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Psychological Perspectives and Determinants of Behavior Humanistic Approach



This article is about the Humanistic psychological perspective. This article also explains how nature-nurture and bio-psycho-social factors contribute to human behavior according to the Humanistic view. Finally, this article analyzes the interplay between biology and the environment and how they can impact human behavior.
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By Fredrick Norfleet
Saturday, February 29, 2020
© FB. Norfleet Publishing
Psychological Perspectives and Determinants of Behavior Humanistic Approach
Six psychological approaches exist that attempt to facilitate the understanding of human
behavior. According to Saul McLeod, "An approach is a perspective (i.e., view) that involves certain
assumptions (i.e., beliefs) about human behavior: the way they function, which aspects of them are
worthy of study and what research methods are appropriate for undertaking this study" ( McLeod,
S, 2013, P. 1). The six psychological approaches are the behaviorist perspective, Humanism,
psychodynamic perspective, cognitive psychology, biological psychology, and evolutionary
psychology. For example, Humanistic psychology, "emphasizes the study of the whole person
(known as holism)" (McLeod, S., 2013, P. 1). The humanistic approach is fascinating because it
considers the Bio-Psyco-Social, (i.e., that which makes humans unique), the whole person when it
comes to understanding behavior.
When it comes to nature and nurture, research by Sasaki, J. Y. and Kim, H. S. shows that
"psychological (psycho) processes are affected by the interplay between culture (social) and
biological (bio) factors" (Sasaki, J. Y., & Kim, H. S. 2016, P. 1). For example, in 1959, Carl Rogers
(an influential and enduring theorist in humanistic psychology) concluded that for a person to grow,
environment (that provides them with empathy), acceptance (unconditional positive regard), and
empathy (understanding) is essential. Without these Human, bio-psycho-social, and nature-nurture
factors, according to Carl Rodgers, "relationships and healthy personalities will not develop as they
should, much like a tree will not grow without sunlight and water" (McLeod, "Carl Rogers," 1970, P.
1). Furthermore, in 1962, Maslow observed that the behavior of humans could be affected by their
needs. Maslow identified these five behavior affecting needs as physiological needs, safety needs,
love and belonging needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.
Maslows five-stage model (Hierarchy of Needs) is an example of the interplay between
biology and the environment, and how they impact human behavior. For example, the need for air,
food, drink, shelter, clothing, warmth, sex, and sleep influence human behavior. Breathing air,
eating food, consuming water (drinking), sex, and sleep are examples of biological influences that
can impact behavior. The need for shelter, clothing, and warmth are environmental influences that
impact human behavior. Therefore, those biological and environmental needs mentioned above
impact behavior because they are the basic needs for human survival, up until those basic needs
are fulfilled, all other needs become secondary.
McLeod, S. (2013). Psychology perspectives. Retrieved from
Sasaki, J. Y., & Kim, H. S. (n.d.). Nature, nurture, and their interplay: A review of cultural
neuroscience. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(1), 4-22. Doi:10.1177/0022022116680481
Mcleod, S. (1970, January 1). Carl Rogers. Retrieved February 26, 2020, from
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