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Background: Dental caries is preventable if favorable health behavior is successfully established. Exploring the broader concept of lifestyle will be useful to determine that how lifestyle of people can affect dental caries. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of overall lifestyle of an individual (analyzed using health practice index) on dental caries of adult population. Material and methods: This cross-sectional study comprising structured questions on health practice index, sociodemographic variables, and oral health-related behavior was conducted on 800 study subjects of age 20-50 years attending outreach dental setups of a dental school in India. Dental caries was recorded with decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index.Statistical analysis was carried out using frequency distribution for variables related to lifestyle, mean ± standard deviation for DMFT, and negative binomial regression to predict a dependent variable (DMFT) that consisted of "count data." Results: The study subjects who were older age, women, unemployed, and unskilled; those with lower education, lesser income, and lower socioeconomic status; those never visited dentist; and those with lesser frequency of cleaning teeth, overall poorer lifestyles, and moderate lifestyles were more prone to have dental caries than their counterparts. Conclusion: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease. Patients' involvement in self-care by promoting healthy behaviors such as brushing twice a day, visiting dentist regularly, negating orally abusive substance addiction, having breakfast every day, eating a balanced diet, and reducing stress leads to an overall good lifestyle. These factors along with sleeping a minimum of 7-8h per night and working for 8-9h per day and ample daily exercise may help patients improve or protect their oral health for years to come.

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... Singla N et al. (23) halló en un estudio realizado en 800 sujetos con edades entre 20 y 50 años, que los participantes con nivel económico más bajo, de mayor edad, desempleados, de sexo femenino, con menor educación, menor frecuencia de cepillado dental, estilo de vida pobre o moderado, tienen mayor riesgo de tener caries dental. En este estudio se encontró que la mayoría de los participantes tenían un estilo de vida poco saludable y un CPOD muy alto, sin embargo no se halló asociación estadística entre el estilo de vida y la presencia de caries dental. ...
... Some of the major risk factors for dental caries related to unhealthy lifestyles are consumption of sugar-rich diet, poor nutrition, and use of tobacco, inadequate oral hygiene practices, stress, and inferior living conditions. 10 In developing countries, changing living conditions due to urbanization and adoption of western lifestyles are often considered potential risk factors for the incidence of dental caries. 11 The aim of this study was to assess the oral health (the number of natural teeth, pain or discomfort on teeth, having dentures), oral health behaviors (e.g., using toothbrush, dental flossing, and toothpaste containing fluoride) and lifestyle behaviors (e.g., sugar consumed, tobacco, alcohol) of people living in Mathura city, Uttar Pradesh. ...
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Background: Oral health is recognized as an important aspect of an individual’s general health and quality of life. Impairment of oral health diminishes the quality of life. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health (the number of natural teeth, pain or discomfort on teeth, having dentures), oral health behaviors (e.g., using toothbrush, dental flossing, and toothpaste containing fluoride) and lifestyle behaviors (e.g., sugar consumed, tobacco, alcohol) of people living in Mathura city, Uttar Pradesh.Methods: This study was cross-sectional study conducted at K. D. Dental College and Hospital, Mathura. Pre-validated WHO oral health questionnaire was used to assess oral health, lifestyle and oral health behaviors of the study participants. Face to face interview sessions were conducted with consenting individual participants to ensure transparency and consistency, to reduce interviewer and misclassification bias. Results: Total 550 participants were participated, in which 272 (100%) participants of 18-35 years of age group had 20 teeth or more. Majority of the participants had reported average status of teeth and gums. More than half of the participants were unaware of fluoride containing tooth paste i.e.; 122 (89.1%) participants of 36-50 years age group and 107 (75.9%) participants of 51-65 years age group.Conclusions: Although majority of the Mathura adults considered their oral health status good, only a small population considered their oral health status poor. Use of oral hygiene aids such as toothpick, dental floss etc., was limited in participants.
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Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of caries in deciduous teeth and the effect of diet and lifestyle habits on dental caries among 3- to 5-year-old preschool children in Jiangxi Province, China. Methods In total, 2880 cases involving preschool children were selected by stratified cluster sampling. The dental examination methods and criteria followed the WHO guidelines. SPSS 19.0 was used for the statistical analysis. Chi square tests were used to compare the caries prevalence among children with different social characteristics. Non-parametric tests were used to compare the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index values. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to study the effect of diet and lifestyle habits on dental caries. Results The caries prevalence among the 2880 cases of 3- to 5-year-old preschool children in Jiangxi Province, China was 49.13%. There was no gender difference in this rate (P > 0.05). The caries prevalence increased with age (P < 0.05). The prevalence of caries in the rural areas was higher than that in the urban areas (P < 0.05). The deciduous central incisors and deciduous molars had a higher caries prevalence than the other deciduous teeth. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the caries risk increased with living in a rural area, exclusive breastfeeding, greater frequency of daily snacking, high frequency of snacking before sleep and beginning to brush teeth at a late age; the caries risk decreased when parents helped their children brush their teeth. Conclusion The caries prevalence among 3- to 5-year-old preschool children in Jiangxi was lower than the level throughout the country and lower than the rate in other developing countries. The children’s diet and lifestyle habits were closely related to dental caries. Parents and children should be more aware of oral health, and parents should help their children develop healthy lifestyle behaviours.
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Background: Untreated dental caries is reported to affect children's nutritional status and growth, yet evidence on this relationship is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the association between dental caries in both the primary and permanent dentition and nutritional status (including underweight, normal weight, overweight and stunting) in children from Cambodia, Indonesia and Lao PDR over a period of 2 years. A second objective was to assess whether nutritional status affects the eruption of permanent teeth. Methods: Data were used from the Fit for School - Health Outcome Study: a cohort study with a follow-up period of 2 years, consisting of children from 82 elementary schools in Cambodia, Indonesia and Lao PDR. From each school, a random sample of six to seven-year-old children was selected. Dental caries and odontogenic infections were assessed using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and the pufa-index. Weight and height measurements were converted to BMI-for-age and height-for-age z-scores and categorized into weight status and stunting following WHO standardised procedures. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were analysed using the Kruskal Wallis test, Mann Whitney U-test and multivariate logistic and linear regression. Results: Data of 1499 children (mean age at baseline = 6.7 years) were analyzed. Levels of dental caries and odontogenic infections in the primary dentition were significantly highest in underweight children, as well as in stunted children, and lowest in overweight children. Dental caries in six to seven-year old children was also significantly associated with increased odds of being underweight and stunted 2 years later. These associations were not consistently found for dental caries and odontogenic infections in the permanent dentition. Underweight and stunting was significantly associated with a lower number of erupted permanent teeth in children at the age of six to seven-years-old and 2 years later. Conclusions: Underweight and stunted growth are associated with untreated dental caries and a delayed eruption of permanent teeth in children from Cambodia, Indonesia and Lao PDR. Findings suggest that oral health may play an important role in children's growth and general development. Trial registration: The study was restrospectively registered with the German Clinical Trials Register, University of Freiburg (trial registration number: DRKS00004485 ; date of registration: 26th of February, 2013).
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Background: This scoping review addressed the question 'what do we know about stress-related changes in saliva and dental caries in general population?' Methods: The review was conducted using electronic searches via Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and WoS. All published human studies with both observational and experimental designs were included. Two reviewers independently reviewed eligible articles and extracted the data. The studies' quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. Results: Our search identified 232 reports, of which six were included in this review. All six studies were conducted in children and used salivary cortisol as stress marker. The studies varied by design, types of stressors, children's caries experience, methods of saliva collection. Four studies reported a positive association between saliva cortisol levels and caries (p < 0.05) while the other two reported no association (p > 0.05). The quality of the included studies was weak to moderate. Conclusions: There is lack of evidence about an association between stress-related changes in saliva and caries. Well-designed longitudinal studies with rigorous measurement technics for stress, saliva and dental caries are necessary. This will help to generate new insights into the multifactorial etiology of caries and provide evidence for a rational method for its control.
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Background Little information exists about the experience of and risk factors for dental caries in young adults in Russia. We investigated dental caries experience and determinants in medical and dental students in North-West Russia. Methods This cross-sectional study included 442 medical and 309 dental undergraduate students of Russian nationality aged 18–25 years from the Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia. Information on socio-demographic factors and oral health behaviour (regularity of dental visits, frequency of tooth-brushing, using toothpaste with fluoride, and skipping tooth-brushing) was obtained from a structured, self-administered questionnaire. Dental caries experience was based on the decayed (D) missing (M) filled (F) teeth (T) index and the Significant Caries (SiC) index, which were assessed through dental examination. Students with a DMFT index ≥9 were placed in the SiC group. Negative binomial hurdle and multivariable binary logistic regressions were used for statistical analyses. Results The prevalence of dental caries (DMFT >0) was 96.0%, overall mean DMFT index was 7.58 (DT: 0.61, MT: 0.12, and FT: 6.84), and the corresponding SiC index was 12.50. Age 21–25 years (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.18), being a female (IRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01–1.20), high subjective socioeconomic status (SES) [IRR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02–1.21], and skipping tooth-brushing (IRR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.00–1.19) were associated with a higher DMFT index. DMFT index also increased among students who reported regular dental visits (IRR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.10–1.36), but their odds of being in the dental caries-free group decreased (odds ratio [OR] = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.18–0.82). Significant predictors of being categorised to the SiC group were older age (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03–1.92), high subjective SES (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.13–2.19), and regular dental visits (OR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.56–3.51). Conclusions A high prevalence of dental caries and high DMFT index, with a dominance of FT, were observed in our Russian medical and dental students. Age, sex, subjective SES, regular dental visits, and skipping tooth-brushing were determinants of dental caries experience.
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The health status of any country depends on the socio-economic status (SES) and the per capita income of its citizens. The SES also decides the affordability and utilization of the health facilities. Constant changes in the price of goods in the country due to inflation make it mandatory to constantly update the income-based socioeconomic scales. This paper attempts to provide updates in Kuppuswamy, B.G. Prasad and udai pareek socioeconomic scales for 2017.
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Objectives: (1) To assess the impact of different lifestyle factors on periodontal health of adults. (2) To assess the impact of overall/combined lifestyle variable (calculated by health practice index [HPI]) on periodontal health of adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study consisting of a structured questionnaire on HPI, oral health-related behavior, and personal habits as well as sociodemographic variables was conducted on 800 subjects aged 20–50 years attending dental outreach set-ups of Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal. Clinical examination for periodontal status was done by recording loss of attachment scores using community periodontal index (FDI/WHO-1982). Statistical analysis was done by bivariate analysis using Chi-square followed by multivariate analysis to obtain adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results: After adjusting for all the confounding variables in multivariate logistic regression analysis, the variables that showed an independent association with periodontitis were age, location, marital status, smoking, hours of sleep per night, physical activity, and overall poor lifestyles. Conclusion: Our results support studying a combined approach using various lifestyle behaviors for controlling chronic periodontitis. Necessary public health action on conditions which determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviors across population is needed which is possible by patient's involvement in self-care by promoting healthy lifestyles.
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The present cohort study examined how lifestyle, household environment, and caries activity test score of Japanese children at age 1.5 years affected their dental caries incidence at age 3. Inclusion criteria were 1.5-year-old children with no dental caries. Dental examinations were performed for 33,655 children who participated in routine dental examinations at 1.5 years of age, and the exam was repeated approximately 21 months later (at age 3) at the Kobe City Public Health Center in Japan. After excluding 622 children who had caries at age 1.5 and 1831 children with missing lifestyle and household environment data in the questionnaires, the final data analysis was performed on a total of 31,202 children (16,052 boys, 15,150 girls).The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a strong association of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages/snacks, less frequent tooth brushing by the parents, lack of fluoride varnish, family history of smoking, with the risk of developing dental caries. A child's late bedtime is also one of the major risk factors for dental caries development. Further investigation is needed to examine whether the short duration or the irregularity of the sleep-wake cycle would affect early childhood oral health and whether there is a relationship between late bedtime and late night snack intake.
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Increasing evidence suggests that socioeconomic factors may be associated with an increased risk of dental caries. To provide better evidence of the association between dental caries in adults and socioeconomic indicators, we evaluated the relation between these two conditions in a thorough review of the literature. Seven databases were systematically searched: Pubmed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bireme, Controlled Trials, Clinical Trials and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. No restrictions were placed on the language or year of publication. The search yielded 41 studies for systematic review. Two independent reviewers screened the studies for inclusion, extracted data and evaluated quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The following socioeconomic indicators were found: educational level, income, occupation, socio-economic status and the community index. These indicators were significantly associated with a greater occurrence of dental caries: the subject's education, subject's income, subject's occupation and the Gini coefficient. A high degree of heterogeneity was found among the methods. Quality varied across studies. The criteria employed for socioeconomic indicators and dental caries should be standardized in future studies. The scientific evidence reveals that educational level, income, occupation and the Gini coefficient are associated with dental caries.
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Many studies have demonstrated that caries rates are higher in women than in men. This review attempts to provide an explanation for this trend by examining each factor which contributes to caries and how the factor differs in men and women. Evidence has been provided to demonstrate that caries risk factors for women include a different salivary composition and flow rate, hormonal fluctuations, dietary habits, genetic variations, and particular social roles among their family. Systemic diseases that have been found to be associated with caries have also been found to have an association with the female gender. An extended exposure to the oral cavity or a more cariogenic oral microflora has not been proven to contribute to higher caries in women. Further research in these areas could be done in the future to explain their contribution, or lack thereof, to a higher caries rate in women.
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To date, the evidence supporting the benefits of dental visiting comes from cross-sectional studies. We investigated whether long-term routine dental visiting was associated with lower experience of dental caries and missing teeth, and better self-rated oral health, by age 32. A prospective cohort study in New Zealand examined 932 participants' use of dentistry at ages 15, 18, 26, and 32. At each age, routine attenders (RAs) were identified as those who (a) usually visited for a check-up, and (b) had made a dental visit during the previous 12 months. Routine attending prevalence fell from 82% at age 15 to 28% by 32. At any given age, routine attenders had better-than-average oral health, fewer had teeth missing due to caries, and they had lower mean DS and DMFS scores. By age 32, routine attenders had better self-reported oral health and less tooth loss and caries. The longer routine attendance was maintained, the stronger the effect. Routine dental attendance is associated with better oral health.
Article
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The prevalence of dental caries has been decreasing among kindergarten children in Shanghai, China, over recent years, although it still remains at an unacceptably high level. The purpose of this study was to identify which factors were important in providing oral health guidance and achieving further improvement in the oral health status of kindergarten children in urban China. A survey was conducted on dental caries in 128 Japanese and 368 Chinese kindergarten children and a questionnaire given to their parents/guardians on each child’s lifestyle and dietary habits from birth to the present. Correlations between responses to each questionnaire item and the status of dental caries were statistically analyzed. The dft index score (p=0.0016), prevalence of dental caries (p=0.0002), and percentages of children with decayed (untreated caries-affected) teeth (p<0.0001) were significantly higher in the Chinese than in the Japanese children. Many differences were observed in lifestyle factors between the two groups. The percentage of parents failing to control the child’s snacking habits between meals was higher in China, and weaning was significantly delayed in China compared with in Japan. These lifestyle factors were considered to be associated closely with the high risk of dental caries in Chinese kindergarten children. These findings indicate that oral health guidance for kindergarten children in Shanghai, China, should focus on control of dietary habits, including control of inter-meal snacking, and breastfeeding practices. The results of this study may help improve the status of dental caries among Chinese children.
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Chapter
Chromosome alterations, which are directly visible changes in the DNA, have close associations to cancer development (German 1973; Carins 1981; Klein 1981). Lymphocytes in the circulating blood are human cell samples that can most easily be obtained, carrying information on both exposure doses and genetic effects of the mutagenic and carcinogenic factors. Thus, short-term cultures of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human lymphocyte are widely used to detect chromosome-damaging agents and possible human exposure to mutagens/carcinogens, and to study the immune response of blood.
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Objectives To study the impact of lifestyle factors on dental caries experiences in addition to the effect of demographic characteristics at the ages of 9, 15, and 21 years.Methods The data were obtained from the study ‘Oral health in children and adolescents in the Netherlands’. Data were collected through questionnaires and a clinical oral examination. Because the DMFS count data were highly skewed with a peak at zero, the negative binomial hurdle model was used for the analyses. The first part of the hurdle predicted the probability of having caries experience or not, and the second part predicted the degree of caries experience.ResultsFor the 9- and 15-year-old age groups, the breakfast frequency per week was related with having caries experience, while the frequency of brushing teeth per day was related with the degree of caries experience. In addition, the number of food and drinks consumed per day was important for the younger age group. These relations were not found in the 21-year-olds age group.Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that components to promote structure and regularity, including having breakfast and the number of food and drink moments, may be important to include in programs to prevent dental caries in children.
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Recent studies have demonstrated an increasing number of cases of allergy in economically developed societies. Many of these allergic reactions are mediated by IgE antibodies whose levels are under genetic control. However, this large increase of allergy prevalence cannot be explained by genetic mutations; comprehensive lifestyles may also play roles in determining total IgE levels. Total IgE levels were determined from serum samples taken from 706 hard metal workers who responded to a questionnaire including 17 items related to physical and mental health practices. Five factors tending to normalize IgE upward and three tending to normalize IgE downward when we keep good lifestyles were extracted using MANOVA analysis. We therefore constructed a Health Practice Index in Allergic reactions (HPIA); eight physical and mental health practices were significantly (P less than 0.05) associated with cumulative elevations or suppressions of total IgE levels when sex, age and environmental factors were controlled for. Multivariate analyses demonstrated a dramatic synergism (Relative Risk greater than 2.0, P less than 0.05) of unhealthy lifestyles determining a bipolar high risk for elevated or suppressed IgE levels which in turn may result in allergic diseases or immuno-suppression. Maintenance of healthy lifestyles may prove beneficial for reducing the prevalence of allergic disorders.
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To evaluate a role of education to acquire a healthy lifestyle (health education) in achieving a smokeless society, the relationship between attitudes toward the legal right to be free from involuntary smoking in public places, based on human rights, and personal health practices was determined using answers to a questionnaire from 887 randomly-selected citizens of Osaka. The answers were analyzed within four subgroups of respondents divided by smoking status and sex. Among the respondents, three significant relationships of attitude scores to health practices were identified. Within subgroups of female subjects, questionnaire attitude scores decreased as health practice scores increased. Among male non-smokers, those who had high health practice scores also had high attitude scores. Among male smokers, there was no statistical association between health practice scores and attitude scores. Our results demonstrated that attitudes toward the legal right to be free from involuntary smoking among male-nonsmokers were closely related to personal health practices, and implied the effectiveness of health education among this subgroup for the advancement of their legal right to be free from involuntary smoking.
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The concept of lifestyle bears great potential for research in medical sociology. Yet, weaknesses in current methods have restrained lifestyle research from realizing its full potentials. The present focus is on the links between theoretical conceptions and their empirical application. The paper divides into two parts. The first part provides a discussion of basic theoretical and methodological issues. In particular selected lines of thought from Max Weber are presented and their usefulness in providing a theoretical frame of reference for health lifestyle research is outlined. Next, a theory guided definition of the subject matter is introduced and basic problems in empirical applications of theoretical lifestyle concepts are discussed. In its second part the paper presents findings from comparative lifestyle analyses. Data from the U.S. and West Germany are utilized to explore issues of measurement equivalence and theoretical validity. Factor analyses indicate high conceptual equivalence for new measures of health lifestyle dimensions in both the U.S. and West Germany. Divisive cluster analyses detect three distinct lifestyle groups in both nations. Implications for future lifestyle research are discussed.
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This study examined the relationship between Quality of Life (QOL) among workers of a major manufacturing company, health practices and primary symptoms/problems. To examine subjective assessment of the quality of life, we designed a comprehensive working-life satisfaction scale. Similarly we designed and assessed Health Practice Index (HPI) and scores for primary symptoms/problems. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Scores for primary symptoms/problems tended to be lower as the Health Practice Index (HPI) were higher. 2) Working-life satisfaction tended to be higher as scores for primary symptoms/problems were lower. 3) Working-life satisfaction tended to be higher as the Health Practice Index (HPI) were higher. The findings pointed to strong correlations between working-life satisfaction as a subjective index in order to assess the Quality of Life (QOL), the Health Practice Index (HPI) and scores for primary symptoms/problems.
Article
The present study was performed in order to plan and evaluate dental health care for a cohort of 67-year-olds in a Danish municipality. The purpose was to study general and dental health and the effect of life-style and social network relations. A total of 216 persons (71% of the persons selected) were interviewed in 1987; measurement of life-style was based on information about how often the respondents participated in social, cultural, and spare time activities. Family network activity was measured from information on the frequency of contact with family members, while data about relations with friends and neighbours were intended to measure the quality of contact. Moreover, the participants were asked about the presence of various symptoms of ill health, regular use of drugs, and dental symptoms. Additive indices on lifestyle and social networks were constructed. Symptoms were frequent among less active people; e.g. 36% of the participants with very low activity reported at least five complaints of ill health against 10% in the group with an active lifestyle. Among less active persons, 51% were edentulous, against 34% among active persons. Most symptoms of ill health occurred relatively often among persons with weak social networks. Ill health seems to be related to a passive lifestyle and non-supportive social network.
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This paper explores the relationship of a number of personal health practices and mortality in the years after a survey made in Alameda County, California in 1965. Age-adjusted mortality rates were higher for men, for persons reporting disability, and for those with inadequate incomes.The individual health practices, smoking, weight in relation to desirable standards for height, drinking, hours of sleep, regularity of meals, and physical activity, were related to mortality in the expected direction. When accumulated to form a health practice score from 0 to 7, the number of health practices showed a striking inverse relationship with mortality rates, especially for men. This relationship was independent of income level and physical health status.The age-specific death rates by number of health practices were used to develop a life table. The average life expectancy of men aged 45 who reported six or seven “good” practices was more than 11 years more than that of men reporting fewer than four. For women the relationship between health practices and mortality was less strong, and the difference between the life expectancy at age 45 for those who reported six or seven, and those who reported fewer than four, was 7 years.
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This paper continues the analysis previously reported of physical health status in an adult population and its relationship to various independent variables. Data for the study were gathered by questionnaires completed by a probability-based sample of adult residents of Alameda County, California, in 1965.Physical health is measured along a spectrum ranging from severe disability to high energy level with absence of chronic conditions or symptoms. The “ridit” which places each individual along the spectrum can be averaged for comparison of groups, and can be adjusted for differences due to age and sex.This paper examines the relation between common health practices, including hours of sleep, regularity of meals, physical activity, smoking and drinking, and physical health status. Good practices are shown to be associated with positive health, and the relationship of these activities was cumulative; those who followed all of the good practices being in better health, even though older, than those who failed to do so. This association was found to be independent of age, sex, and economic status.
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Certain aspects of daily life-style were predictive of future health status among survivors in a 9-year longitudinal study. In a sample of 3,892 white adults under the age of 70, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, physical exercise, hours of sleep per night, and weight in relation to height are significantly associated with overall health outcomes 9 years later, controlling for initial level of health. An index of health practices combining these five elements is associated with future health status within subgroups defined by socioeconomic level. These findings do not appear to be due to selective panel attrition or measurement error in the health indicator.
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All 55-yr-old citizens (n = 1012) of Oulu (a middle-sized Finnish town) were invited to a clinical examination; 780 agreed to participate. The associations of lifestyle with decayed tooth surfaces and the number of teeth were studied in the 533 dentate subjects. Measures of lifestyle included dietary habits, a smoking habit, alcohol consumption and physical activity. When the associations of dental caries with lifestyle, sex, dental health behavior, social class and number of teeth were studied by logistic regression analysis, lifestyle was shown to have an independent association with dental caries. Further analysis of the data showed that dental caries increased with a more negative lifestyle in every social class, but most significantly in the lowest. Number of teeth was not associated with lifestyle, but subjects with lower social status had fewer teeth than those with higher social status. The association of lifestyle with dental caries supports the idea that behavior in a broader sense should be taken into consideration in caries prevention.
Article
Lifestyle factors, sometimes associated with physical health and mortality, have also been known to be associated with mental health status. This study seeks to correlate behavioral lifestyles with major components of mental health among Japanese factory workers. We administered the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and a questionnaire concerning eight personal health practices to 2,132 male and 668 female factory workers at a camera-manufacturing company in Japan. There were strong negative relationships of a higher total number of favorable lifestyles as indicated by the Health Practice Index (HPI) to psychological distress and its components: somatic symptoms, anxiety-insomnia, and social dysfunction. After controlling for the effects of confounding factors that included age, marital status, and somatic condition, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that five of the eight health factors among male workers--mental stress, nutritional balance, eating breakfast regularly, physical exercise, and working hours--were significantly related to the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Among female workers, five health practices, i.e., mental stress, physical exercise, sleeping hours, working hours, and cigarette smoking, were significantly associated with the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Good health practices might be individually and as a whole associated with better mental health status in factory workers.
Article
Because the promotion of healthier life styles has become a public health issue of increasing interest, a survey was conducted to compare levels of preventive oral and general health behaviors. A randomly selected population of voters aged 19 years and older living in a multicultural suburb of metropolitan Toronto, Canada, participated in a mail survey. Dentate respondents (n = 976) reported high optimal levels for at least daily toothbrushing (96%); moderate levels of preventive yearly dental examination (69%); and low levels for flossing (22%), using an interdental device (25%), not snacking between meals (12%), and consuming fewer than two cariogenic foods on the previous day (26%). For the general health behaviors, the majority did not smoke (75%), had low alcohol intake (89%), used seat belts (69%), and exercised three times weekly (50%). Additive indices for the oral and general health behaviors were significantly, although weakly, correlated (r = 13; P < .001) and few respondents (31.3%) scored high on both indices. OLS regression on a combined index of oral and general health behaviors found that females, older respondents, and those with higher incomes were more likely to engage in a higher level of health behaviors. These results indicate the need to develop health promotion life style programs that incorporate both dental and general health components and to target these programs to younger age groups, males, and those with low incomes.
Article
To examine the contribution of life circumstances and lifestyles, and the interaction between them, to the oral health status of older Canadians. Subjects were recruited using a telephone interview survey, based on random digit dialling and subsequently interviewed and clinically examined. Four hundred and ninety-eight dentate subjects aged 53 years and over living independently in Ontario, Canada. Subjects were classified as living in deprived, middle or privileged life circumstances based on their social and personal attributes. They were also classified as having relatively poor or relatively favourable lifestyles based on their health behaviours. The oral health status indicators used were: the number of missing teeth, the number of decayed and filled root surfaces, mean periodontal attachment loss, the number of oral symptoms in the previous four weeks, self-rated oral health, and a psycho social impact score. In bivariate analyses, life circumstances were significantly associated with three of these six indicators and lifestyles with five. Healthy lifestyles had an effect on the oral health status of those living in deprived and middle circumstances but not on the privileged, although no overall interaction effect was observed in multivariate analyses controlling for gender and age. These data suggest that, among this population, life circumstances and lifestyles are both related to oral health. They also indicate that the role of these factors varies according to the condition and health indicator in question.
Article
The aim was to compare how general lifestyle, gender and occupational status determine dental health behavior. All the 1012 55-year-old citizens of Oulu (a medium-sized Finnish town) were invited to participate in this study. 780 of them did so. Information about frequency of toothbrushing, use of extra cleaning methods, use of sugar in coffee or tea, and time of the last dental visit, lifestyle, occupational status and gender was gathered from the 533 dentate subjects. Lifestyle was measured by means of questions about physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and dietary habits. Females and people with a healthy lifestyle brushed their teeth more often. Extra cleaning methods were used more often by people with a healthy lifestyle, whereas gender and occupational status had a weaker association. Males and people with a lower occupational status used sugar in coffee or tea more often. The time from the last dental visit was longer among workers and men; lifestyle had no significant association. At the population level oral cleaning habits are a matter of a health-oriented lifestyle and gender-related behavior. The dental visiting habit has a weaker association with general lifestyle.
IP: 24.38.146.136] 2. Sakki TK, Knuuttila ML, Anttila SS. Lifestyle, gender and occupational status as determinants of dental health behavior
[Downloaded free from http://www.jispcd.org on Sunday, September 13, 2020, IP: 24.38.146.136] 2. Sakki TK, Knuuttila ML, Anttila SS. Lifestyle, gender and occupational status as determinants of dental health behavior. J Clin Periodontol 1998;25:566-70.
Survey Methods in Community Medicine
  • J H Abramson
  • Z H Abramson
Abramson JH, Abramson ZH. Survey Methods in Community Medicine. 5th ed. Edinburgh, United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone; 1999. p. 89-103.