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Stability and second-order effects on steel structures: Part 1: fundamental behaviour

  • Pell Frischmann

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Ricardo Pimentel of the SCI introduces the topics of buckling phenomenon, second order effects and the approximate methods to allow for those effects. In part 2, the various methods will be compared to the results from a rigorous numerical analysis. News Steel Construction (
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... The considerations made to the structural analysis with EN-1993-1-1 [10] are presented in Pimentel [12] and Pimentel [13] in its Method 1. In it, the author mentions that if the second order global structural analysis considers both effects of P-δ and P-Δ together with the local and global imperfections, than the individual stability of the elements does not need to be verified. ...
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Structural optimization is a process that can demands high data processing power depending on the algorithm adopted. In addition, a rigorous geometric nonlinear analysis is performed with iterative numerical algorithms increasing computational efforts. In order to reduce the amount of data to be processed, the Two Cycles Iterative Method (TCIM) is implemented in the Structures3D (S3D), an optimization software under development in Matlab ® using its Genetic Algorithm (GA). The structural analysis, carried out in accordance to Eurocode 3, is also implemented in S3D to improve it as well. The final product is an optimization module that take in account, by approximation, the geometric non-linearity and design by Eurocode 3 of steel structures. An example of application of this module is presented and the result obtained is compared with other author.
... The buckling shape obtained for the cord is represented in Figure 6. Each bar was subdivided in 10 segments for accuracy [15], [16] . For simplicity, the axial load was considered constant along the chord, which is conservative. ...
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Ricardo Pimentel of the SCI discusses the consideration of U‐Frame action to restrain members susceptible to flexural and lateral torsional buckling according to Eurocodes. Buckling phenomena frequently govern the design of steel members under compression or for elements partially compressed. To achieve a good compromise between steel tonnage and performance, discrete restraints along the compressed member (or along the compressed part of the member) can be used. However, for certain cases, introducing restraints as part of an orthodox bracing system is not feasible and designers must use other options to achieve a capable structural solution. The use of U-frame action offers this opportunity.
Structural stability is one of the key aspects in the structural engineering practice. Following current architectural trends, steel and composite structures tend to be slender and flexible, which may lead to a necessity to consider the deformed structural shape to the analysis and design. This paper provides a background overview about structural stability and second order effects according to the Eurocode 3. The proposed methods for addressing these effects according to The Eurocode 3 will be presented. Computational methods to assess structural stability will be discussed. Practical design examples for each Eurocode method are presented.
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