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Determination of Effectiveness Traditional Cosmetics of Coconut Oil and Turmeric as Anti-Dandruff

Authors:
Determination of Effectiveness Traditional Cosmetics of
Coconut Oil and Turmeric as Anti-Dandruff
Ria Andriani Mukti1 Agus Ridwan Misbahuddin2
1,2Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikaan, Universitas PGRI Adibuana Surabaya
*Corresponding author ria_dewanto@yahoo.com, agusridwanagus@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Dandruff is a disorder that occurs on the scalp, can be experienced by men or women. Dandruff is a type of
inflammatory disease in the scalp type of oily. Actually this disorder is mild but very disturbing and reduce
the attractiveness of a person because the head and hair become dirty and result in hair loss. One solution is
the use of traditional cosmetics, which will be lifted as our research materials. The ingredients used are
coconut oil (Oleum cocos), as the basic ingredients and turmeric as the active ingredients, which are used as
hair oil. Efficacy of turmeric is as anti-inflammatory and anti-fungal. While coconut oil as anti-inflammatory.
This synergy will be tested in the form of clinical test, microbiology test. The clinical trials selected male and
female respondents aged 20-40 years who experience dandruff for at least 1 month. This test will be
compared to its effectiveness with the synthetic product of ketoconazole. The conclusion of the research is the
coconut oil ingredient with turmeric active ingredient as anti fungi has the effect of less equal to 2%
ketaconazole shampoo on itching, hair loss and scales caused by fungus Pitysporum ovale as the cause of
dandruff
Keywords: traditional cosmetics, anti-dandruff oil
I. INTRODUCTION
Dandruff is a disorder that occurs on the scalp, can be
experienced by men or women. Dandruff is a type of
inflammatory disease of the oily scalp. Actually this
disorder is classified as mild but very disturbing and
reduces a person's attractiveness because the head and hair
get dirty and result in hair loss.
Many solutions can be chosen to overcome dandruff. It
can be the selection of the right type of shampoo or the
efforts to use topical drugs for the scalp. This topical drug
is usually applied to the scalp as anti-fungal and anti-
inflammatory. The active ingredients used as a drug are
quite diverse. For examples: sulfur, resorcinol, salicylic
acid, which serves to suppress the occurrence of scales.
Then for anti-fungus, the ketoconazole group can be used.
In addition to ingredients that are synthetic, there are
several natural ingredients that are also effective to reduce
dandruff. One of them is turmeric (Curcuma longa or
Curcuma domestica), as a spice in our kitchen. Turmeric is
effective for treating inflammation and fungi on the skin.
In some traditional herbs, turmeric is used for scrubs or
scrubs.
For this reason, in this study a traditional herb made from
herbal ingredients was made Turmeric as an active
ingredient, which is mixed with coconut oil as a basic
ingredient ( vehiculum ) and kenanga flowers and fragrant
pandanus as fragrance ingredients. The herb will be used
as a traditional oil to help deal with dandruff hair.
II. OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
Determine the effectiveness of traditional cosmetics hair
oil with active ingredients Turmeric (Curcuma domestica)
as an anti-dandruff. Effectiveness would be measured by
the reduction in symptoms of hair loss, itching, the nature
and number of scales. To measure its success would be
compared with the use of ketaconazole shampoo. Besides ,
it would also be seen the type of fungus as the cause of
ketoconazole users and coconut- tumeric oil users . If there
were similarities in the types of fungus, conclusions can
be drawn about the effectiveness of coconut oil with active
ingredients of turmeric when compared to ketaconazole
shampoo.
III. LITERATURE REVIEW
Dandruff or Pyitiriasis sika is mostly suffered by people
in Indonesia who have a tropical climate, high
temperatures and humid air. This disease is usually
suffered by those who have oily skin constitutionally
(diatese seborrhoic), at the age of 30-40 years and are
considered gender even though some literatures mentioned
men are affected than women. (John Fedor, Milady’s
Standard Cosmetology).
There are 3 main factors causing dandruff, i.e.: (Sjarif M.
Wasitatmaatmaja,. Dermatologi Kosmetika)
1. Sebaceous gland secretions
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 406
2nd International Conference on Social, Applied Science, and Technology in
Home Economics (ICONHOMECS 2019)
Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press SARL.
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license -http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/. 170
2. The role of fungal microflora, namely: Malassezia
globosa and Malassezia restrica etc
3. Sensitivity of scalp
Factors that increase oil levels on the scalp.
a. Certain races that have oily skin properties.
b. Genetic / certain derivatives that have excessive
skin fat.
c. Diets / foods that contain high fat content.
d. Climate and weather that support the production
of pallid glands
e. Psychological stress that causes increasing oil
gand production.
f. A certain age, when the oil glands produce the
most
g. Certain drugs that can stimulate the oil glands.
Factors that cause increasing normal microflora :
a. Poor scalp hygiene
b. Chronic systemic disease that causes decreased
skin hygiene.
c. Medicines that reduce the body's immune system
and skin.
Patient sensitivity factors to the two factors above
that cause increasing the formation and
desquamaton of epidermal keratin cells .
Dandruff scalps usually cause itching during the day,
especially if it is hot during the day, the scalp sweats, the
activity of the oil glands on the scalp will increase. This
increasing is accompanied by inflammation due to fungus
causes intense itching, and makes the patient scratch his
head. Scratching the head causes the release of the
epidermal keratin layer which will stick to the hair shaft or
fall on the shoulder. This is called scales (squama) in
dandruff. And cause hair loss, especially on the top of the
head (vertex), which if it lasts a long time will cause
baldness.
There are several principles in dealing with dandruff i.e :
1. Reducing oil on the surface of the skin or decreasing
the amount of sebum secretion.
2. Decreasing the number of microbes that cause
dandruff.
3. Reducing symptoms: scales, itching and hair loss.
Treatment can be done topically, i.e :
1. Using a cream or alcoholic solution that contains
strong or less potent corticosteroids.
2. Sulfur, resorcinol, salicylic acid in shampoo.
3. Selenium sulfide, zinc pirition, povidone iodine,
propyleneglycol and azole groups which are
antifungal.
In this study, a effectiveness test for dandruff treatment
was carried out using traditional cosmetics in the form of
hair oil made from coconut oil with turmeric active
ingredients. We know that there are many natural
ingredients that have anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory
properties, one of which is turmeric.
Ingredient of tumeric rhizome are :
Curcuminoids (curcumin, desmetoxicurcumin, and bis-
desmetoxy-curcumin), oleoresin essential oil (5 ml / kg),
non-polar fractions containing, among others, α-
curcumene, germacron and zederon, semipolar fractions
containing xantorizol and curcuminoid, and starch.
As an oral drug (drinking), tumerics use for digestive
disorders, gastric pain, bleeding, diarrhea, wind decay, the
stomach feels full, and low appetite.
The uses of topical are for pain, fungus, scratches, bitten
by leeches, eye infections, inflammation of the skin and
inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth.
Besides the herb turmeric rhizome, used coconut oil as a
basic ingredient. Coconut oil a has ingredients:
a. Lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, caprilic acid,
stearic acid, linoleic acid, caproic acid, oleic acid,
starvulat and malvalic acid
b. Delta-octalactone (essential oil)
Coconut oil can heal wounds and infections. In the
cosmetics industry coconut oil is often used as an
ingredient in soaps, shampoos and ointments.
IV. RESEARCH METHOD
Traditional cosmetics to be made was based hair care
cosmetics coconut oil, active ingredients such as turmeric
which also functions as a dye, as fragrance used pandan
leaf and ylang-ylang flower. This cosmetics is made in a
simple way in accordance with the terms used, namely
traditional cosmetics. Here are the measurements of each
ingredient:
2 quite old coconuts, were shredded and then
steamed for 30 minutes
1 kg of turmeric, were peeled and washed, then
shredded.
A handful of cananga flowers
4 pandan leaves
3 liters of water
How to make :
Grated steamed coconut, mixed with water, put
turmeric grated and then squeezed until the
coconut milk comes out.
Cook coconut milk with pandanus and cananga
flowers until the oil comes out
Then cool and strain.
This herb is used by rubbing it on the entire scalp. Wait for
15 minutes, then shampoo with a regular shampoo.
Furthermore, the tests that will be carried out are:
a. Mycological test of respondents who were treated
with coconut oil and respondents who were treated
with ketaconazole shampoo.
b. Clinical trials to be compared with ketaconazole
shampoo. This test will involve male and female
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 406
171
respondents, aged 20-40 years with the type of oily
scalp, dandruff and hair loss complaints as well and
also itchy. This test would be carried out for 1 month,
carried out evaluation and monitoring every week.
The complaints that are evaluated are:
The condition of scales from dandruff
Itching
Hair loss
The hypotheses of this research were: There were
differences in the effectiveness ofanti-dandruff between
traditional ingredients made from turmeric and synthetic
ingredients ketoconazole.
V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
a. Examination data for hair loss symptoms in male respondents treated with shampoo
Table 1. Data on the number of male respondents with shampoo treatment who experienced hair loss
Fig 1. Hair Loss Symptoms in Male Respondents with Shampoo Treatment
b. Data on the examination of symptoms of hair loss in male respondents treated with coconut oil
Table 2. Data on the number of male respondents treated with coconut oil who experienced hair loss
Examination
Hair Loss
No Hair Loss
<5
5-10
>10
1
1ST Exam
2
4
2
2
2
2nd Exam
4
1
--
5
3
3rd Exam
--
--
--
10
examinati
on
Hair Loss
No Hair loss
<5
5-10
>10
%
1
1st exam
1
2
--
7
70
2
2nd exam
3
--
--
7
70
3
3rd exam
1
--
--
9
90
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 406
172
Fig 2. Symptoms of Hair Loss in Male Respondents with the Treatment of Coconut Oil
c. Data examination of the symptoms of hair loss in female respondents with shampoo treatment
Table 3. Data on the number of female respondents with shampoo treatment who experienced hair loss
Fig 3. Hair Loss Symptoms in Female Respondents with Shampoo Treatment
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
<5 5 - 10 >10 no loss
1st Exam
2nd Exam
3rd Exam
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
<5 5 - 10 > 10 no hair
loss
1st Exam
2nd Exam
3rd Exam
Examinati
on
Hair Loss
No Hair Loss
<5
5-10
>10
%
1
1st Exam
2
3
5
--
0
2
2nd Exam
6
2
1
1
10
3
3rd Exam
5
1
--
4
40
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 406
173
d. Data on the examination of hair loss symptoms in female respondents treated with coconut oil
Table 4. Data on the number of female respondents treated with coconut oil who experienced hair loss
examination
Hair Loss
No Hair Loss
<5
5-10
>
10
%
1
1st exam
2
8
--
0
2
2nd exam
2
8
--
--
0
3
3rd exam
4
--
--
6
60
Fig.4. Symptoms of Hair Loss in Female Respondents by Treating Coconut Oil
e. Data examination of the symptoms of itchy scalp in male respondents with shampoo treatment
Table 5. Data on the number of male respondents with shampoo treatments who experience itchy symptoms
No
examination
Itchy
No itchy
1
1st exam
10
--
2
2nd exam
4
6
3
3rd exam
--
10
Fig 5. Itching Symptoms in Male Respondents with Shampoo Treatment
0
2
4
6
8
10
<5 5-10 >10 no loss
1st exam
2nd exam
3rd exam
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
yes no
1st exam
2nd exam
3rd exam
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 406
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f. Examination data for scalp itching symptoms in male respondents treated with coconut oil
Table 6. Data on the number of male respondents with the treatment of coconut oil who experience symptoms of itching
No
Examination
Itchy
No itchy
1
1st exam
10
--
2
2nd exam
2
8
3
3rd exam
--
10
Fig 6. Itching Symptoms in Male Respondents with Coconut Oil treatment
g. Data examination of the symptoms of itchy scalp in female respondents treated with shampoo
Table 7. Data on the number of female respondents with shampoo treatment experiencing itchy symptoms
No
examnation
itchy
No itchy
1
1st exam
6
4
2
2nd exam
2
8
3
3rd exam
--
10
Fig7. Itching symptoms in female respondents treated with shampoo
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
yes no
1st exam
2nd exam
3rd exam
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Yes No
1st exam
2nd exam
3rd exam
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 406
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h. Data on examination of symptoms of itchy scalp in female respondents treated with coconut oil
Table 8. Data on the number of female respondents treated with coconut oil who experience symptoms of itching
No
Examination
itchy
No itchy
1
1st exam
8
2
2
2nd exam
3
7
3
3rd exam
--
10
Fig 8 Itchy symptoms of female respondents with coconut oil treatment
i. Examination data on the condition and number of scales in male respondents treated with shampoo
Table 9. Data on the nature of scales and number of scales in male respondents treated with shampoo
N
o
examinati
on
∑ scales
Scale condition
n
o
<
5
>
5
sma
ll
big
mi
x
1
1st exam
--
8
2
8
2
--
2
2nd exam
1
9
--
9
--
--
3
3rd exam
4
4
--
4
--
--
Fig.9 The number of scales in male respondents treated with shampoo
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Yes No
1st exam
2nd exam
3rd exam
0
2
4
6
8
10
no <5 >5
1st exam
2nd exam
3rd exam
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 406
176
Fig. 10 The scales condition of respondents in men with shampoo treatment
j. Examination data on the condition and number of scales in male respondents treated with coconut oil
Table 10. Data on the nature of scales and number of scales in male respondents treated with coconut oil
No
Examination
∑ Scales
Scale condition
no
<5
>5
small
big
mix
1
1st exam
--
8
2
6
3
1
2
2nd exam
1
9
--
9
--
3
3rd exam
10
--
--
--
--
--
Fig.11 The number of scales in male respondents treated with coconut oil
Fig. 12 The scale conditions of the male respondents treated with coconut oil
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 406
177
k. Examination data on the condition and number of scales in female respondents treated with shampoo
Table 11. Data on the nature of scales and number of scales in female respondents with shampoo treatment
No
examination
∑ scales
Scale condition
no
<5
>5
small
Big
Mix
1
1st exam
--
5
5
6
3
1
2
2nd exam
--
10
--
10
--
--
3
3rd exam
6
4
--
4
--
--
Fig.13 The number of scales on female respondents treated with shampoo
Fig. 14 The scales conditions of respondents in women with shampoo treatment
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 406
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l. Examination data on the condition and number of scales in female respondents treated with coconut oil
Table 12. Data on the nature of scales and number of scales in female respondents treated with coconut oil
No
Examination
∑ scales
Scale conditions
no
<5
>5
Small
Big
mix
1
1st Exam
--
7
3
9
1
--
2
2nd Exam
--
10
--
10
--
--
3
3rd Exam
5
5
--
5
--
--
Fig. 15 The number of scales in female respondents treated with coconut oil
Fig.16 The scales conditions of respondents in women with coconut oil treatment
a. Mycological examination results.
In this study mycological examination was carried out to determine the type of fungus that causes dandruff. Specimens are
taken from scales (squama) of the scalp. Examination with KOH and culture. Specimens were taken randomly from 8
respondents with the following details:
a. 2 male respondents with shampoo treatment.
b. 2 male respondents treated with coconut oil
c. 2 female respondents with shampoo treatment
d. 2 female respondents treated with coconut oil
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 406
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The results of examination of 7 respondents is Pityrosporum ovale. While 1 responder found no fungus
Fig. 17. Results of mycology test of squama of the scalp
VI. DISCUSSION
The results of this study explained several things:
a. Based on random mycological examination, the cause
of fungi from both respondents with oil or shampoo
treatment showed that the cause was the same,
Pityrosporum ovale
b. Hair loss symptoms at the third examination showed
better results in the respondents with coconut oil
treatment for all respondents
c. Symptoms of itching on the third examination showed
the same results in all respondents and all treatments
d. For the number and conditions of scales, the third
examination showed better results in male
respondents treated with oil. Whereas for female
respondents showed better results in the treatment
with shampoo.
VII. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
a. Conclusions
Coconut oil with turmeric active ingredient as
an antifungal has more or less the same
effectiveness as ketaconazole 2% shampoo against
complaints of itching, hair loss and scales caused by the
fungus Pitysporum ovale as a cause of dandruff
b. Suggestions
In the next research, it can be continued with an in
vitro sensitivity test to find out how much anti-fungal
properties against Pityrosporum ovale. And can also be
further tested regarding the content of tumeric which has
an effect as an anti-inflammatory and anti-fungal.
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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 406
180
... Of these four groups, Group 2 showed the greatest improvement in treating acne [11]. Coconut oil with turmeric active ingredient as an antifungal has more or less the same effectiveness as Ketoconazole 2% shampoo against complaints of itching, hair loss and scales caused by the fungus Pitysporum ovale as a cause of dandruff [12]. ...
... Due to its known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, Curcumin can counteract the pro-inflammatory state which is believed to participate in many age-related diseases. Curcumin directly affects a few major targets, just like ROS scavenging and production and the NF-B signaling pathways, which can in turn suppresses the pro-inflammatory state involved in the etiology of ageing and age-related diseases [9][10][11][12][13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Human wellness is a very complex process involving several natural processes which are moderated or controlled by many factors such as genes, diet, exercise, sleep, atmospheric conditions and exposure to microorganism. Factors such as unhealthy eating habits, stress, less exercise, dehydration, sleeping disorders, repeated ultraviolet (UV) exposure, pollution, smoking and medication for certain diseases can trigger or accelerate oxidation and inflammation in the body. Turmeric and more specifically curcumin with its proven antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties can neutralize this effect and thus protecting body from several diseases. New studies and delivery forms have increased turmeric's popularity many folds. Earlier known as a household spice and most common part of Indian cuisine is now become a popular global remedy including in most of western countries.
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