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... It inhabits mountainous ecosystems between 1,200 and 3,500 m a.s.l. in both the Atlantic and Pacific slopes, from northwestern and eastern Mexico south to the highlands of southern Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, andNicaragua (Howell andWebb 1995, Arizmendi andBerlanga 2014). Its northern populations (north and central Mexico) have been reported to breed exclusively in the boreal spring and summer months (Mar-Aug), with a few reports of southern Mexico populations breeding in May-August and occasionally between November and February, and in Guatemala and El Salvador between October and December (Arizmendi et al. 2015). In Oaxaca, Rowley (1966Rowley ( , 1984 reported 3 instances of winter nest activity between December 1964 and February 1965 with no further published records of nesting in this season. ...
... Two months before, in December 1964, he found 2 nests with eggs at the Cerro San Felipe (Sierra Norte; Rowley 1984). To our knowledge, these are the only 2 known records of winter nesting White-eared Hummingbirds, with no further published reports in the state, although it is acknowledged that this species may breed in 2 different seasons of the year in southern Mexico (Arizmendi et al. 2015). Skutch (1945) reported that White-eared Hummingbirds have a 23-26 d nestling period. ...
We report the finding of a White-eared Hummingbird (Basilinna leucotis) nest during the winter. The observation took place on 9 February 2019 in San José del Pacífico, Oaxaca, Mexico, in the Sierra Madre del Sur. The hummingbird nest was located in the understory, 115 cm above the ground. The nest was placed within a plot of a pine-oak forest at 2,857 m a.s.l. and had 2 nestlings with complete juvenile plumage. Floral phenology is known to be a key factor that determines the biological cycles of hummingbirds, which rely heavily on nectar resources to fulfill their nutritional needs in the breeding season. Around the nest, we observed Salvia punicans Epling, a plant that blossoms during the winter months in the Mexican mountains and is visited by White-eared Hummingbirds. Previous winter nest records in Southern Oaxaca date from more than 50 year ago. We briefly discuss the implications of winter reproduction for the species and the potential commonness of this event.
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