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Gundala and Gatotkaca in the concept of modern Indonesian superheroes: Comparative analysis of the Indonesian and American superheroes

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The superhero universe has always been an attraction in the world of film industry. The birth of superhuman ideas has made people increasingly interested in taking the storyline. This research is a literature study on the existence of a new world in Indonesian cinema that takes the theme of Indonesia's superhero universe competes against the universe of American superheroes. The purpose of this study is to compare Indonesian and American superhero films in order to understand the complete concept of depicting Indonesian superheroes in the process of switching from comics to films comparing with the same concepts in American superheroes. This study employed a descriptive qualitative method by comparing films from the Indonesian superhero universe namely Bumilangit Cinematic Universe and Jagad Satria Dewa Cinematic Universe compared to the American superhero universe namely Marvel Cinematic Universe and DC Cinematic Universe. The results obtained that there were some similarities in the process of character formation in each of the heroes that were created, this could be described with similarity in multiple personalities before and after becoming superheroes, costumes worn, storylines and special effects produced in the film. There were fundamental differences that were seen in the background of Indonesian culture that was different from the concept of American culture. Indonesian superheroes also highlighted Pencak Silat as the original identity and characteristics of Indonesia. This research concluded that a story with a superhero concept had the same story pattern such as a person with a superhero alter ego and deep with heroic storyline even though they were presented by different countries.
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EduLite Journal of English Education, Literature, and Culture
Vol. 5, No. 1, February 2020, pp. 136-147
136
E-ISSN: 2528-4479, P-ISSN: 2477-5304
http://jurnal.unissula.ac.id/index.php/edulite
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30659/e.5.1.136-147
Gundala and Gatotkaca in the concept of
modern Indonesian superheroes:
Comparative analysis of the Indonesian and
American superheroes
1Deswandito Dwi Saptanto*, 1Maya Kurnia Dewi
1English Literature Department, Universitas Ngudi Waluyo, Indonesia
*Corresponding Author
Email: dittoissublime@gmail.com
Abstract
The superhero universe has always been an attraction in the world of film
industry. The birth of superhuman ideas has made people increasingly
interested in taking the storyline. This research is a literature study on the
existence of a new world in Indonesian cinema that takes the theme of
Indonesia's superhero universe competes against the universe of American
superheroes. The purpose of this study is to compare Indonesian and
American superhero films in order to understand the complete concept of
depicting Indonesian superheroes in the process of switching from comics to
films comparing with the same concepts in American superheroes. This
study employed a descriptive qualitative method by comparing films from
the Indonesian superhero universe namely Bumilangit Cinematic Universe
and Jagad Satria Dewa Cinematic Universe compared to the American
superhero universe namely Marvel Cinematic Universe and DC Cinematic
Universe. The results obtained that there were some similarities in the
process of character formation in each of the heroes that were created, this
could be described with similarity in multiple personalities before and after
becoming superheroes, costumes worn, storylines and special effects
produced in the film. There were fundamental differences that were seen in
the background of Indonesian culture that was different from the concept of
American culture. Indonesian superheroes also highlighted Pencak Silat as
the original identity and characteristics of Indonesia. This research
concluded that a story with a superhero concept had the same story pattern
such as a person with a superhero alter ego and deep with heroic storyline
even though they were presented by different countries.
Keywords: Indonesian superheroes; American superheroes; comparison,
film
Received: Revised: Accepted: Published:
10 January 2020 22 January 2020 28 January 2020 29 February 2020
Saptanto, D.D., & Dewi, M.K. (2020). Gundala and Gatotkaca in the concept of modern Indonesian
superheroes: Comparative analysis of the Indonesian and American superheroes. EduLite: Journal of English
Education, Literature, and Culture, 5 (1), 136-147. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30659/e. 5.1. 136-147
137
INTRODUCTION
The journey of the concept of superhuman ideas that originated from legends
and myths has been transformed into a popular culture that develops in
society. The concept of humans who have superhuman abilities above the
average human being is not something that is formed from a simple and
instant idea. The process of creating a work is certainly based on the
background of social criticism about the political issues that were happening
at the time the work was created. Howe in Damono (1978) states that an
author must involve himself in political upheaval, without this, the work
created will feel bland. Adereth in Damono (1978) also strengthened Howe's
statement by presenting the idea of literature engagee (literature involved), this
matter means that there is involvement of literature and writers in politics and
ideology. The influence of political ideology is the implementation of modern
ideology on literature. Adereth explained that good literature engagee is only
placing politics as a background in the process of creating a work.
The process of creating a super hero begins with the existence of
legendary stories and ancient myths that formed in society. This belief is about
the birth of humans who received the gift of strength from the gods. The
influence of ancient mythology and legends in this hero-themed paradigm
created a new superhero comic called Superman in June 1938 (Robb, 2014).
Superman was a heroic symbol that was needed by the American people at
that time because of the Great Depression which had made economic, social
and environmental stability worse for a decade since 1929 due to the fall of the
stock market in New York. American society needs a super hero who is able to
give enthusiasm to rise from adversity and have great optimism to make
America rise again (Johnson, 2012). A year after Detective Comics (DC Comics)
successfully created Superman, Marvel through Carlos Burgo also successfully
created a superhero character named Human Torch (Lee, 2011).
The creation of this superhero is a representation of the author's
message to comic readers or directors to film viewers to become more patriotic
and heroic to their country. The presence of Captain America in comics created
by Jack Kirby, Wonder Woman created by William Moulton Marston and many
more superheroes is very thick with an aura of patriotism and heroism
towards America. These superheroes create a new spirit for all Americans that
they already have superheroes they are very proud of.
The political and ideological factors underlying the process of creating a
work in America, the concept of American ideology has also had a strong
influence on the creation of superhero characters in Indonesia. The power of
western influence is called the Americanization concept and has become a
popular culture in comic and film industries. Williams in Strinati (2009)
explains that popular culture is a culture that is actually created by people for
their own interests. A form of work that is made to be liked by others and then
shifted to a work that is liked by many people. Huxley in Strinati (2009) also
explained that the concept of Americanization made him filled with a sense of
optimism and excitement after a visit to America. He expressed the pleasure of
seeing towers, buildings and other interesting things in America which
resulted in the interpretation of his first view as a symbol of American interest
in knowledge rather than superstition. American films are able to show a hero
EduLite Journal of English Education, Literature, and Culture
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who is more free and not limited by class boundaries so that it is more
democratic (White, 1986).
The same concept was born in Indonesia, some artists in this country
have created superhero comics that are very well known and became a trend
in the 1960s to 1980. Some legendary comic artists who managed to create
the fictional characters, such as Harya Suraminata or more familiarly called
Hasmi, he created a native Indonesian super hero, called Gundala Putra Petir,
Widodo Noor Slamet created Godam, R.A Kosasih created human characters
descended from gods from his puppet comics called Gatotkaca and Sri Asih,
then Ahmad Thoriq, who introduced the Indonesian super hero inspired by
Madura-theme called Caroq, and a super hero by Hans Jaladara called Panji
Tengkorak.
This research is a literature study that focuses on the comparison of
Indonesian superhero multiverse and American superhero multiverse through
things that have similarities in the background, story ideas and concepts of
nationalism. Furthermore, the discussion also focused on the complexity and
similarity of the superhero character in the multiverse of Indonesian
superheroes and American superheroes. This research uses a qualitative
descriptive method with a comparative literary approach.
METHOD
Qualitative research
The phrase qualitative methodology refers in the broadest sense to research
that produces descriptive data people's own written or spoken words and
observable behavior. Qualitative researchers are concerned with the meaning
of people attach to things in their lives (Taylor et al., 2016). That statement
explains that the qualitative method is a research method that produces data
that can describe a human behavior and attitude that has a certain meaning
that can be learned. The main focus of a researcher on research using
qualitative descriptive methods is the meaning of people attaching to things in
their lives. Central to the phenomenological perspective and hence qualitative
research is understanding people from their own frames of reference and
experiencing reality as they experience it (Corbin & Strauss, 2008).
This research uses descriptive qualitative method on objects that has
undergone a process of transformation from the realm of comics to the film
industry. The process of transferring this object is not an easy thing, because
it certainly requires high precision in the process of transitioning the
embodiment of characters from comics to the film. Patricia Levy (2017)
explains that this approach allows us to build a robust understanding of a
topic, unpacking the meanings people ascribe to their lives to activities,
situations, circumstances, people, and objects.
Comparative literature
Damono (2009) explains that comparative literature is an approach in the
science of literature that does not produce new or separate theories anymore.
The interesting thing that this approach has is the flexibility of its application
with any theory in a study of literary objects according to the object and
purpose of the research. The basic concept of comparative literature is the
Saptanto, D.D., & Dewi, M.K. (2020). Gundala and Gatotkaca in the concept of modern Indonesian
superheroes: Comparative analysis of the Indonesian and American superheroes. EduLite: Journal of English
Education, Literature, and Culture, 5 (1), 136-147. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30659/e. 5.1. 136-147
139
principle of comparing two or more works of literature. Remak in Damono
(2009) provides a more detailed view of comparative literature, Literary studies
outside the boundaries of a country and studies of the correlation between
literature and other fields of science and beliefs such as art (for example,
painting, sculpture, building art, and music), philosophy, history and social
science (eg: politics economics, sociology), science, religion and others. In
summary, comparative literature compares one country's literature with
another country's literature and compares literature with other fields as a
whole expression of life.
Based on Remak's view, it can be concluded that comparative literature
has two tendencies, literature must be compared with literature and literature
can be compared with the arts and even other disciplines. Comparative
literature does not only focus on literature within a single country, but can
transcend national and state boundaries to get a better understanding of
trends and movements occurring in various nations and countries (Damono,
2009).
Original, borrow, traditions
The rapid development of information technology has produced old or new
literary works that are directly or indirectly affected by the existence of other
works. Various influences have merged into the process of creating a work so
as to produce new works as a form of popular culture. The term 'influence'
must be interpreted broadly, not merely as a process of imitation so as to
produce a new literary work based on an existing literary work. The concept of
influence has a broad spectrum, ranging from borrow to traditions, because
writers have a tendency to borrow, directly or indirectly (Damono, 2009)
The objects of this research are heroes in Bumilangit Cinematic Universe
and heroes in Jagad Satria Dewa Cinematic Universe compare to American
heroes from Marvel Cinematic Universe and DC Comics Cinematic Universe.
The selection of research objects are based on the considerations that there
are many differences and similarities. The differences include the comparation
of Indonesian superheroes and American superhero multiverse. The
similarities lay on the concept of suit, the concept of league of heroes, the
concept of massive battle between heroes from multiverse dimensions and
also the imitation of Indonesian superheroes to American Heroes.
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Here are the examples of concept of original, borrow, traditions in the
work of fiction:
The concept of combining various superheroes in a story such as that
created by Marvel in Secret Wars (1985) and Civil Wars (2006-2007) had been
done by Indonesian comic artists during the heyday of Indonesian comics
around 1960-1980s. Several superhero characters from America (Marvel and
DC Comics) got combined together with Superhero characters from Indonesia.
They were involved in a fierce battle in the Gundala Putra Petir comic entitled
Bentrok Jago-Jago Dunia. This form of crossover was a common thing for
Indonesian comic artists in the 1960-1980 era. This was done because the
interest of Indonesian people towards western culture was very strong, so the
step of combining the characters of superheroes from America and Indonesia
was an effective strategy of Indonesian comic artists to attract the interest of
their readers.
The concept of 'borrowing' superhero characters from Western culture
has been very clearly demonstrated by the character creation of Laba-Laba
Merah (first appeared in 1969) which was actually inspired by a Marvel
character named Spider-Man (first appeared in August,1962). This is a
tangible manifestation of the process of 'borrowing' the creation of American
comic artists who was later combined into the culture of Indonesian society.
The success of the Laba-Laba Merah had been running for several series but it
had to be stopped because of constraints with copyright. It was undeniable
that some of the superheroes that appeared in the series of Brutal and
Bentrok Jago-Jago Dunia had similar concept, characteristics and storyline to
Marvel and DC Comics.
Figure 1: The depiction of a crossover between Indonesian superheroes and
American superheroes in the 1970s in some of the Gundala Putera Petir
comics by Hasmi
Saptanto, D.D., & Dewi, M.K. (2020). Gundala and Gatotkaca in the concept of modern Indonesian
superheroes: Comparative analysis of the Indonesian and American superheroes. EduLite: Journal of English
Education, Literature, and Culture, 5 (1), 136-147. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30659/e. 5.1. 136-147
141
Sampling technique
The sampling technique used in this study was purposive sampling.
A. Gundala Compares to American Heroes:
1. Gundala was chosen as the research sample based on the following
considerations:
The Gundala Movie has been released in Indonesia
Gundala in Bumilangit Cinematic Universe has similarity to
Storm in Marvel Cinematic Universe and The Flash in DC
Cinematic Universe
2. Storm was chosen as the research sample based on the power to
manipulate weather, such as thunder, lightning, wind and rain over
vast area.
3. The Flash was chosen as the research sample based on the power of
electricity and lightning manipulation, speed forces which creates him
to gain a speed, reflexes, agility, endurance and strength.
B. Gatotkaca Compares to American Heroes:
1. Gatokaca was chosen as the research sample based on the following
considerations:
Gatotkaca’s trailer has been released in Indonesia.
Gatotkaca in Jagad Satria Dewa Cinematic Universe has
similarity to Thor in Marvel and Shazam in DC Comics
2. Thor was chosen as the research sample based on the power of
releasing deadly blazing thunder, superhuman strength, speed,
agility, durability, and immunity to most diseases.
3. Shazam was chosen as the research sample based on the power of
physical and magical invulnerability, able to fly, enhanced mental
perception, control over and emission of magic lightning.
Figure 2: the concept of original, borrow and traditions of Labah-Labah Merah by
Kus Bram in the 1969s which is inspired by Spiderman from Marvel Universe
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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Comparison of Indonesian super heroes multiverse with American super
heroes multiverse
Superhero universe is not only a simple matter created by the author, but its
existence is very vast and complicated. A super hero is not necessarily in the
same universe as other super heroes. As in the description of an American
fantasy adventure story that classifies the characters in the story into four
main elements of the fantasy creature class, called humans, elves, dwarfs, and
wizards. The existence of superheroes also has different class classifications
and universes. This can be explained by the existence of an American
superheroes universe which divides its characterization into complex universe
classes.
The characterizations complexity in a detailed classification of heroes
class is also the same in the process of creating Indonesian superheroes. The
following is a comparative table of character groupings according to the races
or classes that exist in the universe of American super heroes and super
villains aligned with the concepts of Indonesian super heroes and super
villains in the world of comics and films.
Table 1. Characters classification according to the universe of superheroes
Multiverse of Marvel
Extended Universe
of DC
Jagat Bumilangit
Jagad Satria Dewa
The Celestials:
The oldest beings from
the cosmic entity with
the humanoid shape
and countless power.
This race is
extraterrestrial races
that their existence
since the birth of the
universe until this day.
Ex: Ego, Eson The
Searcher, Knowhere,
Galactus..
The Quintessence:
A group of all
powerful beings from
the universe. Their
existence is to
control the universe
and as the guardians
of eternity.
Ex: Zeus, Shazam,
Highfather, Phantom
Stranger.
-
-
Extraterrestrial
Races:
A multidimensional
cosmic creature spread
in a vast multiverse.
They are believed to
have countless power
and intellegence.
Ex: Kree, Skrull,
Ronan The Accuser,
Draxx, Rocket
Raccoon, Nebula.
Extraterrestrial
Races:
A multidimensional
cosmic creature in a
vast universe. They
are believed to have
countless power and
intellegence.
Ex: Superman,
Supergirl, Martian
Manhunter, Miss
Martian, General Zod
Extraterrestrial
Races:
A multidimensional
cosmic creature in a
vast universe. They
are believed to have
countless power and
intellegence.
Ex: Godam and
Xrephus from Covox,
Aquanus from Planet
Zyba.
-
Gods/ Deities:
The powerful beings in
Marvel Universe that
are adapted from the
Norse Mythology. They
live in other
dimensions.
Ex: One above all, Old
Gods, New Gods, Gods
Gods:
They were Gods from
extra-dimensional
universe, who
originated from
various mythologies.
Their existence is to
control the balance of
the universe.
Gods:
The extraordinary
beings from different
dimension of this
universe, called
‘Kahyangan’. They
have superpower
ability to protect
earth.
Gods:
The overpower beings
from another
dimension of this
universe. Their
superpower abilities
are far beyond
human’s power. They
come to protect the
Saptanto, D.D., & Dewi, M.K. (2020). Gundala and Gatotkaca in the concept of modern Indonesian
superheroes: Comparative analysis of the Indonesian and American superheroes. EduLite: Journal of English
Education, Literature, and Culture, 5 (1), 136-147. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30659/e. 5.1. 136-147
143
by Race.
Ex: Darkseid,
Steppenwolf, Mister
Miracle.
Ex: Sri Asih.
earth and destroy
supervillain in this
earth.
Ex: Gatotkaca,
Yudhistira, Bima,
Nakula Sadewa,
Srikandi
Humans:
The intelligent
inhabitants of earth,
but humans have
short lifespans and
weak.
Ex: Nick Fury, Natasha
Romanoff, Scott Lang
Humans:
The race that evolved
on the planet Earth.
They are generally
considered an odd
and intelligent
species.
Ex: Bruce Wayne,
Detective Gordon.
Humans:
The race that dwells
planet earth. They
are intelligent and
weak. Humans do
not have superpower
ability.
Ex: Ridwan Bahri
Humans:
The race that dwells
planet earth. They
are intelligent and
weak. Humans do
not have superpower
ability.
Mutant:
Human beings that
possessed a genetic
trait called X-Gene.
This genetic mutation
caused by the X-Gene
makes someone to be a
superhuman. It is
believed that this
transfomation is the
next stage of human
evolution.
Ex: Wolverine,
Cyclops, Nightcrawler,
The Thing, Deadpool,
Magneto, Gambit,
Jubilee.
Metahuman:
Human beings that
has extraordinary
power that their
abilities are beyond
the limit of normal
human. They have
extra power which
comes from genetic
variant called
metagene inside their
body.
Ex:Poison Ivy,
Beastboy, Black
Canary, Killer Croc,
Firestorm, Braniac
Superhuman:
Human beings that
has superpower
ability because of the
accident of an
experiment. The
ability of
superhuman
strength can also be
obtained from hard
training over the
years.
Ex: Gundala,
Pangeran Mlaar,
Merpati, Dewi Api,
Camar, Ghani
Zulham, Pengkor, Si
Buta dari Gua
Hantu.
-
Demon:
The powerful demonic
beings from the
mystical dark
dimension.
Ex: Dormammu,
Malekith, Mephisto,
Zarathos.
Demon:
The powerful
demonic beings from
the mystical dark
dimension.
Ex:
Nergal,Chantinelle,
Balthazar, Lucifer.
Genie:
A powerful mystical
creature from
different dimension.
Their existence is to
help someone who
has the sacred object
or destroy the
human beings.
Ex: Jin Kartubi. Nyi
Nara Sati Si Siluman
Buaya Putih, Demit,
Siluman.
Demon:
The powerful
demonic beings from
the mystical dark
dimension.
Ex: Buto Ijo,
multidimensional
creatures.
By referring to the table above, we can see a number of significant
differences and these are based on the cultural and mythological differences
found in each origin of the work created. With the complexity of the universe
described in the comparative table above, it can be concluded that the two
cultures (Indonesian and American) have their respective characteristics that
underlie the making of the fiction.
Marvel emphasizes more complex stories from different superheroes in
multiverse and all of these universes can correlate each other. The Marvel
Cinematic Universe has a variety of characters based on science, magic,
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sophisticated equipment and the complexity of the interconnected plot. DC
Cinematic Universe has a pattern that is almost similar in the concept of the
Marvel universe, but the characters in the DC Cinematic Universe have more
typical of heroes who have outstanding strength and have abilities like gods.
Gundala as a superhero in Bumilangit universe is a representation of a
humanist hero that represents an ordinary person who work as a security
guard and he cannot stand with the social injustice around him (Gundala in
Joko Anwar’s version). He does not show over power strength but the dark and
harsh background of life is the main trigger for this Indonesian superhero
story. What distinguishes and attracts from the universe of Indonesian
superhero is the concept of the story that emphasizes Indonesia's local
wisdom, this is indicated by the statement of Gundala film producer, Wicky V.
Olindo and Gundala director, Joko Anwar at the Toronto International Film
Festival 2019 that "The thing you must know in our universe, there are no
scientists or aliens coming from different planets, so you will have this kind of
villains and it is very rooted to Indonesian Mythology." that the Bumilangit
universe has a focus on battles with creatures in Indonesian mythology, such
as ‘siluman’, ‘demit’ and ‘setan’.
Gatotkaca, as a new superhero figure from the universe Jagad Satria
Dewa, emphasizes the aspect of the javanese puppet world which is packaged
in a modern form. The concept used is the figure of a God who is far from
superhuman power. The battle of the gods is illustrated by a modern urban
concept.
The complexity and similarity of superhero characters in the Indonesian
multiverse superheroes and American superheroes.
The complexity and similarity of these super heroes can be a coincidence,
accidental or an adaptation of the work of existing superheroes. These two
Indonesian superheroes who have different universes have similar concepts
and ideas from the characters of American superheroes. This can be
illustrated through the explanation below:
Table 2. Characters powers similarity between Indonesian superheroes and American
superheroes
Saptanto, D.D., & Dewi, M.K. (2020). Gundala and Gatotkaca in the concept of modern Indonesian
superheroes: Comparative analysis of the Indonesian and American superheroes. EduLite: Journal of English
Education, Literature, and Culture, 5 (1), 136-147. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30659/e. 5.1. 136-147
145
The similarities that appear in the Gundala’s character of Bumilangit
cinematic universe with The Flash in the DC Cinematic Universe are not a
coincidence, but there is a concept of 'borrow' which is a form of adaptation
from the work that had already been created. Gundala is a character created
by Hasmi. he explained that the creation of Gundala was inspired by a
Javanese spiritual figure, Ki Ageng Selo, who had the ability to catch lightning.
Gundala is also combined with Hasmi's interest in The Flash character from
DC Comics, therefore the costume worn by Gundala is very similar to the
character of The Flash. The Gundala (remake version) costume at Bumilangit
Cinematic Universe was designed in Indonesia and was made by a company in
Los Angeles who also made superhero costumes Daredevil and Watchmen. The
power of Storm in Marvel Cinematic Universe has the same pattern with
Gundala, but in this case these both heroes have similarity as a superhuman.
The pictures below show the transition process of the Gundala character
from the initial concept to the most modern concept:
Figure 7. Initial Concept of
Gundala by Hasmi
Figure 8.1st Gundala Movie in
1981
by Lilik Sudjio
Figure 9. Remake of Gundala
Movie in 2019 by Joko Anwar
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On the other hand, Gatotkaca shown in the released trailer is very thick
with gothic and dark elements. It can be seen through the costumes worn and
the vehicle that he drives almost bears the same description of Ghost Rider in
the Marvel Cinematic Universe. The two superheroes, Gundala and Gatotkaca,
have martial arts abilities based on Pencak Silat combat skills. Through this
matter, local wisdom holds a very strong role in the story of Indonesia's
superheroes.
These two pictures below are a comparison of the initial concept of R.A.
Kosasih's Gatotkaca with the modern concept by Charles Gozali:
CONCLUSION
The differences in the concept of Indonesian and American author's story
ideas have been seen through the character grouping between the versions of
the Marvel Cinematic Universe and the DC Cinematic Universe compared to
the Bumilangit Cinematic Universe and Jagad Satria Dewa Cinematic
Universe. The existence of ‘siluman’, demit and ‘jin’ who act as the main
villains of Indonesian superheroes have shown a significant difference in the
universe of Indonesian superheroes. This is certainly inversely proportional to
the concepts and ideas of American author stories that are more focused on
science, sophisticated equipment and the existence of aliens.
Original concepts, borrow and traditions that appear in the creation of
Indonesian superheroes are a form of development of modern literature. The
author makes a story based on historical background, politics or interest in
the work of others. This mutual borrowing process has created a superhero
character that has a strong side of Indonesian culture but is also influenced
by western culture. Gundala and Gatotkaca that are made in this film version
emphasize Indonesian mythology, but the concept of cultivation and storyline
are made more modern and sophisticated. The similarity between Indonesian
Figure 10. Initial Concept
of Gatotkaca by R.A
Kosasih
Figure 11. Modern Concept of
Gatotkaca by Charles Gozali
Saptanto, D.D., & Dewi, M.K. (2020). Gundala and Gatotkaca in the concept of modern Indonesian
superheroes: Comparative analysis of the Indonesian and American superheroes. EduLite: Journal of English
Education, Literature, and Culture, 5 (1), 136-147. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30659/e. 5.1. 136-147
147
superheroes and American superheroes in the realm of character and costume
characterization is a form of Americanization in the Indonesian film industry.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The writer would like to thank the participants who have helped in data
collection. Also, the writer would like to state that this research was conducted
to prove that the concept of original, borrow and traditions had taken place in
the formation of a work of fiction in Indonesia. This creative process cannot be
separated from the creation of previous works, this is done to follow market
tastes and trends when the work is made.
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Sosiologi sastra: Sebuah Pengantar Ringkas
  • S D Damono
Damono, S.D. (1978). Sosiologi sastra: Sebuah Pengantar Ringkas. Jakarta: P3B Depdikbud.
Super history: Comic book superheroes and American society, 1938 to the Present
  • J K Johnson
Johnson, J.K. (2012). Super history: Comic book superheroes and American society, 1938 to the Present. United States of America: McFarland & Company, Inc.
Mutants and mystics: Science fiction, superhero comics and the paranormal
  • J J Kripal
Kripal, J.J. (2011). Mutants and mystics: Science fiction, superhero comics and the paranormal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Stan Lee's: How to write comics
  • S Lee
Lee, S. (2011). Stan Lee's: How to write comics. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications.
A brief history of superheroes
  • B J Robb
Robb, B.J. (2014). A brief history of superheroes. Philadelphia: Running Press Book Publisher.
Movie wars: How Hollywood and the media limit what films we can see. Chicago: A Capella Books
  • J Rosenbaum
Rosenbaum, J. (2000). Movie wars: How Hollywood and the media limit what films we can see. Chicago: A Capella Books.