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Amaranth Seed Oil Composition

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Amaranth Seed Oil Composition
ParisaNasirpour-Tabrizi, SodeifAzadmard-Damirchi,
JavadHesari and ZahraPiravi-Vanak
Abstract
In this chapter, amaranth seed oil composition will be presented. The main
component of this oil is triacylglycerols (TAGs). TAGs are composed of fatty acids,
which have an important effect on oil stability, application, and nutritional proper-
ties. POL, PLL, POO, OLL, and LOO are the predominant TAGs in the amaranth
seed oil. Linoleic acid (C18:2), oleic acid (C18:1), and palmitic acid (C16:0) are the
predominant fatty acids present in the amaranth oil. Minor components of this oil
are squalene, sterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, phospholipids, etc. Growth condi-
tions of amaranth and extraction conditions can influence oil composition, which
will be discussed in this chapter as well. Oil stability and quality parameters will be
also discussed. The stability of this oil during different conditions of storage will be
a part of this chapter.
Keywords: triacylglycerol, fatty acid, squalene, tocopherol, sterol
. Introduction
Grain amaranth is considered as a gluten-free pseudocereal, which is a non-grass
but cereal-like grain (true cereals are classified as grasses). It is suitable to be used as
the celiac disease patient diet as it contains no gluten [1]. Among more than 60 spe-
cies, the grain of Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Amaranthus
cruentus, Amaranthus hybridus, and Amaranthus mantegazzianus can be used as
flour in some industries, such as bakery and confectionery. However, species of
Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus viridis, and Amaranthus spinosus are not safe to
be consumed [2].
The amaranth grain is mainly composed of about 61.3–76.5% carbohydrate
(mostly starch), 13.1–21.5% crude protein, 5.6–10.9% crude fat, 2.7–5% crude
fiber, and 2.5–4.4% ash [3]. Proteins and lipids are two nutritiously important
macromolecules of the amaranth grain. The content and even the quality of these
two macronutrients are different from those with cereals. The amaranth grain has
higher protein content in comparison to cereals. Lysine, which is the limiting amino
acid in cereals, is found in higher amounts in amaranth grain. The high protein
content of the amaranth grain is also evident from its high essential amino acid
index (EAAI=90.4%), which makes it comparable with egg protein [4].
In addition to protein content and special amino acid profile, amaranth grain
usually contains 5–8% fat, which is important from the nutritional aspect [5].
However, spinosus and tenuifolius species can contain oil content as much as 17 and
19.3%, respectively. The fat content of the amaranth grain is dependent on the spe-
cies, cultivars, and also accessions [6].
Nutritional Value of Amaranth
The fat content of amaranth grain is two to three times higher than cereals [7].
The oil is usually extracted from the grain by the solvent extraction method with the
help of a non-polar organic solvent in a Soxhlet apparatus [8]. Supercritical carbon
dioxide can be used as an alternative to traditional organic solvents for the extrac-
tion of the oil (supercritical fluid extraction method) [9, 10]. In the accelerated
solvent extraction method, high pressure and temperature (even above the boiling
point of the organic solvent) are used [6]. The oil yield with the Soxhlet method
(62.1–75.7%) and accelerated solvent extraction method (65.1–78.1%) is almost
similar; however, the latter is faster and uses lower organic solvent. The supercriti-
cal fluid extraction method has the lowest oil yield among the three methods
(54.6–61.1%) [8].
Lipid fraction is mainly composed of triacylglycerols (TAGs) as the major
component (around 80%) and other minor compounds, such as squalene, sterols,
tocopherols, carotenoids, phospholipids, etc. [11]. Lipid fraction can also be divided
into two groups: free lipids and bonded lipids. TAGs are the major free lipids, while
phospholipids (up to 10.2% of total lipids) and glycolipids (6.4% of total lipid frac-
tion) comprise the main part of the bounded lipids [11].
. Triacylglycerol profile
TAGs are the major component of the amaranth oil, comprising 78–82% of the
lipid fraction [11, 12]. Di- and monoacylglycerols comprise 5.1–6.5 and 3–3.5% of
lipid fraction, respectively [11]. They are composed of fatty acids. Although the
oxidative stability and the nutritional value of the oil are determined by the fatty
acid profile, the functionality of oil is affected by the type and amount of TAGs
[13]. The predominant structures in the amaranth oil are diunsaturated TAGs (UUS;
43.4–50.2%) and triunsaturated TAGs (UUU; 33–35.7%) [13].
The major TAG composition of Amaranthus cruentus is presented in Table.
POL, PLL, POO, OLL, and LOO are dominant TAGs in the amaranth oil with
carbon number ranging between 50 and 54 [7, 11, 13]. According to the TAG profile,
Reference no. [] Reference no. []Reference no. []
LLL 45.94 Not reported
OLL 12.1 10.97a2.4
PLL 13.8 14.48b16.7b
LOO 11.8 10.95c2.6
POL 20d16.69 2 5.4
PPL 7.5 7.01 22.6
OOO 7.9 4.82e3.6
POO 12.5f11.8g16.7
M, myristic acid; P, palmitic acid; Po, palmitoleic acid; S, stearic acid; O, oleic acid; L, linoleic acid;
Ln, linolenic acid.
aOLL+OOLn
bPLL+PLnO
cLOO+PoOO
dPOL+SLL
eOOO+MSO
fPOO+SOL
gPOO+PSL.
Table 1.
Major triacylglycerol composition of the oil from Amaranthus cruentus.
Amaranth Seed Oil Composition
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.91381
amaranth oil is similar to corn and cottonseed oils [7, 14]. Like other vegetable oils,
unsaturated fatty acids generally occupy the sn-2 position in the TAG structure of
the amaranth grain oil. Linoleic acid and oleic acid are the two predominant fatty
acids occupying the sn-2 position in the TAG structure of the amaranth grain oil,
with percentages of 61.3 and 35.5, respectively, resembling cereals and also cot-
tonseed and sesame seed oils [7]. Germination of the grain causes a decrease in TAG
content as a result of increasing the lipase activity. Heat treatment of the grain, such
as popping and cooking, decreases the TAG content [11].
. Fatty acid composition
The fatty acid composition of the oil gives information about oxidative stability
and nutritional quality. Table presents the fatty acid profile of some species of
Amaranthus grain. Investigation on 104 genotypes from 30 species of Amaranthus
grain revealed that palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were predominant
in the oil with average percentages of 21.3, 28.2, and 46.5, respectively. Other fatty
acids such as stearic and linolenic are also present in the oil, but in minor amounts
[15]. The oil is highly unsaturated, containing more than 70% unsaturated fatty
acids. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids ranges between 0.26 and
0.32 [16]. The fatty acid profile of the amaranth oil is similar to that of cottonseed,
buckwheat, and corn oils [13, 14].
. Squalene
Squalene is a triterpene (C30H50) with six double bonds at carbon numbers
2, 6, 10, 14, 18, and 22, which is present in the unsaponifiable fraction of the oil
(Figure ). It is an intermediate molecule for the biosynthesis of phytosterols and
cholesterol [22]. The main sources of squalene are whale and shark liver oil (40–
86%). However, due to the concerns about the extinction of these marine animals,
attempts are made to replace the animal source of squalene with a plant one [23].
Vegetable oils can be used as dietary sources of squalene. There is about 0.5%
squalene in olive oil; around 0.03% in corn, hazelnut, and peanut oils; and 0.01%
in grape seed and soybean oils [24]. The deodorizer distillates of oils such as olive
oil, soybean oil, and palm fatty acids have higher amounts of squalene, containing
10–30, 1.8–3.5, and 0.2–1.3%, respectively [25].
Amaranth grain is another natural plant source of squalene. Although amaranth
grain has lower oil content compared to the other oil-containing seeds, its oil
fraction is a rich source of squalene [26] (Table). The high content of squalene in
C C: C: C: Source
A. cruentus 15.8–27 Tr-4.2 20.3–38.9 33.6–47 [7, 13, 1519]
A. caudatus 12.3–20.5 2.2–4.7 23.8–32.9 35.6–49.8 [11, 18, 20]
A. hypochondriacus 17.9–24 0.9–3.7 16.3–33.7 38.9–52.5 [13, 15, 16, 18]
A. hybridus 18.6–22 1.3–4.4 18.7–26.3 47.4–55.9 [12, 15, 16, 18]
A. tricolor 19.5–24.3 1–3.6 25.9–27.5 46.4–51.5 [15, 16, 21]
A. dubius 15.7–25.9 0.7–4.1 14.8–30.5 46.9–53.5 [15, 18, 21]
Tr, trace.
Table 2.
Fatty acid composition of Amaranthus species grain oil.
Nutritional Value of Amaranth
the amaranth grain oil makes it a unique component, which can be used to recover
squalene. Although the direct derivation of squalene from amaranth seed is not
economically affordable, the recovery of squalene from amaranth oil as a coproduct
of starch production is advantageous [26]. An extensive study on 104 genotypes
from 30 species of Amaranthus grain revealed the squalene concentration in the oil
fraction was trace, 7.3% with an average of 4.2% [15]. The total content of squalene
is dependent on the method of oil extraction. It has been demonstrated that the
oil extracted with supercritical CO2 had the highest squalene concentration (about
7%), followed by oil extracted by chloroform: methanol (2: 1v/v; 6%) and cold-
pressed oil (5.7%) [27]. However, in another investigation, it has been shown that
squalene yield is the highest by accelerated solvent extraction method (4.4–4.7%),
followed by Soxhlet (3.8–4.2%) and supercritical fluid extraction (3.3–3.8%) meth-
ods, respectively [8]. It should be mentioned that heat treatments such as cooking
and popping the seeds cause an increase in the squalene concentration in the lipid
fraction [11].
Figure 1.
Structure of squalene.
Amaranthus species  Squalene Reference
A. cruentus 6.56 [7]
4.9 [11]
5.74–6.95 [27]
2.26–5.94 [17]
4.2–5.44 [16]
3.32–4.93 [15]
9.16 [13]
6.96 [14]
5.29–6.25 [28]
A. hypochondriacus 4.74–6.98 [15]
3.62–5.01 [16]
9.96 [13]
6.05–7.12 [28]
A. hybridus 5.23 [16]
2.26–7.3 [15]
A. caudatus 0.67–8.19 [20]
4.8 [11]
A. tricolor 4.73–5.75 [15]
6.14 [16]
A. dubius 2.72–5.63 [15]
Table 3.
Squalene content of different species of Amaranthus grain oil.
Amaranth Seed Oil Composition
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.91381
. Phytosterols
Plant sterols (phytosterols) are minor components of the vegetable oils, which
comprise a large proportion of unsaponifiable fraction. They contribute to oxidative
stability and extended shelf-life and have serum cholesterol-lowering properties
[29, 30]. Phytosterols are found as 4-desmethysterols, 4-monomethylsterols, and
4, 4-dimethylsterols. They can also be classified as free and esterified forms [31].
It has been reported that a large proportion of the phytosterols in amaranth oil are
in esterified form and only low amounts are present in the free form (about 20%)
[7]. However, in most of the vegetable oils, such as soybean, sesame, olive, cotton-
seed, safflower, palm and coconut oils, free sterols comprise the predominant form
(54–85%) [32].
Total phytosterol content of the amaranth oil is between 1931 and 2762mg/100g
oil [7, 21, 27, 33]. This level of phytosterol in amaranth oil is much higher than
values established by Codex Alimentarius for most of common vegetable oils,
such as coconut oil (40–120mg/100g), cottonseed oil (270–640mg/100g),
flaxseed oil (230–690mg/100g), palm oil (30–70mg/100g), low-erucic acid
A. cruentus A.
dubius
A.
tricolor
III III IV VVI
Cholesterol Tr 0.01 0.01 — — —
24-Methylene
cholesterol
0.3 0.42 0.25 1.64 1.54 1.41 — —
Campesterol 1.6 0.76 11.83 1.96 1.96 2.61 1.57
Stigmasterol 0.9 0.77 0 .44 1.28 1.08 1.49 20.09 13.7
Δ7-Ergostenol 23.8 25.3 — — —
α-Spinasterol 34.2a26.3a44.94b53.24b56.31b— —
Sitostanol Tr 0.25 0.18 1.18 1.35 1.09 — —
Δ7-Campesterol 24.8 — — — 31.19 24.35
Clerosterol 42 — — — 1.58 3.71
Sitosterol 1.3 — — — 2 1.74
Δ5-Avenasterol 21.68 2.34 0.79 0.74 0.35 24.27 30.76
Δ5,24-Stigmastadienol Tr 1.89 2.26 1.92 2.04 1.45 13.66 10.73
Δ7-Stigmastenol 15.2 22.2 24.4 15.02 14.4 8 11.74 0.69 1.52
Δ7-Avenasterol 11.9 13.4 14.9 8.56 7.27 8.09 0.1 5 6.11
Δ7-Ergosterol 17.29 16.32 16.12 — —
Cycloartenol 1.63 — — 2.26 0 0 —
Citrostadienol 1.3 — — 3.3 0 0 —
Total sterol
(mg/100g)
2460 2730 2590 2490 1931 2140 2488.7 2762
Reference [7] [33] [33] [27] [27] [27] [21] [21]
I, hexane extracted oil; II, crude oil extracted by hexane at –°C under atmospheric pressure; III, refined
amaranth oil; IV, oil extracted by supercritical CO under atm and °C; V, cold press oil; VI, solvent extracted
oil by chloroform: methanol (: v/v).
aα-Spinasterol + sitosterol + chondrillasterol.
bα-Spinasterol + sitosterol.
Table 4.
Phytosterol composition of different Amaranthus species.
Nutritional Value of Amaranth
rapeseed oil (450–1130mg/100g), safflower oil (210–460mg/100g), sesame
oil (450–1900mg/100g), soybean oil (180–450mg/100g), and sunflower oil
(240–500mg/100g) [34, 35]. However, wheat germ oil (4240mg/100g) and rice
bran oil (1050–3100mg/100g) have total phytosterol content higher than amaranth
oil [34, 36].
The phytosterol composition of the different Amaranthus species is presented
in Table. The predominant phytosterol in the Amaranthus cruentus seed oil is
the mixture of α-spinasterol and sitosterol [19, 21, 27]. Δ7-Sterols, that is, Δ7-
stigmastenol and Δ7-avenasterol and in some cases Δ7-ergosterol and Δ7-ergostenol,
are also present in considerable amounts in Amaranthus cruentus seed oil [7, 27, 33].
However, Δ7-campesterol and Δ5-avenasterol are the major phytosterols of
Amaranthus dubius and Amaranthus tricolor species. They also contain stigmasterol
and Δ5,24-stigmastadienol in considerable concentrations [21].
. Tocopherols and tocotrienols
Tocopherols and tocotrienols (i.e., tocols) are a part of unsaponifiable fraction,
which are forms of vitamin E and act as natural antioxidants in the vegetable oils.
Tocotrienols are structurally similar to the tocopherols, except that tocotrienols
have three double bonds within their phytol chains [37]. They have a chromanol
ring attached to a phytol chain. Each of tocopherols and tocotrienols is divided into
four subclasses, α-, β-, γ-, and δ- forms, which differ from each other as to the num-
ber of methyl groups on the chromanol ring [38]. The structure of eight homologs
of tocopherols and tocotrienols is presented in Figure .
Tocopherols comprise the majority of the tocols in most of the common oils.
However, tocotrienols are predominant in palm, rice bran, grape seed, and barely
oils [39, 40]. It has been reported that amaranth seed has small or negligible
amounts of tocotrienols [7, 18]. However, there are also reports that amaranth seed
oil has tocotrienol content higher than some vegetable oils, such as soybean oil,
peanut oil, and olive oil [21, 41].
γ-Tocopherol is the dominant tocol in most edible oils such as corn, soybean,
rapeseed, sesame seed, and flaxseed oils. While α-tocopherol is the most abundant
tocol in some vegetable oils such as safflower, sunflower, and olive oils [40]. Total
and individual content of tocol homologs depends on the amaranth species, variet-
ies, variation in analytical and extraction methods, and also growing location and
cultivation conditions [18, 42]. The total tocol content of 21 amaranth accessions
has been reported to be 31.5–78.3mg/kg seed (wet basis), with an average of
49.4mg/kg seed (wet basis) [18].
The study on the effect of dosages of fertilization with macronutrients on the
tocopherol profile of two varieties of Amaranthus cruentus seeds revealed that the
total tocopherol content was 48.6–79.9mg/kg (dry matter) [42]. Applying vari-
ous extraction methods, the determined contents of tocopherol homologs of the
commercial and wild Amaranthus caudatus seed were 12.5–47.84 (mg/kg seed)
α-tocopherol, 19.55–61.56 (mg/kg seed) β-tocopherol, 0.6–4.99 (mg/kg seed)
γ-tocopherol, and 2.1–48.79 (mg/kg seed) δ-tocopherol [20]. Depending on the
supercritical CO2 extraction parameters, the tocopherol homologs of amaranth seed
have s been reported as follows: 2.37–9.79 (mg/kg seed) α-tocopherol, 82.42–211.8
(mg/kg seed) β-tocopherol, 12.36–57.07 (mg/kg seed) γ-tocopherol, and 14.89–
38.59 (mg/kg seed) δ-tocopherol [43]. The tocopherol composition of n-hexane
extracted amaranth grain oil is presented in Table. It has been reported that the
total tocopherol content of n-hexane extracted amaranth oil is between 656.8 and
2588mg/kg oil [7, 21, 33].
Amaranth Seed Oil Composition
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.91381
. Carotenoids
Carotenoids are essential photosensitizers, which have an important role in plant
photosynthesis. They are also considered as provitamin A and possess antioxidative
properties [44]. The two carotenoids lutein (3.55–4.44mg/kg seeds) and zea-
xanthin (trace to 0.32mg/kg seeds) have been detected in amaranth seeds, lutein
being the predominant one. β-Carotene, the most known carotenoid, has not been
detected in amaranth seeds [45].
Figure 2.
Structure of different forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols.
α-T β-T γ-T δ-T Total tocopherols Source
A. tricolor 74.2 1 5 7. 9 1 7. 4 4 07. 2 656.8 [21]
A. dubius 135 245.7 22.3 376.4 7 79. 5 [21]
A. cruentus 248 546 — 8 802 [7]
A. cruentus (crude oil) 392 299 1187 710 2588 [33]
A. cruentus (refined oil) 232 225 728 603 1788 [33]
α-T, α-tocopherol; β-T, β-tocopherol; γ-T, γ-tocopherol; δ-T, δ-tocopherol.
Table 5.
Tocopherol concentration (mg/kg oil) of n-hexane extracted oils from different species of amaranth grain.
Nutritional Value of Amaranth
. Phospholipids
Phospholipids are essential polar lipid materials that have an important role in
biological membranes. TAGs are the major components of the nonpolar fraction
of the lipid. However, phospholipids are the main compounds of the polar fraction
of the lipids, which are considered as bound lipids. The phospholipid content of
the amaranth grain oil has been reported to be in the range of 9.1–10.2% of total
lipids [11].
. Oxidative stability
Concerning the high concentration of squalene and tocopherols, the amaranth
oil is expected to have good oxidative stability. Oxidative stability of amaranth oil
was determined by monitoring the peroxide value at 60°C for 30days. It has been
reported that amaranth oil had good oxidative stability, even better than the oxida-
tive stability of sunflower oil [11]. However, direct investigation of the stability of
crude amaranth oil obtained opposite results. It has been reported that although
amaranth oil contains high concentrations of squalene and tocopherols, which are
strong antioxidants, it did not have good oxidative stability [46].
. Conclusion
Amaranth grain contains 5–8% oil, which is mainly comprised of triacylglyc-
erols (78–82%). The oil also contains important minor phytochemicals, such as
squalene (up to 10%), phytosterols (2–3%), tocopherols, carotenoids, and phos-
pholipids (up to 10%). The high content of tocopherols and squalene, which act as
antioxidants, provides high oxidative stability for amaranth oil. The unique compo-
sition of amaranth seed oil makes it a useful ingredient in the food, pharmaceutical,
and cosmetic industries.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Amaranth Seed Oil Composition
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.91381
Author details
ParisaNasirpour-Tabrizi1, SodeifAzadmard-Damirchi1,2*, JavadHesari1
and ZahraPiravi-Vanak3
1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University
of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
2 Food and Drug Safety Research Center, Health Management and Safety
Promotion Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
3 Food Technology and Agricultural Products Research Center, Standard Research
Institute (SRI), Karaj, Iran
*Address all correspondence to: sodeifazadmard@yahoo.com;
s-azadmard@tabrizu.ac.ir
© 2020 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms
of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/
by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited.
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... The fatty acid composition of the oil gives information about oxidative stability and nutritional quality. According to the literature [11,42,43,[47][48][49], data on amaranth grain proved that palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linolenic acid were the most represented acids in the oil, whereas other fatty acids such as stearic and linolenic acid are present in the oil to a lesser extent. ...
... The content of the most represented fatty acids, oleic, and linoleic acids, appears similar to those described by Gresta et al. [43] in seven accessions of A. cruentus cultivated in a Mediterranean environment. The oleic acid content found in our samples is also in agreement with those reported by Nasirpour-Tabrizi et al. [11], Jahaniaval et al. [55] and He et al. [48]. On the contrary, the linolenic acid content in our accessions was lower than that reported by Nasirpour-Tabrizi et al. [11], Jahaniaval et al. [55], and He et al. [48]. ...
... The oleic acid content found in our samples is also in agreement with those reported by Nasirpour-Tabrizi et al. [11], Jahaniaval et al. [55] and He et al. [48]. On the contrary, the linolenic acid content in our accessions was lower than that reported by Nasirpour-Tabrizi et al. [11], Jahaniaval et al. [55], and He et al. [48]. The palmitic acid level was similar to that reported by He et al. [49] but higher than that reported by Nasirpour-Tabrizi et al. [11], Gresta et al. [43], He et al. [48], and Jahaniaval et al. [55]. ...
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Agronomic traits, oil content, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content were studied on eight A. cruentus accessions cultivated in Southern Italy. A one-way ANOVA model was performed to compare accessions and the Principal Components Analysis was applied to identify patterns in our dataset and highlight similarities and differences. A. cruentus showed valuable seed yield (0.27 kg/m2, on average) comparable to the main tradition cereals used for animal feeding. Seed-oil composition showed significant differences among the accessions. Data showed a higher lipid content than most cereal grains (from 5.6 to 7.3%). Approximately 60% of fatty acids were unsaturated; linoleic fatty acid ranged from 19 to 34%, oleic acid from 29 to 36%, and alfa-linolenic fatty acid from 0.3 to 0.5%, respectively. The saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 0.5 to 0.8, the hypocholesterolemic:hypercholesterolaemic ratio from 1.7 to 2.7, the Atherogenic Index from 0.38 to 0.66, the Thrombogenic Index from 0.85 to 1.48, the total phenolic content from 0.14 to 0.36 mg/g seeds, and the antioxidant activity (DPPH•) from 0.30 to 0.50. The studied seed-oil composition evidenced A. cruentus as a healthy ingredient for animal feed and consequently, as a possible substitute for traditional cereals. Accessions from Mexico and Arizona emerged for their high qualitative traits.
... It has been reported that the protein content of these species is between 10 and 20% (Kozioł, 1992;Abugoch James, 2009;Vega-Gálvez et al., 2010;Nowak et al., 2016;Qin et al., 2018). In recent years, many authors have reported studies related to its techno-functional properties, potential agroindustrial uses and consumption trends (Lamothe et al., 2015;Lopera-Cardona et al., 2016;Guardianelli et al., 2019;Thakur et al., 2019;Nasirpour-Tabrizi et al., 2020). Biological properties have been studied in relation to protein isolate and proteinprotein interactions, given the characteristics of quinoa reserve proteins (Haros and Wronkowska, 2016;Gürbüz et al., 2018;Dakhili et al., 2019;Larbi et al., 2019). ...
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In recent years, great interest has been shown in pseudocereals for their high nutritional value. Wet milling has been used to obtain macromolecules such as proteins and starches. However, the co-products obtained from this food industry have been studied little. A factorial design Box-benhken was used to study the effect of surfactant concentration (SDS), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration and maceration temperature on structural and colorimetric properties. Structural properties were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and color changes by the CIElab tristimulus method (L*, a*, b*). A decrease in temperature and NaOH causes a decrease in lightness (L*), resulting in lower starch content and higher protein content in the co-product. This behavior was correlated with the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) spectra. The spectra show a possible structural change in the amylose/amylopectin ratio of the starch granule at 1,012 cm−1, 1,077 cm−1, and 1,150 cm−1 bands, which are associated with glycosidic bonds, these bonds were sensitive to NaOH concentration. While those bands assigned to Amide II (1,563 cm−1) and Amide I (1,633 cm−1), were sensitive to the effect of NaOH and maceration temperature, evidencing that protein content in the co-products is variable and depends significantly on the extraction conditions. The co-products obtained by wet milling could be used in the development of functional foods, such as bread, snacks, pasta and other products.
... much more than olive oil (0.7-1.0%) [Berganza et al. 2003, Januszewska-Jóźwiak andSynowiecki 2008]. It should be noted that the total squalene content is dependent primarily on the method of oil extraction (especially extraction the oil with supercritical CO 2 gives the greatest amount of squalene) [Nasirpour-Tabrizi et al. 2020]. It is often used in the production of cosmetics and medicines [Plate and Areas 2002], as well as analgesic and anti-inflammatory ointments [Januszewska-Jóźwiak and Synowiecki Skwaryło-Bednarz, B., Stępniak, P.M., Jamiołkowska, A., Kopacki, M., Krzepiłko, A., Klikocka, H. (2020). ...
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Amaranth is one of the oldest arable crop in the world. It was brought to Europe around the 17th century, but as an ornamental plant. It was not until the 1970s, after thorough examination of the chemical composition of amaranth seeds, that in effect of which the nutritional value of this plant was rediscovered and recognized. Since then, there has been increased interest in amaranth as a ‘plant with a future’. A great deal of scientific research has been carried out, leading to recognition of its nutritional, ecological, agricultural and health-promoting values (especially for the prevention and treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular, nervous and digestive systems). Among cultivated amaranths species Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus cruentus and Amaranthus hypochondriacus have the highest nutritional value. However, differences in the nutrient content are also noticeable between these species. One of the attributes of this plant is the high content of highly digestible complete protein and the presence of all essential amino acids in the seeds. The seeds also contain large amounts of gluten-free starch with a small grain diameter, fibre, vitamins and minerals. Furthermore, they have a high fat content compared to cereal grains. Amaranth oil consists mainly of unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic). Some of the unsaturated fatty acids, such as linolenic acid, are exogenous fatty acids, essential for the human body. Valuable components of the fatty acid fraction include squalene, tocopherols and tocotrienols. These compounds are particularly valuable due to their antioxidant properties.
... The health-promoting properties of both oils are mainly due to a high content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In addition, properties of both oils are determined by a unique composition of bioactive substances as follows: squalene, sterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, phospholipids, etc., for ASO; and tocopherols, carotenoids, avonoids, phytosterols, and phenolic links (sinapine) for RSO [7,8]. However, ASO and RSO differ in popularity, availability and price. ...
Preprint
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Background: Amaranth seed oil (ASO) and rapeseed oil (RSO) are functional foods that display antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. These oils are also known to lower glucose and cholesterol levels. The current study compared the effects exerted by RSO and ASO on weight loss and metabolic parameters during a 3-week body mass reduction program. Methods: Eighty-one obese subjects (BMI > 30 kg/m2), aged 25-70 years, were enrolled in a 3-week body mass reduction program based on a calorie-restricted diet and physical activity. Participants were randomly categorized into an AO group (administered 20 mL/d of ASO), a RO group (administered 20 mL/d of RSO), and a C group (control; untreated). Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were measured at baseline and endpoint. Results: Significant decreases in weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), fat mass (FM), lean body mass (LBM), visceral fat mass (VFM), and total body water (TBW%) were observed in all groups (P < 0.05). No significant improvements were observed in the clinical parameters of group C. Fasting insulin (Δ -5.9, and Δ -5.7) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (Δ -1.1 and Δ -0.5) were decreased in both RO and AO groups, respectively. Fasting glucose (Δ -8.5; P = 0.034), total cholesterol (Δ -14.6; P = 0.032), non-HDL cholesterol (Δ 15.9; P = 0.010), TG/HDL ratio (Δ -0.6; P = 0.032), LDL cholesterol (Δ -12.3; P = 0.042), and triglycerides (Δ -6.5; P = 0.000) were significantly improved in the AO group, compared to the RO group. Conclusions: The 3-week body mass reduction intervention caused a significant reduction in the weight, BMI, WC, HC, FM, and VFM of all groups. Except for HOMA-IR, there were no statistical differences between the clinical parameters of all groups. However, a trend toward improved insulin levels and HDL% was noticeable in AO and RO. Therapies involving edible oils with high nutritional value, such as RSO and ASO, show potential for improving metabolic measurements during body mass reduction programs. Thus, obese patients undertaking weight reduction programs may benefit from RSO and ASO supplementation.
... The healthpromoting properties of both oils are mainly due to a high content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In addition, properties of both oils are determined by a unique composition of bioactive substances as follows: squalene, sterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, phospholipids, etc., for ASO; and tocopherols, carotenoids, avonoids, phytosterols, and phenolic links (sinapine) for RSO [7,8]. However, ASO and RSO differ in popularity, availability and price. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Amaranth seed oil (ASO) and rapeseed oil (RSO) are functional foods that display antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. These oils are also known to lower glucose and cholesterol levels. The current study compared the effects exerted by RSO and ASO on weight loss and metabolic parameters during a 3-week body mass reduction program. Methods: Eighty-one obese subjects (BMI > 30 kg/m²), aged 25-70 years, were enrolled in a 3-week body mass reduction program based on a calorie-restricted diet and physical activity. Participants were randomly categorized into an AO group (administered 20 mL/d of ASO), a RO group (administered 20 mL/d of RSO), and a C group (control; untreated). Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were measured at baseline and endpoint. Results: Significant decreases in weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), fat mass (FM), lean body mass (LBM), visceral fat mass (VFM), and total body water (TBW%) were observed in all groups (P < 0.05). No significant improvements were observed in the clinical parameters of group C. Fasting insulin (Δ -5.9, and Δ -5.7) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (Δ -1.1 and Δ -0.5) were decreased in both RO and AO groups, respectively. Fasting glucose (Δ -8.5; P = 0.034), total cholesterol (Δ -14.6; P = 0.03), non-HDL cholesterol (Δ 15.9; P = 0.01), TG/HDL ratio (Δ -0.6; P = 0.032), LDL cholesterol (Δ -12.3; P = 0.042), and triglycerides (Δ -6.5; P = 0.000) were significantly improved in the AO group, compared to the RO group. Conclusions: The 3-week body mass reduction intervention caused a significant reduction in the weight, BMI, WC, HC, FM, and VFM of all groups. Except for HOMA-IR, there were no statistical differences between the clinical parameters of all groups. However, a trend toward improved insulin levels and HDL% was noticeable in AO and RO. Therapies involving edible oils with high nutritional value, such as RSO and ASO, show potential for improving metabolic measurements during body mass reduction programs. Thus, obese patients undertaking weight reduction programs may benefit from RSO and ASO supplementation. Trial registration: retrospectively registered, DRKS00017708
... Amaranth seed oil (ASO) and rapeseed oil (RSO) are functional food products of increasing popularity. The health-promoting properties of both oils are due to their high content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) In addition, the properties of both oils are determined by their unique composition of bioactive substances: squalene, sterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, phospholipids, etc., for ASO, and tocopherols, carotenoids, avonoids, phytosterols, phenolic links (sinapine), etc., for RSO [7,8]. However, ASO and RSO differs in popularity, availability and price. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Amaranth seed oil (ASO) and rapeseed oil (RSO) are representative functional food with glucose and cholesterol-lowering, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. We aimed to compare the effect of RSO and ASO on weight loss and metabolic parameters during the 3-week body mass reduction program. Methods: Eighty-one obese subjects (BMI > 30 kg/m²) aged 25-70 years enrolled in a 3-week body mass reduction program based on calorie-restricted diet and physical activity. The participants were randomly administered 20 mL/d of ASO (AO group) or 20 mL/d of RSO (RO group) or were assigned to the control (C) group (without oil supplementation). Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were measured at baseline and at an endpoint. Results: At the end of the study, significant (P < 0.05) decrease in weight, BMI, WC (waist circumference), HC (hip circumference), FM (fat mass), LBM (lean body mass), VFM (visceral fat mass), and TBW% (total body water) were observed in all groups. There were no significant improvements in clinical parameters in the C group, while reduction in fasting insulin (Δ -5.9, P = 0.001 and Δ -5.7, P = 0.005) and HOMA-IR (Δ -1.1, P = 0.02 and Δ -0.5, P = 0.03) were observed in the RO and AO groups. Compared to the RO group, significant improvement in fasting glucose Δ -8.5, (P = 0.03), total cholesterol (Δ -14.6, P = 0.03), non-HDL cholesterol (Δ 15.9, P = 0.01), TG/HDL ratio (Δ -0.6, P = 0.03), LDL cholesterol (Δ -12.3, P = 0.04), and triglycerides (Δ -6.5, P = 0.000) in the AO group were observed. Conclusions: The 3-week body mass reduction intervention resulted in a significant reduction in weight, BMI, WC, HC, FM, and VFM in all the studied groups. Except for HOMA-IR, in clinical parameters were no statistical differences between all groups. However, the trend to improvement in insulin level and HDL% was noticed only in AO and RO. Therapies targeting edible oils with high nutritional value as RSO and ASO may in the future be a promising tool in support metabolic measurement improvement during the body mass reduction programs. Take home message: Supplementation with RSO or ASO may bring additional benefits to obese patients undertaking a weight reduction program. Trial registration: DRKS00017708
Article
Full-text available
Background: Autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, can have severe impacts on quality of life. They are one of the leading causes of death for women in the United States. Distinguished by the body damaging its own tissues and organs, they are often classified and diagnosed based on autoantibody levels. Treatments often include immunosuppressant drugs, which can have adverse effects. Aim of Study: Amaranth is a good functional food candidate, possessing antioxidants, bioactive compounds, and a variety of health benefits, such as lowering cholesterol, and aiding diabetes and hypertension. Previous studies have largely focused on the grain or seed, but amaranth oil is less explored. This study examines whether orally administered amaranth oil had any effects on autoantibodies and splenic immune cell populations in murine subjects.Methods: Mice in the experimental group (n = 3) were given 4μl of amaranth oil per gram of mouse weight for 5 days a week over 84 days. Control mice (n = 2) were sham treated on the same schedule with no oil. To determine autoantibody levels, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were first conducted on wells pre-coated with double stranded DNA, single stranded DNA, histones, or double stranded DNA and then histones (nucleosomes). Autoantibody presence was quantified by measuring absorbance at 405nm. Splenic cell populations were examined with flow cytometry and compared using a student’s t-test. Results: Compared to the control group, the mice receiving amaranth oil showed decreased IgG and IgM histone autoantibody absorbance levels throughout the whole study. IgG dsDNA, ssDNA, and nucleosome autoantibody absorbances were lower than that of the control group for the first 42 days. IgM dsDNA, ssDNA, and nucleosome autoantibody absorbances were lower only for the first 14 days. There were no significant differences found amongst splenic immune cell populations between the control and experimental groups.Conclusion: These preliminary data show that amaranth oil may help decrease autoantibody levels in lupus prone murine subjects. However, given the small number of subjects in this study, further research is needed to confirm observed effects and determine the most effective dose and administration schedule. Keywords: autoantibody, IgG, IgM, histone, dsDNA, ssDNA, nucleosome, amaranth oil, immunoglobulin, lupus
Article
Amaranth seeds contain oil with important nutritional properties, in particular, because of the presence of essential fatty acids, high content of minerals, vitamins, lysine and squalene. In this study, the kinetics of the supercritical fluid extraction of oil from three amaranth seed varieties has been investigated. The average oil content in amaranth seed was 58.2 g/kg, ranging from 54.6 to 61.1 g/kg depends on varieties, while squalene content ranged from 3.3 to 3.8 g/kg with an average content of 3.5 g/kg dry seed. Five empirical kinetic equations were successfully applied for kinetic modeling of extraction. As indicated by the appropriate statistical "goodness of fit" tests (such as the sum of squared errors, the coefficient of determination and the average absolute relative deviation), empirical models show good agreement with experimental data. The mathematical modeling of a process is beneficial to predict the process conduct and furthermore extend the procedures from laboratory to industrial scales.
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A new method for the quantification of squalene in amaranth seed oil (ASO) is proposed. The spectroscopic techniques of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were tested using partial least square (PLS) calibration models. Based on the results obtained from the reference chromatographic method, two ASO samples with the highest and lowest concentrations among totally 40 ASO samples were selected to prepare the calibration set (CS) (n=20). All ASO samples were also kept as prediction set (PS) for the control of the predictive capacity of the chemometric model to be developed. To quantify the squalene compound in ASO, a totally of 26 PLS calibration models were tested using all spectroscopic techniques with various spectral pretreatments, and the best PLS model was selected by evaluating their statistical values of root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), and R-square. The best calibration model was obtained from normal spectra in FTIR spectroscopy (4000-400 cm⁻¹) with the lowest RMSEC of 0.0930, RMSECV of 0.1301, and the highest R-square of 0.9989 for calibration. The results of this study revealed that FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PLS regression could be used for fast, accurate, and environment-friendly quantification of squalene present in ASO samples.
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Background: Amaranth seed oil (ASO) and rapeseed oil (RSO) are functional foods that display antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. These oils are also known to lower glucose and cholesterol levels. The current study compared the effects exerted by RSO and ASO on weight loss and metabolic parameters during a 3-week body mass reduction program. Methods: Eighty-one obese subjects (BMI > 30 kg/m2), aged 25-70 years, were enrolled in a 3-week body mass reduction program based on a calorie-restricted diet and physical activity. Participants were randomly categorized into an AO group (administered 20 mL/d of ASO), a RO group (administered 20 mL/d of RSO), and a C group (control; untreated). Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were measured at baseline and endpoint. Results: Significant decreases in weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), fat mass (FM), lean body mass (LBM), visceral fat mass (VFM), and total body water (TBW%) were observed in all groups (P < 0.05). No significant improvements were observed in the clinical parameters of group C. Fasting insulin (Δ - 5.9, and Δ - 5.7) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (Δ - 1.1 and Δ - 0.5) were decreased in both RO and AO groups, respectively. Fasting glucose (Δ -8.5; P = 0.034), total cholesterol (Δ -14.6; P = 0.032), non-HDL cholesterol (Δ 15.9; P = 0.010), TG/HDL ratio (Δ -0.6; P = 0.032), LDL cholesterol (Δ -12.3; P = 0.042), and triglycerides (Δ -6.5; P = 0.000) were significantly improved in the AO group, compared to the RO group. Conclusions: The 3-week body mass reduction intervention caused a significant reduction in the weight, BMI, WC, HC, FM, and VFM of all groups. Except for HOMA-IR, there were no statistical differences between the clinical parameters of all groups. However, a trend toward improved insulin levels and HDL% was noticeable in AO and RO. Therapies involving edible oils with high nutritional value, such as RSO and ASO, show potential for improving metabolic measurements during body mass reduction programs. Thus, obese patients undertaking weight reduction programs may benefit from RSO and ASO supplementation. Trial registration: retrospectively registered, DRKS00017708.
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Phytosterols are important micronutrients in human diets. Evidence has shown that phytosterols play an essential role in the reduction of cholesterol in blood and therefore decrease cardiovascular morbidity. In this study, the content and composition of phytosterols in different kinds of vegetable oils were analyzed, and the total phytosterol intake and contribution of foods to intake were estimated based on consumption data. The results showed that the phytosterol contents of rice bran oil, corn oil, and rapeseed oil were higher than those of other vegetable oils and the intake of phytosterol in the Chinese diet was about 392.3 mg/day. The main sources of phytosterols were edible vegetable oils (46.3%), followed by cereals (38.9%), vegetables (9.2%), nuts (2.0%), fruits (1.5%), beans and bean products (1.4%), and tubers (0.8%). Among all vegetable oils, rapeseed oil was the main individual contributor to phytosterol intake (22.9%), especially for the southern residents of China.
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The work is devoted to study of seed oil composition of amaranth varieties: Kharkov, Lera, Andijan and Helios, acclimatized in Uzbekistan. We demonstrated the possibility of using reversed-phase HPLC using a refractometric detector, which allows simultaneous determination of squalene and triacylglycerides in plant seeds and determining the authenticity of amaranth oils. Established seed oiliness ranged from 6.39 to 7.81 % of the initial mass. Amaranth oil samples contained quite large amount of unsaturated fatty acids 72.72 – 73.28 %, 1.17 % of which is omega-3-alpha-linolenic acid. The squalene content in the seeds ranged from 0.35 % to 0.55 %. It was established that the squalene content in oils obtained by extraction is greater than the one obtained by cold pressing. In the triacylglyceride composition of the investigated cold-pressed and extracted oils, no significant differences were found.
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Edible oils are the major natural dietary sources of tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as tocols. Plant foods with low lipid content usually have negligible quantities of tocols. However, seeds and other plant food processing by-products may serve as alternative sources of edible oils with considerable contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Tocopherols are among the most important lipid-soluble antioxidants in food as well as in human and animal tissues. Tocopherols are found in lipid-rich regions of cells (e.g., mitochondrial membranes), fat depots, and lipoproteins such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Their health benefits may also be explained by regulation of gene expression, signal transduction, and modulation of cell functions. Potential health benefits of tocols include prevention of certain types of cancer, heart disease, and other chronic ailments. Although deficiencies of tocopherol are uncommon, a continuous intake from common and novel dietary sources of tocopherols and tocotrienols is advantageous. Thus, this contribution will focus on the relevant literature on common and emerging edible oils as a source of tocols. Potential application and health effects as well as the impact of new cultivars as sources of edible oils and their processing discards are presented. Future trends and drawbacks are also briefly covered.
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Bene hull contains antioxidant components. Optimum conditions for bioactive compound extraction processes from Bene hull using subcritical water with response surface methodology (RSM) were obtained. Temperature (110-200A degrees C), processing time (30-60 min), and the water to Bene hull ratio (10:1-50:1) were the investigated factors. The optimal conditions for maximizing the antioxidant activity were 196.8A degrees C for 52.6 min and a ratio of 43.6:1 for water to Bene hull. Under these conditions, the amount of polyphenolic compounds, the reduction power (RP) (EC50), and the DPPH free radical scavenging activity (RSA) (EC50) were predicted to be 2,284 mg of gallic acid/100 g of Bene hull, 0.2002 mg/mL, and 0.6284 mg/mL, respectively. HPLC analysis was used to identify the main phenolic compounds. The subcritical water extraction technique could be used as a beneficial method to obtain bioactive compounds from Bene hull.
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Amaranthus tricolor and Amaranthus dubius are the most prevalent vegetable amaranths in China. The fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol (TAG)profile, vitamin E and sterol content, and thermal properties of seed oils extracted from these two vegetable amaranths were investigated in this work. The results reveal that the seed contains ∼8% oil. The main fatty acids in the oils are linoleic (51.5–53.5%), oleic (14.8–18.4%), palmitic (15.7–17.1%)and stearic (3.6–4.1%). PLL (∼22%), LLL (∼20%), LLO (∼17%)and POL (∼11%)are the dominant TAGs in the oils. The amaranth seed oils exhibit a distinct melting and crystallization profile that consists of 5 endothermic peaks and 2 exothermic peaks. The oils are rich in vitamin E (705–829 mg/kg)with δ-tocopherol as the major component. The two oils have similar total sterol contents (2488.7 and 2762.1 mg/100 g)but different individual sterol percentages. The higher contents of oil, linoleic acid, vitamin E, and sterols make the amaranth seed oil desirable in terms of nutrition.
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Various fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenoids and their respective antioxidant contributions in 7 amaranth (AS) and 11 quinoa seeds (QS) samples along with a new evaluation method are reported. Lipid yield was 6.98-7.22% in AS and 6.03-6.74% in QS with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) being the predominant fatty acids, 71.58-72.44% in AS and 81.44-84.49% in QS respectively. Carotenoids, mainly lutein and zeaxanthin are confirmed for the first time in amaranth seeds while β-carotene is reported first in quinoa. The predominant tocopherols in amaranth are δ- and α-tocopherol whereas γ- and α-tocopherol are the primary tocopherols in quinoa. UFA, carotenoids and tocopherols showed good correlation with antioxidant activity. All of the amaranth seeds demonstrated lower overall lipophilic quality than quinoa, with the AS1 and QS10 cultivars providing the highest scores for amaranth and quinoa seeds respectively. Results from this study will contribute to developing quinoa and related functional foods with increased benefits.
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Background: Amaranthus sp. is a fast-growing crop with well known beneficial nutritional values (rich in protein, fat, dietary fiber, ash, and minerals, especially calcium and sodium and contain a higher amount of lysine than conventional cereals). Amaranthus sp. is an underexploited plant source of squalene, compound of high importance in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Results: This paper has examined the effects of the different extraction methods (Soxhlet, supercritical fluid and accelerated solvent extraction) on the oil and squalene yield of three genotypes Amaranthus sp. grain. The highest yield of the extracted oil (78.1 g kg(-1) ) and squalene (4.7 g kg(-1) ) in grain was obtained by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) in genotype 16. The post hoc Tukey's HSD test at 95% confidence limit showed significant differences between observed samples. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA), were used for assessing the effect of different genotypes and extraction methods on oil and squalene yield, and also the fatty acid composition profile. Using coupled PCA and CA of observed samples, the possible directions for improving the quality of product can be realized. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that is very important to choose both the right genotype and the right method of extraction for optimum oil and squalene yield.
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Nuts are part of a healthy diet such as Mediterranean diet. Benefits of nuts in reducing the risk of heart disease has been reasonably attributed to their composition of vitamins, minerals, unsaturated fatty acids, fiber and phytochemicals such as polyphenols, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols. More than 75% of total fatty acids of nuts are unsaturated. α- tocopherol is the main tocopherol isomer present in most of the nuts. While walnuts, Brazil nut, cashew nut, peanut, pecan and pistachio nuts are rich in γ- tocopherol. β- sitosterol is dominant sterol in nuts. Pistachio and pine nut have the highest total phytosterol and Brazil nut and English walnut the lowest. Walnuts also contain large amount of phenolic compounds compared with other nuts. Nuts are rich in compounds with antioxidant properties and their consumption can offer preventing from incidence of many diseases including cardiovascular.