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Developing management effectiveness: The nexus between teaching and coaching

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Abstract

As a contribution to the evolving debate about the future of business schools, we explore the complementary value of teaching and coaching in executive education to offer a more holistic individualised learning experience. Beginning in each case with teaching, some enriching differences are: focus on knowing at a macro-level versus doing at a micro-level; pre-determined context-free knowledge versus self-determined context-specific knowledge; impersonal access to many subject experts versus personal access to one process professional; directively taking people out of themselves versus nondirectively taking people into themselves; critical feedback centred on normative reference points versus supportive feedback centred on personalised, formative reference points. The differences reveal limitations in each approach that the other can address. We propose that the greatest benefit for adult learning and management performance can be found at the nexus of the two approaches, when teachers and coaches integrate the qualities of both approaches. This entails not just appreciating some value in the other, but actually incorporating insights and methods from the other approach into their practice.

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... This suggests that there is scope for improvement. In this regard, the research community has begun to focus on the important role of coaching in management development and leadership development processes (Reid, Cook, Viedge, & Scheepers, 2020). ...
... The rationale for combining teaching and coaching for management and leadership development purposes is explored in the literature (Reid et al., 2020), but the manner in which coaching is used to enhance executive development programmes requires more thorough research (Hooijberg & Lane, 2009;Korotov, 2016;Stefaniak, 2017). For example, whilst several studies have examined specific activities and interventions associated with the development of effective leaders (Day & Barney, 2012;Ibarra, Snook & Ramo, 2010), group coaching and its potential to boost leadership effectiveness as part of leadership development programmes has attracted little research attention. ...
... In the case of the former, it is recommended that themes be used as a common anchor for participants (Britton, 2015;Kets de Vries, 2014), as was done in this study. The sessions and themes allow for tentative insights to emerge, ideas and views to be clarified and knowledge to be affirmed by peers (Reid et al., 2020). ...
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the role of group coaching in developing leadership effectiveness within the context of a business school leadership development programme, which included both classroom facilitation and group coaching. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopted a sequential, mixed-methods approach, combining a pre-programme and post-programme, 360-degree, multisource feedback instrument and in-depth interviews with South African women managers to assess changes in their leadership effectiveness. Findings/results: The results indicate that participants’ leadership effectiveness had changed significantly as a result of the programme. More specifically, the group coaching dimension appeared to play a role in developing personal competence, evidenced in participants’ enhanced sense of direction, self-awareness, self-confidence and relationship with their authentic self. It also appeared to facilitate the development of social competence, evidenced in participants’ enhanced understanding of, and relations with, others, as well as their ability to empower others. This was made possible by affording participants a psychologically safe place in which learning and growth could take place and by providing them with external inputs and feedback. Practical
... The coaching recommended in this paper is not necessarily narrowly focused but is rather more closely aligned with what is suggested in the Early Grade Reading Study (EGRS) study. This form of coaching goes beyond additional, in-service training as it aims to support and provide on-site training for teachers within their classroom environments in the form of specialised coaches who visit and observe classrooms -that is, a one-on-one partnership that is tailored to the individual needs of the teacher (Reid, Cook, Viedge & Scheepers, 2020). In the case ...
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37 Research in South Africa indicates that the current pre-service teacher-training syllabus is inadequate to prepare teachers to effectively teach reading in the earlier grades. This lack of preparedness results in teachers who continue to use outdated, traditional teaching methods with their learners. As a result, additional, in-service teacher training becomes important. As part of a larger research project, observing and recording detailed classroom practice in the Midlands area of KwaZulu-Natal between 2015 and 2017, involving two schools and eight teachers, this paper reports on whether additional training in the teaching of reading was sufficient to enable teachers to lead learners from decoding to comprehension across grades 3 and 4. Findings were that, in light of inadequate teacher preparation in initial teacher training institutions, additional training for teachers of reading is necessary yet insufficient to change entrenched, embedded teaching styles. It is recommended that mentoring, in the form of coaching, be considered in addition to training. 1234 This paper will discuss aspects of a mixed-method, descriptive, multiple case study that examined the effects of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) on the teaching of reading across grades 3 and 4. As the study is discussed in detail in Steinke and Wildsmith-Cromarty (2019), this article focuses on another area of the research that examined whether additional, in-service training for teachers of reading is sufficient to increase their effectiveness in enliterating learners in grades 3 and 4. The research took place at two primary schools in the KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, with eight participating teachers. The purpose was to facilitate literacy skills acquisition at the foundation and intermediate grade levels in South Africa.
... This is due to the fact that an adult has his own formed understanding of the life system and its surrounding reality. Foreign speech is a way of expressing the thinking of a different mental system and its understanding is hardly perceived by adult learners [10]. ...
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The paper examines the application of different methods and approaches in teaching adults a foreign language as part of additional education. The authors of the article aim to identify modern trends in the development of additional adult education, ensuring the creation of an optimal educational environment for successful adult instruction in a foreign language. This paper examines the social and psychological characteristics of adult learners. Emphasis is placed on the superiority of active training methods using information and communication technologies. It is concluded that for the most effective realization of the educational potential of a foreign language by adult students in the conditions of additional education, it is necessary for the teacher to combine pedagogical and anagogical models of education using digital technologies.
... Scientists, using foresight technologies (foresight-anticipate), determine the singularity process in the near future, when technological progress will become so rapid and products so complex that they will be inaccessible to understanding. Singularity process [10]. In order to avoid the scenario of inability to understand and process this type of information, as well as for painless entry into the stage of a new technical revolution, we have every opportunity to strengthen and develop the neural connections of structures [11]. ...
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The present work considers the development of adult education in Russia from the elimination of illiteracy from the late 19th -early 20th centuries to the use of information and communication technologies at the beginning of the 21st century. The aim of the article is to consider the stages of development of adult education and to determine at the stages of development the most sought-after educational areas and technologies in additional adult education. In this work, differences in the process of teaching children and adults are considered, an excursion is made into the history of the formation of adult education in Russia. A modern picture of additional adult education is given. Based on the studies, the authors conclude that for adults the most sought-after educational field is the study of a foreign language using remote technologies.
... Collins and Collins (2015) describe how coaching can be organised in stages, with movement to higher levels of achievement through support that places an emphasis on personal development as much as the acquisition of skills. In this respect, coaching is regarded as appropriate for management learning scenarios where there is a need to develop interpersonal and people leadership capabilities (Datar et al., 2011;Towell and Hall, 2016;Reid et al., 2020). Moreover, Kets de Vries and Korotov (2007) call for coaching in executive education to move to a greater emphasis on how to manage emotional and cognitive development from a transformational perspective. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this conceptual paper is to advocate the adoption of heutagogic principles within management education and to show how it could be implemented. Design/methodology/approach This paper is the outcome of a review of the literature on learning theory and management education. Findings This paper demonstrates how heutagogic principles have been introduced in three areas: entrepreneurial education, executive coaching and e-learning. Originality/value This paper makes an original contribution to the discourse on heutagogy through the OEPA model that maps the heutagogic learning journey.
... The effectiveness of management education in colleges of business has been scrutinized for nearly as long as formal business education has been practiced (Lamb et al., 2020). It is clear to most management educators that traditional classroom learning is insufficient, and that skill building through experiential learning methods is imperative to growing confident, capable, and career-ready graduates (Reid et al., 2020). Leadership is an essential managerial skill, which business school graduates often lack as they enter early-career managerial roles (Osmani et al., 2019). ...
... On the other hand, research on sustainability (Cohen, Demeritt, Robinson, & Rothman, 1998;Gladwin, Kennelly, & Krause, 1995) has, for a long time, been studying such issues, recognizing their complexity even if not necessarily calling them as such. Social movement (Reid, Cook, Viedge, & Scheepers, 2020;Reid & Toffel, 2009) literature has been looking into the activism processes around such problems and how framing around these issues is constructed at the field level. These papers, however, tend to remain within their stream and do not draw from the findings and theoretical developments achieved in the other fields. ...
Preprint
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I draw on interviews with experienced executive education teachers and young instructors who have recently shifted into executive teaching to explore the distinctive features of executive teaching, as contrasted with MBA teaching, in a case method environment. These interviews highlight differences in three broad areas: program purpose, student characteristics, and class dynamics. In each area, I examine the associated pedagogical challenges and then develop implications for instructor preparation, class planning, session design, and approaches to discussion leadership.
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We suggest that simulation-based training (SBT) offers many advantages as an approach for management education, and in an effort to guide and encourage its appropriate use, we provide several practical guidelines regarding how best to implement simulation-based training in the classroom. Our hope is that these guidelines will increase the use of high-quality SBT interventions in management education, and consequently, improve the performance of management and organizations alike.
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This article provides a comparative analysis and critique of action learning (AL) and experiential learning (EL), identifying emerging conceptual perspectives that contribute to human resource development (HRD). By integrating AL and EL, we gain a deeper understanding of action, learning, and experience, and how they are enacted based on the interplay of contextual, experiential, and action orientations. Through an integrative framework, we demonstrate that the interplay of cognition, behavior, and context offers insight into how and why learning occurs at multiple levels. The framework also recognizes the underlying dialectical forces that both reinforce and contradict schema selection and action framing. Tensions that facilitate and inhibit the grasping and transformation of experience create the context for actors to translate ‘knowing’ into ‘becoming’. Critical pathways that connect different phases of the learning cycle into coherent patterns of organizing offer some implications for HRD research and practice.
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The outcomes of learning are persistent states that make possible a variety of human performances. While learning results are specific to the task undertaken, learning investigators have sought to identify broader categories of learning outcomes in order to foresee to what extent their findings can be generalized. Five varieties of learning outcomes have been distinguished and appear to be widely accepted. These categories are intellectual skills (procedural knowledge), verbal information (declarative knowledge), cognitive strategies (executive control processes), motor skills, and attitudes. Each of these categories may be seen to encompass a broad variety of human activities. It is held that results indicating the effects on learning of most principal independent variables can be generalized within these categories but not between them. Five categories exist because (1) they differ as human performances, (2) the requirements for learning them are different despite the pervasiveness of such general conditions as continguity and reinforcement, and (3) the effects of learning differ. It is argued that these categories represent a functional middle ground and are well-suited as a basis for future research. (50 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
This book deals with how coaching interventions can drive a journey of transformational change at individual, team, and organizational levels. As a result, coaching interventions serve to create more reflective people, who in turn, create better organizations. The group coaching methodology, used by the INSEAD Global Leadership Center (IGLC) and adopted by the Center for Leadership Development Research (CLDR) at the European School of Technology and Management (ESMT), Berlin, is the basis for developing the theoretical assumptions behind the chapters. Through sharing research methodologies, and describing intervention and change techniques used in the leadership development and education of executive coaches, the book sheds light on how the 'magic' of coaching works, what coaches actually do, and how their clients respond. This book is a joint project between the IGLC and the CLDR. In compiling it, we have involved academics who conduct research, teach, and consult; leadership development coaches; change consultants; and executives who adopted IGLC methods for reflection on leadership development opportunities and challenges. We have also included people who have experienced IGLC methods in the process of their developmental journeys. They have collaborated, consulted their research and practice notes, analyzed data from inquiry projects, and shared their personal experiences in individual essays.
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This article explores the need for further research on the linkages between individual and organizational learning and proposes that an in-depth examination of how learning occurs at the executive level may yield some important clues about the micro-level dynamics underlying organizational learning. It is argued that a major obstacle to research in this domain is the dominance of the idea that learning is an individualistic form of activity and that knowledge is embedded in the invisible cognitive world of individual players. It supports an alternative view that learning is a social practice and that knowledge grows out of the interplay between interpersonal relationships and everyday `sensemaking' activities in the workplace context. Four theoretical frameworks are reviewed with the suggestion that they might form a useful platform for more precise and practical organizational learning research.
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This study evaluated two key components in leadership development programs: a 360-degree assessment of leadership skills and leadership mentoring. The participants in this study include 303 individuals in a leadership development program and 41 leadership mentors. The methodology and underlying rationale for using the two methods selected to evaluate the program are described. The results illustrate the degree to which mentees open up when mentors focus more on coaching and less on compliance and when mentors initiate personal contact with the mentees more often. The results also indicate that self-reports and observer-reports are statistically significantly different from one another. Implications and limitations are discussed.
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For many years, educators have tried to modify master of business administration (MBA) curricula to better prepare students for professional careers. Success in this endeavor may require educators to focus on a well-defined set of business-relevant skills. In this study, the authors examined the impact of a skillsbased course on leadership coaching. Students who had completed an MBA-level coaching course responded to a survey that asked them to rank the extent to which learning occurred on the skills objectives of the course. They also reported on their use of the techniques beyond the classroom. The results strongly supported this approach as an effective way to prepare professional business leaders.
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abstractHerbert Simon's 1967 article ‘The business school: a problem in organizational design’ anticipated many of the challenges business schools face today. Critics charge business schools with failing to realize their primary purpose, that is, to produce professional managers. This article revisits what Simon advocated with regard to a core feature of this professionalism, the production of essential management knowledge, and the process of educating people in applying it. With Simon as a guide, this article outlines educational and research interventions to help business schools realize their founding purpose. In doing so, it addresses the distinctive knowledge products that business school research can contribute to the management profession. This article also highlights the key role that evidence‐based management and the related practices of design science play in providing a more complete solution to the design problem Simon identified.
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Reviews a range of theories, concepts and learning approaches that are relevant to the development of professionals. Goes on to take a look at how professionals actually learn, once they are in practice. The latter is based on empirical research conducted across 20 professions. Reports on the range of experiences and events that practitioners had found particularly formative in helping them become fully competent professionals; this point often not having been reached until long after their formal professional training had ended. An attempt is made to relate the formative experiences reported to particular theoretical approaches to learning. The experiences are classified into a number of general kinds of “learning mechanism” and these are placed within a “taxonomy of informal professional learning methods”. The results of the research should be of use both to professional developers and to individual professionals. They should assist developers in their planning of placements or post-formal training. They should help individual professionals to maximise their professional learning, by seeking out particular kinds of experience and making the most of those that come their way.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to question the purpose of the business school and its role in management education. Design/methodology/approach – The paper develops an historical analysis of the origins, development and identity of the business school, reflecting the views of the business school's multiple stakeholders. The paper reviews traditional business school design and how this is driven by particular concepts of purpose and identity. It questions whether these concepts are sustainable in the light of current forces for change. Findings – The paper identifies the current major design challenges facing business schools as knowledge, narratives and practices and argues for a new narrative of sustainable strategic management as a guiding force for future development. Originality/value – The paper identifies the current knowledge challenges facing business schools and argues that business schools need to rethink their focus on “school” as well as “business”.
Article
The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in scholarly interest in the topic of authentic leadership. We review this literature with the goal of clarifying the state of knowledge in the field. We begin with a historical overview of the construct's definition and evolution. Next, we present the results of a content analysis of 91 publications that focus on authentic leadership. Specifically, we examined the publication type (theoretical, empirical, and practitioner), contributors (e.g., discipline, nationality, and institutional affiliation), theoretical foundations, research strategies, sample location/type, data collection methods, analytical procedures, and nomological network of authentic leadership. We conclude by presenting an agenda for future research.
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Purpose – The paper seeks to examine major challenges facing MBA programs and to argue that they will have to reconsider their value proposition. It aims to explore effective curricular and programmatic responses as opportunities for MBA programs to innovate. The paper also aims to call for collective action across the business school field to effectively address these challenges. Design/methodology/approach – The research is grounded in empirical methods including semi-structured interviews, data on curricula, courses, applications, enrollments, tuition and fees, and faculty hiring, and case studies of particular institutions. Findings – Business schools need to reassess the facts, frameworks, and theories that they teach, while also rebalancing their curricula to focus more on developing skills, capabilities, and techniques as well as cultivating values, attitudes, and beliefs. Originality/value – The paper draws on original sources of qualitative and quantitative data to present a detailed picture of the current state of MBA education. It identifies eight unmet needs based on interviews with deans and executives, and proposes curricula innovations that address these needs.
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Critics of the overall value of the MBA have not systematically considered the attitudes of MBA students about the value of their degree. The author used data from a large sample of graduates (N = 16,268) to do so, and to explore predictors of overall degree value. The author developed separate regression models for full-time, part-time, and executive MBA programs. The predictor variables are multi-item scales that measure (a) satisfaction with the MBA degree, and (b) satisfaction with the school or program. Each scale contributes significantly to the prediction of overall value, and there is little difference in their relative importance in the regression models.
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Coaching has been primarily used as an individual growth and development process within organizations, particularly at the leadership or high potential employee level (Hunt & Weintraub, 20026. Hunt , J.M. and Weintraub , J.R. 2002. The coaching manager: Developing top talent in business, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. View all references). While developing top talent is undoubtedly an important use of coaching, other organizational objectives can also benefit from using coaching. Organizational Change (OC) is one such area in which coaching can contribute to the overall effort. Organizational Change requires a number of interlocking phases of change from the individual to the team to the organization as a whole, opening up a number of opportunities for coaching to those involved in these types of initiatives. In this article, short overviews of models of individual change and organizational change are given and through the discussion of an OC effort within an organization, the use of coaching as a tool in implementing and sustaining change is illustrated.