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The static electricity properties of textile products are very important, especially when clothing comfort is the main subject. In this study, four sets of clothing fabrics containing 33 systematic and 18 non-systematic woven fabrics in total were used in order to examine the electrostatic charging properties. A testing mechanism which provides static electricity by the triboelectrification method was manufactured, and electrostatic voltage values occurring on the fabric samples were measured by an electrostatic voltmeter simultaneously with the testing mechanism. The repeatability of the results was checked by using polyester and cotton systematic woven fabrics. After this stage, the effects of fabric structural parameters and the rubbing period on electrostatic charging properties were evaluated. Moreover, non-systematic commercial woven fabrics were also tested in the study. In the last section of the experimental part, the best clothing and lining fabric combinations were revealed according to the lowest static electricity results.
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50
Cilveli G, Okur A, Sülar V . Electrostatic Properties of Clothing Fabrics Suitable for Different End-Uses.
FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe
2020; 28, 1(139): 50-57.
DOI:
10.5604/01.3001.0013.5858
Electrostatic Properties of Clothing Fabrics
Suitable for Different End-Uses
DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0013.5858
Abstract
The static electricity properties of textile products are very important, especially when
clothing comfort is the main subject. In this study, four sets of clothing fabrics containing
33 systematic and 18 non-systematic woven fabrics in total were used in order to examine
the electrostatic charging properties. A testing mechanism which provides static electricity
by the triboelectrication method was manufactured, and electrostatic voltage values occu-
rring on the fabric samples were measured by an electrostatic voltmeter simultaneously with
the testing mechanism. The repeatability of the results was checked by using polyester and
cotton systematic woven fabrics. After this stage, the effects of fabric structural parameters
and the rubbing period on electrostatic charging properties were evaluated. Moreover, non
-systematic commercial woven fabrics were also tested in the study. In the last section of the
experimental part, the best clothing and lining fabric combinations were revealed according
to the lowest static electricity results.
Key words: clothing fabrics, static electricity, electrostatic properties, clothing comfort.
Gülçin Cilveli1,
Ayşe Okur2,
Vildan Sülar2,*
1 Dokuz Eylul University,
Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science,
Izmir, Turkey
2 Dokuz Eylul University,
Department of Textile Engineering,
Izmir, Turkey
* e-mail: vildan.sular@deu.edu.tr
ment, and the number of repetitions of the
rubbing movement. Besides these, exter-
nal factors can greatly change the elec-
trostatic propensity of textiles [4]. Vari-
ous researches have been made on the
static electrication of textile products
and the factors affecting static electri-
cation. In recent years, these researches
have focused specically on the static
electrication of protective clothes where
new conducting bres are used [6].
Schemer et al. determined that an in-
crease in the amount of moisture in
the environment decreases the level of
electrostatic charging by the rubbing
of upholstery fabric and concluded that
pattern fabric, which has higher electro-
static charge levels, causes more static
electrication during confection protec-
tion [6]. Zhao investigated the effect of
rubbing material on the static electrica-
tion of textile materials [4]. Osei-Ntiri,
(1992) examined the electrostatic effects
of protective clothes used in the petro-
chemical industry and pointed out that
protective clothes with antistatic bre
cause less electrostatic voltage. In an-
other study, the effects of abrasion and
washing on electrostatic characteristics
were investigated using fabrics made of
conducting bre [6]. It was mentioned
that the electrostatic charging tendency
decreases as the number of conducting
bres in the fabric structure increases
and that the static electrication charac-
teristics of fabrics with conducting bre
are affected negatively by abrasion and
washing [7, 8]. Anderson et al. (2008)
examined the effect of upholstery fab-
ric used in car seats on the electrostatic
charging of the human body and de-
Introduction
Electrostatic charging is a fact that we
can see at any period in our daily life.
The human body can be charged by stat-
ic electricity while walking on a carpet,
rising from an armchair, or removing
clothes. When a person charged with stat-
ic electricity touches a metal object, an
electrostatic discharge occurs, and there
may be a spark at the moment of contact
[1, 2]. This electrostatic discharge may
be unpleasant for people because of the
physical reactions of the body at different
levels of charging, which are given in BS
EN 7506-1 [3]. According to the values
in the related standard, if the equivalent
body voltage is 3.6 kV, it is a percepti-
ble reaction level for the human body.
Any value higher than 3.6 causes some
problems, such as a denite sensation
at 11.5 kV or an unpleasant shock at
26.5 kV.
The static electricity that occurs on tex-
tile products during usage mostly en-
sues as a result of rubbing. The clinging
of clothes on the body or the feeling of
crawling because of static electricity
causes people to feel uncomfortable [4].
The most often and disturbing electro-
static discharge problem occurs while
putting on or taking off clothes, which
may cause painful and restless effects.
Also, there are physiological effects of
electrostatic charging on the human body.
There are many factors affecting electro-
static properties, the most important of
which are the material type, the moisture
content of the test material, the relative
humidity and temperature of the environ-
termined that the electrostatic voltage
amount caused by polyester upholstery
fabric with conductive bre is smaller
compared to any polyester fabrics. In re-
cent years, the electromagnetic shielding
effect of textiles consisting of conductive
yarn has been generally investigated by
an increasing number of researches on
e-textiles or wearable electronic textiles.
Varnaitė-Žuravliova (2013) measured
electrostatic characteristics such as sur-
face and vertical resistances to examine
shielding properties [9]. Žilinskas et al.
(2013) described a non-contact way
for electrostatic property measurement
based on affecting some textile materials
by ions with a positive or negative charge
[10]. Mahmoud and Ibrahim (2016) in-
vestigated the effect of blending poly-
ester textiles with cotton and viscose on
the friction coefcient and triboelectri-
cation [11]. Smalwood (2018) explained
that static electricity nuisance shocks
have become prevalent since oor cov-
ering and shoe sole materials have been
increasingly made from highly insulating
materials, such as polymers [12].
The static electricity properties of textile
products are very important, especial-
ly when clothing comfort and clothing
fabric are the main subjects. Although
there are a number of studies on this
topic, new researches are still needed ex-
amining different types of fabrics from
different points of view. From this per-
spective, a wide range of systematic and
non-systematic fabrics were tested in the
current study, and the disturbing limit
was evaluated when these fabrics were
used as clothing. Thus, a testing mech-
anism creating electrostatic charging by
51
FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe
2020, Vol. 28, 1(139)
the rubbing effect was manufactured.
The repeatability of the mechanism was
statistically veried before the meas-
urements. After this stage, the effects of
fabric structural parameters and the rub-
bing period on the electrostatic charging
properties were evaluated. In the last
section of the experimental part, the best
clothing-lining fabric combinations are
revealed according to the lowest static
electricity test results.
Material and method
A testing mechanism that creates elec-
trostatic charging by the rubbing effect
was manufactured and used during all
the experiments. The design methodolo-
gy of this testing mechanism is to con-
sider which fabrics cause the maximum
electrostatic voltage by rubbing and will
also cause the maximum electrostatic ef-
fect on the human body. Thus, the present
study consists of four main parts: produc-
tion of the testing mechanism, checking
the repeatability of the test results, eval-
uation of the effects of the rubbing pe-
riod and fabric structural parameters on
electrocharging properties, and determi-
nation of the best pair of clothing-lining
fabrics according to the lowest static
electricity results. A total of 51 different
fabric types were used in order to exam-
ine the electrostatic charging properties.
In the following part, all details about the
test fabrics, test mechanism and test pro-
cedure are explained.
Material
In the present study, four sets of woven
clothing fabrics consisting of 51 different
types were used. The test fabrics were
classied into four groups, such as three
systematic fabric groups (A, B and C) and
one non-systematic commercial fabric
group (D). In the rst and second fabric
groups (A and B), there are 12 system-
atic polyester fabrics for each with two
weave patterns, two different weft yarn
counts and three levels of weft settings.
There are nine cotton systematic fabrics
in Group C with three weave patterns and
three levels of weft settings. In the fourth
group (D) there are 18 non-systematic
commercial fabrics of various raw mate-
rials and weave patterns.
The effect of the rubbing time and repeat-
ability of the test results was checked,
and then the effects of the fabric struc-
tural parameters on electrostatic charg-
ing properties were evaluated by using
systematic polyester and cotton fabrics
Table 1. Basic structural properties of systematic woven fabrics. Note: * f shows the number
of laments in the yarn structure for polyester fabrics.
Fabric
No.
Raw
material Weave
Yarn linear
density, tex Setting, cm-1 Mass per
unit area,
g/m2
Fabric
thickness,
mm
warp weft* warp weft
A1 Polyester Plain 10 16.6(48f) 60 20 104.7 0.22
A2 Polyester Plain 10 16.6(48f) 60 23 108.1 0.22
A3 Polyester Plain 10 16.6(48f) 60 26 118.0 0.21
A4 Polyester Plain 10 33.3(96f) 60 14 118.0 0.24
A5 Polyester Plain 10 33.3(96f) 60 17 131.1 0.24
A6 Polyester Plain 10 33.3(96f) 60 20 141.9 0.25
A7 Polyester 3/1 Twill 10 16.6(48f) 60 30 121.9 0.25
A8 Polyester 3/1 Twill 10 16.6(48f) 60 33 128.9 0.24
A9 Polyester 3/1 Twill 10 16.6(48f) 60 36 135.8 0.25
A10 Polyester 3/1 Twill 10 33.3(96f) 60 24 153.7 0.30
A11 Polyester 3/1 Twill 10 33.3(96f) 60 27 169.5 0.31
A12 Polyester 3/1 Twill 10 33.3(96f) 60 30 184.8 0.33
B1 Polyester Plain 7.8 16.6(48f) 30 20 60.0 0.19
B2 Polyester Plain 7.8 16.6(48f) 30 23 66.9 0.19
B3 Polyester Plain 7.8 16.6(48f) 30 26 75.7 0.16
B4 Polyester Plain 7.8 33.3(96f) 30 16 81.3 0.23
B5 Polyester Plain 7.8 33.3(96f) 30 19 92.2 0.24
B6 Polyester Plain 7.8 33.3(96f) 30 22 106.2 0.24
B7 Polyester 3/1 Twill 7.8 16.6(48f) 30 27 74.1 0.19
B8 Polyester 3/1 Twill 7.8 16.6(48f) 30 30 78.1 0.19
B9 Polyester 3/1 Twill 7.8 16.6(48f) 30 33 82.2 0.20
B10 Polyester 3/1 Twill 7.8 33.3(96f) 30 20 95.7 0.25
B11 Polyester 3/1 Twill 7.8 33.3(96f) 30 23 106.7 0.26
B12 Polyester 3/1 Twill 7.8 33.3(96f) 30 26 115.5 0.27
C1 Cotton Plain 30 30 36 14 148.0 0.37
C2 Cotton Plain 30 30 36 18 163.0 0.37
C3 Cotton Plain 30 30 36 22 175.0 0.36
C4 Cotton 2/1 Twill 30 30 36 18 158.0 0.38
C5 Cotton 2/1 Twill 30 30 36 22 171.0 0.38
C6 Cotton 2/1 Twill 30 30 36 26 186.0 0.40
C7 Cotton 3/1 Twill 30 30 36 18 161.0 0.40
C8 Cotton 3/1 Twill 30 30 36 22 186.0 0.41
C9 Cotton 3/1 Twill 30 30 36 26 190.0 0.41
Table 2. Basic structural properties of non-systematic commercial fabrics. Note: *these
fabrics were also used as lining when checking the performance of clothing-lining pairs.
Fabric
No. Raw material, % Weave Mass per unit area,
g/m2
Fabric thickness,
mm
D1 100% Polyester Fancy twill 169.5 0.45
D2 100% Cotton Plain 163.0 0.45
D3 100% Linen Plain 167.9 0.44
D4 100% Silk Fancy twill 129.3 0.30
D5 100% Wool Plain 138.6 0.25
D6 45% Wool, 55% Silk Plain 125.9 0.23
D7 50% Wool, 50% Linen 2/2 twill 161.8 0.36
D8 55% Wool, 45% Cotton Plain 124.1 0.27
D9 68% Cotton, 32% Viscose Plain 125.5 0.21
D10 67% Cotton, 33% Ramie Plain 190.5 0.38
D11 70% Cotton, 30% Silk Plain 105.2 0.24
D12* 100% Viscose Fancy twill 106.9 0.20
D13* 100% Cupro Plain derivative 78.9 0.14
D14* 100% Acetate Plain 54.8 0.09
D15* 49% Acetate, 51%Viscose Plain 82.5 0.12
D16* 46% Acetate, 54% Cupro Fancy twill 82.7 0.12
D17* 55% Acetate, 45% Cupro Plain derivative 76.0 0.13
D18* 100% Polyester Plain 75.7 0.16
52
FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe
2020, Vol. 28, 1(139)
(Groups A, B and C). The effect of the
rubbing period was evaluated for sys-
tematic polyester fabrics (Groups A and
B) by considering that the period of the
rubbing effect is more important for
those fabrics compared to the other test
fabrics. It was decided not to use cotton
fabrics to examine the effect of the rub-
bing period because of their low electro-
static charging values and the difculty
of examining the differences. Non-sys-
tematic clothing fabrics (Group D) were
also tested to examine the electrostatic
charging properties of different types of
woven fabrics of different raw materials.
In the fourth and last stage of the exper-
imental part, some fabrics from Group
D were selected as lining fabrics (D12,
D13, D14, D15, D16, D17 and D18),
which were also used to examine a pair
of the best lining-clothing fabrics accord-
ing to static electriciaton test results.
The basic structural properties of all the
test fabrics are given in Tables 1 and 2.
Table 3 shows the summary of the exper-
imental plan conducted by using the test-
ing mechanism explained in detail.
Method
In the context of the study, a test mech-
anism that creates a electrostatic charge
by the rubbing effect was manufactured
to examine the electrostatic properties of
fabrics, and a voltmeter was used just af-
ter the rubbing process to measure elec-
trication results. The test mechanism
was inspired by the report prepared by
the Materials Science Laboratory in the
USA [9]. Details of the testing mecha-
nism are given below, and original photo-
graphs of it are illustrated in Figures 1-2
for a general view.
The main parts of the mechanism con-
sist of an electric motor, rubbing wheel,
sample holder, weight, frictionless pul-
ley and microswitch. The mechanism is
equipped with an electric motor to power
the rubbing wheel at a speed of 200 rpm.
The rubbing wheel was covered with
nonwoven wool felt of 140 mm diame-
ter, suitable for a Nu-Martindale Abra-
sion Tester. The wool felt was changed
for a new one after three rubbing tests.
Test samples were xed between the
two separate parts of the sample holder,
which was located on the right side of the
mechanism (Figure 2.a and 2.b). After
placing the test sample, the sample hold-
er was rotated to the rubbing position,
placed on the upper left side of the mech-
anism (Figure 2.c). Contact between the
test sample and wool felt was supplied
Table 3. Summary of experimental plan.
Evaluated property
The effect of the rubbing
period on electrostatic
properties
The effects of fabric
structural properties on
electrostatic properties
Electrostatic charging
properties of different
clothing fabrics
Selection of the best
clothing-lining pair
Fabrics used
Groups A and B
(systematic fabrics)
Groups A, B and C
(systematic fabrics)
Group D
(non-systematic
commercial fabrics)
Clothing fabrics from
Group D (1-11)
Lining fabrics from
Group D (12-18)
6
The wool felt was changed for a new one after three rubbing tests. Test samples were fixed
between the two separate parts of the sample holder, which was located on the right side of
the mechanism (Figure 2a and 2b). After placing the test sample, the sample holder was
rotated to the rubbing position, placed on the upper left side of the mechanism (Figure 2c).
Contact between the test sample and wool felt was supplied by hanging a weight of 1.36 kg
on a frictionless pulley, in accordance with literature [13]. A microswitch was used to start
the rubbing process simultaneously with the contact moment of the test sample on the wool
felt. The test was finished after the required rubbing period by pushing the microswitch for a
second time, and electrostatic voltage values occurring on the test fabrics were immediately
measured by an electrostatic voltmeter (model 7100. EFM 51, Wolfganfg Warmbier). It is
possible to change the rubbing period on the control panel by the user, and three rubbing
periods: 8 sec, 24 sec and 48 sec were also tested for a group of fabrics in the present study.
Figure 1. Static electrification mechanism developed for the experimental study
Figure 1. Static electrication mechanism developed for the experimental study.
7
Figure 2. Stages of the static electrification test by rubbing
(a) placing the test sample on the sample holder
(b) fixing the sample between the parts of the sample holder
(c) placing the sample holder in the rubbing position
Table 3. Summary of experimental plan
Evaluated property
The effect
Of the rubbing
period on
electrostatic
properties
The effects of fabric
structural properties
on electrostatic
properties
Electrostatic charging
properties of different
clothing fabrics
Selection of the best
clothing-lining pair
Fabrics used
Groups A and B
(systematic fabrics)
Groups A, B and C
(systematic fabrics)
Group D
(non-systematic
commercial fabrics)
Clothing fabrics from
Group D (1-11)
Lining fabrics from
Group D(12-18)
Test procedure
Before measurements, all the test fabrics were washed at 40°C by using an ECE reference
non-phosphate detergent (5g/l) with the F program of a domestic washing machine according
to the TS 5720 EN ISO 6330 standard. For every fabric type, three test samples with different
warp and weft yarns were cut into a square shape of 20×20cm dimensions. All test fabrics
were conditioned for 24 hours at standard atmospheric conditions (20°C±2 temperature and
a) b)
c)
Figure 2. Stages of the static electrication test by rubbing: a) placing the test sample on
the sample holder, b) xing the sample between the parts of the sample holder, c) placing
the sample holder in the rubbing position.
53
FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe
2020, Vol. 28, 1(139)
by hanging a weight of 1.36 kg on a fric-
tionless pulley, in accordance with litera-
ture [13]. A microswitch was used to start
the rubbing process simultaneously with
the contact moment of the test sample on
the wool felt. The test was nished after
the required rubbing period by pushing
the microswitch for a second time, and
electrostatic voltage values occurring on
the test fabrics were immediately meas-
ured by an electrostatic voltmeter (model
7100. EFM 51, Wolfganfg Warmbier). It
is possible to change the rubbing period
on the control panel by the user, and three
rubbing periods: 8 sec, 24 sec and 48 sec
were also tested for a group of fabrics in
the present study.
Test procedure
Before measurements, all the test fab-
rics were washed at 40 °C by using an
ECE reference non-phosphate detergent
(5 g/l) with the F program of a domes-
tic washing machine according to the TS
5720 EN ISO 6330 standard. For every
fabric type, three test samples with dif-
ferent warp and weft yarns were cut into
a square shape of 20 × 20 cm dimen-
sions. All test fabrics were conditioned
for 24 hours at standard atmospheric
conditions (20 °C ± 2 temperature and
65% ± 2 RH) before the tests in accord-
ance with ASTM D1776/D1776M-15.
As a precaution, all the test fabrics were
kept on an antistatic plate during all ex-
periments. Furthermore, the person who
performed the tests wore a lab coat made
of 100% cotton and used a grounded an-
tistatic wristband so as not to affect the
static electricity results.
Three repetitions were made for every
test sample of each fabric type, and in
total nine test results were handled for
every fabric type for one rubbing period.
Average electrostatic voltage values were
reported as the means of nine measure-
ments for every fabric type. Three dif-
ferent time durations of rubbing (8 sec,
24 sec and 48 sec) were considered for
systematic polyester fabrics (Groups A
and B). For other measurements, the rub-
bing period was always taken as 48 sec.
All test samples were kept for 24 hours
between all the repetitions.
Statistical analysis
SPSS 22.0 Statistical Software was used
for statistical analysis of the results.
Variance analysis was applied to deter-
mine signicant differences, and a 95%
condence level was used for all statis-
tical analyses. Variance analyses were
conducted to examine the repeatability of
test results. The differences between fab-
ric types and the effect of structural pa-
rameters and the rubbing period on elec-
trostatic charging properties of the test
fabrics were also evaluated by variance
analysis. The best pairs of clothing-lining
fabrics were evaluated according to val-
ues given in a previous study.
Results and discussion
The electrostatic charging properties of
51 woven fabrics were evaluated with the
testing mechanism proposed.
Effect of rubbing period
and repeatability
The rubbing period was statistically
evaluated, and then the repeatability
of the measurements was checked for
each rubbing period. Polyester fabrics
(Groups A and B) were tested to examine
the effects of the rubbing period on static
electrication. According to the variance
analysis results of Group A and B fab-
rics, the effect of the rubbing period on
electrostatic voltage values was found to
be statistically signicant (p < 0.05). Af-
Table 4. Variance analysis results of test fabrics (Groups A and B) for repeatability and fabric type.
Source
Fabric Group A Fabric Group B
Rubbing period for electrication Rubbing period for electrication
8 sec 24 sec 48 sec 8 sec 24 sec 48 sec
F Sig. F Sig. F Sig. F Sig. F Sig. F Sig.
Repeat 0.811 0.594 1.047 0.407 1.514 0.162 1.370 0.219 0.808 0.597 1.220 0.295
Fabric type 0.723 0.000 4.605 0.000 5.498 0.000 5.783 0.000 7.837 0.000 4 .111 0.000
Figure 3. Average electrostatic voltage values of polyester test fabrics (Group A) for three
different rubbing periods.
11
Figure 4. Average electrostatic voltage values of polyester test fabrics ( Group B)
for three different rubbing periods
Table 5. Variance analysis results of test fabrics (Groups A and B) for fabric structural
parameters
Polyester fabrics (Group A)
Variation source
Rubbing period:8 sec
Rubbing period:24 sec
Rubbing period:48 sec
F
Sig.
F
Sig.
F
Sig.
Weave (W)
9.537
0.003
2.201
0.141
0.888
0.348
Linear density of weft (L)
0.442
0.508
1.627
0.205
2.082
0.152
Weft setting (S)
1.170
0.315
4.723
0.011
1.011
0.368
Polyester fabrics (Group B)
Variation source
Rubbing period:8 sec
Rubbing period:24 sec
Rubbing period:48 sec
F
Sig.
F
Sig.
F
Sig.
Weave (W)
24.789
0.000
66.416
0.000
0.825
0.366
Linear density of weft (L)
0.000
0.984
0.041
0.840
0.436
0.511
Weft setting (S)
17.633
0.000
2.611
0.079
14.209
0.000
3.3 Effect of Structural Parameters on Static Electrification of Cotton Woven Fabrics
The electrostatic voltage values of cotton woven fabrics (Group C test fabrics) were
measured for a rubbing period of 48 seconds. A graph representing the results is given in
Figure 5.
According to the variance analysis results given in Table 6, the effect of the weave and
weft setting on electrostatic voltage for Group C fabrics was found to he statistically
Figure 4. Average electrostatic voltage values of polyester test fabrics ( Group B) for three
different rubbing periods.
Electrostac voltage, kVElectrostac voltage, kV
11
Figure 4. Average electrostatic voltage values of polyester test fabrics ( Group B)
for three different rubbing periods
Table 5. Variance analysis results of test fabrics (Groups A and B) for fabric structural
parameters
Polyester fabrics (Group A)
Variation source
Rubbing period:8 sec
Rubbing period:24 sec
Rubbing period:48 sec
F
Sig.
F
Sig.
F
Sig.
Weave (W)
9.537
0.003
2.201
0.141
0.888
0.348
Linear density of weft (L)
0.442
0.508
1.627
0.205
2.082
0.152
Weft setting (S)
1.170
0.315
4.723
0.011
1.011
0.368
Polyester fabrics (Group B)
Variation source
Rubbing period:8 sec
Rubbing period:24 sec
Rubbing period:48 sec
F
Sig.
F
Sig.
F
Sig.
Weave (W)
24.789
0.000
66.416
0.000
0.825
0.366
Linear density of weft (L)
0.000
0.984
0.041
0.840
0.436
0.511
Weft setting (S)
17.633
0.000
2.611
0.079
14.209
0.000
3.3 Effect of Structural Parameters on Static Electrification of Cotton Woven Fabrics
The electrostatic voltage values of cotton woven fabrics (Group C test fabrics) were
measured for a rubbing period of 48 seconds. A graph representing the results is given in
Figure 5.
According to the variance analysis results given in Table 6, the effect of the weave and
weft setting on electrostatic voltage for Group C fabrics was found to he statistically
54
FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe
2020, Vol. 28, 1(139)
Table 5. Variance analysis results of test fabrics (Groups A and B) for fabric structural
parameters.
Polyester fabrics (Group A)
Variation source
Rubbing period:
8 sec
Rubbing period:
24 sec
Rubbing period:
48 sec
F Sig. F Sig. F Sig.
Weave (W) 9.537 0.003 2.201 0.141 0.888 0.348
Linear density of weft (L) 0.442 0.508 1.627 0.205 2.082 0.152
Weft setting (S) 1.170 0.315 4.723 0.011 1.011 0.368
Polyester fabrics (Group B)
Variation source
Rubbing period:
8 sec
Rubbing period:
24 sec
Rubbing period:
48 sec
F Sig. F Sig. F Sig.
Weave (W) 24.789 0.000 66.416 0.000 0.825 0.366
Linear density of weft (L) 0.000 0.984 0.041 0.840 0.436 0.511
Weft setting (S) 17.633 0.000 2.611 0.079 14.209 0.000
Effect of structural parameters
on static electrication of polyester
woven fabrics
The effects of structural parameters on
the static electrication of polyester wo-
ven fabrics were examined separately for
fabric groups A and B. The average test
results of nine measurements for each
fabric type are shown in Figures 3-4 for
three different rubbing periods. The vari-
ance analysis results are tabulated in Ta-
ble 5. For Group A fabrics, the effect of
the weave is found to be statistically sig-
nicant, while that of the weft yarn linear
density and setting are not.
When the electrostatic voltage results of
Group A fabrics were examined for the
rubbing period, it is clearly seen that the
electrostatic voltage increases with an in-
creasing rubbing period. Even though the
effect of the weft density on electrostatic
voltage values is statistically signicant
for a 24 second rubbing period, electro-
static voltage values do not increase or
decrease parallel to the weft density in-
crements. For a 48 second rubbing pe-
riod, the effect of the weave type, weft
density and weft yarn count is found to
be statistically non-signicant at a 95%
condence level (p > 0.05).
When the average electrostatic voltage
values are examined, electrostatic volt-
age occurring on the test fabrics gener-
ally increases with the rubbing period in-
crements. A graph presenting the electro-
static voltage results of fabrics in Group
B is given in Figure 5 for three different
rubbing periods. Even though the effect
of the weft yarn number on electrostatic
voltage values is statistically signicant,
it is not possible to say that there is a reg-
ular increase or decrease in electrostatic
voltage values as the weft yarn number
changes. The effect of weave type on
electrostatic voltage is statistically in-
signicant for the three rubbing periods.
While the effect of weft density on elec-
trostatic voltage is statistically signicant
for a rubbing period of 8 seconds, it is in-
signicant for rubbing periods of 24 and
48 seconds.
Even though the effect of weft density on
electrostatic voltage values is statistically
signicant for a rubbing period of 8 sec-
onds, it is not possible to say that there is
a regular increase or decrease in electro-
static voltage values as the weft density
changes. For fabrics in group B, the ef-
fect of the rubbing period on electrostatic
voltage values is statistically signicant.
Figure 5. Average electrostatic voltage values of for cotton test fabrics (Group C) for
a rubbing period of 48 seconds.
Figure 6. Average electrostatic voltage values of test fabrics (Group D) for a rubbing period
of 48 seconds.
13
Above should be ’48 sec’
Figure 6. Average electrostatic voltage values of test fabrics (Group D) for a rubbing period of 48 seconds
According to the perceptible level given in BS EN 7506 [3], the test results can be divided
into two main groups. In the test standard mentioned, any value up to 3.6 kilovolts is
“perceptible”, while 11.5 kilovolts is a source of “definite sensation”. The fabrics with the
maximum electrostatic voltage are the ones made of polyester and acetate fibres (D1, D18,
D14), and these fabrics were found to be close to the definite sensation level. Beginning with
the wool fabric (D5), all the other fabrics have electrostatic voltage values lower than 3.6
kilovolts, which is perceptible.
However, it may be useful to examine the differences between the test fabrics. Amongst all
the test fabrics, the cupro (D12) and viscose (D13) fabrics are found to have the minimum
electrostatic voltage values. Independently from other fabric properties, there are important
results emphasising the effect of fibre type on electrostatic properties. While an electrostatic
voltage with an amount of 2.560 kilovolts was determined on 100% wool fabric, only 0.004
kilovolts was obtained for wool/linen fabric.Fabric with acetate and another fibre type were
found to have lower electrostatic values in comparison to 100% acetate fabric. 100% silk
fabric had 0.806 kilovolt electrostatic voltage while cotton/silk fabric had 0.009 kilovolts.
According to the results obtained, it is seen that the tendency of static electrification by
rubbing decreases significantly in fabrics where fibres with a high tendency of static
electrification are mixed with one of the cellulose-based fibres.
ter this stage, test results were examined
separately for every rubbing period.
In order to check the repeatability of test
results, a variance analysis was conduct-
ed. When the differences between repeti-
tions are evaluated, it is seen that the dif-
ferences between the repetitions are not
statistically signicant at a 95% con-
dence level (p < 0.05). This result means
that there is no statistically signicant
difference between the repetitions. More-
over, it was found that the fabric type is
statistically signicant (p < 0.05) for each
rubbing period. This nding shows that
statistically signicant test results can
be handled for different fabric types and
that differences between fabrics can be
detected using this testing mechanism for
electrostatic voltage values. All of these
variance analysis results are summarised
in Table 4.
Electrostac voltage, kV
12
significant(p<0.05). When the average voltage values are examined, it is seen that they
decrease for fabrics coded C4, C5, C6 (2/1 twill) and C7, C8, C9 (3/1 twill) along with
increments in the weft density. This systematic approach was not obtained for plain fabrics
with weft setting values different from those of the twill fabrics.
Above should be ’48 sec’
Figure 5. Average electrostatic voltage values of for cotton test fabrics (Group C)
fora rubbing period of 48 seconds
Table 6. Variance analysis results of test fabrics (group C) for fabric structural parameters
Cotton fabrics (Group C)
Variation source
Rubbing period:48 sec
F
Sig.
Weave (W)
12,347
0.000
Weft setting (S)
3,334
0.041
W*S
3,125
0.020
3.4 Electrostatic Voltage Results of Various Commercial Clothing Fabrics
The electrostatic voltage values of various commercial fabrics were measured for a rubbing
period of 48 seconds. A graph arranging the results from the highest to lowest values is
given in Figure 6.
12
significant(p<0.05). When the average voltage values are examined, it is seen that they
decrease for fabrics coded C4, C5, C6 (2/1 twill) and C7, C8, C9 (3/1 twill) along with
increments in the weft density. This systematic approach was not obtained for plain fabrics
with weft setting values different from those of the twill fabrics.
Above should be ’48 sec’
Figure 5. Average electrostatic voltage values of for cotton test fabrics (Group C)
fora rubbing period of 48 seconds
Table 6. Variance analysis results of test fabrics (group C) for fabric structural parameters
Cotton fabrics (Group C)
Variation source
Rubbing period:48 sec
F
Sig.
Weave (W)
12,347
0.000
Weft setting (S)
3,334
0.041
W*S
3,125
0.020
3.4 Electrostatic Voltage Results of Various Commercial Clothing Fabrics
The electrostatic voltage values of various commercial fabrics were measured for a rubbing
period of 48 seconds. A graph arranging the results from the highest to lowest values is
given in Figure 6.
12
significant(p<0.05). When the average voltage values are examined, it is seen that they
decrease for fabrics coded C4, C5, C6 (2/1 twill) and C7, C8, C9 (3/1 twill) along with
increments in the weft density. This systematic approach was not obtained for plain fabrics
with weft setting values different from those of the twill fabrics.
Above should be ’48 sec’
Figure 5. Average electrostatic voltage values of for cotton test fabrics (Group C)
fora rubbing period of 48 seconds
Table 6. Variance analysis results of test fabrics (group C) for fabric structural parameters
Cotton fabrics (Group C)
Variation source
Rubbing period:48 sec
F
Sig.
Weave (W)
12,347
0.000
Weft setting (S)
3,334
0.041
W*S
3,125
0.020
3.4 Electrostatic Voltage Results of Various Commercial Clothing Fabrics
The electrostatic voltage values of various commercial fabrics were measured for a rubbing
period of 48 seconds. A graph arranging the results from the highest to lowest values is
given in Figure 6.
Electrostac voltage, kV
55
FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe
2020, Vol. 28, 1(139)
Table 6. Variance analysis results of test
fabrics (group C) for fabric structural
parameters.
Cotton fabrics (Group C)
Variation
source
Rubbing period: 48 sec
F Sig.
Weave (W) 12.347 0.000
Weft setting (S) 3.334 0.041
W*S 3.125 0.020
When the average electrostatic voltage
values are examined, it is seen that the
test results increase with an increasing
rubbing period for many of the test fab-
rics in this group.
Effect of structural parameters
on static electrication of cotton
woven fabrics
The electrostatic voltage values of cot-
ton woven fabrics (Group C test fabrics)
were measured for a rubbing period of
48 seconds. A graph representing the re-
sults is given in Figure 5.
According to the variance analysis results
given in Table 6, the effect of the weave
and weft setting on electrostatic voltage
for Group C fabrics was found to he sta-
tistically signicant (p < 0.05). When the
average voltage values are examined, it is
seen that they decrease for fabrics coded
C4, C5, C6 (2/1 twill) and C7, C8, C9
(3/1 twill) along with increments in the
weft density. This systematic approach
was not obtained for plain fabrics with
weft setting values different from those
of the twill fabrics.
Electrostatic voltage results of various
commercial clothing fabrics
The electrostatic voltage values of various
commercial fabrics were measured for
a rubbing period of 48 seconds. A graph
arranging the results from the highest to
lowest values is given in Figure 6.
According to the perceptible level giv-
en in BS EN 7506 [3], the test results
can be divided into two main groups.
In the test standard mentioned, any val-
ue up to 3.6 kV is “perceptible”, while
11.5 kV is a source of “denite sensa-
tion”. The fabrics with the maximum
electrostatic voltage are the ones made
of polyester and acetate bres (D1, D18,
D14), and these fabrics were found to
be close to the denite sensation level.
Beginning with the wool fabric (D5), all
the other fabrics have electrostatic volt-
age values lower than 3.6 kV, which is
perceptible.
However, it may be useful to examine
the differences between the test fabrics.
Amongst all the test fabrics, the cupro
(D12) and viscose (D13) fabrics are found
to have the minimum electrostatic voltage
values. Independently from other fabric
properties, there are important results em-
phasising the effect of bre type on elec-
trostatic properties. While an electrostatic
voltage with an amount of 2.560 kV was
determined on 100% wool fabric, only
0.004 kV was obtained for wool/linen fab-
ric. Fabric with acetate and another bre
type were found to have lower electrostat-
ic values in comparison to 100% acetate
fabric. 100% silk fabric had 0.806 kilovolt
14
3.5 Electrostatic Voltage Results of Lining -Clothing Fabric Combinations
Electrostatic charge occurs on clothing fabrics by a rubbing effect between the body and
clothing fabric or/and between fabric layers during putting on/taking off and the wearing
period. It is an important matter to choose clothing fabrics that will cause minimum static
electrification on the body so as to provide better clothing comfort.
Considering this important point, electrostatic voltage values were measured on lining and
commercial clothing fabrics by preparing lining-clothing fabric pairs. A set of lining fabrics
selected from a commercial fabric group was used as rubbing material, and tests were
conducted for a 48 second rubbing period. Graphs showing the electrostatic voltage results of
the lining-clothing fabric pairs are given in Figure 7a and 7b.
Figure 7a. Electrostatic voltage results of the lining-clothing fabric pairs for the most common clothing
fabrics
Figure 7.a. Electrostatic voltage results of the lining-clothing fabric pairs for the most common clothing fabrics.
Electrostac voltage, kV Electrostac voltage, kV
Electrostac voltage, kV
Electrostac voltage, kV Electrostac voltage, kV
56
FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe
2020, Vol. 28, 1(139)
electrostatic voltage while cotton/silk fab-
ric had 0.009 kV. According to the results
obtained, it is seen that the tendency of
static electrication by rubbing decreases
signicantly in fabrics where bres with
a high tendency of static electrication are
mixed with one of the cellulose-based -
bres.
Electrostatic voltage results
of lining-clothing fabric combinations
Electrostatic charge occurs on clothing
fabrics by a rubbing effect between the
body and clothing fabric or/and between
fabric layers during putting on/taking off
and the wearing period. It is an important
matter to choose clothing fabrics that will
cause minimum static electrication on
the body so as to provide better clothing
comfort.
Considering this important point, elec-
trostatic voltage values were measured
on lining and commercial clothing fab-
rics by preparing lining-clothing fabric
pairs. A set of lining fabrics selected
from a commercial fabric group was used
as rubbing material, and tests were con-
ducted for a 48 second rubbing period.
Graphs showing the electrostatic voltage
results of the lining-clothing fabric pairs
are given in Figure 7.a and 7.b.
According to the results, a summary table
was prepared for good or bad lining-cloth-
ing fabric pairs using the perceptible lev-
els given in BS 7506-1. As seen in Ta-
ble 7, selecting the lining fabric is very
important when clothing fabric is made
of polyester, silk, wool and wool/silk
bres. For polyester fabrics, whatever
lining is selected, the perceptible level
is always exceeded for the fabrics used
in the current study. There is no need to
think about the selection of lining for fab-
rics made of cotton or cotton blends be-
cause electrostatic voltage values found
to be lower than 3.6 kV, meaning it is per-
ceptible. In that situation, according to
the electrostatic properties, here will be
no problem while wearing these fabrics,
and any disturbance in clothing comfort
occurring can be tolerated.
15
Figure 7b. Electrostatic voltage results of the lining-clothing fabric pairs for blended clothing fabrics
According to the results, a summarytable was prepared for good or bad lining-clothing fabric
pairs using the perceptible levels given in BS 7506-1. As seen in Table 7, selecting the lining
fabric is very important when clothing fabric is made of polyester, silk, wool and wool/silk
fibres. For polyester fabrics, whatever lining is selected, the perceptible level is always
exceeded for the fabrics used in the current study. There is no need to think about the
selection of lining for fabrics made of cotton or cotton blends because electrostatic voltage
values found to be lower than 3.6 kilovolts, meaning it is perceptible. In that situation,
according to the electrostatic properties, here will be no problem while wearing these fabrics,
and any disturbance in clothing comfort occurring can be tolerated.
Table 7. Comparison of the perceptible level of electrostatic voltage values of the lining-
clothing fabric pairs
Over the perceptible level*
(Electrostatic voltage higher than 3.6)
Perceptible level*
(Electrostatic voltage lower than 3.6)
Clothing fabric
Polyester
Lining Fabric
All the lining fabrics used
Clothing fabric
Cotton,
Lining Fabric
All the lining fabrics
Figure 7.b. Electrostatic voltage results of the lining-clothing fabric pairs for blended clothing fabrics.
Table 7. Comparison of the perceptible level of electrostatic voltage values of the lining-
clothing fabric pairs. Note: * comparisons were made according to BS 7506-1 [3].
Over the perceptible level*
(Electrostatic voltage higher than 3.6)
Perceptible level*
(Electrostatic voltage lower than 3.6)
Clothing fabric Lining fabric Clothing fabric Lining fabric
Polyester
Silk
Wool
Wool/silk
All the lining fabrics used
in the current study
Polyester, acetate
Polyester, acetate,
acetate blends
Polyester, acetate viscose
Cotton,
Linen,
Wool/linen,
Wool/cotton,
Cotton/ viscose,
Cotton/ramie,
Cotton/silk
All the lining fabrics used
in the current study
Electrostac voltage, kV Electrostac voltage, kV
Electrostac voltage, kV Electrostac voltage, kV
Electrostac voltage, kV Electrostac voltage, kV
57
FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe
2020, Vol. 28, 1(139)
Conclusions
In this research a test mechanism that
creates electrostatic charge on fabrics
by the rubbing effect was produced, in-
spired by a previous study [9]. Variance
analysis results proved that it is possible
to handle repeatable test results and that
differences between fabric types can be
determined by the test method used in the
current study.
As a result of the measurements, it is
determined that structural parameters of
woven fabrics have some effects on stat-
ic electrication; however, these effects
are not as determinative as raw material.
It was determined that the highest elec-
trostatic voltage occurs on fabrics made
of polyester, acetate, wool and silk bre,
respectively, in the current study. When
the effect of the rubbing period on the
electrostatic voltage values was exam-
ined regarding polyester fabrics, it was
observed that the electrostatic voltage in-
creases by increasing the rubbing effect
for three different rubbing periods (8, 24,
48 sec).
While determining electrostatic voltage
values occurring on clothing fabrics, the
effect of lining fabrics was taken into
consideration, and lining-clothing fabric
pairs were also arranged. As a result of
the lining-fabric combination test, it was
determined that the perceptible voltage
level can be exceeded with polyester
clothing fabrics. The highest voltage val-
ues were obtained for the polyester cloth-
ing-other lining pairs. When polyester
fabric was selected as the clothing fab-
ric, only the acetate lining was showed
the lowest electrostatic voltage. Cotton
and cotton blend fabrics were found to
have the lowest electrostatic voltage after
a 48 second rubbing period. It is thought
that the present study provides the pro-
motion of a simple test mechanism and
initial ndings obtained by this mecha-
nism. These may be useful ndings for
researchers studying clothing comfort
and garment performance. For further
studies investigating electrostatic charg-
ing properties. wearer trials under dif-
ferent environmental conditions will be
useful in terms of clothing comfort.
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The aim of the research was to reveal features of the electrical charging and dissipation of charges in fabrics containing conductive yarns after washing. All fabrics investigated were woven at the Lithuanian Textile Institute as protective fabrics from incendiary discharges. Conductive yarns were inserted into the fabrics at specified intervals. The surface and volume resistance, shielding factor and half decay time were determined for the fabrics before and after 5 washing cycles. The influence of the shielding effectiveness of PES/Cotton woven fabrics with silver plated filaments was investigated at different RH. Although the quantity of conductive yarns in the fabrics improves their electrostatic properties, the washing of the fabrics decreases all resistance values measured. The washing does not have a very big influence on the shielding factor and half decay time. It is shown that the vertical electrical resistance and surface resistivity are parameters whose values are very sensitive to the quantity of conductive PES/INOX yarns in the fabrics. Although knitted fabrics shrink more than woven ones, they have better electrostatic properties. Notwithstanding the influece of washing the fabrics tested have a sufficient shielding effect and can be used in work clothing to prevent the build-up of static charge.
Article
Electrostatic charge can be useful in the manufacture of certain types of nonwoven fabric, but it can also be damaging - fabric cling can be unsightly; dry soiling is accelerated by charge development; and spark discharges between the human body and conductors are unpleasant. The principles of electrostatic charging and discharging are then presented, with particular reference to textiles. Its principles are reviewed in test methods for evaluating charge development, in the development of products for improving the antistatic performance of fiber assemblies, and in using deliberately produced electrostatic charge to create new processes and products.
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