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(NADS in COVID-19 - short communication - version 1.4 - 5 A4 pages without references - 27.10.2020) Potent NRF2-activating dietary supplements (like resveratrol, curcumin, sulforaphane, “Asea redox supplement” [ARS] etc.) should be clinically tested as high-dose adjuvants in all types of medium and severe cases of aggressive respiratory viral infections (including Influenza A/B/C, measles, Coronavirus-related SARS, MERS, COVID-19) based on their extrapolated cytoprotective antioxidant effects

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  • Spitalul Judetean de Urgenta Targoviste (SJUT), Dâmbovița, Romania
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(NADS in COVID-19 - short communication - version 1.4 - 5 A4 pages without references - 27.10.2020) Potent NRF2-activating dietary supplements (like resveratrol, curcumin, sulforaphane, “Asea redox supplement” [ARS] etc.) should be clinically tested as high-dose adjuvants in all types of medium and severe cases of aggressive respiratory viral infections (including Influenza A/B/C, measles, Coronavirus-related SARS, MERS, COVID-19) based on their extrapolated cytoprotective antioxidant effects

Abstract

This very short medical communication proposes that potent NRF2-activating dietary supplements (like sulforaphane, resveratrol, quercetin, curcumin, “Asea redox supplement” [ARS] etc.) should be clinically tested as safe high-dose adjuvants (in various combinations) in all types of medium and severe cases of aggressive respiratory viral infections (including Influenza A/B/C, avian influenza, measles, Coronavirus-related SARS, MERS, COVID-19, etc., including those patients who have important comorbidities like HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis [TB] etc.) based on their extrapolated cytoprotective antioxidant effects (especially on the main vital organs: brain, heart, lungs, kidneys and liver), including the extrapolated strong cytoprotection offered by ARS on the cardiac muscle of DMD patients (which can be extrapolated to the lungs), like the author of this paper has demonstrated in past papers. Keywords: NRF2-activating dietary supplements, resveratrol, sulforaphane, curcumin, “Asea redox supplement” [ARS], respiratory viral infections, influenza A/B/C, avian influenza, measles, coronavirus, SARS, MERS, COVID-19, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis [TB] ________________________________________ On 22.10.2020 I’ve also launched an updated congress PowerPoint presentation (in Romanian with many cited articles in English) on the necessity of testing NRF2 activators (including “Asea redox supplement” [ARS], abbreviated as “ANSA” or “NADS”) in respiratory diseases (including COVID-19 and influenza): (ANSA/NADS in COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases - PowerPoint presentation created for the SRP congress https://www.congres-srp.ro - 22.10.2020) Activatorii de NRF2 suplimente alimentare (ANSA) – propunere de studii clinice în România pentru testarea ANSA ca adjuvanți în infecțiile agresive de cai respiratorii inferioare (inclusiv COVID-19) ale adultilor si copiilor (Romanian version with many cited articles in English) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344807574 https://univermed-cdgm.academia.edu/s/0ac9adcc18 https://www.academia.edu/44348937
1
Potent NRF2-activating dietary supplements (like
resveratrol, curcumin, sulforaphane, “Asea redox
supplement” [ARS] etc.) should be clinically tested
as adjuvants in all types of medium and severe cases
of aggressive respiratory viral infections (including
Influenza A/B/C, avian influenza, measles,
Coronavirus-related SARS, MERS, COVID-19 etc.)
based on their extrapolated cytoprotective
antioxidant effects (especially on vital organs),
including the cytoprotection offered by ARS on the
cardiac muscle of DMD patients which can be
extrapolated to the lungs of the infected patients
(short medical communication)
*
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.33764.12163
Paper version: 1.4 (7.11.2020) (no matter this current paper
version, its latest variant can be always downloaded from this
URL; version 1.0 released on 29.02.2020)
*
Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi
1
,
2
(independent researcher)
*
For motivation of this Wikipedia-based paper format, see URL
*
Abstract
(with some abbreviations further used in this paper)
This very short medical communication proposes that potent
NRF2-activating dietary supplements (like resveratrol,
sulforaphane, curcumin, Asea redox supplement [ARS] etc.)
should be clinically tested as safe adjuvants (in various
combinations) in all types of medium and severe cases of
aggressive respiratory viral infections (including Influenza A/B/C,
avian influenza, measles, Coronavirus-related SARS, MERS,
COVID-19, etc., including those patients who have important
comorbidities like HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis [TB] etc.) based on
their extrapolated cytoprotective antioxidant effects (especially on
the main vital organs: brain, heart, lungs, kidneys and liver),
including the extrapolated strong cytoprotection offered by ARS on
the cardiac muscle of DMD patients (which can be extrapolated to
the lungs), like the author of this paper has demonstrated in past
papers [
1
,
2
,
3
,
4
,
5
,
6
,
7
].
Keywords: NRF2-activating dietary supplements, resveratrol,
sulforaphane, curcumin, Asea redox supplement [ARS],
respiratory viral infections, influenza A/B/C, avian influenza,
measles, coronavirus, SARS, MERS, COVID-19, HIV/AIDS,
tuberculosis [TB] ***
I. Very short medical communication with main
arguments and additional ideas
Introduction. Potent NRF2-activating dietary supplements
(NADS) (like resveratrol, sulforaphane, curcumin, Asea redox
supplement [ARS] etc.) stimulate the activity of NRF2, a master
transcription factor (encoded by the NFE2L2 human gene), which
activated NRF2 significantly increases the expression of
antioxidant proteins (glutathione synthetase, glutathione peroxidase
[
1
] Email: dr.dragoi@yahoo.com
[
2
] Main pages: dragoii.com (CV: cvrg.dragoii.com); rg.dragoii.com;
academia.dragoii.com; vixra.dragoii.com; gsj.dragoii.com
[GPx], superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase etc.) that strongly
protect against oxidative stress (OS)/damage triggered by
acute/chronic infectious (viral, bacterial etc) or non-infectious
(toxic, autoimmune etc.) injury and inflammation at cellular and
tissular level. Several NADS are being studied as treatment of
diseases that are caused by OS (or which have an important OS
component in their pathogenic chain) [URL1, URL2, URL3,
URL4].
For a more detailed introduction to NRF2 and ARS see the
main references of this paper [1, 2].
The author has also dedicated a separate online database [URL2]
to all known (natural or synthetic) NRF2 activators (see URL):
www.nrf2.dragoii.com *
The main proposals/suggestions of this short medical
communication. (A) In the context of recent various aggressive
viral epidemics worldwide (including Influenza A/B/C, SARS,
MERS, COVID-19, measles, avian influenza etc., including those
patients which have important comorbidities like HIV/AIDS,
tuberculosis [TB] etc.), this paper proposes that at least some of
the previously listed NADS (including ARS) to be clinically tested
in high doses (or even very high doses, close to their toxic lower
bounds) as adjuvants (in combination with specific antiviral drugs
or other types of medication) in all types of medium and severe
children and adult cases of aggressive respiratory viral infections
(as those previously enumerated), especially in those patients
without prior vaccination against one or another specific disease
(if, when and where it is the case).
(B) Because some NADS also have demonstrated viral
antiproliferative and antifibrotic effects, NADS can be also tested
(in medium or high doses) clinically (or in an outpatient setting, but
under direct medical supervision or by telemedicine) in all contacts
of patients suffering from medium / severe (or with moderate /
severe potential evolution) lower respiratory tract infections
(LRTIs) (including COVID -19 and influenza) and with a high risk
of contagion, with the specific intention that these contacts to NOT
develop such LRTIs (or to develop mild forms of those LRTIs)
AND/OR also with the specific intention that those who still
develop severe forms of LRTIs to survive with the minimum
possible risk of pulmonary fibrosis (secondary to those LRTIs).
In both working hypotheses (A and B) NADS can be tested
as adjuvants in several ways: (1) Only one NADS; (2) Two or
more NADS in potentially synergistic combinations; (3a / b)
One or more NADS in combination with other potentially
synergistic adjuvant molecules (isoprinosine, N-acetyl cysteine,
certain vitamins, etc.) *
Prediction / work hypothesis which needs to be clinically
tested in hospitals and/or other medical research centers, under
medical supervision (with arguments plus extrapolation).
“ASEA redox supplement” (ARS) may plausibly show much
stronger cytoprotective antioxidant effects than other NADS on
vital organs (possibly affected by the aggressive viral infections
previously listed) at average, high or very high ARS doses of 3-5-
7ml/kgbm/day (kgbm=kilogram of body mass). Argument (1).
ARS has remarkable antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects
(by NRF2 selective activation and NF-kB inhibition). In vitro
studies showed that ARS is a very potent selective NRF2 activator,
thus a very potent (indirect) cytoprotective antioxidant: the studies
conducted in vivo also support this main pharmacological
mechanism of ARS, with no toxicity up to high doses. Argument
(2). In both cases of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy
(DMD) (treated with ARS) published until present [1, 2] (plus one
2
additional third DMD child case, which is still under preparation to
be also published in the near future), the author has demonstrated
that the strong cytoprotective effect of ARS (on both cardiac and
skeletal type of muscles) can be replicated in vivo, with excelent
safety profile and NO measured adverse effects on the bone
marrow and/or liver (by standard blood count and serum
levels/concentrations of liver enzymes): more specifically, even
after only three months of starting ARS treatment, the main skeletal
and cardiac rhabdomyolysis markers (with very high initial serum
levels, especially CK, CK-MB, and myoglobin) dropped
significantly (down to 2-3 times lower and even 5-6 times lower [in
the case of myoglobin] than initial serum levels), with NO found
blood marrow and/or liver and/or kidney toxicity until present.
Extrapolation (work hypothesis which needs to be clinically
tested in hospitals and/or other medical research centers, under
medical supervision). Given its high capacity of limiting
myocardial damage (proved by significantly decreasing CK-MB in
two DMD cases (also based on the high cytoplasmatic target-NRF2
concentrations in these main vital organs: heart, lungs, kidneys and
liver) AND its higher bioavailability in the central circulation
system (which also serves those vital organs), this paper predicts
(by extrapolation) that ARS may have strong cytoprotective
antioxidant effects in the lung tissue too: furthermore, ARS has a
strong additional advantage over the other NADS, because ARS
can be administrated both orally and nebulized (as it remains
stable in this nebulized form), thus ARS may reach even higher
concentrations in the affected lungs of patients with moderate or
severe respiratory infections (like those already listed in this paper)
(see also next additional arguments). Additionally, ARS appears to
significantly reduce the rate of rhabdomyolysis (which is relatively
frequent in influenza but also in COVID-19), as demonstrated in
DMD patients, thus ARS may indirectly prevent renal failure (RF)
(by acute tubular necrosis (ATN) partially secondary to
rhabdomyolysis in COVID-19), with RF and ATN being important
risk factors for multiple organ failure thus bad prognostic factors
which increase mortality in both influenza and COVID-19.
Additional argument (1) (for the previous extrapolation). A
trial in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD) using sulforaphane (a potent NADS, yet weaker than
ARS) improved the initially reduced phagocytosis of bacteria (by
alveolar macrophages from those patients with COPD) [URL1,
URL2].
Additional argument (2) (for the previous extrapolation).
NADS may also have the additional benefit of improving resistance
to viral entry and replication in cells infected with influenza A
virus, thus may plausibly help in reducing COPD patient
vulnerability to viral exacerbation [URL1, URL2].
Additional argument (3) (for the previous extrapolation).
There is a very recent in vitro study (published in July 2020) which
demonstrates that curcumin (a natural compound found in the spice
turmeric [Curcuma longa] and also available as NADS) may help
eliminate (by indirect antioxidant [via-NRF2] [at medium doses]
and direct antiviral/virucidal effects [at higher doses]) an alpha-
group coronavirus (AGC) (aka “transmissible gastroenteritis virus
(TGEV) affecting pigs) preventing the infection with this AGC and
also the spread of this virus from an already infected cells to other
healthy cells [URL1, URL2]. This in vitro study suggests that
combinations between curcumin and at least one other NADS may
be good candidates to start clinical tests as adjuvants.
**
Additional ideas of clinical testing/research of ARS in
combination with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). (1) ARS stimulates
the cellular synthesis of reduced glutathione (GSH) (by activation
of glutathione synthetase via NRF2 pathway), which is a very
potent endogenous antioxidant. On the other hand, N-acetylcysteine
(NAC) serves as a prodrug to L-cysteine (which is a precursor of
the same GSH): hence, oral and/or nebulized (and/or intravenous)
administration of NAC replenishes GSH stores of human organism
and that is why it may strongly enhance the beneficial effects of
ARS (by plausible therapeutical synergy) in these type of
aggressive infections but ALSO in many other type of diseases with
an important oxidative stress (OS) component (infections, DMD
etc.) [URL]. (2) Vitamine B6 is also a candidate that may be used
in combination with ARS (plus/minus NAC, plus/minus any other
NADS) [URL]. (3) Various combinations of two or more NADS
may also be clinically tested. (4) ARS or other NADS can be also
tested in combination with other types of immunostimulants (with
potential synergic effect when combined with NADS) like for
example: vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin D, inosine pranobex (an
analog of thymus hormones with indirect antiviral properties),
inositol hexaphosphate, deoxycholic acid etc.
Important note (1). There are also several respiratory OS
markers that can be used to asses the biological efficiency (if any)
of ARS and NAC (in standalone or combined adjuvant therapies)
[URL1, URL2, URL3]
Important note (2). NADS should be tested NOT ONLY in
medium and severe cases of various infectious diseases (like those
previously listed, including COVID-19) but they may be ALSO
tested as adjuvants in mild cases by organizing double-blind
placebo studies in which to check if those receiving adjuvant
NADS (vs adjuvant placebo) have a lower probability to evolve
into medium and severe cases than those treated with adjuvant
placebo.
Important note (3). Because COVID-19 was proved to also
have an important endothelial inflammatory component (with a
secondary tendency of clotting), this paper also suggests that
NADS should be also clinically tested in combination with omega-
3 fatty acids (O3FAs) (in high doses), which O3FAs were also
proved to have anti-inflammatory properties (including decreasing
the inflammation of the vascular endothelium, partially NRF2-
mediated) and also to inhibit coagulation (and even increase
PT/INR) and decrease the fluidity of blood (O3FAs are recognized
as "blood thinners"). The suggestion of clinically testing NADS-
O3FAs combinations in influenza and COVID-19 is also
argumented by that fact that BOTH these diseases may produce
heart damage (directly or indirectly: still under research for further
clues), which is an element of bad prognostics (as heart
complications usually increase the vital risk) [URL].
Important note (4). Adjuvant NADS may be administered
orally (directly or by nasogastric tube): however, if the results if
any initial clinical study would be encouraging, development of
intravenous NADS preparations may be urged for additional
clinical studies. Because NADS increase the intracellular levels of
glutathione synthetase (thus of glutathione), superoxide dismutase
(SOD) etc., if NADS will ever be proved to be efficient on various
infectious diseases in vivo (by extensive clinical trials), direct
intravenous (IV) perfusions of glutathione and/or SOD may be also
clinically tested as adjuvants in all this large spectrum of severe
infections (including COVID-19). Possible injectable preparations
of Asea redox supplement may be also clinically tested IF
glutathione and/or SOD IV perfusion will ever be proved to be
efficient in decreasing the rate of deaths in these infectious
diseases. Synthetic selective activators of NRF2 (SSA-NRF2) (like
metformin, dimethyl fumarate etc.) should also be clinically tested
as adjuvants in these serious infectious diseases (including COVID-
19): high level of prudence is however needed, given the much
higher rates of adverse effects of SSA-NRF2 when compared to
NADS.
3
**
Conclusion. Given their strong antioxidant effects (by NRF2
potent activation), at least some NADS (including ARS) deserve
future cohort studies on acute/chronic diseases that imply high
levels of tissular oxidative stress, especially some acute/chronic
cardiovascular and respiratory diseases like: medium and severe
infections (including aggressive infections like including influenza
A/B/C, avian influenza, measles, Coronavirus-related SARS,
MERS, COVID-19, etc., including those patients which have
important comorbidities like HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis [TB] etc.),
acute myocardial infarction with acute/chronic heart failure, stroke,
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma etc. of both
children and adults, so that NADS may help millions and even
billions worldwide. ***
II. Addendum
(A collection of studies dedicated to NRF2 activators and
their therapeutic potential in various conditions, including
infections, including influenza and COVID-19) [see also the
main PowerPoint presentation at this URL]
WORK HYPOTHESIS PROPOSED TO BE
CLINICALLY TESTED (firstly launched at the end of
February 2020): Oxidative stress is a very important
physiopathological link in most infections, and the strong
cytoprotection offered by NRF2-activators dietary supplements
(NADS) (via NRF2 selective activation) against oxidative stress
(demonstrated in vivo and in vitro on various types of cells / tissues
/ human and non-human organisms) can be effectively reproduced
clinically (in vivo, by extrapolation) in the lungs, heart, liver and
kidneys of human patients (adults or children) with severe
infectious diseases of the lower respiratory tract (including
COVID-19, including patients with HIV and/or TB and/or chronic
hepatitis B / C / B & D that develop such severe respiratory
intercurrences), including in patients with other comorbidities
(ADI, hypertension, ICC, CI, etc.), including in the post-acute
recovery period.
This work hypothesis was reiterated in the following months of
2019 by various authors:
Hassan S.M. (Apr. 2020) - The Nrf2 Activator (DMF) and
Covid-19: Is there a Possible Role? [URL2]
Lin C. Y. (Apr.-Jun. 2020) - Potential Role of Nrf2
Activators with Dual Antiviral and Anti-Inflammatory
Properties in the Management of Viral Pneumonia
Olagnier D.P. et al. (May 2020) - Identification of SARS-
CoV2-mediated suppression of NRF2 signaling reveals a
potent antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity of 4-octyl-
itaconate and dimethyl fumarate [URL2]
McCord J. M. et al. (May-Jun. 2020) - Nrf2 Activator
PB125® as a Potential Therapeutic Agent Against COVID-
19 [URL2, URL3]
Muzio L.L. (Jul. 2020) - New intriguing possibility for
prevention of coronavirus pneumonitis: Natural purified
polyphenols
Manoharan Y. et al. (Jul. 2020) - Curcumin: a Wonder
Drug as a Preventive Measure for COVID19 Management
[URL2]
Cuadrado A. (Jul.-Sept. 2020) - Can Activation of NRF2 Be
a Strategy against COVID-19? [URL2, URL3, URL4] (see
another similar proposal from Sept. 2020 [URL])
**
Because some NADS also have demonstrated viral
antiproliferative and antifibrotic effects, NADS can be also tested
(in medium or high doses) clinically (or in an outpatient setting, but
under direct medical supervision or by telemedicine) in all contacts
of patients suffering from medium / severe (or with moderate /
severe potential evolution) lower respiratory tract infections
(LRTIs) (including COVID -19 and influenza) and with a high risk
of contagion, with the specific intention that these contacts to NOT
develop such LRTIs (or to develop mild forms of those LRTIs)
AND/OR also with the specific intention that those who still
develop severe forms of LRTIs to survive with the minimum
possible risk of pulmonary fibrosis (secondary to those LRTIs).
In both working hypotheses (A and B) NADS can be tested
as adjuvants in several ways: (1) Only one NADS; (2) Two or
more NADS in potentially synergistic combinations; (3a / b)
One or more NADS in combination with other potentially
synergistic adjuvant molecules (isoprinosine, N-acetyl cysteine,
certain vitamins, etc.) **
QUERCETIN
relevant articles for the work hypothesis of this paper
Biancatelli R. et al. (2020) - Quercetin and Vitamin C: An
Experimental, Synergistic Therapy for the Prevention and
Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 Related Disease (COVID-19)
(URL2)
Yao Li et Al. (2016) - Quercetin, Inflammation and
Immunity
Nieman D. C. et al. (2007) - Quercetin reduces illness but
not immune perturbations after intensive exercise
Daneshvar P. et al. (2013) - Effect of Eight Weeks of
Quercetin Supplementation on Exercise Performance,
Muscle Damage and Body Muscle in Male Badminton
Players
Heinz S.A. et al. (2010) - Quercetin supplementation and
upper respiratory tract infection: A randomized
community clinical trial
Wu W. et al. (2016) - Quercetin as an Antiviral Agent
Inhibits Influenza A Virus (IAV) Entry (URL2, URL3)
Ganesan et al. (2012) - Quercetin inhibits rhinovirus
replication in vitro and in vivo
Elsayed H. S. et al. (2018) - Efficacy of quercetin
nanoparticles as a new antiviral against h5n1 influenza
virus replication
Talita P. D. (2017) - Quercetin Inhibits Inflammasome
Activation by Interfering with ASC Oligomerization and
Prevents Interleukin-1 Mediated Mouse Vasculitis
Kumar P. (2005) - Effect of quercetin supplementation on
lung antioxidants after experimental influenza virus
infection [URL2]
Vaidya B. et al. (2016) - Effectiveness of Periodic
Treatment of Quercetin against Influenza A Virus H1N1
through Modulation of Protein Expression
Gaber A. (2020) - Protective Role of Quercetin plus
Vitamin C on Infection of Rats with Klebsiella pneumoniae
and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
(review) Kinker B. et al. (2014) - Quercetin: A Promising
Treatment for the Common Cold
(meta-analiza) Somerville V. S. et al. (2016) - Effect of
Flavonoids on Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and
Immune Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-
Analysis
4
Xiangguo Qiu (2016) - Prophylactic Efficacy of Quercetin
3-β-O-d-Glucoside against Ebola Virus Infection [URL2]
Rocha Da Silva C. et al. (2014) - Synergistic Effect of the
Flavonoid Catechin, Quercetin, or Epigallocatechin Gallate
with Fluconazole Induces Apoptosis in Candida tropicalis
Resistant to Fluconazole
(review) Farhadi F. (2018) - Antibacterial activity of
flavonoids and their structureactivity relationship: An
update review
Siriwong S. (2015) - Synergy and Mode of Action of
Ceftazidime plus Quercetin or Luteolin on Streptococcus
pyogenes
**
SULFORAPHANE
relevant articles for the work hypothesis of this paper
Dinkova-Kostova A. (2017) - KEAP1 and done? Targeting
the NRF2 pathway with sulforaphane
Hashimoto K. (2020) - Risk of neuropsychiatric disorders
in offspring of COVID-19-infected pregnant women and
nutritional intervention
(review) Sulforaphane: Its “Coming of Age” as a Clinically
Relevant Nutraceutical in the Prevention and Treatment of
Chronic Disease
Cho H-Y et al. (2008) - Antiviral Activity of Nrf2 in a
Murine Model of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease
Harvey C. J. (2011) - Targeting Nrf2 signaling improves
bacterial clearance by alveolar macrophages in patients
with COPD and in a mouse model
Li Z. (2019) - Natural Sulforaphane From Broccoli Seeds
Against Influenza A Virus Replication in MDCK Cells
Riedl M.A. (2008) - Oral sulforaphane increases Phase II
antioxidant enzymes in the human upper airway
**
RESVERATROL
relevant articles for the work hypothesis of this paper
Mittra I. et al. (2020) - Resveratrol and Copper for
treatment of severe COVID-19: an observational study
Marinella M.A. (2020) - Indomethacin and resveratrol as
potential treatment adjuncts for SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19
[URL2, URL3]
Ranjbar A. (2020) - Molecular modelling of the antiviral
action of Resveratrol derivatives against the activity of two
novel SARS CoV-2 and 2019-nCoV receptors
(abstract only) Zhang J. (2020) - Resveratrol: A New Anti-
Coronavirus Drug [URL2]
Lin S-C. et al. (2017) - Effective inhibition of MERS-CoV
infection by resveratrol [URL2]
Palamara A.T. et al. (2005) - Inhibition of Influenza A
Virus Replication by Resveratrol
Mise N. et al. (2014) - Resveratrol regulates ECM
remodeling in lung fibrosis
Donnelly L. E. et al. (2004) - Anti-inflammatory effects of
resveratrol in lung epithelial cells: molecular mechanisms
(review) Zhu X-D. et al. (2017) Resveratrol as a potential
therapeutic drug for respiratory system diseases
(review) Filardo S. et al. (2020) - Therapeutic potential of
resveratrol against emerging respiratory viral infections
[URL2]
(review) Abba Y. et al. (2015) - Antiviral Activity of
Resveratrol against Human and Animal Viruses
(review) Xian Y. et al. (2020) - Bioactive natural
compounds against human coronaviruses: a review and
perspective **
CURCUMIN
relevant articles for the work hypothesis of this paper
(letter to editor) Rocha F.A.C. & de Assis M.R. (2020) -
Curcumin as a potential treatment for COVID‐19 (URL2,
URL3)
(review) Zahedipour M. et al. (2020) - Potential effects of
curcumin in the treatment of COVID‐19 infection [URL2]
(review) Ly Y. et al. (2020) - Antiviral and virucidal effects
of curcumin on transmissible gastroenteritis virus [alpha-
coronavirus] in vitro
(review) Soni V.K. et al. (2020) - Curcumin, a traditional
spice component, can hold the promise against COVID-19?
(review) Liu Z. et al. (2020) - The Inhibitory Effect of
Curcumin on Virus-Induced Cytokine Storm and Its
Potential Use in the Associated Severe Pneumonia
**
CORDYCEPS
relevant articles for the work hypothesis of this paper
Singh M. et al. (2013) - Cordyceps sinensis increases
hypoxia tolerance by inducing heme oxygenase-1 and
metallothionein via Nrf2 activation in human lung
epithelial cells [URL2, URL3]
**
VITAMINS (esp. vitamin D), ZINC, SELENIUM &
OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS
relevant articles for the work hypothesis of this paper
Castillo M.E. (2020) - Effect of calcifediol treatment and
best available therapy versus best available therapy on
intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients
hospitalized for COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical
study
(review) Jayawardena R. et al. (2020) - Enhancing
immunity in viral infections, with special emphasis on
COVID-19: A review
(review) Shakoor H. et al. (2020) - Immune-boosting role of
vitamins D, C, E, zinc, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids:
Could they help against COVID-19?
**
“ASEA REDOX SUPPLEMENT” (ARS) (aka “MDI-P”)–
relevant articles for the work hypothesis of this paper
Aldona L. et al. (2000) - Microbicidal activity of MDI-P
(“AMISO”) against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus
aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Legionella
pneumophila [URL2]
Chi E. (2004) - Cystic Fibrosis Pre-Clinical Report on MDI-
P (“AMISO”) [URL2]
Novick W. (1998) MDI-P effectiveness in killing HIV in
cell culture [URL2]
Samuelson G. L. (2010) - White Paper on In-Vitro
Bioactivity of ASEA™ Related to Toxicity, Glutathione
Peroxidase, Superoxide Dismutase Efficacy and Related
Transcription Factors (URL2)
Nieman D.C. et al. (2010) Influence of a redox‐signaling
supplement on biomarkers of physiological stress in
athletes: a metabolomics approach (ASEA metabolomics
study) [URL2]
Ward K. (Taueret Laboratories) (2016) - Initial Gene
Study Showed ASEA REDOX Affected Important
Signaling Pathway Genes
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (2016?)
(1) Antioxidant up-regulation, (2) ASEA redox supplement
in vitro product safety study, (3) ASEA redox supplement
antioxidant efficiency (in vitro antioxidant enhancement)
(all in short [brochure])
Samuelson G. L. (2010) (1) Determining the translocation
of antioxidant activating transcription factors, (2)
Determining cell proliferation and viability, (3) Action of
5
ASEA redox supplement on stressed cells (all in short
[brochure])
Dragoi A.L. (Aug. 2018 [preprint] - 20.07.2019 caz 1) -
The Remarkable Effects of “ASEA redox Supplement” In
A Child with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) A
Case Report (with main table at this separate URL),
Canadian Journal of Biomedical Research and Technology
(CJBRT), Volume 1 - issue 4 (preprint RG [2018])
Dragoi A.L. (Aug. 2019 - caz 2) - A Second Case Report
Regarding the Effects of "ASEA redox Supplement" in a
~5-year old boy with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy from
Bucharest, Romania (preprint)
Dragoi A.L. (Aug. 2019 - caz 3) - A Third Case Report
Regarding the Effects of "ASEA redox Supplement" in a
~3-year old boy with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy from
town Slobozia, Romania (preprint)
A complete list of publications published by dr. Dragoi on
the effects of the “Asea redox supplement” (personal
professional experience) can be accessed at this URL
Wikipedia. **
N-ACETYLCYSTEINE (NAC)
AND OTHER RELATED MOLECULES
relevant articles for the work hypothesis of this paper
Yuan Zhou (2018) - N-acetylcysteine amide provides
neuroprotection via Nrf2-ARE pathway in a mouse
model of traumatic brain injury [URL2]
Daewoo Lee et al. (2015) - N-acetyl cysteine inhibits
H2O2-mediated reduction in the mineralization of
MC3T3-E1 cells by down-regulating Nrf2/HO-1
pathway
Leak, Rehana K. (2015-ongoing trial) - A novel
mechanism of action for N-acetyl cysteine
Yazhen Hu et al. (2019) - N-acetylcysteine alleviates
fluoride-induced testicular apoptosis by modulating
IRE1α/JNK signaling and nuclear Nrf2 activation
**
THE ROLE OF NRF2 IN THE TREATMENT OF
RESPIRATORY DISEASES
relevant articles for the work hypothesis of this paper
Qinmei Liu et al. (2019) - Role of Nrf2 and Its Activators in
Respiratory Diseases
Hecker L. et al. (2017-2019) - Preclinical development of a
novel Nrf2-activator formulation for the treatment of
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Wenlin Tai et al. (2019) - Rapamycin attenuates the
paraquat‐induced pulmonary fibrosis through activating
Nrf2 pathway
Norihiro Kikuchi et al. (2010) - Nrf2 protects against
pulmonary fibrosis by regulating the lung oxidant level and
Th1/Th2 balance
Pengfei Liua et al. (2020) - The NRF2-LOC344887
signaling axis suppresses pulmonary fibrosis
Zhihui Zhang et al. (2018) - Nrf2 antioxidant pathway
suppresses Numb-mediated epithelialmesenchymal
transition during pulmonary fibrosis
Elise Artaud-Macari et al. (2011) - Modulation of fibroblast
phenotype in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Role of Nrf2
Hailin Zhao et al. (2017) - The role of nuclear factor-
erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2) in the protection
against lung injury
Bin Huai & Jiyu Ding (2020) - Atractylenolide III
attenuates bleomycin-induced experimental pulmonary
fibrosis and oxidative stress in rat model via
Nrf2/NQO1/HO-1 pathway activation
***
III. References
(partially integrated as Wikipedia URLs in the main text of
this paper)
[
1
] Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi (July 2019). (ASEA in DMD - CJBRT article -
20.07.2019) The Remarkable Effects of “ASEA redox Supplement” In A Child
with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy A Case Report, Canadian Journal of
Biomedical Research and Technology (CJBRT) 2019; volume 1, issue 4:8. ISSN:
2582-3663. URLs: URL1a, URL1b, URL1c (CJBRT original sources); URL2a
(Research Gate source); URL2b & URL2c (Academia sources); URL2d (Vixra
source); URL3 (Research Gate preprint source). See also the newly released
related add-on paper (RG preprint) The 1st case report on the remarkable effects
of “ASEA Redox Supplement” (ARS) in a boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy
(DMD) periodic updates released after 20.07.2019 (the date of the official case
publication in a peer-reviewed journal) (DOI 10.13140/RG.2.2.23141.76002, URL
to RG preprint).
[
2
] Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi (May 2018). (ASEA in DMD preprint version 1.1
1.08.2018 13 pages) The clinical and biological effects of ASEA ionized water
/”redox supplement” (co-administered with L-carnitine and omega-3 fatty acids
plus multivitamins dietary supplements) in a ~3-year-old boy with Duchenne
muscular dystrophy (DMD) from Romania a case report. Research Gate
preprint. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21420.36486. URL (Research Gate source). 2
Recommendations from: Syed Ismyl Mahmood Rizvi and P.F. Zabrodskii. The
article based on this preprint was published in July 20th, 2019 under the title “The
Remarkable Effects of “ASEA redox Supplement” In A Child with Duchenne
Muscular Dystrophy A Case Report” in the Canadian Journal of Biomedical
Research and Technology (CJBRT) 2019; volume 1, issue 4:8. URLs: URL1a,
URL1b, URL1c (CJBRT original sources); URL2 (Research Gate source)
[
3
] Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi (November 2nd, 2019). (Asea in DMD conferința
Râmnicu Sărat - 45 slides - 2.11.2019) Efectele remarcabile ale suplimentului
redox "Asea"® în 2 cazuri de distrofie musculară Duchenne la copil și
potențialul terapeutic al Asea în bolile acute și c ronice cu o importantă
componentă de stres oxidativ celular. Presentation and conference paper also
published on Research Gate with DOI (of RG presentation):
10.13140/RG.2.2.28023.78240 [URL2]. URL1a (Research Gate main source; see
also URL1aa), URL1b (Academia secondary source). URL1c (Vixra secondary
source), URL1d (GSJ secondary source), URL1e (dragoii.com latest variant
source).
[
4
] Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi (August 30th, 2019). (ASEA in DMD 2nd case preprint -
v.1.0 - 30.08.2019 - 10 pages) A Second Case Report Regarding the Effects of
"ASEA redox Supplement" in a ~5-year old boy with Duchenne Muscular
Dystrophy from Bucharest, Romania (preprint). Research Gate preprint with
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18399.41128. URL1a (Research Gate main source),
URL1b (Academia secondary source), URL1c (Vixra secondary source), URL1d
(dragoii.com latest variant source), URL1e (GSJ secondary source).
[
5
] Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi (November 23rd, 2019). (Ataluren in DMD - version 1.0 -
23.11.2019 - 5 A4 pages) A proposed extension of Ataluren indications (with
future deserved studies) in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)
caused by frameshift mutations of dystrophin gene associated with abnormal
premature termination codons (PTCs) at distance from the site of that given
frameshift mutation. Research Gate preprint with DOI:
10.13140/RG.2.2.21648.76804. URL1a (Research Gate main source), URL1b
(Academia secondary source). URL1c (Vixra secondary source), URL1d (GSJ
secondary source), URL1e (dragoii.com latest variant source).
[
6
] Andrei-Lucian Drăg oi (October 20th, 2020). (ARS in DMD poster created for the conference
fiziologie2020.ro - 20.10.2020) The remarkable effects of the "Asea™ redox supplement"
(ARS) in 3 cases of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and the
therapeutic potential of ARS in treating cellular oxidative stress (COS). e-poster also
submitted as Research Gate preprint with DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.17325.51688. URL1a
(Research Gate main source), URL1b (Academia secondary source), Volume of congress
abstracts (URL2), Page of congress e-posters (URL2)
[
7
] Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi (October 22nd, 2020). (ANSA/NADS in COVID-19 and other
respiratory diseases - PowerPoint presentation created for the SRP congress - 22.10.2020)
Activatorii de NRF2 suplimente alimentare (ANSA) propunere de studii clinice în
România pentru testarea ANSA ca adjuvanți în infecțiile agresive de cai respiratorii
inferioare (inclusiv COVID-19) ale adultilor si copiilor (Romanian version with many cited
articles in English). PowerPoint presentation also submitted as Research Gate preprint with
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.11623.88485. URL1a (Research Gate main source), URL1b (Academia
secondary source).
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is severe X-linked recessive congenital muscular dystrophy and the most common type of muscular dystrophy. Long-term corticosteroid therapy (LTCT) (started from the age of 4 years) is the most accessible and used pharmacological therapy of DMD in Romania. Several studies showed that "ASEA® redox supplement" (ARS) (which was approved as a dietary supplement in UE) is a very potent selective NRF2 activator, thus a very potent (indirect) antioxidant, with no toxicity up to high doses (in contrast with LTCT). PURPOSE: This research aims at discovering dietary supplements which may show comparable or even stronger beneficial effects (with less or none adverse effects) than LTCT in children with DMD whose parents refuse LTCT. METHODS: Three boy-patients with DMD (of ~4, ~5 and ~3 years of age) (whose parents refused LTCT) were treated with relatively high doses of ARS 3-7 ml/kg/day (usually combined with medium doses of L-carnitine and omega-3 fatty acids for various intellectual disabilities of two patients): periodic consults and rhabdomyolysis, medular and liver toxicity markers assessment (blood count, GGT, ASAT, ALAT, LDH, CK, CK-MB and serum myoglobin) were accomplished. RESULTS: From the first months of ARS-based treatment, all the rhabdomyolysis markers (with very high initial serum levels) dropped significantly, with no found medular/hepatic toxicity in all these three tested DMD children. CONCLUSIONS: (1) ARS appears to have remarkable antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects (strong NRF2 selective activation and NF-kB inhibition) and should be studied on larger groups of children with DMD under the age of 4 years old (but also on other age groups of children and even young adults), as an alternative to early corticosteroids; (2) ARS may also deserve future cohort studies as an adjuvant in many types of acute/chronic infectious/ non-infectious pulmonary/cardiac/renal/hepatic/ articular/skin autoimmune (and even malignant diseases) that imply high levels of tissular oxidative stress. The set of abstracts (submitted to this congress by various authors, including me) can be downloaded from here (in pdf format): https://fiziologie2020.ro/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/REZUMATE-FIZIO-4.pdf alternative URL: http://dragoii.com/Fiziologie2020.ro_volume_of_abstracts.pdf The set of e-posters (submitted to this congress by various authors, including me) can be accessed from here: http://fiziologie2020.ro/e-postere/ alternative URL: http://dragoii.com/Fiziologie2020.ro_volume_of_eposters.pdf
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper proposes an extension of Ataluren indications (with future deserved studies) in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) caused by frameshift mutations of dystrophin (dys) gene (dys-gene; aka “DMD gene”) associated with abnormal premature stop codons at distance from the site of that given frameshift mutation (which mutation may affect the dys-gene starting from exons with high index more close to 79 than to 1): some strong arguments are presented in favor of this new extension proposal; a redefinition of nonsense mutation in both stricto sensu and lato sensu are also presented (emphasizing that frameshift mutations [FSMs] and nonsense mutations [NSMs] [in lato sensu] may come in association).
Presentation
Full-text available
TITLE IN ENGLISH: The remarkable effects of " >® redox supplement" (ARS) in 2 cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in children and the therapeutic potential of Asea / ARS in acute and chronic diseases with a significant component of cellular oxidative stress) ABSTRACT IN ENGLISH: This research aims at discovering dietary supplements which may show comparable or even stronger beneficial effects (with less or none adverse effects) than corticosteroids in children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). This paper presents a case report on the effects of an ionized “saline water” called “ASEA redox Supplement®” (ARS) oral solution in a ~2-year-old boy with DMD from Bucharest, Romania. In vitro studies showed that ARS is a very potent selective NRF2 activator, thus a very potent (indirect) antioxidant: the studies conducted in vivo also support this main pharmacological mechanism of ARS, with no toxicity up to high doses, in contrast with the much more toxic corticosteroids. From the first months of ARS treatment all the rhabdomyolysis markers (with very high initial serum levels) dropped significantly, with no found toxicity. The main conclusions of this paper are: (1) ARS has remarkable antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects and should be studied on larger groups of children with DMD under the age of 4 years old (but also on other age groups of children and even young adults), as an alternative to early corticosteroids; (2) Given its immunomodulatory effect (NRF2 selective activation and NF-kB inhibition), ARS deserves future cohort studies on its potential to replace corticosteroids and other non-steroidal immunosuppressants (at least partially) in many types of pulmonary/renal/hepatic/ articular/skin autoimmune and even malignant diseases of both children and adults; (3) Given its very strong antioxidant effects (by highly selective NRF2 potent activation), ARS deserves future cohort studies on acute/chronic diseases that imply high levels of tissular oxidative stress, especially some acute/chronic cardiovascular and respiratory diseases like acute myocardial infarction with acute/chronic heart failure, stroke, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), asthma etc. of both children and adults (so that ARS may help millions and even billions worldwide). Keywords: ASEA redox supplement (ARS) oral solution, 3-year-old boy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), NRF2 selective activation, corticosteroids --------------------------------- REZUMATUL LUCRARII/PREZENTARII (Rezumatul lucrării/prezentării) Această cercetare își propune să descopere suplimente alimentare care pot demonstra efecte benefice comparabile sau chiar mai puternice (cu efecte adverse mai mici sau deloc) decât corticosteroizii la copiii cu distrofie musculară Duchenne (DMD). Această prezentare conține 2 raporturi de caz (în premieră mondială) asupra efectelor unei soluții saline ionizate (de uz intern oral) numite "supliment redox < >”® (SRA) la doi băieței cu DMD de 4 respectiv 5 ani, ambii din București. Studiile in vitro au arătat că Asea este un foarte potent activator selectiv al factorului de transcripție nucleară NRF2 (ce guvernează răspunsul anti-stress celular de fază B), deci un antioxidant foarte puternic (indirect): studiile efectuate in vivo până în prezent susțin și ele acest principal mecanism farmacologic de acțiune al Asea, fără toxicitate demonstrată in vivo chiar până la doze relativ mari, în contrast cu toate tipurile de corticosteroizi, care au toxicitate demonstrată pe multe aparate și sisteme. Încă din primele luni de tratament cu Asea, toți markerii de rabdomioliză (cu niveluri serice inițiale foarte mari, tipice pentru DMD) au scăzut semnificativ, fără nici un semn clinic și/sau paraclinic de toxicitate. PRINCIPALELE CONCLUZII ALE ACESTUI ARTICOL (Principalele concluzii ale acestei lucrări) sunt: (1) Asea are efecte antioxidante și imunomodulatoare remarcabile și merită studiată pe grupuri mai mari de copii cu DMD cu vârsta sub 4 ani (dar și pe alte grupe de vârstă de copii și chiar adulți tineri), ca alternativă la corticosteroizii administrați precoce încă de la vârsta de 2-3 ani (cu cel puțin 1 an înainte de vârsta standard de 4 ani actualmente unanim acceptată ca moment de inițiere corticoizi în DMD); (2) Având în vedere efectul său imunomodulator (activarea selectivă a NRF2 și inhibarea factorului de transcripție NF-kB, ce guvernează răspunsul anti-stress celular de fază A), Asea merită studii viitoare de cohortă asupra potențialului său de a înlocui (cel puțin parțial!) corticosteroizii și alte imunosupresoare nesteroidiene în multe tipuri de boli pulmonare / renale / hepatice / boli autoimune articulare / cutanate și chiar maligne ale copiilor și adulților; (3) Având în vedere efectele antioxidante foarte puternice (prin hiper-activare înalt selectivă a NRF2), Asea merită studii viitoare de cohortă în bolile acute / cronice care implică niveluri ridicate de stres oxidativ tisular/celular, în special unele boli cardiovasculare și respiratorii acute / cronice precum infarctul miocardic acut cu insuficiență cardiacă acută / cronică, accident vascular cerebral, boală pulmonară obstructivă cronică (BPOC), astm bronșic etc. atât la copii cât și la adulți (astfel încât Asea poate ajuta milioane și chiar miliarde de bolnavi la nivel mondial). Cuvinte-cheie: supliment redox Asea (SRA) soluție orală, distrofie musculară Duchenne (DMD), factorii de transcripție nucleară NRF2 și NF-kB, activare selectivă de NRF2, corticosteroizi This paper belongs to a series of three cases on Asea effects in DMD children-patients: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325371161 (1st case - preprint), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334596031 (1st case - CJBRT article), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334773748 (1st case - periodic updates), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335502350 (2nd case - preprint), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340902127 (3rd case - preprint); See also: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336990483 and https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337026408 (ppt on Asea), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339592997 (on possible testing of NRF2 activators in COVID-19)
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper presents a case report on the remarkable clinical and biological effects of “ASEA redox supplement” (ASEA-rs) oral solution (co-administered with L-carnitine and omega-3 fatty acids plus multivitamins dietary supplements) in a ~3-year-old boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) from Romania. ASEA-rs was tested on both animals and humans. In vitro studies on various human cells showed that ASEA-rs is a very potent NRF2 selective activator (with transient effect): the studies conducted in vivo (on both animals and humans) also support this main pharmacological mechanism of ASEA-rs, with no toxicity up to high doses (in contrast with corticosteroids which are usually reserved in Romania for DMD children with age above 4 years, given their toxicity profile and adverse effects including immunosuppression, growth delay, osteopenia, osteoporosis and overweight) and a satisfactory bioavailability especially in the vital organs (in which NRF2 also reaches its highest intracellular cytoplasmatic concentrations), which assures the strong NRF2 activation effects of ASEA-rs indirectly observed in vivo. ASEA was clearly demonstrated to activate tissular lipases (probably also via NRF2 pathway) and to significantly increase some fatty acids serum levels that are further internalized by skeletal muscles and myocardium and used as “fuel” by muscular cells (myocytes) (and cardiomyocytes), partially sparing the glycogen reserves of myocytes/cardiomyocytes and so raising the resistance of skeletal muscles to effort and possibly the resistance and contractility of myocardium. Based on its demonstrated potent selective NRF2 activation effect, its beneficial effects on muscle effort resistance and its safety profile, I have prescribed ASEA-rs to this ~3-year-old child with DMD, with a minimal set of clinical signs at his age, but with significant biological alternations in the biochemical markers of muscular damage (rhabdomyolysis): the results (after the first 3 months with ASEA-rs, associated with L-carnitine and omega-3 fatty acids plus multivitamins supplements) were a significant reduction in the creatine (phospho)kinase (CK/CPK) and CK-MB isoform serum levels. Keywords: ASEA redox supplement (ASEA-rs) oral solution, 3-year-old boy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Romania, NRF2 selective activator, tissular lipase activator, skeletal muscles and myocytes, myocardium and cardiomyocytes, corticosteroids, creatine (phospho)kinase (CK/CPK), CK-MB isoform This paper belongs to a series of three cases on Asea effects in DMD children-patients: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325371161 (1st case - preprint), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334596031 (1st case - CJBRT article), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334773748 (1st case - periodic updates), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335502350 (2nd case - preprint), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340902127 (3rd case - preprint); See also: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336990483 and https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337026408 (ppt on Asea), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339592997 (on possible testing of NRF2 activators in COVID-19)
ASEA redox Supplement" In A Child with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy -A Case Report
  • Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi
Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi (July 2019). (ASEA in DMD -CJBRT article -20.07.2019) The Remarkable Effects of "ASEA redox Supplement" In A Child with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy -A Case Report, Canadian Journal of Biomedical Research and Technology (CJBRT) 2019; volume 1, issue 4:8. ISSN: 2582-3663. URLs: URL1a, URL1b, URL1c (CJBRT original sources);
ASEA Redox Supplement" (ARS) in a boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) -periodic updates released after 20.07.2019 (the date of the official case publication in a peer-reviewed journal
URL3 (Research Gate preprint source). See also the newly released related add-on paper (RG preprint) The 1st case report on the remarkable effects of "ASEA Redox Supplement" (ARS) in a boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) -periodic updates released after 20.07.2019 (the date of the official case publication in a peer-reviewed journal) (DOI 10.13140/RG.2.2.23141.76002, URL to RG preprint).
URL (Research Gate source). 2 Recommendations from: Syed Ismyl Mahmood Rizvi and P.F. Zabrodskii. The article based on this preprint was published in July 20 th , 2019 under the title "The Remarkable Effects of "ASEA redox Supplement" In A Child with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy -A Case Report
  • Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi
Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi (May 2018). (ASEA in DMD preprint -version 1.1 -1.08.2018 -13 pages) The clinical and biological effects of ASEA ionized water /"redox supplement" (co-administered with L-carnitine and omega-3 fatty acids plus multivitamins dietary supplements) in a ~3-year-old boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) from Romania -a case report. Research Gate preprint. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21420.36486. URL (Research Gate source). 2 Recommendations from: Syed Ismyl Mahmood Rizvi and P.F. Zabrodskii. The article based on this preprint was published in July 20 th, 2019 under the title "The Remarkable Effects of "ASEA redox Supplement" In A Child with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy -A Case Report" in the Canadian Journal of Biomedical Research and Technology (CJBRT) 2019; volume 1, issue 4:8. URLs: URL1a, URL1b, URL1c (CJBRT original sources);
ASEA in DMD 2nd case preprintv.1.0 -30.08.2019 -10 pages) A Second Case Report Regarding the Effects of
  • Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi
Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi (August 30 th, 2019). (ASEA in DMD 2nd case preprintv.1.0 -30.08.2019 -10 pages) A Second Case Report Regarding the Effects of "ASEA redox Supplement" in a ~5-year old boy with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy from Bucharest, Romania (preprint). Research Gate preprint with DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18399.41128. URL1a (Research Gate main source), URL1b (Academia secondary source), URL1c (Vixra secondary source), URL1d (dragoii.com latest variant source), URL1e (GSJ secondary source).