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Emerging Challenges of Teaching English in Non-native English-Speaking Countries: Teachers’ View



Teaching English to students, particularly non-English speakers, requires proper strategies and methods. By doing so, each teacher has his/her challenges. This study intends to unveil the emerging challenges faced by English teachers from non-native English-speaking countries (non-NESCs) such as China, Japan, Thailand, Senegal, Mongolia, Cambodia, and Laos. This study stands on to answer two research questions: 1. What are the challenges of teaching English in non-native English-speaking countries? 2. Is there any effort to overcome the challenges? If so, how do they overcome it? By utilizing the qualitative method, seven teachers are interviewed to tell their challenges. The result indicates three main problems, including learning materials which do not cover students’ need, too big classroom size and school environment, and also students’ low motivation. Some programs are conducted to overcome those challenges. For example, Japan has an Assistant Language Teacher (ALT) who comes once a week to cooperate with the English teacher in each school. Then, Volunteer English Teacher (VET) program helps English Teachers in Laos.
English Language Teaching Educational Journal (ELTEJ)
Vol. 2, No. 3, 2019, pp. 112-120
E-ISSN: 2621-6485
Emerging Challenges of Teaching English in Non-native English-
Speaking Countries: Teachers’ View
1Nurul Hasanah, 2Pratiwi Tri Utami
1,2 Hiroshima University, Japan
Teaching English to students, particularly non-English speakers, requires proper strategies and methods.
By doing so, each teacher has his/her challenges. This study intends to unveil the emerging challenges
faced by English teachers from non-native English-speaking countries (non-NESCs) such as China,
Japan, Thailand, Senegal, Mongolia, Cambodia, and Laos. This study stands on to answer two research
questions: 1. What are the challenges of teaching English in non-native English-speaking countries? 2. Is
there any effort to overcome the challenges? If so, how do they overcome it? By utilizing the qualitative
method, seven teachers are interviewed to tell their challenges. The result indicates three main problems,
including learning materials which do not cover students’ need, too big classroom size and school
environment, and also students’ low motivation. Some programs are conducted to overcome those
challenges. For example, Japan has an Assistant Language Teacher (ALT) who comes once a week to
cooperate with the English teacher in each school. Then, Volunteer English Teacher (VET) program helps
English Teachers in Laos.
Keywords: English language teaching, challenges, non-native English-speaking country, non-native
English-speaking teacher
How to Cite: Hasanah, N., Utami, P. T. (2019). Emerging challenges of teaching English in non-native
English-speaking countries: Teachers’ view. English Language Teaching Education Journal, 2(3), 112-
Nowadays, learning English is one of the prominent needs of a human being. Oder
& Eisenschmidt (2018) clarify the importance of learning English as a tool to access in
achieving new knowledge and opportunities in a global context. Also, English is widely
used in every continent that uses English for their day-to-day needs, totals over 250 million
(Broughton, Brumfit, Flavell, Hill, & Pincas, 2003). Not only from this aspect, the use of
English worldwide, but this phenomenon is also mainly influenced by colonization, ship-
borne trade with the Americas, and politic (Howson, 2013). Therefore, non-native English-
speaking countries attempt to create an English environment in every school as the primary
step to learn English from an early age.
Teaching English as a foreign language means that English is learned in non-native
English-speaking countries. Braine (1999 as cited in Chun, 2014) states that a native
speakernot English as the specific context, will create a better teacher than a non-native
speaker. By this statement, an English teacher must have many challenges when teaching
their students both in English skills or teaching skills (Faez & Valeo, 2012). Besides
enhancing their English ability, a teacher should maintain their motivation and enthusiasm
in teaching (Oder & Eisenschmidt, 2018). Sometimes students 'learning motivation
decreases so that students' learning performance is not following the lesson plan (Ayres,
Swayer, & Dinham, 2001; Nurvita, Pratolo, Nuroniah, Rizon, 2019; Zulfikar, Dahliana, &
Sari, 2019). This problem is one of the causes of teachers' lack of enthusiasm in teaching,
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Hasanah & Utami
and this will affect their teaching performance. Also, another factor coming from the school
climate can affect teachers’ motivation. School climate covers positive atmosphere which is
contributed by supportive work conditions from the principal, teachers partner, school
staffs, and communal school organizations (Brown & Roloff, 2011 as cited in Oder &
Eisenschmidt, 2018).
In this twenty-first century, an English teacher is also required to teach effectively.
Measuring effective teaching is something unstable and challenging because it will emerge
a subjective view. Two studies (Frenzel, Taxer, Schwab, & Kuhbandner, 2019; Oder &
Eisenschmidt, 2018) indicate that measuring effective teaching is coming from two aspects,
intrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic aspect involves the teacher’s trait, such as motivation,
enthusiasm, and interpersonal between teachers and students. The extrinsic aspect is coming
from the teacher’s skill, which can be formed by the training to improve their effective
teaching, for example, their competency in instructional material and teaching strategy.
Instructional content is like designing and developing a syllabus, lesson plans, and
supplementary material (Gormley, Hammer, McDermott, & Rothenberg, 1993). Then,
teaching strategy relates to the way of teaching, managing the classroom, teaching approach
(Raganwati, 2015).
Regarding the essentials of English in language teaching, we query the main
challenges of English teachers in non-native English-speaking countries (non-NESCs) in
teaching English according to their context and views. Two main questions are formulated,
which can furtherly analyze within this study: 1. What are the challenges of teaching
English in a non-native English-speaking country? 2. Is there any effort to overcome the
challenges? If so, how do they overcome it?
Bolhuis & Voeten (2004, as cited in Oder & Eisenschmidt, 2018) find that
motivated teachers are likely to promote active and functional learning strategies that
achieve the best outcome of students. Frenzel et al. (2019) show that displayed enthusiasm
had significant main effects on perceived teacher motivation, teacher enjoyment, and seen
clarity and structure. All of those indicators were well measured by the high displayed
enthusiasm condition than in the low displayed enthusiasm condition. It means that teacher
motivation and enjoyment have very high effects on students’ motivation. This result
supports Radel et al.’s (2010 as cited in Frenzel, Taxer, Schwab, & Kuhbandner, 2019)
finding, which reveals that when students had learned from a motivated teacher, the
students can learn in autonomy and high behavior.
Demir (2017) finds three main challenges of English teachers when teaching
English as a foreign language: student-related, teacher-related, and institutional difficulties.
The student-related problem appears because Turkish students are not interesting the
material which is not in Turkish and not relevant coursebook. However, this statement is
subjectively coming from students who believe that English is difficult. In teacher-related,
the most challenging problem is managing the classroom. Some teachers say that because
the students are lack of motivation, the teacher cannot teach the lesson as their planning.
Whereas, the institutional-related refers to classroom size and technological support
provided by the school. In other words, Demir's (2017) finding shows that the problems
emerge from the motivation itself.
Other related challenges faced by EFL teachers are classroom practice and
commitment to teaching (Hayes, 2009). He says that classroom practice refers to the
difficulty of Thai students in learning English because of less vocabulary, considering
grammatical errors, and no one peer can join in the conversation. Then, commitment to
teaching relates to the teachers, which lead to teachers’ motivation again. If we genuinely
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pay attention to those problems, the root of the problem is from two sides, which are
interrelated to one another. Similarly, Hayes (2005), his finding reveals the problem faced
by non-native English speaking educators in Sri Lanka. Commitment to teaching as a job or
vocation. Through an in-depth interview, the teachers, as reflected in Hayes's (2005) finding
shows that the teachers are proud to be an English teacher, but only 20% dedicates
themselves as a vocation. It happened because of some factors: more work for teachers,
intensified stress levels, lack of interest in teaching, and a rise in the numbers of alienated
students at school.
Some studies also compare English teaching performance between native English-
speaking teachers (NESTs) and non-native English-speaking teachers (non-NESTs).
Students perceive that NESTs are more competent in teaching reading, speaking, and
pronunciation because they are more fluent and understand their cultural knowledge.
Nevertheless, for teaching writing and grammar, students prefer to be taught by non-NESTs
who have a sensitivity to difficulties (Chun, 2014). Chun's (2014) finding supports
Walkinshaw & Thi Hoang Duong's (2012) result which reveals that NEST is better in
teaching English in an oral context, but they cannot understand students’ culture. It always
makes misunderstood between teachers and students (Walkinshaw & Thi Hoang Duong,
2012). The emerged problems displayed by some previous studies generate tensions to
non-NESTs. Because of this, some researchers seek solutions to break the primary issue in
teaching language (Hayati, 2010; Rahimi & Zhang, 2015; Serdiukov & Tarnopolsky, 1999;
Steyn & Jaroongkhongdach, 2016; Todd, Stinson, & Sivakumaran, 2016; Yu, 2018; Zhang,
2013). Applying video-conferencing, which involves NEST from various native English-
speaking countries, can gain more intercultural awareness and ignite discourse strategies to
let converse as is (Wang, 2006 as cited in Yu, 2018). In such, applying critical pedagogy to
non-NEST also can enhance non-NESTs’ awareness of their strengths as bilingual or
multilingual speakers and how they can properly utilize these strengths in the classroom
(Hayati, 2010). Restructuring and sheltering instruction also can be used by non-NEST to
teach in the class where teachers use tools such as visuals, supplementary materials,
cooperative learning, and hands-on activities to teach (Todd et al., 2016).
By reviewing some results showed by previous studies, this study also wants to
unveil the emerging challenges faced non-NESTs in some countries like China, Japan,
Thailand, Senegal, Mongolia, Cambodia, and Laos which are non-native English speaking
countries and how the effort of each country to overcome those challenges.
By involving seven English teachers (n = 3 females) who are from China, Japan,
Thailand, Senegal, Mongolia, Cambodia, and Laos, this study unveils the emerging
challenges of teaching English. All the participants are master students in the international
department of a university in Japan and have capabilities in the teaching field. The age
ranges from 24 to 40. The length of the teaching of each respondent is different from six
months up to 17 years. Also, they teach English spread over the primary level to higher
This study stands on qualitative data by using an in-depth analysis of the semi-
structured interview. A semi-structured interview can let the researchers use the questions
with the focus group, but still, investigate and clarify quickly and more depth (Gilham,
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2000). Only one person attends each interview session. A session takes 20-30 minutes
within one week. Because this study involves people from various countries and has an
international atmosphere in faculty, the interview uses English to ask questions.
The advantages of a semi-structured interview will give the interviewer full of
attention and make them comfortable to answer all the questions. Even the interviewer can
dig the respondent’s answers, which has an ambiguous meaning. Because taking notes will
distract the interviewer’s focus, the researchers are suggested to use tape-recorder during
the interview session. The questions of the interview are about their experiences during
teaching English, what challenges they faced, and what efforts they did. The items can be
modified while the interview session to gain a sincere answer from respondents (Johson &
Christensen, 2004). Each of the responses will be analyzed in detail and in-depth in the
discussion part.
Emerging Challenges
1. China
He taught at lower secondary level in Tibet for six months in 2017. The type of
school was a dormitory, which covered primary until upper secondary level. The
school had very few teachers, but the teachers had a high salary than teachers in
Mainland of China. It was because of the condition of the school in that area. The
situation was at the top of the mountain, pretty cold and dry. The school only had five
hydrants, which were not enough for drinking and taking a bath to all the students.
Then, the students had low motivation to learn English. Many factors influenced them,
such as unsupported environment, lack of English learning resources, over class size,
and also a socioeconomic factor. The majority of students were coming from a poor
family, so they had no future planning to continue to study. Also, the number of
students was over class size. One grade had seven classes, and each class had 50
students. It was a vast number, which was difficult for teachers to reach each of the
students’ progress.
2. Japan His experience of teaching English was one year in 2017. The students in
primary school liked studying English because they thought that English was an
activity, not a subject. However, now the majority of secondary students started
thinking that English became more difficult because they learned grammar with many
new vocabularies and practiced speaking. They realized that English was essential as a
tool to communicate with foreigners and to go abroad. Still, the environment did not
support to let them speak English naturally, even though the teacher engaged them.
Also, the class size was too big for a teacher to teach English. About 40 students in one
class covered different characteristics of students. The textbook sometimes was not
appropriate for students’ needs, so the teachers use supplementary material to perfect it.
3. Thailand
She taught at the primary level for three years until now. The most challenging
problem was the language barrier. They still attempted to translate or find the same
meaning between English and Thai. They had unstable motivation because they did not
learn English initiative, but their parents’ initiation. To keep maintaining their
motivation, the teacher brought up exciting topics with fun teaching material in every
4. Senegal
He got a professional certification for teaching at the secondary level in 2014.
Since that, he taught English at the upper secondary level for three years in Senegal.
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The hardest problem of him was managing students in the class. The students did not
like studying because most of them were reluctant to learn, especially English.
However, it all depended on how the teacher treated his students. If the teacher had
good intention in the treatment, they could study well in the class. Another challenge
was students’ background, including economic background which affected their
motivation and achievement in class. When teaching English in class, the teacher
should ensure every student paying attention to the teacher. Unfortunately, the number
of students was too big, about 40-50 students in which surely over to learn English.
Then, he thought that his school was still better, because in a remote area in Senegal,
the number of students could reach 60-70 for each class. Ultimately, he emphasized
that the textbook also was not updated for students’ needs and should be revised.
5. Mongolia
She taught English spreading over the primary and secondary levels for five
years. In learning English, some students showed negative attitudes when learning
English. Because some unmotivated students disturbed other students who had high
motivation. They perceive that English was too tricky both in speaking or writing.
Regarding this problem, the language structures of Mongolian language and
English were different, which sometimes was quite complicated for students. Based on
the entrance examination of English to university, English teachers tended to teach
mostly on the grammar and vocabulary sessions. Then, most of the students were bored
to learn English grammar. Another problem was the textbook which was not adequate
enough to be discussed in one hour, but the direction was for one hour. Therefore, it
was not suitable for the students’ needs.
6. Cambodia
He had been an English teacher from 2008 to 2018. He was also an English
trainer in Cambodia. He trained secondary English teachers. Being a teacher and
trainer, the respondent faced many problems as also experienced by most English
teachers in Cambodia. Because English started to be taught in 2003, there were not
adequate English resources, including qualified English teachers and course books. To
become qualified English teachers in Cambodia, they should graduate from the English
department, passed a national examination, and also had teaching experiences. With a
short period from 2003 until 2019, there were not many qualified teachers, but contract
7. Laos She had taught English from 2002 until 2017 at a university level in Laos. She
was also a trainer for primary school teachers, specifically on curriculum development
once a year. Reflecting on her experiences, she stated that the most challenging
experience in teaching English for primary teachers was the classroom size which was
too big, consisting of 40-50 students. They could not manage well every student when
teaching English. Comparing to other countries, Laos was still low in the English
context. The second problem of teaching English was a language barrier. The English
teachers were Lao people who were non-native English speakers. The teachers found
challenges to pronounce some English words correctly, disregarding the fact that at
primary level, students will need to follow teachers’ pronunciation.
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Efforts and Its Implementations
1. China
The educational department of China attempts to facilitate every school with an
appropriate textbook as well as trained and certified teachers. Then, the government
also cooperates with the university, asking the university to send university students to
teach in a rural area such as Tibet.
2. Japan ALT is one of the efforts proposed by MEXT (Ministry of Education). They
invite native-speaking English teacher such as American, Canadian, Australian, and
Singaporean to come to school and teach together with Japanese teachers in one
moment. Every Thursday, they come to school, making a plan with various and
exciting methods as their suggestions. As a result, the students are more excited to
learn English because they directly learn from NEST.
3. Thailand
To enhance students’ motivation in learning English, the teachers use any
possible teaching materials. The teachers can use music, Disney Movie in its native
language, flashcard, and other things relate to the materials. They like to sing and
dance so that they will solve the problems a little bit. The teachers also try to speak
English frequently with a slow and bright tone and right intonation, so the students can
understand the meaning and with their effort to answer in English. Besides, the
teachers let them learn by their initiation and way to ignite their awareness in learning
4. Senegal
Senegal is a developing country. So many obstacles faced by the teachers
teaching in class. To overcome those problems, the educational government recruits a
voluntary teacher who passes the national standard in education to teach in school. The
government got them by collaboration with other countries. In the class context, the
teacher uses supplementary material to perfect the textbook when teaching in class,
mainly English subject.
5. Mongolia
The educational government in Mongolia conduct an activity to facilitate
students’ interest like a competition—Language Olympiads. The government pays
attention to who want to learn more then, transfer them to that competition. Also, the
teacher uses various materials in teaching English to engage the other students who
have a lack of interest, such as maps, movies, posters, and other exciting material that
can support them.
6. Cambodia
The educational government of Cambodia cooperates with the Australian
government to improve English education in Cambodia. By developing a coursebook
called English for Cambodia (EFC), it is planned to help English teachers in Cambodia
teaching English in school.
7. Laos Lao government tries to facilitate teachers to join the training. The training
proposes to make them more qualified uniquely as an English teacher. Then, another
effort is the government cooperates with NESCs to recruit a voluntary teacher to teach
at school. This program is called Voluntary English Teachers (VET) program.
Hopefully, NEST gives English knowledge to the teachers by using various strategies
and methods. So, students are more motivated to learn English.
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The fact of teaching English in non-NESCs that quite challenging is actual. Faez &
Valeo (2012) said that being an English teacher is complicated. It means that a teacher
should have English knowledge and the proper way to transfer that knowledge. As shown in
the results, we indicate three main problems faced by the teachers from NESCs (China,
Japan, Thailand, Senegal, Mongolia, Cambodia, and Laos). The three main issues are
inappropriate textbooks, too big classroom size and school environment, and also students’
low motivation in learning English.
Talking about textbooks is something crucial (Dejene, 2017). English handbook is
one of the sources for students to learn English besides teachers or other sources. Many
teachers complain that English textbook sometimes is not suitable for students’ need
nowadays (as reflected by Japan, Senegal, Mongolia, and Cambodia). To create a well-
prepared textbook based on students’ need takes time in several process and revision. One
aspect of improving school quality is the instructional process contribution (Fuller, 1985).
He said that a good textbook could consistently influence students’ achievement. By this
statement, it is clear enough that textbook or coursebook also include one crucial aspect in
contributing learning improvement. They can reflect on the Cambodian government effort
that making collaboration in developing textbooks will support a standard textbook for
students’ need in learning English.
The second problem is classroom size, which also is the most challenging case from
those countries (China, Japan, Senegal, and Laos). Teaching English will effectively teach
in a small size number of students (Broughton et al., 2003). Because learning English is
involving four skillslistening, speaking, reading, and writing, it will be effective if the
number of students in the class ranges from 20-25. However, this number must be hard for
several countries like Senegal, as mentioned by the respondent that every district only has
one single school. Looking at developing countries or even developed countries which are
non-NESCs, they still encounter this such problemtoo big classroom size. This problem
probably can be solved by implementing various teaching strategies and methods, also
including supplementary material to teach English in big classroom sizes.
The last emerging challenge is students’ motivation in learning English, which is a
big problem from all countries in this study. Moreover, education ministries in several
countries such as Japan, Laos, and China notice this as a severe problem. Various programs
are implemented by the government and schools in collaboration with multiple parties from
the university level and even with the NESCs. It means that learning motivation is the root
of ideal teaching and learning activities (Frenzel, Taxer, Schwab, & Kuhbandner, 2019). By
implementing some programs such as Assistant Learning Teacher (ALT), Voluntary
English Teacher (VET), and the collaboration with student teachers in the university are
expected to be able to spur student motivation in learning as well as teachers in developing
their knowledge in teaching English.
In conclusion, this study found the challenges of teaching English in non-native
English-speaking countries. The challenges were categorized into three main problems
which indicated by the findings; they are learning materials which do not cover students’
need, too big classroom size and school environment, and also students’ low motivation.
However, each of non-NECSs had some efforts which had been attempted to resolve those
problems. Eventually, this study also has limitations because it only involves seven
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participants, and this is considered not adequate enough to explore the real emerging
challenges in the teaching of English in non-native English-speaking countries. However,
this study can be a reference for other researchers who want to investigate a similar topic
more deeply and in detail so that research can be refined as time goes by.
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12. DOI:
... Demir (2017) suggested three major types of challenges for ELT teachers teaching English as a FL, namely student-related, teacher-related, and institutional difficulties; specifically speaking, student-related difficulties could be concluded as that students' lack of motivation, incapability to understand, and the disciplinary problems; teacher-related challenges concern with teachers themselves, such as command of the foreign language, pedagogic strategies or personality; institutional difficulties appear because of the textbook, technologies, teaching environment, class size, etc. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation could be considered from another perspective of finding out teaching challenges (Franzen, Taxer, Schwab & Kuhbandner, 2018). Hasanah and Utami (2019) made a distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivationthe former aspect relates to "teacher' s trait, such as motivation, enthusiasm, and interpersonal between teachers and students," and the extrinsic one is "coming from the teacher' s skill, for example, their competency in instructional material and teaching strategy." Besides, in A Course in the English Language written by Wang (2000), the taxonomies of challenges could be in the level of teaching content, including pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, listening, speaking, reading, writing, and integrated skills, as well as stages of a class, containing pre-class, in-class, and post-class (e.g., having difficulties in lesson plans, classroom management, and assessment respectively). ...
... Although a lot of the previous studies were concerned about the difficulties of ELT teachers (Mutar, 2019;Garton, 2013;Hasanah & Utami, 2019; Demir-Ayaz, Ozkardas & Ozturan, 2019) with the research results being able to fit in the taxonomies mentioned above (teacher-related, student-related and institutional difficulties), their focuses were quite different including gender, education policy, and particular geographical region. Mutar's study (2019) presumed that ELT difficulties might result from the gender of ELT teachers and finally reported that "teachers' gender did not show a significant difference in their perspective toward the difficulties in teaching English," while Garton (2013) paid more attention to the relationship between Korean policy and ELT challenges. ...
... So did Ozkardas and Ozturan (2019), whose studies were connected with Turkey's educational system and policy. Although Hasanah and Utami's (2019) study mentioned the ELT difficulties in China, their research was conducted in a school at the top of a mountain in Tibet that was removed and poor. As a result, this research finding cannot represent most ELT teachers' opinions in mainland China. ...
English-only instruction (EOI) is widely adopted to enhance young learners’ comprehensive English capabilities in China, while little did we know about the difficulties teachers have. This study aimed to determine the difficulties teachers perceive during their English teaching to young learners with EOI in China. This case study’s data consisted of a survey, in-class observation, and in-depth interviews with two teachers in an English institute in Shenzhen. Results from thematic analysis of the data show that teachers face three types of difficulties, including teacher-related, student-related, and institutional. Teachers’ use of Chinese in lessons, lack of related pedagogic skills and experience, personalities, and self-recognition lead to teacher-related difficulties. Young learners’ short attention spans and safety issues are concluded as student-related difficulties. Institutional difficulties are the headmaster’s management style and appointed textbooks.
... Similar findings were reached by Walkinshaw and Thi Hoang Duong (2012), who found that NNESTs are not knowledgeable enough about the culture of their students, which may lead to misunderstandings. Hasanah and Utami (2019) conducted a similar study about NNESTs' challenges in the language teaching classroom, with participants from diverse countries such as China, Japan, Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos. Besides cultural difficulties, their findings showed that teachers felt challenged by overcrowded classrooms, unfavorable school environments, students' low motivation, and poor learning resources that did not meet students' needs. ...
... Given that Turkish was not their primary language, teachers encountered challenges when attempting to communicate with their students for social purposes outside of the class setting, as well as elucidating particular grammatical concepts during lessons. A similar study looking at foreign NNESTs' challenges also reported that not sharing the same L1 with the students was a huge barrier in the classroom, especially in the primary school context (Hasanah & Utami, 2019). Echoing the conclusions drawn from the current investigation, Skliar (2014) contended that expatriate NNESTs were the most disadvantaged in comparison to their local NNESTs and NESTs counterparts, chiefly attributable to their limited expertise and authority over both the students' first language and the target language. ...
... Participants commented that since they found the educational system very different from what they were used to, including the classroom atmosphere and classroom materials, this seemed to be a challenge for teachers. Comparable findings regarding the classroom materials were also reported in similar research, which stated that the materials did not cater to learners' needs (Chen & Cheng, 2010;Hasanah & Utami, 2019). The curriculum was also reported as a problem by the expat teachers, which was supported by Aydın et al. (2019). ...
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The global demand for teachers of English has led to an escalation in the number of non-native English speakers traveling overseas to teach English. Although teaching English abroad is typically associated with native English-speaking teachers hailing from inner-circle countries, it has also become commonplace to see nonnative English-speaking expatriate teachers being hired. Yet, studies probing into expatriate non-native English-speaking teachers’ experiences have been sparse, particularly in the context of Turkey. This study endeavors to explore the challenges and coping strategies of expatriate non-native English-speaking teachers who worked in private schools and language programs in Turkey. To collect data, semi-structured interviews were conducted, and the analysis revealed that teachers faced several obstacles, including linguistic, cultural, and pedagogical challenges. Nevertheless, they managed to surmount these obstacles by acquiring proficiency in the local language, fostering intercultural awareness, and acquainting themselves with the education system. In light of the findings and the relevant literature, suggestions and implications are discussed for potential expatriate teachers intending to work in Turkey and other stakeholders.
... Their work stressors may include oversized classes (Broughton et al. 2003) and pressure to promote students' exam scores and prepare them to pass the national college entrance examination (Liu and Chu 2022;Liu and Onwuegbuzie 2012). Besides, EFL teachers are often confronted with classroom management issues such as students' distractions or unwillingness to participate in classroom activities designed for improving English competence (Jeon 2009;Kang 2013) due to students' low motivation to learn English and/or weak foundation in English (Hasanah and Utami 2019). Hence, through a fine-grained analysis of these teachers' burnout and resilience, this study can provide implications for understanding and responding to sources of burnout of high school teachers from similar EFL contexts, which hopefully can help them recover from psychological burnout. ...
... On top of this, excessive teaching workload and pastoral workload for homeroom teachers could certainly exacerbate these young female teachers' psychological burnout. The levels of their burnout may even be heightened when factoring in the contextual challenges such as students' low motivation and proficiency in English (Hasanah and Utami 2019), challenges in EFL classroom management (Jeon 2009;Kang 2013), and examination-orientated curriculum (Liu and Chu 2022). In particular, factors such as students' low English proficiency (Hasanah and Utami 2019) and unwillingness to participate (Kang 2013) that reportedly caused difficulties with classroom discipline were typically observed among the teachers of this cohort. ...
... The levels of their burnout may even be heightened when factoring in the contextual challenges such as students' low motivation and proficiency in English (Hasanah and Utami 2019), challenges in EFL classroom management (Jeon 2009;Kang 2013), and examination-orientated curriculum (Liu and Chu 2022). In particular, factors such as students' low English proficiency (Hasanah and Utami 2019) and unwillingness to participate (Kang 2013) that reportedly caused difficulties with classroom discipline were typically observed among the teachers of this cohort. ...
Amidst the recent positive psychology trend, teacher resilience has captured increasing scholarly attention, while burnout remains a significant, negative construct in teachers’ emotional spectrum. Research on burnout and resilience among teachers teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) is especially scant. In this study, we explored the psychological profiles of 40 EFL teachers in terms of their experience of burnout and resilience. Q methodology was first employed to collect data from 40 high school EFL teachers, the findings of which were complemented by interviews with nine of the participants. The findings showed three main profiles of the teachers: resilient with person-environment equilibrium and a sense of accomplishment, goal-oriented with tenacity and signs of burnout, and emotionally sensitive and burned out with small likelihood to bounce back. Based on this novel attempt to delve into the co-presence of various degrees of burnout and resilience among teachers, implications for teachers and school administrators are finally discussed.
... As a result, ELT has been continuously developed for decades (e.g., the traditional methods such as the Grammar Translation Method (GTM), Communicative Language Teaching Approach (CLTA), and the Eclectic Method, which combines multiple methods adopted for teaching in classrooms depending on the course objectives) (Iscan, 2017). However, several EFL countries such as Indonesia, Pakistan, Iran, and Turkey, still encounter undesirable ELT outcomes, as expected (Akbari, 2015;Hasanah & Tri Utami, 2019;Songbatumis, 2017;Tabatabaei & Pourakbari, 2012). Thailand is no exception. ...
... Difficulties in classroom management included common factors, such as large classroom size, low student motivation and language proficiency, or even traditional methods of teaching and examination used in the classroom. Hasanah and Tri Utami (2019) noted that EFL contexts often faced problems with classrooms that are too large to effectively manage classroom practice or learning activities. In fact, an appropriate classroom size for teaching four English skills should approximately consist of 20 students (Hayes, 1997). ...
... As a result, when they come to using English, they are worried and lack confidence in communication. Therefore, this could bring students to be under stress and anxiety leading to negative attitudes towards English that make students less aware of the importance of learning English (Hasanah & Tri Utami, 2019). ...
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Although English Language Teaching (ELT) development has been in progress for decades, a very low level of Thai English language competency in the previous year reflects the quality of ELT in Thailand and several problems with teaching have been constantly reported. This study inductively investigates instructional difficulties relating to teaching materials, classroom management, teachers, and students experienced by Thai EFL teachers in classroom practice. The samples obtained from purposive sampling included 112 teachers in the top 50 universities in Thailand. A set of questionnaires validated by three experts (α 0.94) were used to collect quantitative data, followed by conducting interviews provided by six volunteer teachers to obtain qualitative data. Descriptive statistics, along with qualitative data, were used for data analysis. The quantitative results found that the most considerable difficulties perceived by Thai EFL teachers were the difficulties relating to students with low English proficiency (̅X = 3.80, SD = 1.12); classroom management, using mother language (L1) in class, organizing language activities (̅ X= 3.43, SD = 1.16); the difficulties relating to teachers, dealing with difficulties stimulating students to learn, structuring suitable lessons, and monitoring student performances (̅X = 2.37, SD = 1.12); and teaching materials (̅X = 2.14, SD = 1.00), respectively. Additionally, the qualitative results were consistent with the quantitative results. As for development for classroom practice, professional development and teacher training regarding instructional techniques, strategies, and classroom management were highlighted.
... In Indonesian secondary schools, the process of teaching and learning certainly takes place through various efforts and challenges considering that English is a foreign language for Indonesian students. Further, in the learning process, learners and teachers experience hurdles and barriers that affect teaching or learning adversely (Hasanah & Utami, 2020;Liton, 2016;Septiani et al., 2019). The barriers include a lack of opportunities in using English outside the classroom, the competence of English teachers that needs to be improved, and so forth. ...
p style="text-align: justify;">In the Indonesian context, English is considered a local subject and there is no mandated curriculum for English in elementary schools. Meanwhile, English has been a compulsory subject taught at the secondary school level. The present study aims to explore barriers to teaching English experienced by non-native English teachers in Indonesian secondary schools and policy recommendations. The study employed a qualitative case study method. Concerning the data collection, the authors garnered the data through semi-structured interviews with six non-native English teachers teaching at private and public secondary schools in Indonesia. The findings of the study reveal that several barriers experienced by non-native English teachers include lack of training in English teaching and learning, academic literacy among non-native English teachers, school facilities, English-relevant materials, student motivation, and English exposure outside of school. Drawing on these results, some policy recommendations to improve English language teaching in the Indonesian context are discussed in this study.</p
... Admittedly or not, it is not easy to teach English to non-English speaking countries by paying attention to the varieties of L1 background that can be the barriers to the success of ELT itself. The interference of L1 to English learning can impede the goal of teaching-learning itself (Debreli, 2016;Hasanah & Utami, 2020). Non-English speaking countries in which the non-native Englishspeaking teachers (NNETs) attend in the classroom to teach should be faced with the challenge of whether their way of teaching is still effective to apply. ...
In the current situation in which all teachers are required to participate in contextual teaching fulfilling the world dynamics and students’ need in learning, it is important to follow the dynamic of contemporary ELT methodologies. The teacher’s ability in reading, learning, interpreting, and implementing the current contemporary ELT is the must; critical thinking skills are needed so that they can be the ones taking part in this study. Critical thinking skills are not only viewed as the framework of thinking but also as the framework to increase teachers’ capacity in enlarging their views about contemporary ELT methodologies. This study aimed at presenting the new perspectives concerning contemporary ELT methodologies for non-English speaking countries through critical thinking. This research was conducted qualitatively in which the data collection was through distributing questionnaires to five lecturers aiming to ask for their perspectives about English Language Teaching Methodologies through Critical Thinking. The analysis was content analysis. The findings stated that teacher’s knowledge about contemporary ELT methodologies is needed as the basic knowledge; teachers’ motivation in learning the contemporary ELT methodologies through critical thinking skills are strengthened; and teachers’ ability in identifying and analyzing the contemporary ELT Methodologies is sharpened through critical thinking skills.
... The problem in teaching English in an EFL context is in looking for the appropriate learning strategy that can accommodate learners' needs. This issue has been a constant challenge in teaching English in non-Native English-Speaking Countries (non-NESC) (Hasanah & Utami, 2019), and Indonesia is not an exception. Accommodating students' needs means taking the students' perspective on the learning strategy as a primary concern in the process of language learning. ...
The implementation of translation strategy has become a significant issue in several countries amidst the constant discussion of technology integration in language learning. Although it has long been regarded as not reliable by some researchers since it is highly associated with grammar-translation methods, several EFL countries still regard translation strategy as an interactive learning strategy which focuses on learners. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the attitude of EFL learners in a rural area in Indonesia towards the implementation of translation strategy in language learning. It also attempts to find out whether translation strategy is effective to foster learner autonomy. Applying a qualitative case study to a group of high school students from a rural area in Indonesia, questionnaires and focus group interviews were used to collect the data. The result showed that the participants perceived translation as a useful learning strategy to foster learner autonomy in an EFL context since it encouraged them to work collaboratively instead of depending on the teacher.
... Teaching EFL in non-native English countries with non-native English teachers inevitably face some problems, EFL teaching in several Asian countries faces important problems, namely less learning material, unsupportive environment, big classes and low motivation (Hasanah & Utami, 2020). There is also a tendency for a non-native English teachers to maintain the grammar and translation teaching and rote learning in EFL classes (Nagamine, 2017). ...
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Learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) starting at an early age is considered a better alternative than learning EFL at an older age. This study aims to examine the development of children's English capability especially in speaking after they have studied at home with Indonesian parents and at school with Indonesian teachers. This study is a longitudinal case study examining 2 children aged 80 and 52 months. The data were in the form of children's English utterances and were taken within 1-2 year intervals. The data were collected by recording their speech, interviewing both children and parents, and carrying out participant observations during data collection. Data analysis was performed using MLU (mean utterance length); UB (Upper Bound) or the number of morphemes of the longest utterance and Morpheme Acquisition (the types of morphemes acquired). The result is that in general they were able to converse in English, but they had different levels of MLU, UB, and Morpheme acquisition. This difference was ascribed to differences in the EFL intervention and learning experience. The first research subjects learned English with Direct Learning in courses and schools, she got her English in no time and her MLU was moderate. The second research subject experienced learning English from a very early age at home with his parents, his MLU was high.
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This study explores creative and intriguing approaches for teaching English based on contextual factors that are believed to affect second language acquisition (SLA). There may be a variety between conventional and modern teaching approaches. When it comes to teaching English as a second language, everyone has their own reflections. Yet, this study illustrates how teachers might increase the effectiveness of instruction by combining these two styles.As result from observation showed, researcher found that the students were not enthusiastic about the lesson. Making the learners feel enthusiastic during the learning process is not easy and the problem is related to teaching methodology. Whatever English teaching method, teachers must be more innovative in the teaching-learning process in order to ensure that students learn effectively.The present study identifies several teaching techniques that were inferred and then established as pedagogies for teaching English in the early nineteenth period and the researcher infers the method that fit in this digital era. Furthermore, educational facilities and teachers who are unfamiliar with technology provide formidable hurdles, thus regardless of the difficulties they may be facing, and teachers should adopt the use of effective teaching tactics to help students comprehend.
Conference Paper
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In his book "The Qur'an: Translated, with a Critical Re-arrangement of the Surahs," Richard Bell asserted that there is no relationship or correspondence between the 9th and 10th verses of Surah al-Mulk. To investigate the structure of this Surah, researchers employed the Semitic Rhetorical Analysis (SRA) method, which involves dividing the text into particles and determining the symmetrical alignment formed by some of these particles. This process results in the formation of text symmetry patterns, which constitute the main principle of the SRA. The SRA method involves grouping the smallest text elements into larger groups at higher levels. Text groups at lower levels are called members, segments, pieces, and parts, while text groups at higher levels are referred to as passages, sequences, sections, and books. Using this method, the researchers found that Surah al-Mulk has an interconnected text structure composed of 11 pieces, each exhibiting a mirror, ring, or parallel composition. The text's cohesion within each group suggests its coherence, which can lead to new interpretations or meanings. From the SRA perspective, the coherence of the Qur'an can be observed at each level of the particle group of texts, indicating multi-layered coherence. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that Surah al-Mulk has a well-structured and interconnected text, which can be analyzed using the SRA method.
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On a multifaceted basis, this paper explores the challenges experienced by native and non-native English language teachers (NESTs and NNESTs) in a tertiary-level EFL setting in Turkey. Adopting a qualitative case study design, the data were gathered from five NESTs through interviews and from five NNESTs through hand-written accounts based on the template for challenges in ELT (TCELT), and analysed through deductive thematic analysis. The findings showed that the NESTs and NNESTs perceive similar as well as different challenges in the language preparatory program where they are co-teaching. Student-related and institutional parameters accounted for the NNESTs‘ problems, whereas on the part of the NESTs, teacher-related and cross-cultural factors accompanied these parameters. The findings were furthered by the teachers‘ elaborations on the causes and pedagogical consequences of the challenges, and their strategies for coping with them. In light of the teachers‘ accounts, the paper concludes by offering several suggestions for the elimination of the perceived challenges in an attempt to improve the effectiveness of the program.
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Attitude is one of the success factors in language learning. It includes students’ feelings, beliefs, and behavior tendencies. This study is conducted using the mixed-method research exploring English Department students’ attitude on learning English. The main focus of the study is to discover students’ belief on English, to understand students’ attitude, feeling and behavior on learning English. The data were collected through questionnaire and semi-structured interview. The participants of the reseach were fifty five students selected randomly to fill in the questionnaire. However, only six students were selected purposively to gain data more in-depth through interview. The results indicate that English department students show positive attitude in three points of cognitive aspect; the students’ reason for learning English, the students’ level of English competeent, and the students’ thinking toward learning English which they consider that English is important. Moreover, the students have positive in four points of emotional attitude; the students’ interesting in learning English, the students’ feeling in learning English, the students’ preference in learning English, and the students’ enjoyment in learning English which the students show good feeling in learning English. Furthermore, the students have positive in three points of behavioral attitude; the students’ attention during learning English, students’ participation in the English which the students act posively during learning English. In other words, English Department students were found to have positive attitudes toward learning English.
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Instructional research has consistently identified teacher enthusiasm as a key facet of high teaching quality. Social psychological reasoning—specifically, the expectancy formation hypothesis—further implies that cues about the teacher’s motivation are relevant for students’ motivation and emotional experiences. The present experiment integrated these two strands of research by independently manipulating implicit behavioral motivational cues (high vs. low displayed teacher enthusiasm) and explicit motivational cues (intrinsic vs. extrinsic) to explore their individual and joint effects on students’ perceptions of the teacher, and their own emotional experiences, motivation, and subjective learning. Data was collected from N = 483 university students (59% female) who watched a short instructional video. An actor, introduced as volunteering or paid expert, delivered an identical script either with high or low displayed enthusiasm. 2 × 2 between-subjects ANOVAs showed favorable main effects of both displayed enthusiasm and ascribed teacher motivation on perceptions of the teacher and on students’ own emotional experiences. Additionally, there were significant interaction effects on perceived teacher motivation and enjoyment and on subjective learning. Only in the low displayed enthusiasm condition, the extrinsically motivated teacher was perceived as less joyful and motivated. Student ratings of subjective learning were particularly high in the high enthusiasm/intrinsic condition and in the low enthusiasm/extrinsic condition. We conclude that teachers can send out positive motivational signals even in the presence of extrinsic motivation cues (i.e., financial compensation for teaching).
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The use of formulaic sequences in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) lessons plays an integral role in language teaching and learning, but it seems still widely neglected in the Thai school context. To call attention to this issue, this study aims at identifying formulaic sequences used in a Thai primary school. The data were taken from three native English teachers in their young learners' EFL lessons, and were analysed with the use of corpus software to identify the formulaic sequences used according to their functions within the various situations in the lessons.The findings reveal that multiple formulaic sequences were used throughout the lessons for various reasons but always in a specific context during the course of the lessons. This study has created a potentially useful list of formulaic sequences, including their functions and situations they could be used in. We hope that this list could benefit non-native English EFL teachers who teach young learners in their own lessons.
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Classroom management is commonly believed to be the key to the success of an instruction. Many student teachers, however, might find it very challenging to handle their classrooms. It is, therefore, necessary to advance their professional practice in the context of a real classroom such as through teaching practicum and reflective practice. This study is aimed at identifying classroom management problems of student-teachers as revealed in their reflective journal entries and to demonstrate how such journal can help them develop their classroom management skills. The participants were 10 student-teachers of the English Department, Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga, Central Java, who underwent their teaching practicum at SMP 2 Salatiga. Through the participants’ journals, it was found that the problems lie in managing critical moments, activity, techniques, grouping and seating, authority, tools, and working with people. Further in this study, both pre- and in-service tertiary teachers, curriculum designers, and policy makers will be taken to deeply examine how reflective practice can help cultivate the pre-service’s classroom management skills and to consider the implication for pedagogical practices and innovations in curriculum development.
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This paper examines a common belief that learners of English as a foreign language prefer to learn English from native-­‐speaker teachers rather than non-­‐native speakers of English. 50 Vietnamese learners of English evaluated the importance of native-­‐ speakerness compared with seven qualities valued in an English language teacher: teaching experience, qualifications, friendliness, enthusiasm, the ability to deliver interesting and informative classes, understanding of students' local culture, and advanced English communicative competence. Findings show that the respondents placed more value on all but one of these qualities than on native-­‐speakerness. The only outlier was advanced English competence and respondents selected innate native-­‐ speakerness over this quality because they believed that native-­‐speaker pronunciation was the ideal model. These findings build on a growing body of research that challenges the notion that native speakers of English are ideal English language teachers.
With the rapid development of computer technology, videoconferencing has been widely applied for social and educational purposes. Issues relevant to the use of videoconferencing in second-language instruction have been raised and researched. However, little attention has been paid to videoconferencing projects implemented outside class for elementary school students, particularly in the efl context. To fill the gap, the current study aims to contribute to our understanding of the outof- class videoconferencing language-learning activities for young learners by exploring how 40 native English-speaking teachers perceived out-of-class videoconferencing in learning English by elementary school students in Taiwan. Data consisted of teacher responses to a post-videoconference survey with open-ended questions. Through qualitative, inductive, and interpretive analysis of the data, the study identified three emerging themes: uneven student performance, technical issues, and suggestions for the videoconferencing activity. The study contributes to our understanding of the videoconferencing experience of language teachers and broadens our understanding of implementing videoconference activities. Further research could explore teacher metacompetence (Guichon, 2009) by analyzing videotaped videoconferencing sessions.
The ability to express oneself clearly in both a mother tongue and a foreign language is a foundation principle of the new national curriculum in Estonia. Therefore, research was conducted to determine whether there was a possible relationship between English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers’ perceptions of effective teaching and the contextual evaluation of the school. The aim of this article is to describe the relationship between the perceptions of school climate and effective teaching among EFL teachers. The study revealed that EFL teachers’ perceptions of the school climate correlate to some extent with their perceptions of effective teaching practices, with some differences between teachers of Estonian-language schools compared with those of Russian-language schools. The research also highlighted that senior management should place more emphasis on creating a cooperative school climate for developing a learner-centred teaching approach as one of the foundation principles of the new national curriculum.
Exploring teachers' cognitions is a significant endeavour, as teachers' cognitions inform their classroom practice, and, in turn, their cognitions are influenced by their teaching experiences. This study explored the differences between novice and experienced non-native English-speaking teachers' cognitions about corrective feedback (CF) in teaching English oral communication. Data were collected from 20 novice and 20 experienced teachers through a questionnaire and follow-up interviews. Results show statistically significant differences between the two groups. Teachers' personal experiences influenced their cognitions about the necessity of CF and the effectiveness of different CF types and timing. Interview data show teachers' teaching experiences raise their awareness of the role of mediating factors, namely learner factors, error frequency, types, and severity, target from difficulty, instructional focus, and task types in their cognitions about the necessity, timing, and types of CF. In contrast, novice teachers, partially due to their insufficient teaching experiences, had rigid cognitions about CF. Novice teachers attributed their cognitions to their personal language learning experiences. As a pedagogical implication, we recommend that student teachers be provided with opportunities for acquiring theoretical understanding about CF and translating it into classroom practice.