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Language skills acquisition in children indicates a remarkable achievement for every parent as the ability of comprehending and producing the language is one of the most important basic skills in human’s development. Approaching the age of five, a normal child’s language development is in a complex-linguistic period where she is able to produce a language with a firm grammatical structure as adults conduct. Interestingly, this happened without a regular and structured grammar learning process. However, some factors play significant roles to activating cognitive systems in children (Wahyuni, 2019) which stimulates their language skills. The most basic language skill in children that is able to be fostered early is listening skill which they have needed and acquired before they reach their first year of age and will be continuously developed during their language development journey. Listening becomes crucial for them as it cognitively creates a comprehensible input before creating outputs for them to producing the language, before they start speaking. Applying an intrinsic case study on a pre-school (near five-year old) child, this qualitative research tries to describe how the process of early listening skill can be trained by parents or care-givers to stimulate children’s language skills acquisition in their first language (L1) skills acquisition. Specifically it sheds some light on how early listening skill foster L1 skill in children. Some suggestions regarding improvement strategies related to establishing early listening skills in children are presented as well as additional implication of this study for future researches.
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Research and Innovation in Language Learning Vol. 3(1) January 2020 pp. 57-70
P- ISSN: 2614-5960
e-ISSN: 2615-4137
Copyright @2020 Irma Wahyuni 57
Irma Wahyuni
English language education department, STKIP Muhammadiyah Bogor, Bogor-
Language skills acquisition in children indicates a remarkable achievement for every
parent as the ability of comprehending and producing the language is one of the most
important basic skills in human‟s development. Approaching the age of five, a normal
child‟s language development is in a complex-linguistic period where she is able to
produce a language with a firm grammatical structure as adults conduct. Interestingly,
this happened without a regular and structured grammar learning process. However,
some factors play significant roles to activating cognitive systems in children (Wahyuni,
2019) which stimulates their language skills. The most basic language skill in children
that is able to be fostered early is listening skill which they have needed and acquired
before they reach their first year of age and will be continuously developed during their
language development journey. Listening becomes crucial for them as it cognitively
creates a comprehensible input before creating outputs for them to producing the
language, before they start speaking. Applying an intrinsic case study on a pre-school
(near five-year old) child, this qualitative research tries to describe how the process of
early listening skill can be trained by parents or care-givers to stimulate children‟s
language skills acquisition in their first language (L1) skills acquisition. Specifically it
sheds some light on how early listening skill foster L1 skill in children. Some
suggestions regarding improvement strategies related to establishing early listening
skills in children are presented as well as additional implication of this study for future
Keywords: language skills, acquisition, language development, listening skill
Penguasaan keterampilan bahasa pada anak-anak merupakan sebuah pencapaian luar
biasa bagi setiap orang tua karena kemampuan memahami dan memproduksi bahasa
adalah salah satu keterampilan dasar yang paling penting dalam perkembangan
manusia. Menjelang usia lima tahun, perkembangan bahasa anak yang normal berada
dalam periode linguistik kompleks di mana ia dapat menghasilkan bahasa dengan
struktur tata bahasa yang kuat seperti yang dilakukan orang dewasa. Menariknya, ini
terjadi tanpa proses pembelajaran tata bahasa yang teratur dan terstruktur. Namun,
beberapa faktor memainkan peran penting untuk mengaktifkan sistem kognitif pada
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anak-anak (Wahyuni, 2019) yang merangsang keterampilan bahasa mereka.
Keterampilan bahasa yang paling mendasar pada anak-anak yang dapat dibina sejak dini
adalah keterampilan menyimak yang mereka butuhkan dan peroleh sebelum mereka
mencapai tahun pertama mereka dan akan terus dikembangkan selama perjalanan
perkembangan bahasa mereka. Mennyimak menjadi penting bagi mereka karena secara
kognitif ia menciptakan input yang dapat dipahami sebelum menghasilkan output bagi
mereka untuk memproduksi bahasa, sebelum mereka mulai berbicara. Menerapkan studi
kasus intrinsik pada anak pra-sekolah (berusia hampir lima tahun), penelitian kualitatif
ini mencoba menggambarkan bagaimana proses keterampilan menyimak sejak dini
dapat dilatih oleh orang tua atau pengasuh untuk merangsang peningkatan keterampilan
bahasa anak-anak dalam konteks pemerolehan bahasa pertama (L1) mereka. Secara
khusus studi ini akan menyoroti bagaimana keterampilan menyimak sejak dini dapat
menumbuhkan keterampilan berbahasa pada anak-anak. Beberapa saran mengenai
strategi peningkatan keterampilan menyimak dini pada anak-anak disajikan sebagai
implikasi tambahan dari penelitian ini untuk bahan penelitian di masa yang akan datang.
kata kunci: pemerolehan keterampilan berbahasa, perkembangan bahasa,
keterampilan menyimak
Received 2020-01-04 accepted 2020-01-31 published 2020-01-31
doi. 10.33603/rill.v3i1.3040
A plethora of language learning studies have shown that listening comprehension has a
significant role in the process of language learning (Ahmadi, Seyedeh, 2016). It is due
to the process of decoding a language in the listening comprehension process that
creates inputs in human‟s cognitive system. With these inputs, humans can produce a
language in a form of speaking skill. In other words, listening and speaking skills are
closely related each other. Therefore, they cannot be separated as they involve several
organs in human body which are integrated, namely brain, mouth, and ear.
Listening is the first language skill that is acquired by human before the other skills are
achieved. Not similar to hearing which is a part of psychological process, listening is
defined as a conscious process that requires people to be mentally attentive (Low &
Sonntag 2013 as cited in Caspersz, 2015). As listening is a very fundamental skill in
language learning as well, it is necessary to pay more attention to learn it (Yazdanpanah
& Khanmohammad, 2014). With these importance of listening skill in relevance to
language development as well as language learning process, it is no doubt that it should
be learnt by language learners as early as their linguistic period in their life is begun,
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especially between age of 3-5 years old. Erica Hoff (2009) in her book chapter titled
Language Development at an Early Age: Learning Mechanisms and Outcomes from
Birth to Five Years in the Early Childhood Development Encyclopedia language
development and literacy stated that by the age of 5, children essentially master the
sound system and grammar of their language and acquire a vocabulary of thousands of
words (Rvachew, 2018). It means that at this language development stage, inputs can be
provided for children through natural language learning process which might be
conducted outside of the formal classroom setting. In relation to it, this research aims to
present one of the possible strategies to deliver the inputs in order to stimulate outputs
in children language skills acquisition process through conducting early listening skill.
In the listening process, bottom-up, top-down, and interactive processing is involved. In
bottom-up processing, listeners use the acoustic message, individual sounds, or
phonemes, together make up phrases, clauses, and sentences then combine the sentences
to create ideas and concepts and relationship between them, while top-down processing
emphasizes the use of prior experience and the surrounding context which enables
listeners to comprehend input (Wolvin 2010, as cited in Binti Abu Bakar, 2019).
Interactive processing, however, involves both bottom-up and top-down processing
(Wolvin, 2010, as cited in Binti Abu Bakar, 2019). This complex process creates a
perspective that although it is perceived as the most fundamental language skill to learn,
listening comprehension is one of the most difficult language skills as well.
In relation to it, some researches had explained about listening obstacles faced by
language learners especially children are due to Auditory Processing Disorder (APD)
present with normal hearing, but have barriers in comprehending speech, particularly
when surrounded with background noise (Roebuck & Barry, 2018). As originally
perceived, the disorder was specific to the auditory inputs processing. However, the
APD status as a reliable diagnostic category is still questioned and debatable (Wechsler,
as cited in Roebuck & Barry, 2018). Besides, the listening difficulties in normal
children also caused by immature hearing during the first decade of life is more strongly
influenced by top-down mechanisms than in adulthood (Moore, 2012). The other
difficulties are due to first language acquisition problems, namely: grammatical errors,
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phonological errors, incorrect utterances, imitation, repetition, correction, indicating the
question, learning by experiences, and laziness (Hutauruk, 2015).
Apart from those problems, many researchers pointed out the solution to the language
skills (including listening) problems for adult language learners. However, only a few
researches discussed the strategies to fostering language skills acquisition in children.
Hence, utilizing the case study approach on a pre-school child, this research gives
insight to parents, language learners, teachers, as well as researchers on how the early
listening skill can foster first language skills acquisition in children. This research may
also anticipate the listening barriers in language learners by early listening skill since
they achieve their formal education at school institution. The early listening skill
presented in this study is conducted by employing direct listening technique through
reading bedtime stories aloud, and let the child listening to it. This early intervention
explained in this research would clarify whether and how it affects the other language
skills other than listening as well.
Research Design
This research utilized qualitative descriptive design. It means a research studies that
investigate the quality of relationships, activities, situations, or materials (Fraenkel,
Wallen, Hyun, 2012). Unlike the quantitative research, there is a greater emphasis on
holistic description in this research that is on describing in detail of what goes on in a
particular activity or situation rather than on comparing the effects of a particular
treatment (Fraenkel, Wallen, Hyun, 2012). Thus, this theory underlying the design of
this research that comprehensively describes the process of early listening skills as a
particular activity and how it foster language skills acquisition.
Meanwhile research approach employed is intrinsic case studies. It is a research in
which the researcher is primarily interested in understanding a specific individual or
situation. He or she describes, in detail, the particulars of the case in order to shed some
light on what is going on (Fraenkel, Wallen, Hyun, 2012). In correlation with the
theory, as this research primarily studies the first language skills acquisition in a pre-
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school child as a specific individual was observed, and early listening skill as a specific
activity, therefore intrinsic case studies is the most appropriate approach for it.
The voluntary participants involved in this research is a pre-school child (female) aged
4,5 years old, named Alesya, and her parents.
Data Collection Technique
The data collection techniques employed in this research were observation, field notes,
and semi-structured interview. Semi-structured interview aims to search for more
information on a particular topic and to entirely understand the answers provided
(Harrel & Bradley, 2009).
Data Analysis Technique
Data collecting technique in the present research is based on stages of qualitative data
analysis (Lacey & Luff, 2009) consist of; transcription, organizing data, familiarization,
and coding.
Data Presentation Technique
The research results are presented narratively in explanation form as well as
descriptively in a form of quantitative chart or diagram where relevant.
Results and Discussion
The existing language development of the main research participant
Before explaining the process of how early listening skills are conducted, it is necessary
to provide information on how the language development stage of the participant at the
present time is. Alesya (4,5 years old) has not enter the formal school yet. Her language
skills learnt through fun learning and playing regularly. Routines and patterns are useful
to build social relationship and act as intake in the process of creative construction
(Ratnaningsih, 2017). Specifically, she has experienced a natural language learning
process through picture books, telling story, listening/watching animation movie,
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playing vocabulary games, etc. in her everyday life. These were occurred since she was
three years old.
Based on the direct observation and interview with her parents, her first language
acquisition that existed when the research was conducted can be illustrated briefly by
the following table;
Table 3.1, participant‟s existing language development
d Language aspects
She could pronounce every words in her L1
(bahasa Indonesia) correctly but with some errors
in specific phonological sounds for consonants; „r‟
that is pronounced “l” such as in the word “pergi”,
she kept saying “pelgi”, and „s‟ that is pronounced
“sy” such as in the word “bakso”, she kept saying
Lexical resource
S She has known various lexical ranges that can be
seen from the way she is talking, and guessing
various names of animals, plants, and tools when
she was playing vocabulary games with her
parents. For example when her parent said “can
you mention the animal with initial letter „A‟?”
(bisakah kamu sebutkan nama binatang dari huruf
A?), and she directly answered “Ayam” or even
She is able to structure her sentences with an
understandable and consistent pattern in forms of
simple sentences, compound, and complex
sentences. For example she said, “Aku lagi
ngantuk, males ngomong” (I am sleepy, lazy to
talk”), or “Bunda, kalau habis makan buah, bijinya
ditanam biar tumbuh banyak pohon, terus, udara
kita gak panas jadinya” (Mom, as soon as you
finish eating fruits, plant its seeds in order to
become trees, then the air around us won‟t be
hot). These are some examples of a simple and
complex-compound sentence. Even though her
sentence patterns were not always grammatically
and literally correct, but it is understandable for
adult version in everyday situation.
K She is able to understand the meaning of what was
told by her interlocutors in her everyday speech. It
can be seen from the way how she actively
communicates with her peers, and family members.
For example, when her father told her to hear and
follow what her mother said during playing with
her peers, she clarified by questioning,
“Maksudnya kalau Bunda bilang “iya” berarti
boleh, tapi kalau Bunda bilang “jangan” berarti
gak boleh?” (“Do you mean if mom says „yes‟ so I
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can do it, but if she says „no‟ it means I am
prohibited to do it?).
S She has been able to express something she want to
say in indirect way in a form of allusive language
or “bahasa sindiran”. For example, when she was
on travel with her parents, she suddenly saw a
retailer brought a bunch of colorful balloons with
various characters of cartoon picture, and she
wanted to buy it. Her parents actually saw it as
well, but they pretended to not recognize it. Then,
She intended to indirectly tell her wish to purchase
the balloons by questioning, “Ayah, itu barusan
tukang apa?” (Dad, do you know what is that?).
Her father replied “Apa ya… Ayah gak tau”
(ummm… I don‟t know). Then she continued in a
slightly angry tone, “masa Ayah gak tau sich…?”
(“It‟s impossible that you don‟t know it”). Her
father laughed, and finally Alesya said what she
meant with a louder voice, “aku mau beli balon
tadi, yang gambar sponge-Bob” (I want to buy a
balloon I have seen just now, the one with Sponge-
Bob image”).
Description regarding the process of how early listening skill is conducted
The mentioned early listening skill was conducted through reading bedtime stories to
the main research participant (Alesya). This reading process was demonstrated
regularly, clearly, and expressively by her parent since she was 3 years old. As Alesya
has not had the ability to literally reading yet, the reading was conducted by parent
beside her. She may also look at the text and picture in the book while her parent is
reading. It means that the main purpose of this activity is not to teach her literacy skills
or how to read literally by spelling the each of word. On the other hand, it is more to
stimulate her to pay attention to the story that was being told and read by her parent.
During this process, her listening skill is naturally built even without the intervention of
audio recording media.
In corresponds to this activity, reading and telling stories to children has been studied
and proven in correlation to its effect toward children‟s cognitive system in acquiring
language skills. For example, Pelletier and Astington (2004) perceived that children
with more advanced understanding of mental entities are better able to connect settings,
events, and actions described in a story with the characters‟ thoughts, motives, and
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emotions (Ebert, 2019). Furthermore, in correlation to its cognitive-psychological
aspect in children, Ebert (2019) as well stated that according to Bruner (1986) idea,
children with more advanced theory of mind may integrate the landscape of action
with the landscape of consciousness more easily when listening to or reading a story. In
addition, an advanced ability to represent mental states and processes also promotes
metacognitive knowledge and skills, which may further support text comprehension.
From these statements, it can be defined that activities leading to reading and listening
skills have a strong connection to children‟s mind particularly in developing their
language skills. Since both reading and listening are receptive skills in language
learning process, this is also relevant to one theory of reading and reading instruction
capitalizes on the connection between listening and reading. It is referred to as the
simple view of reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986, (Swain, Friehe, & Harrington, 2004) .
Listening is at the core of this simple view of reading, as listening and phonological
skills are highly correlated with early word decoding (de Jong & der Leij, 2002, Swain,
Friehe, & Harrington, 2004).
During telling a story through reading with the child, parent as a story teller should
make sure that the child pays attention and listen carefully to the story. The story telling
process can be limited to maximum 15 minutes. The ability of mimicking in the story
telling process is also important to influence child‟s attention toward the story content.
Once the story is finished, parent asks for the child‟s personal opinion regarding the
story. For instance, they can address some questions like “what do you think about the
story?”, “do you think the story is sad, happy, or amazing?”, “do you like the story?”.
Let the child express her feelings and opinions about the story. Listen to her, then
follows up with some questions related to the story to train and foster her
comprehension skills. It will be better to organize the questions with good sentence
structures, started from a simple question such as “who is the main character of the
story?”, or “where does the story take place?”. The child would enthusiastically answer
the questions. Then, continue with rather complex questions such as “how does the bear
survive during a very long winter in the jungle?”, or “how does giraffe help the bear in
difficult period of time?”. Complex questions in this context can be meant by the
structure of the sentence which is made in a complex sentence structure or questions
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that lead a listener (the child) to think carefully about the answer as the questions cannot
be directly answered or guessed. On the other hand, the listener should rather carefully
remember the story content that she had comprehended in order to answer the questions.
In addition, on the last questions parents or a story teller could give the most complex
questions related to the story such as, “what lessons you can get from the story?”, “do
you think honesty is important for us?, and why is it important?”, “Can you give other
examples of honesty in your daily activities?”. The most complex questions in the early
listening skill process can be defined as questions that stimulate the child‟s critical
thinking skills by drawing inference from the content of the story, formulating the
implicit meaning and message of the story, and connecting the story she heard with her
everyday life and activities. The process of how early listening skill is conducted can be
briefly illustrated by the following chart.
Figure 3.1; the early listening skill process
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The process of how the language skills acquisitions are fostered through early
listening skills
The activity of fostering early listening skill as described above affected participant
(Alesya) in many ways of cognitive development particularly language skills
acquisition. One of the most clearly seen language skills acquisition is L1 listening and
speaking skill in participant. When this activity is conducted regularly, the child is
trained to have a good listening comprehension. Besides, the speaking skill of the child
is trained as well through the process of question and answer session after the reading
process. However, this intake is not enough for the success of language acquisition.
Language acquisition, will be more successful by providing input where the routines
and patterns have a small but important role in language acquisition (Ratnaningsih,
2017). In other words, the early listening process given to the child cannot have much
impact on her language acquisition without dialogue sessions after the story telling is
finished. The dialogue process is conducted through question and answer session as
soon as the reading story aloud is finished well. In this process, the story tellers (parents
or care givers) can give some feedbacks to the child regarding the story content. The
language skills acquisition in the pre-school child conditioned and studied in this
research is illustrated in the figure below.
Child’s speaking and Listening skill
Reading aloud Giving questions
Listening to a story Answering questions
Figure 3.2; the early listening skill impact on language skill acquisition in pre-school
The early listening skill in this study is trained and given to the pre-school child whose
L1 reading and writing skill was not literally formed yet. Thus the impacts can be seen
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are more to the listening skill and speaking skill acquisition of the child. This technique
might be utilized in fostering the language skills acquisition in normal children who has
been entering formal elementary schools (5-8 years old) as well since their literacy has
been well established. It means that it seems more language skills acquisition can be
developed in them rather than in pre-school children. In this view, understanding
written text is the product of decoding and listening comprehension. Decoding refers to
the ability to convert print into sound and to read fluently (see NICHD Early Child Care
Research Network, 2005). The simple view implies that when decoding skills are poor,
they will place important constraints on reading comprehension. In contrast, when
decoding skills are stronger, listening comprehension becomes a more important
influence on reading comprehension (Lervag, Hulme, & Melby-Lervag, 2018).
Besides, the early listening skill through reading bed time stories with parents that is
established as a habit in the elementary school children might train their reading skill.
The parents can also be more creative in combining the techniques and strategies. They
may let the children read the story as well, and then give them questions to train their
comprehension. A study of reading for early childhood is an important thing as
preparation for their reading readiness. One of the methods that were given for
introducing a reading concept for children is using attractive games and activities
(Juwita & Tasu‟ah, 2015), and reading bedtime stories is one of the examples. Again, it
can be more attractive when parents are creative enough to stimulate the child‟s
enthusiasm regarding the content of the story by providing some questions about the
content of the story read, and relate it with the children‟s daily activities. It corresponds
to the theory that learning is more than a combination of inputs and outputs; it also
involves the process or learning environment as a key factor (Huerta-Wong & Schoech,
Conclusion & recommendation
The early listening skill that is well-established in the pre-school child in this study is
done through the reading bed time story aloud by the parent or care-giver. Language
skills acquisition influenced and developed by this activity is mainly listening and
speaking skill. This is due to the habit of listening comprehension that is trained
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regularly through reading and listening to the story. The story tellers is highly
encouraged to give feedbacks through questions answer session conducted as soon as
the reading story is accomplished, which, in turn, it can also stimulate speaking skill in
children. The speaking skill is fostered through expressing their opinions, and answers
in the dialogue session after the reading and listening process.
The activity of early listening skill explained in this research needs parent‟s good
listening skill. The importance of listening skill is highlighted here since it relates to the
expression of empathy and attention even in the context of nursing and health care. In
relevance to it, Shipley (2010) stated,
“The concept of listening is acknowledged as an essential component of effective
communication by many disciplines. Listening has always been considered a crucial component
of nursing care, and its benefits have been documented in nursing literature. Certain
characteristics that are essential to listening have been identified in all of the reviewed literature.
These defining attributes includes empathy, silence, attention to both verbal and non-verbal
communication, and the ability to be nonjudgmental and accepting”.
From the statement above, in terms of the communication with children, it can be said
that a parent with a good listening skill would likely to transfer a good listening skill as
well to their children. The early listening skill can be developed according to the
cognitive development in children without or with a well-established literacy skill. For
those with a well-established literacy skill, the story tellers may combine the strategies
with some games or media to stimulate more improvement and development of their
language skills acquisition.
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Author biography
Irma Wahyuni, S.S., M.Pd is a lecturer and researcher at English language education
department of STKIP Muhammadiyah Bogor. Her research interests are English
language teaching in EFL and ESL context, Language Acquisition, Language
... Meanwhile, 15 students or 17.05% had criteria that often appeared in the aspects of motivation and 15 students or 25% are enthusiasm during learning activities and there were 10 students or 11.37% who had criteria that often appeared in the aspect of listening with accuracy in completing the assignments given by the teacher. From these data, it can be seen that, the average score of listening ability through on lesson study-based learning activities is in the aspect of listening attentively and enthusiastically categorized enough (Wahyuni, 2020). ...
... Likewise, when the model teacher did question and answer activities to children about 'experiences to the market' and 'fruits and vegetables', the children appeared to be able to provide various responses and comments. It also raises curiosity to learn in coloring vegetable pictures, decorating pencil cases and kolase activity in group until the lesson ends, The confidence to answer or tell the experience of going to the market in front of the class and want to listen and pay attention to other people who are speak (Wahyuni, 2020;Gayatri et al., 2015;Prasiwi, 2018). Thus, it can be concluded some students have reached the standard in receptive language assessed by the indicator of early listening skill based on lesson study activity. ...
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This study aimed to describe children's listening skills in lesson study-based learning activities at Telkom preschool group B1 in Ternate City. The students involved were 24 early students. The lesson study process included preparing, observing, and reflecting lessons in the context of listening skills. In data analysis, Miles and Huberman interaction model was employed to describe the data qualitatively and quantitative data analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that children listening skill on lesson study-based learning activity on the ‘market day’ topic implemented at Telkom Preschool Group B1 in Ternate City was categorized as good (81.8) and sufficient (68.2). Furthermore, the data the development of a non-cognitive assessment instrument for listening ability in early childhood based on lesson study is feasible to be implemented .The result can be used as a basis for improvement and strengthening a lesson study activities dealing with listening skills in preschool that lesson study-based activities can improve children early listening skills in understanding subjects on the theme ‘market day’.
Conference Paper
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Language development in children is closely interrelated to diverse-internal and external aspects as human is a complex creature with a novel psychological system. In terms of this close connectivity, stages of the children language development are not always the same in every child. Various factors and causes may extensively and intensively affect the language development in children. This paper discusses about the reciprocal factors contibute to language development in Indonesian children 3-5 years old by categorizing the language development stages in two categories; receptive, and expressive language, which the researcher synthesized from the theory of language development milestones released by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) under the management of the American National Institutes of Health (NIH). Three purposes were stated in this research. First, it aims to investigate the language development of 3–5 year old Indonesian children. Second aim is to explore various different factors contributed to the language development of those children, and third, to identify the most dominant factors of their language development. Employing triangulation method, the data collecting techniques were direct observation, questionnaires, and interview. The researcher analyzed the data by investigating language development condition in children using speech, hearing and communicative development milestones checklist from the courtesy of American Speech–Language–Hearing Association (ASHA) on How Does Your Child Hear and Talk? as the language development predictors utilized. Next, the researcher qualitatively explored the reciprocal factors of the language development in Indonesian children. To encounter more specific findings, the researcher further identified the most dominant factors of language development and statistically ranked each factor conveyed. In relation to it, the research data and results will be both qualitatively presented by either descriptive or narrative explanation and quantitavely illustrated by the charts or diagram. The sampling method used is purposive sampling. Meanwhile the research participants were 20 mother-child pairs in one specific area in Bogor, Indonesia. The implication of the research in the educational practice is presented as well in this paper. To some extent, it can give parents more insightful knowledge about language development phases in their children, and raise more awareness in parents, care givers, or early childhood educators concerning a variety of natural and communicative language learning techniques they may implement at home and in children learning environment.
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(Central) auditory processing disorder ((C)APD) is a controversial diagnostic category which may be an artefact of referral route. Yet referral route must, to some extent, be influenced by a child’s profile of presenting symptoms. This study tested the hypothesis that parental perception of listening difficulty is associated with weaknesses in ability to sustain attention while listening to speech. Forty-four children (24 with listening difficulties) detected targets embedded in a 16-minute story. The targets were either mispronunciations or nonsense words. Sentence context was modulated to separate out effects due to deficits in language processing from effects due to deficits in attention. Children with listening difficulties missed more targets than children with typical listening abilities. Both groups of children were initially sensitive to sentence context, but this declined over time in the children with listening difficulties. A report-based measure of language abilities captured the majority of variance in a measure capturing time-related changes in sensitivity to context. Overall, the findings suggest parents perceive children to have listening, not language difficulties, because weaknesses in language processing only emerge when stressed by the additional demands associated with attending to, and processing, speech over extended periods of time.
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Listening comprehension and word decoding are the two major determinants of the development of reading comprehension. The relative importance of different language skills for the development of listening and reading comprehension remains unclear. In this 5-year longitudinal study, starting at age 7.5 years (n = 198), it was found that the shared variance between vocabulary, grammar, verbal working memory, and inference skills was a powerful longitudinal predictor of variations in both listening and reading comprehension. In line with the simple view of reading, listening comprehension, and word decoding, together with their interaction and curvilinear effects, explains almost all (96%) variation in early reading comprehension skills. Additionally, listening comprehension was a predictor of both the early and later growth of reading comprehension skills.
This paper describes an exploratory study that was conducted with Business School and School of Population Health undergraduates to assess whether we can teach effective listening. Effective listening is conscious listening when the listener hears both verbal and non verbal communication that is being transmitted by the sender. We developed an intervention using open space technology that was administered to both groups of students to explore our research focus. Drawing on our findings, we argue that effective listening can foster transformative learning. However, this requires educators to plan to manage the listening factors/filters that influence effective listening in the same way that they plan to teach content and generic skills to students. Our study provides some empirical understanding of the factors/filters that influence effective listening by students. The study also makes a theoretical and practical contribution to a gap in teaching and learning literature about listening.
According to many researches, Vygotsky’s concept of “scaffolding”(1978), which is defined by him as helping the learners to process the information, has significantly contributed to improvement of the three language skills of speaking, writing, and reading comprehension and particularly the two latter ones (writing and reading) among the EFL learners. It is while the effect of scaffolding on listening comprehension skill has been studied by very few studies. This study aims to investigate the possible effects of giving the related background such as telling the stories and experiences similar to the ones included in the listening materials on the listening comprehension skill among 60 intermediate level students through an experimental method in an English language institute in Kerman. The participants were chosen through matched cases method and 30 members were assigned to each of the control group and experimental group. The instruments used in this study were two listening comprehension tests. One of these tests was used before the investigation to recognize the listening level of each student. The other test which was different from the first one in content was given to both groups after the treatment to see if this treatment has any impact on the facilitating the participants’ processing of listening materials. The results of the t-test for independent samples showed the experimental group who was provided with the related questions, experiences, stories and discussion before listening to the test materials got higher test scores than the control group that wasn’t provided with any background.
How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education provides a comprehensive introduction to educational research. The text covers the most widely used research methodologies and discusses each step in the research process in detail. Step-by-step analysis of real research studies provides students with practical examples of how to prepare their work and read that of others. End-of-chapter problem sheets, comprehensive coverage of data analysis, and information on how to prepare research proposals and reports make it appropriate both for courses that focus on doing research and for those that stress how to read and understand research. The authors' writing is simple and direct and the presentations are enhanced with clarifying examples, summarizing charts, tables and diagrams, numerous illustrations of key concepts and ideas, and a friendly two-color design.
Social work education research frequently has suggested an interaction between teaching techniques and learning environments. However, this interaction has never been tested. This study compared virtual and face-to-face learning environments and included active listening concepts to test whether the effectiveness of learning environments depends on teaching techniques. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two learning environments (virtual, face-to-face) and two teaching techniques (experiential, lecture plus discussion) on satisfaction, perception of learning gains, and learning of listening skills. Findings support that both virtual and face-to-face experiential learning are teaching techniques that can develop listening skills, but the interaction was the opposite of that originally predicted. Face-to-face learning environments provided better results than virtual learning environments only when experiential learning techniques were used.
Many students who are at risk and those with disabilities struggle with listening. Too often, teacher training programs and basal reading series do not emphasize the importance of listening for learning and literacy. This article discusses the relationship between listening and literacy and offers listening activities that complement an existing elementary reading curriculum.