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Desapariciones con desenlace fatal de etiología homicida en España. Una revisión pormenorizada.

Authors:
  • Ministerio del Interior - Secretaría de Estado de Seguridad

Abstract

A pesar de su baja prevalencia, los casos de desapariciones con desenlace fatal por causa homicida despiertan una gran alarma social, lo que genera una necesidad y reclamo de estudio por parte de la sociedad en aras de que estos aspectos se aborden y se sitúen con prioridad en la agenda política. Para abordar estas necesidades y ayudar a las FCSE en la respuesta hacia este tipo de casos, cabe preguntarse si existen aspectos que los caractericen. Para responder ante estas cuestiones y siguiendo los términos de cooperación CNDES-ICFS (UAM), se ha realizado un estudio pormenorizado y sobre el terreno de una muestra de casos de desapariciones en España en las que subyace un homicidio. Esta revisión pormenorizada ha consistido en a) la identificación, recopilación y estudio de la documentación policial (atestados) de una muestra de casos de desapariciones que hubieran terminado en homicidio de la persona desaparecida, y que hubieran sido esclarecidos; b) la entrevista personal con los agentes policiales que investigaron el caso, así como con los entornos de víctimas y agresores, y, en última instancia, con el agresor en prisión; y c) la elaboración de un informe técnico en el que se vaciaron los datos de los distintos casos y se mostraran los resultados de los análisis estadísticos de esos datos, a nivel descriptivo. Esta iniciativa se considera pionera en el ámbito europeo hasta el momento. A pesar de ser un estudio descriptivo, los resultados han permitido describir profundamente variables antes no conocidas sobre el fenómeno de las desapariciones con desenlace fatal de etiología homicida en nuestro país, facilitando así una mayor capacitación de los integrantes de las FCS que trabajen en esta materia. Además, este trabajo sirve como punto de partida para el desarrollo de futuras investigaciones con valor predictivo que mejoren (si cabe) la respuesta policial basada en la evidencia ante la denuncia de un caso de desaparición en el que se advierta desde el primer momento que subyace un homicidio y que permitan estimar las características más probables que puede tener el autor o autores de este (perfilado inductivo).
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