Abstract

Urban parks provide multiple ecosystem services to mitigate challenges from climate change and urbanisation. They promote health and well-being by providing space for physical activity and social interaction, which is particularly relevant for vulnerable groups such as children and older people. As a key element, park vegetation creates favourable environments, as it moderates heat, buffers noise and can be enjoyed by citizens. In this paper, we present the results of a multi-method empirical study conducted in the city of Leipzig, Germany, during the summer heat and drought period in July 2018. Visitation patterns were analysed through qualitative observation and structured counting in two differently characterised urban parks – a newly developed urban park on a former railway brownfield and a long-standing, older park with a mature tree population. The results indicate that park design elements are linked to park use activities and park user age groups such as young children, school children and older people. Young children were identified as mostly using playgrounds and natural lawn areas in the old park, while school children and teenagers tended to use the sports areas and semi-secluded spaces in the newly developed park to play sports or to meet in groups and socialize. For older people, sedentary activity was exclusively observed on benches, and non-sedentary activity such as jogging was nearly exclusively identified in the larger, more shaded older park. The number of counted park users, particularly numbers of children and older people, significantly declined at the highest temperature of approximately 30 °C. Considering the provision and availability of inclusive design elements that support these use behaviours may increase the motivation of all age groups to use green spaces and to benefit from the services they provide. Planning for a more effective and just provision of ecosystem services requires the consideration of age-specific design elements to invite use from all population groups equally and to contribute to distributional justice.
Kabisch, N., Kraemer, R., (2020) Physical activity patterns in two differently characterised
urban parks under conditions of summer heat. Environmental Science and Policy, 107, 56-
67, 10.1016/j.envsci.2020.02.008
Available at: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1aeRh5Ce0rZkK0
... Older school children and teenagers tended to use sports areas and semi-secluded spaces to play sports or to meet in groups and socialize. Meanwhile, older peoples' sedentary activity was exclusively observed on benches, and non-sedentary activities such as jogging were nearly exclusively identified in larger, more shaded parks (86). Identified environmental factors were found to be related to activities of different ages. ...
... Park users were found to be more active than non-users in all forms of physical activity except for transport walking (101), and were more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines than those who indicated that they did not regularly use a park (107). Among all age groups, the elderly's use of parks has been focused on (86). Seniors visited urban parks frequently and spent more than half of their visit time engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity, especially for males younger than 70 years old and in good health condition (83). ...
... Facilities were highly associated with children's outdoor physical activity intensity. Regarding park usage, children were found to be attracted to parks with sports facilities, playground equipment, toilets, drinking fountains, BBQ facilities, large lawns, and landscaping (86,96). In schoolyards and preschool centers, facilities were found to affect children's physical intensity strongly (158). ...
Article
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As a significant part of outdoor built-environment, public open spaces are closely associated with people's daily lives. Studies of outdoor behavior in these spaces can shed light on users' environmental perceptions and contribute to the promotion of physiological and psychological health. Many recent studies are case studies focused where observations, surveys and interviews have been conducted to understand the factors influencing people's behavior on one or few sites or city environments. There have been few reviews related to this topic, and none have been based on the systematic understanding of influencing factors. This paper presents a systematic review of interactions between behavior and the built environment in public open spaces, and highlights the impacts of diverse and objective influencing factors. Followed the rules of PRISMA method (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses), 109 papers published in 2000–2021 were selected and reviewed. The distribution of the studied interactions is analyzed, and the impacts of four distinct factors: personal background, location and context, environmental component, and climate stimuli, are extracted, categorized, and specified. Moreover, outdoor health benefits are discussed based on which, crucial factors that require emphasis after the outbreak of COVID-19 are identified. Throughout this paper, behavioral influencing processes, including objective influencing factors, subjective feedback, and the relationships involved, are considered to provide a comprehensive picture. With the robust classification of existing factors, architects, urban designers, policy makers and fellow researches could be easier to get a more comprehensive trend from the past. This paper also provides guidance for future research, especially given that COVID-19 has created huge changes to outdoor needs and customary behavior. Systematic Review Registration: http://www.prisma-statement.org/ .
... Middle-aged adult (45)(46)(47)(48)(49)(50)(51)(52)(53)(54)(55)(56)(57)(58)(59) Park temperature data were collected using the handheld weather meter Kestrel NK-5500. Every hour, two minutes of temperature data were collected at every monitoring point. ...
... Nature serves as one of the attractions for children to stay and participate in activities [52]. It is worth mentioning that a large portion of the lawn in Hot Springs Park is inaccessible, which explains why there were few lawn activities in the observation despite its high popularity with children [53]. Elderly visitors tended to engage in physical or recreational activities in the early morning and morning (6:00-10:00) in the summer when temperatures were optimal. ...
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The urbanization process has contributed to the deterioration of the urban thermal environment and increased the frequency of heat waves in summer that damage public health. Urban green space is the space for the public to escape the summer heat. The cooling effect of urban green space (UGS) can encourage outdoor activities and enhance public health. Analysis of when and how the public utilizes UGS under summer heat can serve as a guide for UGS improvements. In this study, the Hot Spring Park in Fuzhou City, China was utilized as a case study to examine the characteristics of the public recreational behaviors and their influencing factors under summer heat. Results showed the following observations: (1) Canopy density and turf coverage played key roles in regulating the thermal environment. (2) UGS can accommodate multiple summertime behaviors with considerable spatiotemporal variations. (3) In the hot summer, the frequency of recreational activities in UGS was negatively correlated with temperature. Dynamic behaviors were significantly impacted by temperature. Older and younger groups were less heat-tolerant. Based on this, we propose countermeasures and suggestions that are tailored to the needs of urban residents and their behavior characteristics for the planning and management of urban parks in the summer heat.
... A large number of people tend to delay exercise both in summer and winter; race, age, and education exacerbate the negative effects of adverse weather conditions on the decision to exercise outdoor [72]. Furthermore, the age of people could also create an impact: the number of counted park users, particularly the number of children and the elderly, was found to decline significantly at the highest temperature of approximately 30 • C [73]. ...
... Greenness, behaviour settings [78], ground surfaces [78], fitness equipment and sports courts [79], and quality of design [80]. In addition, it has to be noted that the preference of types of elements differed among distinct age groups: young children mostly use playgrounds and natural lawn areas, while school children and teenagers tend to use the sports areas and semi-secluded spaces to practice sport or socialize, and for older people, sedentary activity was exclusively carried out on benches, and non-sedentary activities such as jogging were nearly exclusively occurred in the larger, more shaded places in discrepant parks [73]. In addition, people from different regions have different needs and preferences regarding outdoor facilities to practice physical activities [81]. ...
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Public open spaces are important assets that play a significant role in city lives, based on which a great number of behaviour-based studies are being conducted. These studies often use one or more case studies to observe people's preferences and usage habits and to investigate their influencing factors such as outdoor thermal comfort, environmental conditions, urban configuration, and local settings. Because the subject is complex and falls within the purview of multiple academic disciplines, it is a challenging task to understand the current status and development trends of existing studies. To fill this gap, this article presents a systematic review of quantitative evidence-based behaviour studies in public open spaces. Following the PRISMA method and searching using eight academic search engines, full texts of 116 research articles have been included for this review. The main contributions of this review are that: (1) it proposed a relatively complete system that categorizes people's behaviour in public open spaces; (2) it introduced outdoor subjective influencing procedure including behaviour, feeling and health impacts; (3) the review illustrated the distribution of existing research as well as research trends; and finally (4) the article also timely discussed the influence of the COVID-19 on people's behaviour in public open spaces. The authors consider this article to be useful as it can facilitate further behaviour-based studies in public open spaces. With a robust classification and future trend discussion of factors associated, fellow researchers, urban designers, city managers, and policymakers are easier to integrate and use the knowledge learned.
... Kraemer (2021) showed that green areas have an effect on cardiovascular health in older people, whileKabisch & Kraemer (2020) indicate that park design elements motivate physical activities. It is di cult to compare these studies with urban wetlands in the Chilean context, since most of them (as is Los Batros Wetland) have not been transformed into parks, i.e. they lack paths, formal access, and other infrastructure characteristic of greens areas(Fig. ...
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Wetlands provide a range of ecosystem services; however, little is known about their value or use for improving urban planning and wetland management. This study explores values towards Los Batros Wetland in Chile, by inhabitants from different neighborhood typologies. A sample of 379 households evaluated the wetland by applying Kellert’s framework of biophilic values using a PPGIS approach. Anova and spatial autocorrelation analysis with hotspot, revealed that the spatial distribution of biophilic values is not randomly distributed across space. It depends on education, income, proximity and accessibility. Inhabitants of the garden city located next to the wetland area, highly educated and with easy and moderate access, agreed with a diverse type of biophilic values, where the ecologistic-scientific value has more spatial representativeness. In the condominium typology, with similar education, easy and moderate physical accessibility but situated far from the wetland, there was less agreement with biophilic values, these were more dispersed, i.e. less representative, and the aesthetic value prevails over others. At the north area of the neighborhood unit, with moderate to difficult physical access, but with horticultural activities beside the wetland, inhabitants agree with various biophilic values, including the symbolic value. Conversely in the favela, with similar physical access, next to the wetland, but with the lowest income and education level, biophilic values were not in agreement nor disagreement. An effective wetland management requires appreciation of the clusters of values assigned to wetland environments. These clusters should be considered when planning to restore, protect, and improve urban wetlands.
... The data proved suitable for application according to specific research questions. We used the data gained through our temperature measurements in 2018 to study physical activity patterns in parks under conditions of summer heat [3] . In combination with spatially explicit data, e.g., land cover data, we could demonstrate that our dense air temperature measurements in 2019 are suitable to train a machine learning algorithm to obtain spatially explicit predictions of air temperature for a 24 h period [4] . ...
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The cooling capacity of urban green spaces constitutes a key measure for cities to mitigate heat events, which is gaining importance in climate change adaptation and mitigation. In this protocol article, we present details on two field campaigns aiming at collecting dense air temperature data in two urban inner city parks in Leipzig, Germany, under unprecedented heat and drought conditions. We introduce all the steps required to plan and conduct qualified fieldwork in environmental research, including study design, technical and logistical preparations, on-site work and data management steps from data acquisition, transfer into research outcomes to dissemination. We further share valuable lessons learned before, during and after field work that helped us improve our work and that could support and improve similar future project campaigns.
... Both the decrease in uptake capacity and the increase in sealed surfaces lead to severe consequences for urban nature and society, such as ecological fragility and human health problems (Kabisch and Kraemer 2020). The supply of ecosystem services (ES) is of increasing importance in cities at the beginning of the 21st century, and the development of more sustainable urban areas remains one key challenge. ...
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Cities that begin to regrow after a long period of decline and land abandonment are under pressure to provide comfortable housing conditions in preferred neighborhoods for their residents. On the other hand, these cities should preserve interim green spaces that result from decline because these spaces are a real treasure for densifying cities. Using the case of the city of Halle in post-socialist Eastern Germany, we explore four land use alternatives for neighborhood development close to what might happen: (1) urban densification, (2) spacious housing, (3) the green city, and (4) the edible city. We seek to discover opportunities for regrowth and sustainable land use development by applying the ecosystem services and green points frameworks to a set of land use transition rules. Land use change has been defined for strategic development areas according to the Master Plan and complementary visions of land change. The results of the study provide highly interesting insights into how both regrowth and greening can be enabled in densifying neighborhoods and what types of green are most effective in providing carbon storage and summer heat regulation. Moreover, gardens, as central elements of the edible city concept, were found to be flexible in implementation in very differently dynamic neighborhoods by providing multi-functional spaces for ecosystem services such as climate regulation, local food production, daily recreation, and nature experience. Results demonstrate that ecosystem services benefit flows increase only in districts where real estate pressure is low. In districts with growing population numbers, green spaces are reduced. This may result in increased injustice in green space availability seeing as we have modeled a recreational space per capita of < 9 m² in the Southern Suburb, whereas an increase to almost 70 m² was simulated in the shrinking, prefabricated Newtown. Most importantly, modeling the narratives of the Master Plan in a spatially explicit way demonstrates unused potential for greening in Halle. Thus, we conclude that urban planning should make regular use of such land use alternative to look for hidden combined visions of green and growth in a formerly shrinking city.
... Both the decrease in uptake capacity and the increase in sealed surfaces lead to severe consequences for urban nature and society, such as ecological fragility and human health problems (Kabisch and Kraemer 2020). The supply of ecosystem services (ES) is of increasing importance in cities at the beginning of the 21st century, and the development of more sustainable urban areas remains one key challenge. ...
Article
Cities that begin to regrow after a long period of decline and land abandonment are under pressure to provide comfortable housing conditions in preferred neighborhoods for their residents. On the other hand, these cities should preserve interim green spaces that result from decline because these spaces are a real treasure for densifying cities. Using the case of the city of Halle in post-socialist Eastern Germany, we explore four land use alternatives for neighborhood development close to what might happen: (1) urban densification, (2) spacious housing, (3) the green city, and (4) the edible city. We seek to discover opportunities for regrowth and sustainable land use development by applying the ecosystem services and green points frameworks to a set of land use transition rules. Land use change has been defined for strategic development areas according to the Master Plan and complementary visions of land change. The results of the study provide highly interesting insights into how both regrowth and greening can be enabled in densifying neighborhoods and what types of green are most effective in providing carbon storage and summer heat regulation. Moreover, gardens, as central elements of the edible city concept, were found to be flexible in implementation in very differently dynamic neighborhoods by providing multi-functional spaces for ecosystem services such as climate regulation, local food production, daily recreation, and nature experience. Results demonstrate that ecosystem services benefit flows increase only in districts where real estate pressure is low. In districts with growing population numbers, green spaces are reduced. This may result in increased injustice in green space availability seeing as we have modeled a recreational space per capita of < 9 m² in the Southern Suburb, whereas an increase to almost 70 m² was simulated in the shrinking, prefabricated Newtown. Most importantly, modeling the narratives of the Master Plan in a spatially explicit way demonstrates unused potential for greening in Halle. Thus, we conclude that urban planning should make regular use of such land use alternative to look for hidden combined visions of green and growth in a formerly shrinking city.
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Introduction Safe and walkable routes to parks are associated with improved public health and increased park visits. Most studies on this topic have explored income and racial disparities in park access and safe routes to parks, and have not examined the influence of built environments on pedestrian safety around parks. To address this gap, this study explores the impacts of built environments on different scales (both street and neighborhood levels) on pedestrian safety around parks and determines whether this relationship varies by area income level. Method Two-level negative binomial models were used to explore the relationship between the built environment and pedestrian crashes around parks and determine how the associations varied by high- and low-income areas in Orlando, FL. Resultsin both high and low-income areas, increased commercial parcels and transit stops along street segments near parks were related to a higher number of pedestrian crashes, while single- and multi-family residential uses along street segments were related to fewer pedestrian crashes. Sidewalk coverage had a negative association with pedestrian-vehicle crashes, but only in low-income areas. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that planners should consider and examine potential traffic conflict spots near commercial uses and transit stops. Moreover, residential areas are an appropriate land use type for future park site locations, ensuring park-related pedestrian safety. Furthermore, governments should improve sidewalk coverage to reduce pedestrian-vehicle crashes in low-income areas.
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【摘要】 城市公共空间是城市的重要有机组成部分,它代表着城市呼吸的肺部,人们在其中进行日常活动和社交活动。公共开放空间所发挥的至关重要的作用之一就是支持个人活动和文化多样性,这体现了人们在使用公共开放空间方面的自由选择性。公共开放空间可用于健康活动、体育活动,或为人们在户外营造出一种幸福感,这对于随着年龄增长而引起心脏病和肥胖等疾病的人群是非常重要的新生活方式。因此,提高公共场所的效率和质量,并提高其活动多样性的呼吁不断增加。在先前的文献中,开放空间的质量和成功已经从许多方面以不同的方式进行了论述,包括通过问卷调查和访谈来了解用户的印象和体验,通过专家评估或先进的计算机方法评估视觉方面,通过直接观察来测量物理质量,并通过直接观察或行为来衡量空间的可用性。尽管如此,仍然有许多问题没有得到具体而全面的解决。当前的研究找出了与测量公共空间质量有关的一系列研究空白,并提出了一套从多个方面衡量公共空间质量的工具和方法。并在也门萨那市的四个选定的公共空间中进行这些工具的开发和应用。1、确定公共开放空间使用者的需求,要求和预期体验在城市设计中非常重要,而不能提供目标用户是无法满足空间需求的主要原因之一。因此,更需要深入了解城市开放空间用户的需求和看法。尽管一些研究已经讨论了用户对开放空间的需求,并发布了一些方法和测量工具来测量开放空间的某些特征,但是尚未发布用于测量开放空间用户需求和要求的综合定量测量工具。因此,本研究试图开发一种工具来衡量公共空间满足用户需求的程度。该工具的组成部分和要素是通过一套程序的计算来确定和开发的。先对公共空间使用者的需求、要求和偏好相关的理论和实践文献进行了综述,然后通过全面的回顾,得出了公共空间用户需求测量工具的组成部分和要素,并且空间使用者、建筑师和城市设计师以及城市环境领域的专家均参与了该工具的开发。工具开发包含了以下验证因素:人脸有效性、内容有效性指标、度量工具构造有效性以及项目和因素的内部一致性。该研究提供了一种测量工具,并使用差距分析指标来确定公共场所当前满足用户的质量与所需质量之间的差异。此外,结果显示,萨那市公共空间的恶化状况反映了当前用户需求的空间水平与要求水平之间存在很大差距。2、公共空间元素的组织和布置在特定空间中起着重要作用。此外,就人与环境之间的关系而言,良好的公共空间是人们最常使用并偏爱的空间,而缺乏活力和利用率与该空间的城市设计存在缺陷有关。先前揭示公共空间特征与其用途和访问率之间关系的研究经常采用多种研究方法,包括定量和定性,直接观察或问卷调查,传统观察方法和先进技术。但是,这些通常只检查了空间,只观察了空间的某些部分。但是,检查空间物理组件的属性不应仅限于该空间中的特定区域,而是必须包括空间的所有部分和区域,以便对其进行高效检查和研究。论文研究了公共空间的物理组成部分与其每个区域的空间使用密度(DSU)之间的关系,并考虑了其空间使用强度。本研究采用BRAT-DO 方法研究空间的物理组成特征,通过实地调查确定空间的 DSU 和 ISU 值,通过行为地图来确定空间活动的多样性。结果表明,DSU与所研究的空间物理成分特征有很强的相关性。DSU与BRAT-DO工具中提到的5个特征中的4个相关,即特征、条件、美学和空间的安全性。在这一部分,研究提出了一种测量公共空间使用密度的方法。3、公共开放空间的质量取决于其发生活动的种类。当空间质量差时,只会发生必要的活动。然而,当高质量空间出现时,其选择性活动就会出现,从而使得社交活动增加。因此,不能只为特定活动或单一类型的用户设计公共场所。公共空间应容纳许多不同类型的活动和多个用户群体。活动和用户的高度多样性可以表明公共空间的质量。对于此问题,Mehta(2007)发布了一种工具来衡量公共空间的质量,该工具以用户的多样性程度以及在开放空间的停留时间作为衡量公共空间有效性的指标。虽然Mehta的工具可以衡量社会活动的多样性,但它并没有衡量社会活动多样性的强度及其在一天中持续的时间,同样,该工具测量使用和用户的多样性,但它不测量该多样性在一天中各个时间段的强度。该工具也可以测量用户在空间中停留的时间,但不能确定一天中停留的时间是否相等。此外,它没有说明不同的区域和空间是否以相同的密度和同一时间段使用。仅在一天的一个时间段内确定这些指标可能会影响结果的准确性和客观性。目前的研究通过增加空间维度和更广泛地使用时间维度来处理这些问题。目前的研究是通过增加空间维度和拓展时间维度来处理这些问题。该研究开发了一种Mehta(2007)工具,通过增加空间维度和使用时间维度来衡量公共空间中用户的多样性。它提出了一种确定使用强度和多样性(IDU)的工具,可以作为衡量公共空间质量的指标。已制定的获取因素包括七个指标,分别是短时间的使用强度,空间使用强度ISU,社会使用强度(ISCU),年龄多样性的IAD强度,性别多样性的IGD强度,停留强度(IS)和活动强度(IA)。这项研究验证了所提议的工具中包含的所有变量,分别测量每个选定空间一周内的使用强度和多样性。调查包括工作日和周末。每天在四个时段(早晨,中午,下午和晚上)对选定的空间进行调查,每个时段用时十五分钟。变量的结果通过一组方程式进行测量,这些方程式确定每个变量的空间效率,然后计算工具的最终效率。4、先前有关城市,建筑和景观设计的研究已经讨论了视觉设计和公共空间评估的许多原理和标准。由于它们的相似性,矛盾性和重叠性,城市开发商和设计师们仍然难以选择最重要的视觉设计原则,以评估现有的开放空间并产生具有和谐视觉设计的新开放空间。该工具研究了视觉设计原理在多大程度上提升了视觉图像质量。它试图探索在创建视觉和谐方面哪个更具影响力,从而提高视觉景观图像的质量。本研究主要是对Bell所引用的原理和基础进行了一些修改。该研究考察了选定空间如何实现了公共空间视觉设计的原理。研究将这些设计原则应用于视觉景观质量的思考。通过视觉设计原理与视觉和谐之间的皮尔逊相关系数结果,列出了一些有助于增强视觉形象的和谐性、提高视觉景观形象质量的视觉设计原则和标准。这些原则和标准代表了测量工具的组成部分和要素,即层次结构,要素的多样性,比例尺的不同,外观,形状和背景,二维构型在三维外观中的反映,以及空间设计的特征和独特性。该测量工具还包括一些行政措施,例如维护没有视觉污染元素的空间。总之,该研究提出了一套测量工具和方法论,以确定公共空间的质量和成功。这些工具和方法是开放式城市环境的开发人员和管理人员可以用来确定开放式环境的质量和成功的基本实践贡献。该研究开发了一种定量工具,以确定空间使用者需求水平与这些空间现有水平之间的差距。那些使用者可以认识到从空间中获得的东西与空间所提供的东西之间的区别。这些知识有助于根据用户的需求精确定义所需的干预措施,从而提高空间的利用率和效率。该研究开发了一种测量空间使用密度指数和使用强度指数的方法。这两个指标可能与空间的物理设置具有正相关。该研究还开发了一种工具,用于测量可能与空间质量有关的使用性和用户的强度和多样性。这两种方法表现人们在开放空间中的行为及其与空间质量的关系知识。该研究提出了一套有助于提高视觉景观质量的视觉标准。这些标准可以用来评估和发展开放城市环境的视觉方面。这些知识提高了城市设计师和建筑师设计、开发和评估公共空间的能力。综上,该研究讨论了与公共空间的质量和成功有关的基本方面。这些工具和方法是城市空间的开发人员和管理人员可以用来确定开放空间环境质量的基本实践贡献。该研究开发了一个定量工具,以确定公共空间满足用户需求时所需水平和当前水平之间的差距。可以使人们认识到用户对空间活动的需求和空间所提供活动的区别。这也就有助于根据用户的愿望精确定义所需空间要素的措施,从而提高空间的使用和效率。同时开发了一种测量空间使用密度和空间使用强度的工具,这两个指标可能与空间的物理设置呈正相关。该研究也开发了一种工具用于衡量与空间质量有关的用户的使用强度和多样性。这两种方法支持了人们在公共空间中的行为及其与空间质量的关系的理论。该研究还提出了一套有助于提高视觉景观质量的标准和原则,以用来评估和提高城市开放空间环境。同时也提高了城市设计师和建筑师设计、开发和评估公共开放空间的能力。 还原 【Abstract】 Public space is an important organic component of cities.It represents the lung through which the city breathes,and people in it practice their daily activities and social interactions.Public spaces can provide health benefits,improve health and fitness when used in physical activities,or when people just go outdoors to create a sense of well-being,which is very important with the increasing diseases of the age,such as heart and obesity as a result of new lifestyles.Therefore,calls are continually increasing to raise the efficiency and quality of public spaces and raise their versatility for all society segments.The quality and success of public spaces have been addressed in the previous literature from many aspects and in different ways,including examining user impressions and experiences through questionnaires and interviews,evaluating visual aspects through expert assessments or advanced computer methods,measuring physical quality through direct observation,and measuring the usability of space through direct observation or behavioral maps.Despite this,there are still many issues that are not specifically and comprehensively addressed.The current study identified a set of research gaps related to measuring the quality of public space and proposed a set of tools and methodologies that measure the quality of public space from several aspects.Developing and applying these tools were carried out in four selected public spaces in Sana’a city in Yemen.
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