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Micronutrients through foliar application enhance growth, yield and quality of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

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Abstract

Micronutrient additives for sugar beet growth and development are very important, especially in the alkaline Egyptian soil. A two year (2017 and 2018) field experiment was conducted in the Sakha Agricultural Research Station of Agricultural Research Center, Egypt, to study the effect of the foliar treatments with micronutrients including Zn at rates of 50 and 100 mg L-1, B at rates of 50 and 100 mg L-1 and Mo at rates of 20 and 40 mg L-1 on the morphological and physiological features as well as root characteristics of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Results showed that the Zn, B and Mo foliar treatments at the two concentrations increased growth parameters of roots i.e. root diameter, root length, root fresh weight and root dry weight. Likewise, the foliar applications with Zn, B, and Mo at the two applied concentrations significantly increased N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents in treated sugar beet leaves and roots. The high concentration of Zn (100 mg L-1) and Mo (40 mg L-1) yielded the highest of sucrose percentage, TSS percentage, purity percentage, sugar yield, root yield and improved yield quality as well. The foliar treatments with Zn at a rate of 100 mg L-1 and Mo a rate of 40 mg L-1 showed a high capacity for enhancing growth and yield characteristics of sugar beet in the alkaline Egyptian soil probably due to balancing nutrients uptake and translocation.

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... AM and B have an effect on the sugars and nutrients of the photosynthesis parts (leaves) in order to snick the storage section (fruit), as well as the special functions of yield production, through improved pollination and seed quality, could be attributed to this increase when applied to AM and B according to Lakshmi [19]. Zewail et al. [24] stated that foliar spraying of sugar beet plants with B at 50 mg/L increased the sugar content and some other bio constituents. Similarly, Giri et al. [43] reported that AM application increased photosynthesis portioning and allocation through the enhanced uptake of minerals, thus, offering stable elements to host stevia in improving growth and bio constituent contents. ...
... In addition, B plays a significant role in the translocation of photosynthesis portioning and allocation from sink to source [49]. Zewail et al. [24] reported that foliar spraying of sugar beet plants with boron increased mineral element content and root quality. Standard B-containing fertilizer mergers are failing to achieve uniform delivery of nutrients. ...
... Standard B-containing fertilizer mergers are failing to achieve uniform delivery of nutrients. Given the need for this essential nutrient, B is the world's second most common micronutrient deficiency concern after zinc [24]. Boron is an essential element for division of the cell transport of sugars, cell wall development, fruits, and hormone synthesis. ...
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Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana, L.) is receiving increasing global interest as a diabetes-focused herb associated with zero-calorie stevioside sweetener glycoside production. This study was conducted to determine whether the arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), as a biofertilizer integrated with nano boron (B), zinc (Zn), and molybdenum (Mo), would improve stevia growth and stevioside content. A factorial experiment with four replicates was conducted to evaluate the effect of AM at 0, 150, and 300 spore/g soil and three nano microelements B at 100 mg/L, Zn at 100 mg/L, and Mo at 40 mg/L on growth performance, stevioside, mineral contents, and biochemical contents of stevia. Results indicated that the combination of AM at 150 and B at 100 mg/L significantly increased plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry-stem, and herbal g/plant during the 2019 and 2020 growing seasons. Chlorophyll content was increased by the combination between AM at 150 spore/g soil and B at 100 mg/L during both seasons. Stevioside content in leaves was increased by AM at 150 spore/g soil and B at 100 mg/L during the second season. In addition, N, P, K, Zn, and B in the leaf were increased by applying the combination of AM and nano microelements. Leaf bio constituent contents were increased with AM at 150 spore/g soil and B at 100 mg/L during both seasons. The application of AM and nano B can be exploited for high growth, mineral, and stevioside contents as a low-calorie sweetener product in stevia.
... Micronutrients are applied to plants in very low dosages, but they are crucial in improving their growth and production. These elements are key for cell differentiation, cell growth, and cell wall integrity and induce resistance to pests and diseases in most cases (Zewail et al. 2020). The deficiency of these elements may sometimes limit the uptake of other nutrients and plant growth (Abbas et al. 2014). ...
... This increases sugar association resulting in the enhancement of gross sugar content (Nadeeka and Seran, 2020). In the micronutrient treatments, the B-containing fertilizers might have been able to activate some enzymatic systems and metabolic activities, which increased the generation of energy and carbohydrates and developed leaf area, eventually leading to the higher sugar content beets (Zewail et al. 2020). Mekdad and Shaaban (2020) reported that micronutrients played a critical role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, the regulation of cell metabolism, and the mobilization of sugar compounds, which improved sugar percentage. ...
... Increased nutrient uptake in different treatments of animal manure and foliar application of micronutrients might be responsible for the enhancement of pure sugar percentage because it has been established that there is a positive correlation between nutrient uptake and its sugar content (Lehrsch et al. 2014;Zewail et al. 2020). It has been reported that the increase in animal manure rate increases nutrient uptake, finally resulting in the enhancement of pure sugar percentage of sugar beets (Maharjan and Hergert, 2019). ...
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Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an agricultural crop with a high sucrose content in the root. Its specific properties make it an essential crop for the sugar processing industry-the response of sugar beet cv. 'Sonja' to different rates of animal manure and foliar application of micronutrients was explored. Animal manure was applied at six rates, whereas micronutrients (Fe, Zn, B, and Mn) were foliar applied at five levels and no micronutrients (control). The evaluated traits included gross sugar percentage, Na, K, and N contents of tubers, alkalinity, sugar extraction coefficient, root yield, pure sugar percentage, and molasses. The results showed that the maximum gross sugar of 18.59% and pure sugar of 16.22% were obtained in plots treated with 40 t ha-1 manure that was subjected to the foliar application of B. Also, foliar application of micronutrients (Mn, Zn, and B) under 40 t ha-1 manure by reducing the amount of Na and amino-N content of the sugar beet roots improved the quantitative and qualitative characteristics. The application of manure enhanced root yield, white sugar yield, and sugar yield by 31, 35, and 38%, respectively, compared to the no-manure treatment. The highest root yield of 63.96 t ha-1 , white sugar yield of 11.24 t ha-1 and sugar yield of 9.28 t ha-1 was obtained from Mn application. The results revealed that the foliar application of micronutrients accompanied by animal manure application could maintain soil fertility and improve the quantitative and qualitative traits of sugar beet. HIGHLIGHTS m Sugar beet is an essential crop agricultural crop cultivated mainly for its high sucrose content root. m Animal manure and foliar application of micronutrients improved both soil fertility and improved the quantitative and qualitative traits of sugar beet. m The highest gross and pure sugar contents were obtained in plots treated with 40 t ha-1 of manure and that were subjected to foliar application.
... However, broadcast and banded fertilization may increase in soil salinization. Under these conditions, foliar spraying of such nutrients is not only more beneficial but also low cost (Mekdad and Rady 2016;Zewail et al. 2020). ...
... Exogenous M mixture improved industryrelated juice attributes by augmented sucrose, TS, and QI, while diminished LS, non-sugar (Na + , K + , and α-AN) components, and AC compared with salt-stressed sugar beet plants. These data agree with Mekdad and Rady (2016) and Zewail et al. (2020) on sugar beet grown in saline and normal soils. They have observed that exogenous M (Fe +2 , Zn +2 , and Mn +2 ) mixture enhanced desirable juice traits (sucrose, purity, extractable sugar, and AC), but reduced the non-sugar impurities and sugar lost in molasses. ...
... The beneficial effect of M mixture on juice quality may be owing to the increase of K + uptake as in our study, which has a pivot role in the translocation of photo-assimilates (e.g., sucrose) from the shoots (source organs) to accrue into the storage beets (sink organs) (Hermans et al. 2006). Mekdad and Rady (2016) and Zewail et al. (2020) reported on sugar beet that the micronutrient nutrition positively affected growth and photo-elements uptake, hence actively transport photo-assimilates from source (shoots) towards sink (storage roots). Also, increasing sucrose, TS, and QI may be owing to Zn +2 as a microelement in activating Zn +2 -containing enzymes such as CAH and FDPase, which are involved in the carbohydrate (e.g., sucrose) metabolism (Broadley et al. 2012). ...
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Exogenously applied micronutrients (M) have been reported to boost salinity tolerance and improve yield and quality. However, very little is known about the effect of M mixture foliar application under saline soil condition. Our objective was to investigate the influences of M mixture foliar application on morpho-physiological traits, yield, and quality and nutritional status of sugar beet under saline (9.39 dS m−1) soil. Two consecutive (2018/2019–2019/2020) field trials were conducted on both Romulus and Francesca sugar beet cultivars treated with M mixture (0 ppm; [M0], 150 ppm [M150; 75 Fe (FeSO4), 50 Zn (ZnSO4), 25 Mn (MnSO4)], and 300 ppm [M300; 150 Fe (FeSO4) 100 Zn (ZnSO4), 50 Mn (MnSO4)]. M150 or M300 significantly boosted growth, water status, photosynthetic efficiency, nutritional status, and productivity of sugar beet. M300 increased root yield (RY) by 11.5% and 42.0% and true sugar yield (TSY) by 22.7% and 92.9% compared to M150 and M0, respectively. M300-treated plants had higher sucrose, true sugar, and quality index but lower loss sugar and non-sugar impurities M300 markedly improved sugar beet performance owing to increase leaf hydration status, photosynthetic efficiency, nutrients (K+, Fe2+, Zn2+, and Mn2+) uptake, and K+/Na+ ratio. Romulus exhibited enhanced growth, yield, and quality, reflecting more salt tolerance when compared with Francesca. Stepwise regression indicated plant fresh weight, SPAD chlorophyll, and leaves number plant−1 are the most influential RY- and TSY-attributed characteristics in salt-stressed sugar beet. M150 or M300 are more effective and may offer a potential economic alternative for salinity-stress alleviation in salt-stressed sugar beet.
... The sugar yield is the result of the sucrose content in the juice extracted from the roots of the sugar beet. Nevertheless, the presence of impurities, i.e., Na + , K + , and α-amino nitrogen, in high amounts in beet juice has a detrimental molasses impact that declines the sugar produced from the beet pulp and therefore sugar production [46]. Si-NP combined with PGPR have maximized sugar yield, while the non-sugar components (Na + , K + , and α-amino nitrogen) were reduced under saline water irrigation conditions in saline-affected soils. ...
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Combined stressors (high soil salinity and saline water irrigation) severely reduce plant growth and sugar beet yield. Seed inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and/or foliar spraying with silica nanoparticles (Si-NP) is deemed one of the most promising new strategies that have the potential to inhibit abiotic stress. Herein, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) plants were treated with two PGPR (Pseudomonas koreensis MG209738 and Bacillus coagulans NCAIM B.01123) and/or Si-NP, during two successive seasons 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 to examine the vital role of PGPR, Si-NP, and their combination in improving growth characteristics, and production in sugar beet plants exposed to two watering treatments (fresh water and saline water) in salt-affected soil. The results revealed that combined stressors (high soil salinity and saline water irrigation) increased ion imbalance (K+/Na+ ratio; from 1.54 ± 0.11 to 1.00 ± 0.15) and declined the relative water content (RWC; from 86.76 ± 4.70 to 74.30 ± 3.20%), relative membrane stability index (RMSI), stomatal conductance (gs), and chlorophyll content, which negatively affected on the crop productivity. Nevertheless, the application of combined PGPR and Si-NP decreased oxidative stress indicators (hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation) and sodium ions while increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; up to 1.9-folds), catalase (CAT; up to 1.4-folds), and peroxidase (POX; up to 2.5-folds) enzymes, and potassium ions resulting in physiological processes, root yield, and sugar yield compared to non-treated controls under combined stressors (high soil salinity and saline water irrigation). It is worth mentioning that the singular application of PGPR improved root length, diameter, and yield greater than Si-NP alone and it was comparable to the combined treatment (PGPR+Si-NP). It was concluded that the combined application of PGPR and Si-NP has valuable impacts on the growth and yield of sugar beet growing under combined stressors of high soil salinity and saline water irrigation.
... B application noticeably enhanced maize growth through increasing photosynthetic capacity, tissue-B content, water-status, up-regulation of antioxidative defensesystem; furthermore, mitigated negative impacts of B on corn was also reported [91]. Zinc foliar application (100 mg L −1 ) and molybdenum (40 mg L −1 ) stimulated growth and yield characteristics of sugar beet through balancing translocation and nutrients uptake [92]. Application of Ca, B and GA 3 increased quantitative and qualitative characteristics of pomegranate fruit, enhanced peel integrity and decreased sun-burning and cracking of pomegranate and increased fruit chemical composition and peel moisture [93]. ...
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Background The most important advantages of foliar fertilization are to improve plant growth and crop quality, appropriately manage the nutritional status of plants, enhance disease resistance and regulate nutrient deficiencies. Main body The aim of this manuscript is to outline and emphasize the importance of foliar application of nutrients in order to increase both quality and yield of medicinal and aromatic plants. The searches focused on publications from 1980 to July 2021 using PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Scopus databases. The current manuscript presented many examples of potential of foliar application for medicinal and aromatic plants production systems. Foliar application of Fe and Zn on Anise; Se on Atractylodes; Zn sulfate on Basil, Costmary, Mint and Fenugreek; Se and Fe on Stevia; S and P on castor bean; Zn and Fe on Chamomile; Cu, Mg and ZnSO 4 on Damask rose; N and P on Fennel; Se on water spinach and tea; K ⁺ and Ca ²⁺ on Thyme; Zn and K on Spearmint; Zn on Saffron, Ni on Pot marigold; Fe on peppermint, N and P on Mustard had positive and significant impacts. Conclusion Observed impacts of foliar fertilization consisted of significant increase of yield, enhanced resistance to insects, pests and diseases, improved drought tolerance and escalated crop quality.
... needs from micronutrient and nitrogen fertilizers (Abbas et al. 2020;Zewail et al. 2020). ...
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In recent years, with the spread of drought and increasing demand for water, the need for water management in irrigation of plants has become more apparent. Present investigation studied yield-related biochemical responses of sugar beet to vermicompost and phytoprotectants to mitigate drought stress based on a split-plot-factorial design with three replications. The main plots consisted of irrigation at 90%, 70%, 50%, and 30% field capacity (FC). The subplots subjected to treatments comprised a factorial combination of vermicompost (0 and 7 Mg/ha) and foliar application of phytoprotectants [distilled water as a control, zinc (5μM), silicon (4mM), glycine betaine (4mM) and ascorbic acid (0.5mM)]. The findings showed that concentration of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, were significantly enhanced under stress conditions. Despite the higher sugar percentage, the lower root yield and biomass were recorded in the plants irrigated with 30 and 50% FC. Sugar content increased gradually in response to increasing in water deficit (from 70% to 30% FC). Root yield increased insignificantly with zink, glycine betaine, and ascorbic acid treatments. The highest root yield was obtained at 70% FC that followed by other water regimes (90, 50, and 30% FC, respectively). Malondialdehyde increased with increasing stress level but it decreased when phytoprotectants, especially glycine betaine, were applied. Vermicompost treatment had positive effect on the prevention of lipid peroxidation. It can be concluded that phytoprotectants and vermicompost protect sugar beet plants from drought-induced oxidative stress, and improve root and sugar yield by enhancing plant water-stress tolerance. Citation: Arjeh J, Pirzad A, Tajbakhsh M, and Mohammadzadeh S, 2021. Biochemical responses of sugar beet plant to phytoprotectants and vermicompost under moisture stress. Journal of Plant Physiology and Breeding 11(1): 17-31.
... Application of micronutrients as foliar spray influences the growth attribute due to increased photosynthetic efficiency, respiration of the plant and role of micronutrient in endogenous biosynthesis of phytohormones. Ferrous (Fe) in the foliar solution increased physiological process namely chlorophyll synthesis, mitochondrial respiration and also it served as a cellular component of chloroplast and vital enzymes like cytochrome in the electron transport chain, that in turn increased the photosynthetic activity as suggested by [35,44,46,48]. Increase in plant height might be owing to the role of zinc (Zn) in auxin synthesis by activating the precursor tryptophan and associated with the role of boron (B) in the development of cell wall and cell differentiation [27]. ...
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The objective of the research was to discern the impact of micronutrients as a foliar spray in annual moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) var. PKM 1. The plants were sprayed at three different phases—vegetative, flowering and pod setting phase with micronutrients singly or in combination of ferrous sulphate + citric acid, boric acid, zinc sulphate, manganese sulphate or a mixture of all. The experimental results revealed that all treatments performed significantly better when compared to control with respect to all morphological and yield attributes. The maximum plant height, number of primary branches, number of flowers per panicle, number of panicles per tree, fruit setting percentage, pod yield per tree, protein, ascorbic acid, carotenoid content and micronutrients status in leaves and pods were recorded highest in T8 (FeSO4 1% + Citric Acid 0.1%) + ZnSO4 0.5% + MnSO4 0.5% + H3BO3 0.2%) (micronutrient mixture) than other treatment combinations. The research has proven that the foliar spray of these micronutrient combinations increased the growth, quality and yield of annual moringa var. PKM-1 significantly. The research outcome is in corroboration that the nutrient status of moringa leaves is found to be higher when compared to the pods. Hence, the consumption of moringa leaves will be more beneficial than the pods in terms of nutrient supplement to alleviate malnutrition and sustain nutritional security.
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Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are enzymes that typically use molecular oxygen to oxidize ortho-diphenols to ortho-quinones. These commonly cause browning reactions following tissue damage, and may be important in plant defense. Some PPOs function as hydroxylases or in cross-linking reactions, but in most plants their physiological roles are not known. To better understand the importance of PPOs in the plant kingdom, we surveyed PPO gene families in 25 sequenced genomes from chlorophytes, bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants. The PPO genes were then analyzed in silico for gene structure, phylogenetic relationships, and targeting signals. Many previously uncharacterized PPO genes were uncovered. The moss, Physcomitrella patens, contained 13 PPO genes and Selaginella moellendorffii (spike moss) and Glycine max (soybean) each had 11 genes. Populus trichocarpa (poplar) contained a highly diversified gene family with 11 PPO genes, but several flowering plants had only a single PPO gene. By contrast, no PPO-like sequences were identified in several chlorophyte (green algae) genomes or Arabidopsis (A. lyrata and A. thaliana). We found that many PPOs contained one or two introns often near the 3' terminus. Furthermore, N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis using ChloroP and TargetP 1.1 predicted that several putative PPOs are synthesized via the secretory pathway, a unique finding as most PPOs are predicted to be chloroplast proteins. Phylogenetic reconstruction of these sequences revealed that large PPO gene repertoires in some species are mostly a consequence of independent bursts of gene duplication, while the lineage leading to Arabidopsis must have lost all PPO genes. Our survey identified PPOs in gene families of varying sizes in all land plants except in the genus Arabidopsis. While we found variation in intron numbers and positions, overall PPO gene structure is congruent with the phylogenetic relationships based on primary sequence data. The dynamic nature of this gene family differentiates PPO from other oxidative enzymes, and is consistent with a protein important for a diversity of functions relating to environmental adaptation.
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Vegetative propagation is widely used as a means of genotype preservation in clone banks and seed orchards but despite this, the possibility of vegetative propagation using hormones is not clear for many indigenous tree species, including Balanites aegyptiaca. This research is on the vegetative propagation of B. aegyptiaca as influenced by rooting media and growth hormones. Juvenile stem cuttings were obtained from 4 months old seedlings. Nodal stem cuttings 4–5 cm long from 3–5 mm diameter stems were treated with indole-3-butyric acid or indole-3-acetic acid at 50, 100 and 150 mg/L and sown in three different rooting media: top soil, river sand, and sawdust. The results reveal a significant effect (p < 0.05) of rooting media and growth hormones on B. aegyptiaca cuttings. B. aegyptiaca can be propagated vegitatively without the use of hormones. The control was recommended for vegetative propagation of B. aegyptiaca.
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This is the 5th edition of a well-established book Principles of Plant Nutrition which was first published in 1978. The same format is maintained as in previous editions with the primary aim of the authors to consider major processes in soils and plants that are of relevance to plant nutrition.This new edition gives an up-to-date account of the scientific advances of the subject by making reference to about 2000 publications. An outstanding feature of the book, which distinguishes it from others, is its wide approach encompassing not only basic nutrition and physiology, but also practical aspects of plant nutrition involving fertilizer usage and crop production of direct importance to human nutrition. Recognizing the international readership of the book, the authors, as in previous editions, have attempted to write in a clear concise style of English for the benefit of the many readers for whom English is not their mother tongue. The book will be of use to undergraduates and postgraduates in Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry and Ecology as well as those researching in Plant Nutrition.
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The majority of the world's people depend research work should be carried out at the local and regional level by locally trained on plants for their livelihood since they grow them for food, fuel, timber, fodder and people. many other uses. A good understanding Following the success of our earlier book of the practical factors which govern the (Techniques in Bioproductivity and Photo­ synthesis; Pergamon Press, 1985), which productivity of plants through the process of photosynthesis is therefore of paramount was translated into four major languages, importance, especially in the light of cur­ the editors and contributors have exten­ rent concern about global climate change sively revised the content and widened the and the response of both crops and natural scope of the text,· so it now bears a title ecosystems. in line with current concern over global The origins of this book lie in a series of climate change. · In particular, we have training courses sponsored by the United added chapters on remote sensing, con­ Nations Environment Programme (Project trolled-environment studies, chlorophyll No. FP/6108-88-0l (2855); 'Environment fluorescence, metabolite partitioning and changes and the productivity of tropical the use of mass isotopes, all of which grasslands'), with additional support from techniques are increasing in their applica­ many international and national agencies. tion and importance to this subject area.
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Micronutrient deficiency is widespread in many Asian countries due to the calcareous nature of soils, high pH, low organic matter, salt stress, continuous drought, high bicarbonate content in irrigation water, and imbalanced application of fertilizers. Some of the adverse effects of micronutrient deficiency-induced stress in plants include low crop yield and quality, imperfect plant morphological structure (such as fewer xylem vessels of small size), widespread infestation of various diseases and pests, low activation of phytosiderophores, and lower fertilizer use efficiency. The absence of micronutrient fertilizers results in inadequate absorption of trace elements by plants, which causes substantial yield losses in different crops and forages, and eventually results in poor health for domestic animals and humans. Calcareous soil research results of the last decade show that at the present time, among micronutrients, Zn deficiency is the most cletrimental to effective crop yield. Other important micronutrients that increase crop yield (most to least effect) are Fe, B, Mn, Cu, and Mo. In the case of calcareous soils, the conventional notion that micronutrients increase crop yield by 15%-30% is an underestimated range. In fact, in some cases, especially with inefficient cultivars such as durum wheat (Triticum durum L.), micronutrients can increase grain yield up to 50%, as well as increase macronutrient use efficiency. By supplying plants with micronutrients, either through soil application, foliar spray, or seed treatment, increased yield and higher quality, as well as macronutrient use efficiency, could be achieved. In consideration of the important role micronutrients have in promoting and maintaining human health, more research is needed to determine the advantages of using the optimum level of micronutrients instead of their critical level as an indicator with regard to yield, quality, and enrichment objectives for the future.
Chapter
The aim of sugar-beet processors world-wide is to produce pure sugar, at least expense, from the roots which they have purchased and which represent their major manufacturing cost. Although the efficiency of processing depends to a large extent on the factory equipment and the way in which it is utilised, it is the quality of the roots which is by far the most important parameter affecting processing.
Chapter
To discover the physiological basis of variation in crop yield, it is necessary to supplement laboratory studies by direct observations on crops growing in field conditions, measuring the simultaneous changes with time throughout the growth period in as many growth attributes as possible, and selecting especially those attributes that are susceptible to a simple physiological interpretation. While studying the technique of growth analysis, it is found that the yield of a field crop is the weight per unit area of the harvested produce or of some specific part of it, and it is, therefore, more logical to base an analysis of yield on the weight changes that occur during growth than on changes in morphological characters. The ratio (L/W, leaf area ratio) may be regarded as an index of the amount of “growing material” per unit dry weight of the plant. A possible method of analysis of change in dry weight, therefore, consists in the calculation of relative growth rate (RGR) and the further analysis of RGR in terms of net assimilation rate (NAR) and leaf area ratio. One advantage of this form of analysis is that it effects at least a partial separation of those aspects of growth that are controlled by internal factors from those that depend on external factors.
Chapter
The normal range of Mo concentration in agricultural soils is 0.8 – 3.3 mg/kg (Kubota 1977). Values can vary widely, however, depending on soil parent material. Soils derived from granitic rocks, shells, slates or argillaceous schists are often high in Mo whereas highly weathered acid soils tend to be deficient (Gupta 1997a). (1997) divide Mo into four major fractions in the soil: (1) dissolved Mo (2) Mo occluded with oxides (e.g. AI, Fe and Mn oxides), (3) Mo solid phases including molybdenite (MoS2), powellite (CaMoO4), ferrimolybdite (Fe2(MoO4)3) and PbMo4 and (4) Mo associated with organic compounds. In contrast to the heavy metals already discussed Mo forms anonic species in solution, with molybdate (MoO42−) the most prominent above a pH of about 4. This property clearly distinguishes Mo from the other heavy metal nutrients and molybdate more resembles phosphate or sulphate in its behaviour in the soil. Molybdate is adsorbed by sequioxides and clay minerals in an analogous way to phosphate. Adsorption in most cases is thus that of ligand exchange and is rather specific. Of all the plant nutrient anions, molybdate ranks second after phosphate in its strength of adsorptive binding (Parfitt 1978). Molybdate adsorption isotherms are similar to those of phosphate and can be described approximately by the Langmuir equation. Typical Mo adsorption curves are shown in Figure 17.1 from the work of (1970).
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Ausgehend von der Methode von Moore und Stein3, wurde ein vereinfachtes Verfahren zur Bestimmung von freiem α-Amino-Stickstoff in Körperflüssigkeiten entwickelt.
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A rapid methodology for the simultaneous analysis of a large number of cytokinins is presented. The cross-reactivity of a mixture of polyclonal antibodies against zeatin riboside and isopentenyladenosine was exploited in a protocol that can be used for immunoaffinity purification of 23 additional cytokinins. Ligands include the cytokinin bases zeatin, dihydrozeatin, isopentenyladenine, benzyl-adenine and kinetin, and their corresponding nucleoside, nucleoside-5'-monophosphate, and 9-glucoside derivatives, as well as cis-zeatin, cis-zeatin riboside, the 2-methylthiol derivatives of isopentenyladenosine and zeatin riboside, and benzyl-adenine-3-glucoside. Mixtures of cytokinins could be retained with high recoveries of all the components. Immunoaffinity purification of extracts of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and Solarium tuberosum L. gave fractions clean enough, as verified by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS), to allow analysis of endogenous cytokinins using a single high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) step with on-line UV-spectrum detection. The detection limit was 4-6 pmol. The procedure described forms a routine assaying technique that is faster and simpler, yet yields better qualitative and quantitative information than the commonly used procedure of immunoassaying of HPLC fractions.
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The retention times of gibberellins and their glucosyl esters and glucoside conjugates on C18 reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) columns were determined using gradient or isocratic elution with methanol—acetic acid 1% . The separation of double-bond gibberellin isomers was accomplished without the need for derivatization or the addition of salts. A combined HPLC—radiocounting with flow-through scintillation spectrometric procedure was suitable for the routine radioassay of acidic and conjugate-like metabolises from [3H] gibberellin feeds. Similarly, HPLC—bioassay detection was suitable for purified plant extracts. The totally volatile methanol-1% acetic acid solvent in the gradient and/or isocratic mode should be capable of separating virtually any of the known gibberellins, their conjugates and their catabolites. However, retention time alone is inadequate and definitive detection techniques must be utilized.
Article
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine whether foliarly applied potassium + phosphorus (K + P) in the form of monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4) could mitigate the adverse effects of salt stress on sunflower plants. There were two levels of root-applied salt [0 and 150 mM of sodium chloride (NaCl)], and varying levels of KH2PO4 [(NS (no spray), WS (spray of water), 5 + 4, 10 + 8, 15 + 12, and 20 + 16 mg g−1 K + P, pH 6.5] applied foliarly to 18-day old non-stressed and salt stressed sunflower plants. Salt stress adversely affected the growth, yield, photosynthetic capacity, and accumulation of mineral nutrients in the sunflower plants. However, varying levels of foliar applied KH2PO4 proved to be effective in improving growth and yield of sunflower under salt stress. The KH2PO4 induced growth in sunflower was found to be associated with enhanced photosynthetic capacity, water use efficiency and relative water contents.
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Local rice varieties or land races continue to play a key role in rice farming in many parts of Asia, especially in and near the center of diversity of Oryza sativa. This paper provides a review of work done in Thailand, showing how local varieties meet the need of rice farming in areas not reached by improved varieties for ecological, economic and social reasons, while serving to maintain genetic diversity in the field. Far from being archaic inferior types, local rice varieties can outyield modern varieties in these difficult places. Continuing seed selection by farmers resulted in individual seed lots with uniform appearance of the grain and plants, including in those characteristics that are important in crop management such as flowering and maturity time. Such uniformity that satisfies rice growers, traders and consumers, however, hides enormous genetic diversity measurable with molecular markers as well as in useful traits. Variation is found between seed of the same varieties kept by different farmers and within individual seed lots, as well as between different varieties. Hybridization among local rice varieties and also with the common wild rice (O. rufipogon) is likely to be enhanced by traits for cross pollination, e.g. extruded stigma and pollen shedding outside the glumes. Genetic diversity of this important germplasm is maintained by farmers' seed management and selection. Regular seed turnover and exchanges add to the sorting process and genetic differentiation.
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The levels of total polyphenols and o-diphenols were determined in virgin oils and in chloroform/methanol-extracted oils. The solventextracted oils were richer in polyphenols than the virgin oils. High polyphenol content was associated with a high resistance to oxidation of the oils. A linear relationship was found between polyphenol content and the oxidative stability of the virgin oils during storage at 60 C. After removal of the polyphenols, the oxidative stability of the oils decreased considerably and seemed to depend on polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration.
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