in terms of total starch (1786.0 μg g−1 d.w. in peels and 544.85 μg g−1 d.w. in pulp) and sugars (53.53 μg g−1 d.w. in peels and 39.05 μg g−1 d.w. in pulp). The catalase enzyme activity in these peels ranged from 5.66 to 35.57 nmol min−1 mg−1 proteins and was found at a higher level in cultivar Poovan, while the ascorbate peroxidase showed the range of 2.25 to 6.22 μmol min−1 mg−1 proteins. The peels of cultivars Red Banana and Karpooravalli are rich source of bioactive compounds, such as carotenoids (beta-carotene), anti-oxidative enzymes and carbohydrate contents.
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Objectives: The aim of this research paper was to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of gallic acid in paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice. Methods: In the present study, the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of gallic acid were evaluated against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice and compared with the silymarin, a standard hepatoprotective drug. The mice received a single dose of paracetamol (900 mg/kg body weight i.p.). Gallic acid (100 mg/kg body weight i.p.) and silymarin (25 mg/kg body weight i.p.) were administered 30 min after the injection of paracetamol. After 4 h, liver marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase) and inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were estimated in serum, while the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione) were determined in liver homogenate of the control and experimental mice. Key findings: Increased activities of liver marker enzymes and elevated TNF-alpha and lipid peroxidation levels were observed in mice exposed to paracetamol (P < 0.05), whereas the antioxidant status was found to be depleted (P < 0.05) when compared with the control group. However gallic acid treatment (100 mg/kg body weight i.p.) significantly reverses (P < 0.05) the above changes by its antioxidant action compared to the control group as observed in the paracetamol-challenged mice. Conclusions: The results clearly demonstrate that gallic acid possesses promising hepatoprotective effects.
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Catecholamines (CAs) are neurotransmitters in mammals. They have been found in 44 plant families, but no essential metabolic function has been established for them. They are precursors of benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids, which are the active principal ingredients of many medicinal plant extracts. CAs have been implicated to have a possible protective role against insect predators, injuries, and nitrogen detoxification. They have been shown to promote plant tissue growth, somatic embryogenesis from in vitro cultures, and flowering. CAs inhibit indole-3-acetic acid oxidation and enhance ethylene biosynthesis. They have also been shown to enhance synergistically various effects of gibberellins.
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The adhesion of monocytes to activated vascular endothelial cells is a critical event in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Adhesion is mediated by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) which up-regulates inflammatory markers on endothelial cells. Here we report that (±) 7, 8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-isochromanone-4 (XJP-1), an inhibitor of ox-LDL-induced adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells blocks cellular functions which are associated with adhesion. We show that XJP-1 down-regulates ox-LDL-induced over-expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) in a dose-dependent manner in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), attenuates ox-LDL-induced up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX)-1, decreases generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), blocks translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, and prevents activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 pathways in endothelial cells. These findings suggest that XJP-1 may attenuate ox-LDL-induced endothelial adhesion of monocytes by blocking expression of adhesion molecules through suppressing ROS/NF-κB, JNK and p38 pathways.
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Mitochondria are the power plants of the eukaryotic cell and the integrators of many metabolic activities and signaling pathways important for the life and death of a cell. Normal aerobic cells use oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP, which supplies energy for metabolism. To drive ATP production, electrons are passed along the electron transport chain, with some leaking as superoxide during the process. It is estimated that, during normal respiration, intramitochondrial superoxide concentrations can reach 10⁻¹² M. This extremely high level of endogenous superoxide production dictates that mitochondria are equipped with antioxidant systems that prevent consequential oxidative injury to mitochondria and maintain normal mitochondrial functions. The major antioxidant enzyme that scavenges superoxide anion radical in mitochondria is manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Extensive studies on MnSOD have demonstrated that MnSOD plays a critical role in the development and progression of cancer. Many human cancer cells harbor low levels of MnSOD proteins and enzymatic activity, whereas some cancer cells possess high levels of MnSOD expression and activity. This apparent variation in MnSOD level among cancer cells suggests that differential regulation of MnSOD exists in cancer cells and that this regulation may be linked to the type and stage of cancer development. This review summarizes current knowledge of the relationship between MnSOD levels and cancer with a focus on the mechanisms regulating MnSOD expression.
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The levels of ascorbic acid (AA) have been measured by means of an HPLC method in 11 different exotic fruits (avocado pear, babaco, feijoa, grapefruit, kiwi, kumquat, litchi, mango, papaya, passion fruit, pineapple) and, for comparative purposes, in two citrus fruits (lemon and orange). They were measured in the exotic fruits at two different stages of ripening: (i) immediately after purchasing from a local fresh fruit market, and (ii) after a one-week period of artificial ripening. The results show that all tropical fruits contain relatively high levels of AA (varying between 20 and 90 mg/100g), with the exceptions of avocado pear and feijoa (whose AA levels are markedly affected by oxidation processes). Moreover, the results show that there is a remarkable loss of AA content (usually 30–40%) after the one-week period of artificial ripening, in all the different tropical fruits considered. They seem to indicate that the process of artificial ripening, which is usually carried out during the short-term storage of exotic fruits, can affect the nutritional value of this kind of food as far as the concentration of the reduced form of vitamin C is concerned.
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The in vitro binding of bile acids by bananas (Musa × paradisiaca), peaches (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananus comosus), grapes (Vitis spp.), pears (Pyrus communis), apricots (Prunus armeniaca) and nectarines (Prunus persica, nectarina) was determined using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile at a duodenal physiological pH of 6.3. Six treatments and two blank incubations were conducted, testing various fresh fruits on an equal dry matter basis. Considering cholestyramine (bile acid binding, cholesterol lowering drug) as 100% bound, the relative in vitro bile acid binding percentages on dry matter (DM), total dietary fibre and total polysaccharides basis were 2–9%, 15–101% and 10–101%, respectively. Bile acid binding, on a DM basis, for bananas was significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) higher and that for nectarines significantly lower than those for peaches, pineapple, grapes, pears and apricots. The bile acid bindings for peaches and pineapple were similar and significantly higher than those for grapes, pears and apricots. Binding values for grapes and pears were significantly higher than apricots. These results point to the relative health promoting potential of bananas > peaches = pineapple > grapes = pears > apricots > nectarines, as indicated by their bile acid binding on a DM basis. The variability in bile acid binding between the fruits tested maybe related to their phytonutrients, antioxidants, polyphenols, flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins), structure, hydrophobicity of undigested fractions, anionic or cationic nature of the metabolites produced during digestion or their interaction with active binding sites. Animal studies are planned to validate in vitro bile acid binding of fruits, observed herein, to their healthful potential, atherosclerosis amelioration and cancer prevention.
Article
Banana (Musa sp.) and papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), provitamin A (β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin), and mineral composition. Dwarf Brazilian (“apple”) bananas had almost three times more vitamin C (12.7 mg/100 g fresh weight) than Williams fruit (4.5 mg/100 g). Also, Dwarf Brazilian bananas had 96.9 μg β-carotene and 104.9 μg α-carotene/100 g, whereas Williams fruit averaged 55.7 μg β-carotene and 84.0 μg α-carotene/100 g. Bananas contained higher concentrations of lutein than of the provitamin A pigments, α- and β-carotene. Papaya vitamin C content was 51.2 mg/100 g, with no differences among cultivars. Papaya provitamin A carotenoids averaged 232.3 μg β-carotene and 594.3 μg β-cryptoxanthin/100 g, and vitamin A ranged from 18.7 to 74.0 μg RAE/100 g. Lycopene was not detected in the yellow-fleshed cultivars, Kapoho, Laie Gold, and Rainbow, but the red-fleshed Sunrise and SunUp fruit contained 1350–3674 μg lycopene/100 g. Dwarf Brazilian bananas had higher P, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn contents than Williams fruit. The average K content for Hawaii's bananas was 330.6 mg/100 g. Papayas (100 g) contained 9% of the dietary reference intake (DRI) for Cu, 6–8% of the DRI for Mg, but less than 3% of the DRI for other minerals.
Article
The antioxidant capacity and phenol content of three tropical fruits pulps, namely, honey pineapple, banana and Thai seedless guava, were studied. Three solvent systems were used (methanol, ethanol and acetone) at three different concentrations (50%, 70% and 90%) and with 100% distilled water. The antioxidant capacity of the fruit extracts was evaluated using a ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay and the free radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging assays. The efficiency of the solvents used to extract phenols from the three fruits varied considerably. The polyphenol content of Thai seedless guava was 123 to 191 gallic acid equivalents/100g (GAE/100g), that of pisang mas was 24.4 to 72.2 GAE/100g, and that of honey pineapple was 34.7 to 54.7 GAE/100g. High phenol content was significantly correlated with high antioxidant capacity.
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Almost all aspects of urology are affected positively and negatively by certain lifestyle changes and dietary supplements. Some of these interventions have potential profound impacts independently or in combination with conventional therapy, others have no impact, and some could negatively impact treatment and overall health. The heart-healthiest recommendations have consistently served as the safest and most potentially effective options in urology from benign prostatic hyperplasia, chronic nonbacterial prostatitis, interstitial cystitis, multiple urologic cancers, male infertility, male and female sexual dysfunction, kidney stones, and Peyronie disease.
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Flavonols, and specially quercetin, are widely distributed in plants and are present in considerable amounts in fruits and vegetables. In addition to their anti-oxidant effect, flavonols interfere with a large number of biochemical signaling pathways and, therefore, physiological and pathological processes. There is solid evidence that, in vitro, quercetin and related flavonols exert endothelium-independent vasodilator effects, protective effect on nitric oxide and endothelial function under conditions of oxidative stress, platelet antiaggregant effects, inhibition of LDL oxidation, reduction of adhesion molecules and other inflammatory markers and prevention of neuronal oxidative and inflammatory damage. The metabolites of quercetin show partial protective effects on endothelial function and LDL oxidation. Quercetin produces undisputed antihypertensive and antiatherogenic effects, prevents endothelial dysfunction and protects the myocardium from ischemic damage. It has no clear effects on serum lipid profile and on insulin resistance. Human intervention trials with isolated flavonols demonstrate an antihypertensive effect. The meta-analysis of epidemiological studies show an inverse association between flavonol (together with flavone) intake and coronary heart disease and stroke. Therefore, although there is no solid proof yet, a substantial body of evidence suggests that quercetin may prevent the most common forms of cardiovascular disease contributing to the protective effects afforded by fruits and vegetables.
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The two enzymes required to synthesize glutathione de novo have been purified from human erythrocytes. Glutamylcysteine synthetase was purified 4300-fold and was approximately 80% pure based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme catalyzes the formation of 30.5 mumoles of gamma-glutamyl-cysteine per mg of protein per hr and is inhibited by sulfhydryl inhibitors. Glutathione synthetase was purified 6000-fold from erythrocytes to homogeneity as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The erythrocyte enzyme has a molecular weight of 150,000 and catalyzes the formation of 35.9 mumoles of glutathione per mg of protein per hr. Comparison of the amino acid composition and some kinetic parameters of yeast glutathione synthetase and the erythrocyte enzyme demonstrate similarities between these enzymes.
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Results of gross analyses of single banana plants, fields of plants and bunches of bananas are described, and problems of the determination of fertiliser requirements in the field are discussed. Time and frequency of NPK fertiliser application and the placement of such fertilisers are discussed, together with results of soil and leaf analysis, and deficiency symptoms. Fertiliser practices in banana-producing countries are reviewed.
Article
Various preparations of dried unripe plantain banana were found to be anti-ulcerogenic against aspirin-induced ulceration in the rat and were effective both as a prophylactic treatment and in healing ulcers already induced by aspirin. Ripe fruit bananas were inactive. The active factor(s) were water soluble and were concentrated by extraction to approximately three hundred times that in the dried banana powder. The anti-ulcerogenic action of banana preparations appears to be due to their ability to stimulate the growth of gastric mucosa. Aluminium hydroxide, cimetidine, prostaglandin E2, N6, O2-dibutyryl adenosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate but not 5-hydroxytryptamine were also anti-ulcerogenic when used prophylactically in rats but were ineffective in healing ulcers already formed by aspirin. These substances did not stimulate the growth of gastric mucosa.
Article
Sterols found in all eukaryotic organisms are membrane components which regulate the fluidity and the permeability of phospholipid bilayers. Certain sterols in minute amounts, such as campesterol in Arabidopsis thaliana, are precursors of oxidized steroids acting as growth hormones collectively named brassinosteroids. The crucial importance of brassinosteroids upon growth and development has been established through the study of a set of dwarf mutants affected in brassinosteroid synthesis or perception. Some of these dwarfs are, in fact, deficient in the final steps of sterol biosynthesis and their developmental phenotypes are primarily caused by a depletion in the sterol precursor for brassinosteroids. Recently, the characterization of genes encoding sterol biosynthetic enzymes and the isolation of novel plant lines affected in the expression of those genes, either by insertional or classical mutagenesis, overexpression or cosuppression, have shed new light on the involvement of sterols in biological processes such as embryonic development, cell and plant growth, and fertility, which will be presented and discussed in this review article.
Article
We demonstrate that two hydroxycinnamic acids, (E )-ferulic acid and (E )-p-coumaric acid, have the ability to protect against oxidative stress and genotoxicity in cultured mammalian cells. They also show the ability to reduce the activity of the xenobiotic metabolising enzyme, cytochrome P450 1A, and downregulate the expression of the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme. At equitoxic doses, their activities are equal to or superior to that of the known anticarcinogen, curcumin. The hydroxycinnamic acids are both important components of plant cell walls in certain plant foods. It is known that the action of microbial hydroxycinnamoyl esterases can lead to the release of hydroxycinnamic acids from ester-linkages to cell wall polysaccharides into the human colon. Thus, providing they can reach effective levels in the colon, they could provide an important mechanism by which dietary fibres of food plants, such as spinach or cereal, protect against colon cancer.
Article
The contents of soluble and total phenolic acids were analyzed in samples of 29 berries and berry products, 24 fruits and fruit peels, and 12 beverages. Variation of phenolic acids in berries was also studied. Soluble phenolic acids were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, and a tentative quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic acid content was determined by HPLC after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The content of total phenolic acids as aglycones in the above samples varied from 0 (pear cider) to 103 mg/100 g fresh weight (rowanberry). Besides rowanberry, the best phenolic acid sources among berries were chokeberry (96 mg/100 g), blueberry (85 mg/100 g), sweet rowanberry (75 mg/100 g), and saskatoon berry (59 mg/100 g). Among fruits, the highest contents (28 mg/100 g) were determined in dark plum, cherry, and one apple variety (Valkea Kuulas). Coffee (97 mg/100 g) as well as green and black teas (30-36 mg/100 g) were the best sources among beverages. Caffeic acid dominated in all of these samples except in tea brews. Variation in the phenolic acid contents of the berries was either small or moderate.