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Sharing the sidewalk: A case of E-scooter related pedestrian injury

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Abstract

The popularity of rideshare electric scooters is due to their availability, accessibility, and low cost. The recent increase in electric scooter use has raised concerns regarding the safety of both riders and pedestrians. Previous studies characterize the incidence and pattern of injury for riders, but there is a lack of literature concerning electric scooters' impact on pedestrians. Pedestrians injured by electric scooters face potential financial burdens from hospitalization costs, medical interventions, taking time off from work, and rehabilitation therapies. Based on prior studies, pedestrians who are most prone to injuries sustained by pedestrian transportation include individuals with vision and/or hearing impairment, young children, the elderly, and people distracted by mobile devices. We present a case involving a sixty-year-old female pedestrian who presented to the emergency department with an acute lumbar compression fracture after a collision with an electric scooter. This study highlights the safety risks and incidence of injuries for pedestrians associated with electric scooters, which can help shape public policy to ensure the safety of both riders and pedestrians.

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... However, the ability of shared mobility to increase sustainable mode shares and increase access to cycling, has been poorer than it is purported to be [16,17]. Further, SPM, and particularly electric scooters [18][19][20][21], have been associated with serious and non-serious accidents. ...
... Related research from Ma et al. [19] concluded that electric scooter injuries represent an emerging public health issue. Injuries can occur not only for users, but also for other pedestrians [20]. Risk factors for accidents involving bicycles, including electric bikes, are also well-known, and enhanced or dedicated bicycle infrastructure, including bike lanes, have been known to decrease the risk associated with riding a bicycle on a road shared with cars [25,26]. ...
... Additionally, the university supported an electric bicycle share system called Elecle, a type of shared personal mobility (SPM), and fully subsidized the cost of this service for several months before it was converted into a paid service. However, given the safety issues that have been found with SPM, and particularly electric scooters [18][19][20], the SAV service is preferred for the improvement of mobility on campus. When a SAV service is implemented, it will directly compete with SPM. ...
Article
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Understanding the factors that affect the uptake of emerging transport modes is critical for understanding if and how they will be used once they are implemented. In this study, we undertook a stated-preference analysis to understand the factors that affect the use of shared autonomous vehicles and shared personal mobility (micromobility) as competing modes on a university campus in Korea. We applied a binary logit model, which included time and cost variables as well as the perceptions of convenience (in-car congestion and availability) and safety. For autonomous vehicles, the cost- and time-related demand elasticities were estimated to be −0.45 and −0.25, respectively, while the cost elasticity for shared electric bicycles was −0.42. The elasticities of perceived convenience (availability) and safety for the shared electric bicycle system were estimated to be 0.72 and 0.29, respectively. Finally, the elasticity for perceived convenience (in-car congestion) of the shared autonomous vehicle was 0.42. Our results show that there is an innate preference for shared autonomous vehicles when these are compared to shared personal mobility, and that the effect of subjective variables (convenience and safety) on the use of emerging transport modes is as important as traditional cost and time variables.
... Bicycles and personal mobility devices (PMDsespecially electronic scooters or e-scooters) are among the most frequently chosen means of transport in European cities, particularly for daily commuting (Anke, Francke, Schaefer, & Petzoldt, 2021;Glenn et al., 2020;Goh, Leong, Cheng, & Teo, 2019;Liew, Wee, & Pek, 2020;Pérez-Carbonell, Gene-Morales, Bueno-Gimeno, & Gené-Sampedro, 2020;Sikka, Vila, Stratton, Ghassemi, & Pourmand, 2019). This is partly due to the infrastructural transformations over the last decades and social distancing recommendations for urban trips (Harrington & Hadjiconstantinou, 2022;Li, Zhao, Haitao, Mansourian, & Axhausen, 2021). ...
... Bicycles and e-scooters are also a cheap, eco-friendly, and easy-to-use alternative to motorized vehicles (Harrington & Hadjiconstantinou, 2022;James, Swiderski, Hicks, Teoman, & Buehler, 2019;Sikka et al., 2019;Useche, Gene-Morales, Siebert, Alonso, & Montoro, 2021;Zagorskas & Burinskienė, 2019). However, riders of bicycles and PMDs are some of the least protected road users (Beck et al., 2016;Kim, Kim, Ulfarsson, & Porrello, 2007;Nisson, Ley, & Chu, 2020). ...
... Road crashes involving e-scooters, bicycles, and other road users (i.e., pedestrians, motorized vehicles) are important public health issues (Goh et al., 2019;Liew et al., 2020;Mitchell, Tsao, Randell, Marks, & Mackay, 2019;Nisson et al., 2020;Robartes & Chen, 2017;Sikka et al., 2019;Störmann et al., 2020;Trivedi et al., 2019;Useche, Esteban, Alonso, & Montoro, 2021;Vanparijs, Panis, Meeusen, & de Geus, 2015;Zagorskas & Burinskienė, 2019). For example, 30.6% of all e-scooter crashes in Singapore occurring between 2015 and 2016 involved another road user (Liew et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The use of non-motorized transportation and micro-mobility is increasing in many cities. Bicycle riding and e-scooter use are now more common and affordable than ever. However, users of these devices face certain key issues. These include their own risky behaviors as well as involvement in conflicts with other road users. Self-report data may not adequately capture these behaviors and interactions. Despite this, more objective data (i.e., how third parties perceive these users' road behaviors) is scarce. Aims: This study aimed to understand whether e-scooter riders have comparable or different riding behaviors than cyclists. This was investigated using a mixed-method study. Methods: This paper is divided into two sub-studies. In Study 1, 950 Spanish non-cyclists and none scooter riders (mean age 31.98 ± 13.27 years; 55.3% female) provided external ratings (proxies) regarding the perceived behaviors of bicycle and e-scooter riders. In Study 2, collective Rapid Assessment Processes (RAPs; n = 23) were used to develop qualitative configurations of some of the key risky behaviors highlighted in Study 1. Results: There were significant differences in the perceived errors and violations rated by proxies for both types of riders (with e-scooter riders perceived as having higher rates of risky behaviors). However, there were also structural differences in the effects of external raters' risk perceptions, traffic rule knowledge, and traffic incidents with two-wheeled riders on how they rated the behaviors. Conclusion: The results of both studies suggest that external raters' perceptions provide further understanding of the causes, dynamics, and conflicts related to road behaviors performed by certain groups of road users. This is particularly apparent when there is no clear legislation and information on safe riding in urban areas. In this sense, improving infrastructure could promote safer interactions. Finally, road safety education could focus on promoting safer practices and interactions in order to improve how others perceive riders' behavior.
... The introduction of e-scooter sharing systems is posing challenging questions for cities and transportation planners regarding their effects on the transportation system [3,4]. Among these pressing questions are issues regarding the environmental impacts of this mobility option [5], the life cycle of the vehicles [4], accidents related to e-scooter use [6,7], and parking space needed [8]. ...
... In the literature and media, escooters are often discussed as a sustainable mobility solution that meets travelers' needs for flexibility, personalized mobility with low environmental impact, and high social inclusion potential [5,21]. A growing body of literature on shared e-scooters has focused on travel behavior [22][23][24], safety concerns [6,7,25,26], and environmental impacts [4]. Looking at the cities where e-scooters have been introduced, it becomes clear that the handling and consequences of this innovation are unclear. ...
... A simulation study by [27] predicted that escooters would be a particularly strong alternative to private automobiles for trips between 0.5 and 2 miles. At the same time, studies show that (1) e-scooter trips replace mainly trips that could have been undertaken by walking or cycling [28]; (2) dockless micro-mobility solutions can cause (safety) conflicts with pedestrians and people with disabilities [6]; and (3) the spatial availability of the new offers could be determined merely by demand and therefore not be evenly distributed across the city but could be concentrated where the early adopters are living and traveling [29,30]. However, there are assumptions that micro-mobility modes, such as e-scooters, might have positive impacts on public transport use [31] and will not result in significant diversion from public transit on long-distance trips due to their higher relative cost on trips [27]. ...
Article
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Electric scooter sharing (e-scooter sharing) is a new urban micro-mobility service that is expected to shape individual urban mobility. The introduction of e-scooter sharing systems poses challenging questions for cities and transportation planners regarding their effects on their transportation system. This study addresses the question concerning the strategies which are applied for the introduction of e-scooter sharing systems in different operation areas in Germany. An interview study with 21 stakeholders with different backgrounds (local transport authorities, public transport providers, e-scooter sharing operators, municipalities, associations, planning offices and consulting companies, and other mobility providers) was conducted to reflect upon the introduction of e-scooter sharing systems in Germany and stakeholders’ involvement in planning. The qualitative content analysis provides insights into the stakeholders’ assessment of the introduction process and thus contributes to a multi-perspective understanding on the topic. Derived hypotheses and recommendations further contribute to knowledge sharing and learning from experience. The paper concludes with a description of three introduction styles: protective, pro-active, and laissez-faire.
... However, despite its benefits as an alternative means of transportation for cities that have been increasingly suffering from excessive amounts of cars in the streets and the saturation of public transportation, some problems come along with it. Because of the immensely fast speed in which this sharing system developed and established itself, the governments, in general, did not act as fast by terms of regulating the activity, ultimately leading to a growing number of personal injuries resulting from e-scooter usage and the consequent increase in the number of entries for such related injuries at the hospitals' emergency departments (Austin Public Health, 2019; Badeau et al., 2019;Blomberg et al., 2019;Bloom et al., 2021;Sikka et al., 2019;T. K. Trivedi et al., 2019). ...
... In the United States, for instance, e-scooters are regulated at each different state of the federation. However, by the end of 2018, only ten states had defined scooters in statutes, even with the exponential growth in popularity of this transportation method (Sikka et al., 2019). According to a report from Benedicto et al. (2021), the state of California has fully regulated the use of e-scooters, while the state of Hawaii considers them to be completely illegal, and the state of Alaska has not yet addressed the issue, treating such vehicles as belonging to the broader category of "motor-driven cycles" instead. ...
... Similarly, Blomberg et al. (2019) found out that among the analyzed patients from the records of the Copenhagen Emergency Medical Services (EMS), in Denmark, 14% were non-riders hit by e-scooters. Sikka et al. (2019) explored how e-scooters affect pedestrian safety based on the case study of a female that was struck by an electric scooter while on the sidewalk. Despite the limitations of the study, pedestrians were found to be more susceptible to severe injuries when hit by e-scooters. ...
Article
Traffic jams are a burden in urban areas, being time-consuming and contributing to stressful driving and CO2 emissions. To implement the United Nations’ 2030 agenda for sustainable development, governmental strategies aim to accelerate the shift to sustainable and smart mobility. Consequently, e-micromobility (EMM) appeared as a practical solution for short-distance commuters, and it is growing at upsetting rates thanks to the introduction of sharing services. In fact, urban mobility has drastically changed over the last decade, and electric mobility and micromobility changed the panorama in larger metropolises, given their accessibility, large availability, and the potential to be a time saver in short trips and a potentially sustainable alternative in particular scenarios. The downside of portable e-transportation is the rapid increase in injuries and fatalities. Focusing on standing e-scooters, head injuries are becoming one of the most common as shown by research conducted in different urban emergency departments, alongside bone fractures, skin abrasions, and lacerations. In this work, a comprehensive review is carried out focusing on head protection for EMM, mostly for e-scooters, and the respective target markets, safety measures, and existing regulations. In the end, a critical assessment is given with recommendations for legislators and future research. Users are mostly males from 18 to 40 years old, upper-to-middle income, with elevated levels of educational attainment. Their motivation to use e-scooters is mainly to replace short walking trips. EMM, in particular e-scooters, will continue to grow thanks to its potential to substitute other micromobility alternatives. The evolution of safety measures and regulations did not keep pace with such a drastic change in mobility trends. This is evident considering how some countries are struggling with vehicle categories and regulations for helmet use and testing. The lack of legal obligation to wear a helmet and the absence of an adequate and feasible concept of protective equipment for sharing services are the main barriers to helmet use among riders. Mitigation measures have been implemented by the EMM sharing companies to improve the safety of its users by checking if they wear helmets and by offering vehicle-integrated solutions.
... One of the main concerns of local governments regarding DSES is user vulnerability and conflicts with other road users, pedestrians, and cyclists (Che et al., 2021;Sikka et al., 2019). ES users tend to commit traffic offenses such as speeding, not wearing a helmet (Beck et al., 2020;Dhillon et al., 2020), riding while intoxicated (Faraji et al., 2020;Kobayashi et al., 2019), riding without a license requirement in some cities (Anderson-Hall et al., 2019), and developing risky behavior . ...
... The observed VMT-based ES injury rate was approximately 175 to 200 times higher than statewide or county-specific injury rates for motor vehicle travel. (Sikka et al., 2019) Washington, DC, USA. ...
Article
Electric Micromobility (EM) and the use of dockless shared electric scooters (DSES) has rapidly grown in many cities worldwide. They are promoted as an accessible, low-emissions, versatile, and low-effort alternative. This article conducts a systematic review of DSES, considering their evolution, operation, regulations, user profile, environmental impact, safety, and pricing. The review shows age, income, and gender gaps among their users as most of them are young, male, high-income adults. DSES adopters come mainly from public transport, walking, and cycling. Their environmentally friendly label needs to be analyzed according to the city's context; their distribution and collection logistics impacts, and the vehicle's service life. The review shows significant differences in the way cities have regulated the service. One of the most significant potential contributions from DSES to urban mobility is the possibility to be integrated with public transport, implementing the Mobility-as-a-Service concept.
... Also, some e-scooter companies have declared their policies as part of their terms and conditions, which include the maximum speed, helmet requirements, and age limits. Whereas the recommended age limit was designated as 18 years old, there are rarely any government regulations (Sikka et al., 2019). Without adequate policies on the usage which governments should formulate, some problems such as conflicts between pedestrians and riders, and serious accidents involving both of them, will continue. ...
... Many countries have created regulations about parking (James et al., 2019;Zou et al., 2020). Some countries banned to use of e-scooter, and some of them were limited to age and speed or redesigning parking zones (Sikka et al., 2019;Nikiforiadis et al., 2021;Latinopoulos et al., 2021;Bozzi and Aguilera, 2021). While some classified them as a bicycle, some classified them as a motor vehicle (Latinopoulos et al., 2021). ...
Article
E-scooters globally have proven an increasingly popular form of dockless micro-mobility, while also contributing to sustainable urban transportation forms. However, some safety issues arise with e-scooter use in the cities. This study aims to propose a decision-making model based on q-rung orthopair fuzzy sets for prioritizing the safe e-scooter operation alternative. The proposed model consists of two stages: weighting the criteria and ranking the alternatives. First, a fuzzy logarithmic additive assessment of the weight coefficients methodology and fuzzy Einstein weighted averaging operator were applied to define the reference relationships between the criteria and determine their weights. Second, a q-rung orthopair fuzzy sets based decision-making model integrating q-rung orthopair fuzzy Einstein average and q-rung orthopair fuzzy Hamacher geometric mean operator was used to rank the alternatives. A fictional case study is presented to show the practicality of the proposed model. The contribution of the work is as a decision-support system for evaluating safe e-scooter strategies, such as infrastructure placement, user behavior and how e-scooters interact with other transportation means showing that applicability of the proposed model to real-world problems.
... There are various ways in which local authorities regulate where and how fast an electric scooter can travel. Thus, in different US jurisdictions, the policy of riding e-scooters on sidewalks is either permitted or prohibited, or permitted only outside of the central business districts, with the maximum permitted speed being from 10 to 20 mph [38]. E-scooters, despite their rapidly-growing distribution process, are fully regulated in Germany, France, Singapore, New Zealand and Australia. ...
... The biggest problems are caused by e-scooters, which are becoming an increasingly popular form of transport due to their significant travel speed; however, the same speed makes this form of vehicle especially dangerous for both the rider and others, leading to injuries-something which has recently caused growing public health concerns [40,41]. Motor vehicles, other scooters and bicycles, infrastructure, and animals can also be injured [38]. There are precedents where e-scooter policy has undergone fundamental changes following the death of an e-scooter rider in an accident, as happened in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Elizabeth City, New Jersey [42]. ...
Article
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Moving around the city is a problem for the development of most megacities. Due to digital technologies, each city dweller is connected by information and communication channels with the city infrastructure, receiving information and choosing the available modes of movement. Shared micromobility in terms of digital solutions is a convenient service, while reducing congestion and emissions, and preventing air and noise pollution; however, the physical and social dimension of the city is experiencing problems, with growing public health concerns, high overall environmental costs, clutter in the streets, etc. This presentation presents a case study of the relatively recent emergence of shared micromobility in St. Petersburg and attitudes towards its users. In addition to the direct process of use and the experience gained, the factors that determine the social influence and perception of micromobility are highlighted. The highest ratings of the digital component and the rather high importance of such factors as environmental friendliness and safety make it possible to recommend the creation of an interactive digital system that unites riders.
... One must keep in mind that these speeds were within a shared space and not at separate dedicated roads; therefore, speed safe for the least protected road user should have been maintained. Manoeuvring at such speeds amongst pedestrians of all ages might lead to collisions and injuries (Maiti et al., 2020, Sikka et al., 2019. ...
... This agrees with the recent report of research, in which shoulder glances of ES and bicycle riders were observed (Pils et al., 2021). The results show evidence of dangerous riding, at speeds much too high for assurance of pedestrians' safety (Sikka et al., 2019). No highly aberrant behaviours, beside excessive speed, were recorded at the short test stretch; however, it should be added that none of the test participants, using any transport mode, followed all of the traffic rules throughout the entire 1500 m stretch: a total of 261 violations (both minor like stepping off marked pedestrian crossing and major like riding on pedestrian pavement outside a shared road or a failure to observe side traffic while crossing a road) were counted (50 while walking, 105 while cycling, and 106 while riding ES). ...
Article
Shared roads for pedestrians and bicycles are common in modern cities. Recently, such roads are frequently utilised also by riders of electric scooters, which, being a novel personal transport means, are not regulated uniformly. Analysis of visual attention of young people who travelled the same shared road stretch as pedestrians, as bicyclists, and as electric scooter riders was done with a mobile eye tracker. The results demonstrate that the numbers of fixations per minute for people using these transport modes were similar but their distribution was different. The road ahead was observed much more by riders (39-43% of all their fixations) than by pedestrians (25% of all their fixations). Pedestrians frequently looked at the sides (40% of their fixations), while riders did not. Observation of other pedestrian road users by test participants travelling on feet took 26% of their fixations; for riders, the number increased to 35-38%, which indicates visual search for potential hazards while riding. Average speeds of pedestrians were high, 5.9 km/h; bicycle riders travelled at 16.8 km/h and electric scooters were ridden at 16.5 km/h. Thus, based on visual attention of electric scooters riders and their velocity, their vehicles ought to be classified as a special variation of a bicycle for most of regulatory, practical, and road safety purposes.
... However, there is limited knowledge and understanding on safety for micromobility users at shared spaces. e increase of micromobility use in shared spaces also causes several discomforts and unsafe situations for active travellers, particularly pedestrians [23]. As mentioned by Che, Lum & Wong [24], overtaking a pedestrian by an e-scooter user is safer when the speed is lower than 10 km/h. ...
... Besides the perception of infrastructure, future studies should also consider these parameters in the analysis to gain a deeper understanding. In addition, it is argued in the literature [23] that the increase of micromobility use on shared spaces also causes several discomforts and unsafe situations for active travellers, particularly pedestrians. Hence, the interaction between active travel modes at different shared space areas emerges as an important topic to be investigated. ...
Article
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This study aims to investigate the impacts of perception of infrastructure, sociodemographic characteristics, frequency of road use, and road user perception on safety, comfort, and chaos with respect to shared spaces. The case study area was the Via Maqueda, a shared street in Palermo, Italy. A face-to-face survey was conducted and the answers of 200 of the participants, who use three active travel modes, namely, walking, cycling, and micromobility, were analysed. The results obtained from the ordered logit models suggest that one-unit higher perception of infrastructure will increase safety and comfort perceptions for both walking and cycling. Females feel less safe while walking and less comfortable while cycling at shared spaces compared to males. Increasing the age group by one unit will decrease the safety and comfort perceptions for walking. The participants who use the shared spaces more frequently perceive that they feel more comfortable with cycling. Participants, particularly males, find the shared spaces less chaotic for walking when the perception of infrastructure is higher. Regarding the micromobility use at shared spaces, females feel less comfortable compared to males while using micromobility.
... Other studies find that users view sidewalks as the least preferred space for riding e-scooters (Arellano & Fang, 2019;Christoforou, Gioldasis, de Bortoli, & Seidowsky, 2021;James et al., 2019;PBOT, 2019). When riding in the roadway, escooter riders and bicyclists are exposed to similar risks under dynamic road traffic conditions (Holder, 2019;Lazo, 2018;Sikka, Vila, Stratton, Ghassemi, & Pourmand, 2019). The increased demand from shared e-scooter ridership calls for accelerating efforts to offer e-scooter users greater physical separation and protection from traffic when placing new facilities. ...
... Regarding speed limits, riding an e-scooter on a sidewalk without regulations may result in injuries to pedestrians as well (e.g. Sikka et al., 2019). Intuitively, riding on high-speed roadways will put e-scooter riders in vulnerable situations created by vehicles. ...
Article
The impacts of shared e-scooters on modal shifts have received increased attention in recent years. This study provides a review of the literature for modal shifts in the US and other countries. The profile of shared e-scooter users is rather similar to that of station-based and free-floating bikeshare programs. The empirical data reveal that people use shared e-scooters in place of cars at substantial rates, especially in many US cities, which suggests that in many locations shared e-scooters may be a good strategy for reducing car dependence. The use of shared e-scooters as a complement to public transit varies highly by city, highlighting how technology, regulations, and incentives may be needed in some cities to ensure modal integration and harvest the potential societal benefits from the introduction of shared e-scooters.
... For instance, Degele and colleagues [33] wrote about potential users of shared moped e-scooters in Germany and were cited in a couple of academic papers focused on standing e-scooters [34,35]. Similarly, a paper on injuries associated with e-bikes and moped scooters [36] was cited in an article focusing on the impact of standing e-scooters on pedestrian safety [37]. Various attempts have been made to overcome this ambiguity by introducing new classification systems for vehicle types. ...
... Besides the riders themselves, other road users are exposed to e-scooter-related injuries. Sikka et al. [37], for example, investigated how e-scooter use affected pedestrian safety. The authors found that certain categories of pedestrians, such as children, seniors, and people with disabilities, might be more vulnerable to this new micro-mobility vehicle. ...
Article
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Shared e-scooters refer to a micro-mobility service that enables the short rentals of e-scooters. The rapid growth of e-scooter sharing has sparked a heated discussion about its role in the urban mobility sector. This article presents a systematic review of the current knowledge on its uses and users, health and environmental impacts, and policy issues. The analysis is based on academic literature, identified with Google Scholar by using keywords and publication years from 2017, and relevant gray literature. Firstly, we highlight that the profiles of e-scooter renters seem to highly match the characteristics of other micro-mobility services users. Secondly, e-scooters are often associated with a high perception of risk from the public and an increasing occurrence of related road accidents. Thirdly, even if promoted as a green mobility option, the true environmental impact of shared e-scooters has only started to be investigated. Early studies point out negative impacts around their production, usage, and maintenance. Fourthly, the integration of shared e-scooters into the existing transport systems requires policy changes, both at the local and national level, including traffic regulations, safety rules, and physical infrastructure. Finally, this paper reveals the ambiguity of the term “e-scooter” and stresses the need for more research, as the future of cities is tied to the development of low-car lifestyles.
... Therefore, the use of e-scooters in German cities is met with criticism, which is furthered by the fact that accessibility is ensured by well-developed PT, on foot and by bicycle, especially in city centers [17]. Additionally, critical scientific reports have been published on emerging land use conflicts between e-scooters and, e.g., pedestrians [18] and on traffic safety [19,20]. Safety issues and regulations are dealt with differently in different cities. ...
... In addition, city officials and e-scooter providers need to regulate e-scooter parking to facilitate easy transfers to PT without causing further conflicts with pedestrians [34]. Therefore, the redistribution of urban and road space, especially in densely populated areas with high usage pressure, would reduce conflicts among particularly vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists, and also e-scooter users) [18,19,34]. ...
Article
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Considering the controversial discussion about the sustainability and usefulness of e-scooters, in this study, we analyzed the substitution potential of e-scooters, especially with regard to car trips. Based on data from the national mobility survey in Germany (Mobility in Germany, MiD 2017), we identified trips that could be covered purely by an e-scooter. Thereby, trip length, trip purposes, weather conditions, and other influencing factors were taken into account. Our analysis showed that, in Germany, 10–15% of the motorized individual transport (MIT) trips could be made by e-scooter. Accompanied by a literature analysis, we then critically reflected on the overall potential of e-scooters and formulated recommendations for urban and transport planning.
... Bresler et al. [7] examined the patterns of the motorized scooter related injuries for riders, and pleaded requirements to develop appropriate public policies such as using helmets to mitigate injuries. Sikka et al. [8] studied the safety risks and incidence of injuries for pedestrians who shared the sidewalk with escooters. In [9], researchers summarized the potential privacy and security challenges and concerns related to e-scooters, which was helpful to both riders and service providers. ...
... When analyzing the shared e-scooter usage, most of above works only focused on a particular aspect, such as environmental impacts [4], [5], [6], injuries [7], [8], security concerns [9], and infrastructure organization [10], [11], [12]. In this paper, we harvested millions of tweets covering 18 months to provide a comprehensive understanding of shared e-scooters. ...
... 12 Since then, research has shown a pattern of significant injuries directly related to e-scooter use, which is increasingly recognised in the literature. 2,11,[13][14][15] The disproportionate numbers of injuries and incidents involving e-scooters on evenings and weekends have been associated with recreational riding involving alcohol and high speeds. 16 Recent research has shown that 28% of e-scooter accidents involved people who were under the influence of alcohol. ...
Article
Objective: To investigate patients presenting to EDs following the recent introduction of a shared electric scooter (e-scooter) scheme in Northern Territory (NT). Methods: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study in Darwin, a regional city in NT, Australia with a population of approximately 150 000. Any patient who disclosed involvement of an e-scooter in the reason for their presentation to the ED was included. A descriptive analysis was derived for age, sex, triage time, alcohol level, injury type and the requirement of operating theatre, inpatient stay or ED discharge. Categorical variables were analysed using χ2 -tests, with odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P-values reported. Costing analysis to ED of attendances and inpatient hospital admissions was undertaken. Results: There were 111 presentations over the 8-month study period (January-September 2021). Forty-nine percent (n = 51) of patients were male and 51% (n = 54) were female. Extremity (n = 70) and craniofacial (n = 61) injuries were most common and approximately a quarter of patients (n = 24) required operative management for injuries sustained. Approximately half (n = 51) of patients were intoxicated and the average alcohol level of those tested was 0.18% (range 0.05-0.49%). The average cost per ED attendance was AU$777 and total cost of inpatient admissions being AU$352 255. All inpatient admissions were a result of injury while intoxicated. Conclusion: Harm minimisations strategies targeting implementation of alcohol testing and penalties for riders may be able to reduce the effect that the introduction of e-scooters on the strained health system in the NT.
... On the other hand, two functional factors that were constantly mentioned as negatively affecting e-MM usage were safety and lack of reliability. These two adoption barriers are based on early reports that find a clear relationship between some of these new modes (e-scooters in particular) and a higher rate of reported accidents and injuries (James et al., 2019;Sikka et al., 2019;Badeau et al., 2019;Puzio et al., 2020). Also, noteworthy is how the COVID-19 pandemic has altered this negative view of e-MM in terms of safety, as some users now may perceive e-micromobility options as safer than other options such as public transport. ...
Article
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This paper aims to identify the main sociopsychological factors that individuals perceive as affecting their intention to adopt electric (e−)micromobility. Drawing from modal choice theory, the factors are classified into functional (money, time, and other convenience values) and non-functional (emotional, social, and epistemic values). Following a PRISMA systematic literature review of 67 papers, we observed the reported influence of several functional and non-functional factors over the decision on whether to use an e-micromobility mode of transport. Results indicate that non-functional factors such as environmental concern, innovativeness, and belonging can be even more influential for individuals than traditional functional factors such as speed, cost, and time savings. Users seem to perceive these services as socially beneficial, contributing to improved livability, equity of access, and diversity of choice. The present review contributes to our understanding of the complexity of modal choice, and the importance of accounting for the sociopsychological factors influencing user decisions regarding micromobility. Our findings can help improve the strategies and policies supporting e-micromobility adoption.
... For one, the novelty of e-scooters makes them unfamiliar to many people, who are much more accustomed to sharing their space with bicycles [49]. This is compounded by the high speeds (commonly up to 25km/h) these vehicles can reach, and the nature of the injuries commonly suffered in their crashes [78,79]. Specifically, serious knee, thorax and/or head injuries are the more likely to occur in e-scooter-pedestrian crashes, the last being usually the most affected, according to hospital records [15]. ...
Article
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E-scooters have made a place for themselves on urban roads as an affordable, easy-to-use and environmentally friendly method of transportation. However, and partly because of their road behaviors and safety outcomes, e-scooter users have started to represent a focus of attention for transport planners and policymakers. Aim The present systematic review aims to target and analyze the existing studies investigating the psychosocial characteristics of e-scooter riders, focusing on their behavioral and risk- related features. Methods For this systematic review, the PRISMA methodology was used, which allows for the selec- tion of suitable papers based on the study topic, in accordance with a set of pre-defined cri- teria and a search algorithm. A total of 417 indexed articles were filtered, resulting in only 32 eligible original articles directly addressing the issue. WOS, Scopus, NCBI, Google Scholar, and APA databases were used to create and test search techniques. Results At the literature level, most of the existing studies are distributed in a few regions of the globe. At the user’s level, results show how e-scooters are most commonly used by young, highly educated, urban-dwelling males, usually for short trips. In regard to road behavior, individuals with the lowest degrees of risk perception remain more prone to engaging in risky road behaviors likely to increase their crash involvement. This might be worsened by the lack of normative e-scooter regulations (and their enforcement) in many countries, plus the marked absence of road training processes. As common limitations, it can be mentioned that 87.5% of these studies used self-report methods, while 59.4% had local coverage. Conclusions The findings of this systematic review endorse the growing need to develop and enforce traf- fic laws and training processes for e-scooter users. In addition, road safety education and training programs are highlighted by existing studies as potentially pertinent alternatives to increase risk perception, and reduce risky behaviors, road conflicts and crash likelihood among e-scooter riders.
... When analysing the overall results for the stakeholder group Consumer, the negative score regarding safety for the e-scooters stands out. This result underlines the high accident rate of e-scooters (Sikka et al. 2019;Trivedi et al. 2019;Alwani et al. 2020). Contrary to the low safety of e-scooters, S-Bahn, subway and tram show very low accident rates per passenger kilometre. ...
Article
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Purpose The main purpose of this S-LCA case study is to analyse social impacts of the use phase of mobility services is a holistic way, taking into account positive as well as negative impacts. The use phase plays an important role for the assessment of services, which is why this study exclusively focuses on the use phase assessment. That way, this study aims to contribute to answer the question whether mobility services can improve quality of life in cities. Methods For the analysis, seven different mobility options were chosen in the city of Berlin, Germany, including free-floating car sharing, e-scooter sharing, S-Bahn, subway, tram, bus and the car in private ownership. For the analysis, five stakeholder groups that are outlined in the S-LCA Guidelines (UNEP 2020) were taken into account: Local Community, Consumer, Worker, Value Chain Actors and Society. For a detailed analysis of all relevant aspects, 37 indicators were analysed, out of which 23 are quantitative and 14 are qualitative. For data collection, several different data sources were used, including publicly available data e.g. from statistics as well as own data from interviews. Results and discussion For comparability, all results are displayed on a 5-point scale from − 2 to + 2, in line with the Handbook (Goedkoop et al. 2018) and the S-LCA Guidelines (UNEP 2020). For some indicators, the results of the case study are as expected, for example regarding impacts on air quality. For other indicators, however, the results are specific for the analysed mobility services in Berlin and therefore give new insights and reveal new aspects, as for example in the case of job creation for the local community. The main challenge of this S-LCA case study was data availability and data quality, which is why assumptions and simplifications had to be made, especially regarding space occupancy and the allocation of common infrastructure. Conclusions This S-LCA case study provides a holistic assessment of the use phase of mobility services, taking into account five stakeholder categories and their respective social impacts. The study illustrates specific results for the city of Berlin, showing positive as well as negative social impacts of mobility services and outlines a procedure for further studies. That way, this case study contributes to answer the overlying question whether mobility services can improve quality of life in cities.
... Previous work reports that most e-scooter users having an accident were riding without wearing a helmet (Liew et al., 2020), and providers often promote e-scooters omitting protective gear (Allem and Majmundar, 2019). Safety issues do not only concern riders themselves but have been found to affect other traffic participants, particularly pedestrians (Sikka et al., 2019). The technology has even been criticized as following the notion of "sell first, safety later" (Choron and Sakran, 2019, p. 555). ...
Thesis
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Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht die Technologieakzeptanz neuer Instrumente, welche nachhaltiges Handeln im organisationalen und Konsumentenkontext ermöglichen und verbessern sollen. In zwei Teilen werden dazu Coworking Spaces und deren technologische Grundlagen sowie ausgewählte Phänomene des Konsumentenmarktes beleuchtet. Als zentrales Motiv im organisationalen Kontext wird die Identifikation und Nutzbarmachung materieller und immaterieller Ressourcen am Beispiel von Coworking Spaces erkannt. Diese Arbeitsplätze sollen neben einer basalen Infrastruktur vorrangig Raum für eine offene, kollaborationsorientierte Gemeinschaft bieten. Hierzu finden unterschiedliche, integrierte Technologien parallel zu architektonischen und sozialen Instrumenten Anwendung, jeweils mit überlappender Zielsetzung. Der Fokus des ersten Teils der vorliegenden Arbeit liegt auf der Klärung, welche positiven Auswirkungen die Nutzbarmachung der vorhandenen Ressourcen mittels digitaler Technologien auf die beteiligten Coworker entfalten kann. Zunächst wird gezeigt, dass Coworker vom Zugang zu solchen Ressourcen in Form von Wissen unmittelbar profitieren. Zu diesem Zweck werden so genannte Matchmaking Tools in die Coworking-Literatur eingeführt, welche Profile von Coworkern erzeugen und darauf basierend Kooperationspartner identifizieren. Matchmaking Tools können dazu dienen, die in Coworking Spaces vorhandenen Ressourcen, etwa in Form von fachlicher Expertise und beruflichen Netzwerken, sichtbar und greifbar zu machen. Sie ergänzen damit das bestehende Spektrum an kooperativen Instrumenten um einen eigenständigen Beitrag. Die empirische Analyse wird anhand einer Kombination aus Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) und Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) durchgeführt. Der zweite Teil, welcher sich mit ausgewählten Instrumenten im Konsumentenmarkt befasst, klärt die Akzeptanz nachhaltiger Alternativen in den Bereichen Mode, individuelle Mobilität und Ernährung. Allen Teilbereichen ist gemein, dass sie bedeutende Märkte bilden, zielgruppenübergreifende Relevanz aufweisen und somit großen Einfluss auf nachhaltiges Handeln entfalten. Die Märkte werden als heterogen in ihren Anforderungen und Zielsetzungen erkannt und Handlungsempfehlungen für Anbieter und politische Entscheidungsträger werden abgeleitet. In Spiegelung zum ersten Teil der Arbeit basiert die Analyse auf der methodischen Kombination von PLS-SEM, fsQCA und NCA.
... Public space use and abuse is also an important issue, with parking and the use of sidewalks being the most crucial as they may impede pedestrian movement or even create traffic conflicts leading to accidents involving vulnerable road users. The safety concerns also include the e-scooter riders themselves especially when they use mixed traffic lanes or change infrastructure while riding (Kobayashi et al., 2019;Nellamattathil and Amber, 2020;Sikka et al., 2019;Siman-Tov et al., 2017). Governments and local authorities have undertaken many actions and efforts to deal with the emergence of e-scooters and face the aforementioned challenges: (i) new legislation on rights of access, speed limitations, user restrictions (helmet use, minimal age, mobile phone, etc.); (ii) infrastructure adjustments including designated parking zones, (iii) vehicle standards and requirements (e.g. ...
Article
The emergence and growing popularity of e-scooters has created the need for researchers, policy-makers and urban planners to better understand user behaviors and travel patterns. In this paper, we examine the spatiotemporal patterns of e-scooter trips in 4 European cities: Paris, Malaga, Bordeaux, and Hamburg. We use a GPS dataset which includes position coordinates crossed with the country of registration of the user's bank card. Results suggest that riding frequencies and vehicle rotation are low and seem to be correlated. Average trip distance shows low variability and is of approximately 4.5 miles, while average trip duration is of 12 min. Tourists are major free-floating e-scooter users, ride during daytime, over longer distances, but at lower speeds. In all cities, the peak hour is observed in the afternoon (between 3 and 5 pm). Downtown, waterfront areas and availability of soft mobility infrastructure attract users. Usage is following relatively predictable patterns, especially when used for commuting.
... Recently, a study [16] on predicting demand using deep learning methods was also performed. There have been other studies suggesting ways to improve the legal system [1,8,17,18], promoting ways to enhance inclusiveness such as gender equity [19], selecting the location of battery charging systems [20], and estimating travel purpose [21]. Furthermore, a teaching concept differentiated by education level was introduced to improve the understanding of electric mobility including e-scooter [22]. ...
Article
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The shared e-scooter is a popular and user-convenient mode of transportation, owing to the free-floating manner of its service. The free-floating service has the advantage of offering pick-up and drop-off anywhere, but has the disadvantage of being unavailable at the desired time and place because it is spread across the service area. To improve the level of service, relocation strategies for shared e-scooters are needed, and it is important to predict the demand for their use within a given area. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a demand prediction model for the use of shared e-scooters. The temporal scope was selected as October 2020, when the demand for e-scooter use was the highest in 2020, and the spatial scope was selected as Seocho and Gangnam, where shared e-scooter services were first introduced and most frequently used in Seoul, Korea. The spatial unit for the analysis was set as a 200 m square grid, and the hourly demand for each grid was aggregated based on e-scooter trip data. Prior to predicting the demand, the spatial area was clustered into five communities using the community structure method. The demand prediction model was developed based on long short-term memory (LSTM) and the prediction results according to the activation function were compared. As a result, the model employing the exponential linear unit (ELU) and the hyperbolic tangent (tanh) as the activation function produced good predictions regarding peak time demands and off-peak demands, respectively. This study presents a methodology for the efficient analysis of the wider spatial area of e-scooters.
... A pedestrian injured by an electric scooter may face financial burdens due to time off from work and medical costs, and the differences in local rules make it difficult to normalize policies. So, future studies should characterize the type of pedestrian injuries in multiple places and verify which local laws would work better to finally inform policymakers in regulating micromobility modes [85]. ...
Article
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Micromobility is an increasingly attractive option, particularly over short distances. Walking, biking, and other modes of transport, such as e-scooters, are gaining popularity. Furthermore, a trend is emerging to introduce appealing items onto the market that incorporate new/more sustainable materials to improve wellbeing. Significant research questions concern the understanding of emerging research needs and the environmental, social, and economic effects of sustainability in the micromobility transport system, specifically because of developing and implementing new products, boosting the safety and comfort of ergonomic personal mobility devices (PMDs), and assuring security and privacy while digitalization arises. Such research topics can raise policymakers’ and the public’s awareness while providing impactful information for decision-makers. This paper provides a literature review of the most recent research on micromobility-related topics. It uses scientific databases, a keywords list, and defined inclusion criteria to select data, analyze content, and perform a bibliometric analysis. The findings highlight the significance of using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools together with other methodologies to aid in the evaluation of urban complexity. Finally, using a life cycle thinking (LCT) approach, we propose a framework for comprehensively integrating identified research needs.
... Similar proportions of attendees are corroborated with other work and we include the case of 60 yearold pedestrian who required a kyphoplasty for an acute vertebral compression fracture after she was hit by an E-scooter. 16,36 For non-riders as Trivedi et al. 15 reports, just over half present after being hit by an E-scooter directly and a significant amount of the remainder trip over E-scooters in the street, a particular problem with elderly pedestrian attendees as cited by Blomberg et al. 8 The patterns of injuries seen have some potential causative factors. Firstly helmet usage is widely reported as poor amongst E-scooter riders. ...
Article
Background Electric (E-)scooters have become increasingly popular as a means of environmentally friendly and convenient urban transport since 2017. Private use and now ride-sharing schemes are seen in major cities across the world. However, safety data are still lacking especially with concerning reports of significant head injuries. We describe early case series from three hospitals, including a major trauma centre, in East London and review the literature describing neurosurgical trauma from E-scooter usage. Methods Electronic health records were retrospectively searched for terms related to E-Scooters between 2018 and 2021. Eight case series were included and described. A literature search of PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE and Embase for terms ‘E-scooter or electric scooter’ was also conducted from inception to 6 March 2021. A total of 825 articles were initially reviewed. Following the removal of duplicates and those meeting the exclusion criteria, 29 articles were analysed in full and included in this review. Results All cases described a head injury of some nature with over half suffering more severe injuries including cranial fractures (most commonly basal skull) or intracerebral haemorrhages (ICH). Spinal fractures were also seen. All required imaging and admission to the hospital. Only a minority required inpatient neurosurgical intervention above conservative measures but almost all required outpatient follow-up. On review of the literature, head injuries were present in 38.8% of all presentations. The majority of which were minor head injuries or concussions; however, approximately 15% involved ICH or skull fractures, respectively. Spinal injuries were less common. Riding while intoxicated and without a helmet was frequently seen within the literature. Conclusion This work offers a foundational text highlighting the frequency and severity of neurotrauma seen with E-scooter usage. Injury is seen in E-scooter riders, passengers and pedestrians alike with dangerous riding behaviours likely contributory. A neurosurgical-specific inquiry is recommended for future research.
... Sharing economy is booming in most countries, and many manifestations of sharing economy have emerged, such as e-scooters [60], ZipCar [64], and shared bicycles [70]. Intelligent shared parking lots, as a new representative of sharing economy, are becoming popular and generate more and more social impact in recent days. ...
Article
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Shared parking lots are new types of sharing economy and generate a large social impact in our daily lives. Post-use payment is a hallmark method in the shared parking lots: it reflects trust in users and brings convenience to everyone. Accordingly, payment behavior prediction via data science technology becomes extremely important. We cooperate with a real intelligent parking platform, ThsParking, which is one of the top smart parking platforms in China, to study payment prediction, and encounter three challenges. First, we need to process a large volume of data generated every day. Second, a variety of parking related data shall be utilized to build the prediction model. Third, we need to consider the temporal characteristics of input data. In response, we propose TR-GCN, a temporal relational graph convolutional network for payment behavior prediction on shared parking lots, and we build a reminder to remind unpaid users. TR-GCN addresses the aforementioned challenges with three modules. 1) We develop an efficient data preprocessing module to extract key information from big data. 2) We build a GCN-based module with user association graphs from three different perspectives to describe the diverse hidden relations among data, including relations between user profile, temporal relations between parking patterns, and spatial relations between different parking lots. 3) We build an LSTM-based module to capture the temporal information from historical events. Experiments based on 50 real parking lots show that our TR-GCN achieves 91.2% accuracy, which is about 7% higher than the state-of-the-art and the reminder service makes more than half of the late-payment users pay, saving 1.9% loss for shared parking lots.
... For the use of e-scooters, some states impose a minimum age of 8, 12, 16 or 18, some only require the use of helmets, and others have set both a minimum age and a helmet requirement. State-specific speed limits for e-scooters range from 20 km/h (12.5 mph) to 32 km/h (20 mph) (Sikka et al., 2019). ...
Book
This report examines the traffic safety of pedal cycles, electrically assisted cycles and electrically powered personal mobility devices such as e-scooters, whether owned or shared, in an urban context. In a fast-evolving urban transport environment, micromobility is changing how people move on a daily basis. This brings new and urgent challenges for national policymakers and city officials. The report proposes a framework to define micromobility which includes all the above vehicles and suggests certain limits on mass and speed to classify them. It also compares the safety of powered standing scooters (e-scooters) to that of bicycles, mopeds and motorcycles. The report defines micromobility as the use of vehicles with a mass of less than 350 kg and a design speed of 45 km/h or less. This definition limits the kinetic energy of such micro-vehicles to 27 kJ, one hundred times less than the kinetic energy reached by a compact car at top speed. The report classifies micro-vehicles into four types based on their speed and mass: Type A micro-vehicles have a mass of up to 35 kg and their power supply (if any) is electronically limited so the vehicle speed does not exceed 25 km/h (15.5 mph). Many bicycles, e-bikes, e-scooters and self-balancing vehicles fall into this category. Other types of micro-vehicles have a higher mass (Type B) or speed (Type C) or both higher mass and higher speed (Type D). The report proposes a range of safety improvements for micromobility. These relate to vehicle design, fleet operation, infrastructure, regulatory enforcement and training. It proposes future-proof, balanced safety regulations proportional to the risks imposed. The analysis draws on the results of a workshop attended by 40 participants from 15 countries in October 2019.
... Studies have shown the large majority of e-scooter injuries and interactions between cyclists and other travelers occur off the street and do not involve motor vehicles (Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 2021) (Schleinitz et al., 2015). US cities could potentially be made safer from a federal policy delineating where e-scooter riders should travel, as local legislation does not always match those established by e-scooter companies to travel on roadways, not sidewalks (Choron and Sakran, 2019;Sikka et al., 2019). The need for a clear and consistent connection between travel guidelines and transportation infrastructure grows with the growing popularity of e-scooters, with ridership in the US having increased 123% from 2018 to 2019 (38.5 million to 86 million trips) (National Association of City Transportation Officials, 2020). ...
Article
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Cities are investing in active transportation networks, yet little is known about travel behavior of different non-vehicle modes in the presence of multiple types of transportation infrastructure. At two sites in Austin, Texas, USA, with a cycle track, sidewalk, and street in parallel, we determined where different modes traveled and the likelihood of crossing from one infrastructure to another and of using “recommended” infrastructure—defined as sidewalk for walkers, dog walkers, and runners and bike lane with traffic for cyclists, e-scooter riders, and other wheeled micromobility users. We created the Mobility Behavior Tool to conduct observations of travelers on 50-m-long, straight segments of the parallel infrastructure at sites for one-hour sampling periods (n = 16 periods) in April–May 2021. In our sample (n = 2245 individuals), we observed that 20% of travelers crossed into other infrastructure and 35.8% used not recommended infrastructure. Using binomial logistic regression, we found statistically significant odds ratios for dog walkers (3.17), cyclists (0.56), e-scooter riders (1.85), and other micromobility users (3.06) crossing into other infrastructure compared to walkers (p < 0.001), and no significant differences between runners (0.50) and walkers (p > 0.05). A second model predicted statistically significant odds ratios for dog walkers (1.74), runners (3.88), e-scooter riders (1.38), and other micromobility users (2.74) using not recommended infrastructure compared to walkers (p < 0.001), and no significant differences between cyclists (0.86) and walkers (p > 0.05). Potential reasons for differences in travel behavior by mode include levels of understanding of local regulations and situational awareness, infrastructure preferences, frequency of passing, and propensity for weaving, swerving, and subversive behavior. Municipalities should consider how infrastructure design influences travel behavior and the travel efficiency, comfort, and safety of all modes.
... In fact, crashes involving e-scooters do not have dedicated labelling in crash reports for the majority of city agencies [4]. Therefore, most research is based on hospital records and visits to emergency departments [6][7][8][9][10]. Other authors have focused on massive media reports for constructing crash datasets [11], whereas only a few studies rely on police-reported crashes [12]. ...
Article
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Mobility patterns and lifestyles have changed in recent years in cities worldwide, thanks to the strong rise in modes of travel commonly referred to as micromobility. In this context, e-scooters have experienced a great rise globally which has led to an increase of crashes involving this type of micromobility vehicle in urban areas. Thus, there is a need to study e-scooter users’ behaviour and their interaction with cyclists. This research aimed at characterizing the meeting manoeuvre between micromobility users along diverse typologies of two-way bicycle track by using an instrumented e-scooter. As a result, bicycle tracks having concrete or vegetated curb presented lower clearance distance (≈0.8 m) than those without edge elements (>1 m), with no statistically significant differences found between the interaction with bicycles and e-scooters. Additionally, an online questionnaire was proposed to assess users’ perceived risk during the meeting manoeuvre, concluding that micromobility users feel safer and more comfortable riding on pavements away from parked or moving motorized traffic, and on protected bicycle tracks.
... Compared to the e-scooters' potential in clusters with average speeds of about 11 km/h, the use in congested areas can be questioned. Here, urban planning should conduct measures to weigh-up benefits of e-scooter usage against its associated problems, such as parking violations, congested bike lanes, and potential accidents with pedestrians (e.g., [47,48]). The introduction of geofences for no-parking and low-speed zones is a short-term way to regulate e-scooter use [40]. ...
Article
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This study analyzes the temporally resolved location and trip data of shared e-scooters over nine months in Berlin from one of Europe's most widespread operators. We apply time, distance, and energy consumption filters on approximately 1.25 million trips for outlier detection and trip categorization. Using temporally and spatially resolved trip pattern analyses, we investigate how the built environment and land use affect e-scooter trips. Further, we apply a density-based clustering algorithm to examine point of interest-specific patterns in trip generation. Our results suggest that e-scooter usage has point of interest related characteristics. Temporal peaks in e-scooter usage differ by point of interest category and indicate work-related trips at public transport stations. We prove these characteristic patterns with the statistical metric of cosine similarity. Considering average cluster velocities, we observe limited time-saving potential of e-scooter trips in congested areas near the city center.
... Similarly, Gössling, (2020) used local media reports from ten major cities to investigate the challenges associated with the introduction of these dockless vehicles; the author emphasized the need to introduce new policies related to maximum speeds, the mandatory use of bike infrastructure, the need for designated parking in service areas, and restricting the number of licensed operators. Additionally, many studies have examined safety concerns (Allem and Majmundar, 2019;Badeau et al., 2019;Bresler et al., 2019;Sikka et al., 2019;Siman-Tov et al., 2017;Trivedi et al., 2019). Other research focused on the impact of dockless micromobility vehicles and safety concerns from the pedestrian perspective (James et al., 2019;Maiti et al., 2019) as often dockless e-scooters are parked improperly on sidewalks obstructing the pedestrian right of way. ...
Article
To enhance the effectiveness of dockless shared micromobility vehicle services, address challenges created by these services, and achieve better implementation performance, cities need efficacious strategies to tackle two major challenges: parking demand and infrastructure improvements. This paper offers two techniques for analyzing areas of high parking demand and roadway segments of high micromobility vehicle demand. The proposed processes support efforts to assign free-floating parking and reduce vehicle clutter across cities, and assist transportation planners in identifying locations for road infrastructure improvement and ordinance enforcement. An unsupervised learning approach using vendor launching site analysis is used to appropriately locate dockless vehicle parking zones. Furthermore, this paper compares three methods for identifying high-demand corridors. Two shortest path models are generated to predict trip paths for trip data without trajectories, considering rider route preferences and infrastructure types. A Simplified Matching Heuristic (SMH) that uses trip data with trajectories, is developed herein to match trip trajectory data to the network street links. These analytical processes are applied in a case study of Dallas, TX. Results show that methods using shortest path models may poorly predict the actual path taken by e-scooter users. A discussion of policy implications for micromobility planning and management and potential environmental impacts of emerging transportation technologies are also presented.
... Moreover, fights or robberies may also be characterized by sudden strong motions. Some other examples may include riding bikes or vehicles on pedestrian sidewalks, overspeeding vehicles, etc. [2,36,27]. Therefore, we hypothesize that most of the anomalous events can be characterized by the motion depicted. ...
Conference Paper
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Due to the limited availability of anomaly examples, video anomaly detection is often seen as one-class classification (OCC) problem. A popular way to tackle this problem is by utilizing an autoencoder (AE) trained only on normal data. At test time, the AE is then expected to reconstruct the normal input well while reconstructing the anomalies poorly. However, several studies show that, even with normal data only training, AEs can often start reconstructing anomalies as well which depletes their anomaly detection performance. To mitigate this, we propose a temporal pseudo anomaly synthesizer that generates fake-anomalies using only normal data. An AE is then trained to maximize the reconstruction loss on pseudo anomalies while minimizing this loss on normal data. This way, the AE is encouraged to produce distinguishable reconstructions for normal and anomalous frames. Extensive experiments and analysis on three challenging video anomaly datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach to improve the basic AEs in achieving superiority against several existing state-of-the-art models.
... There is a growing body of conceptual and review papers on different aspects of e-scooters and factors associated with their trips. These include studies on vehicle development, including battery life and recharge [9], optimization [10], life cycle assessment [11], vehicle dynamics [12], business model development [13], service loyalty [14], economic models [15], policy and regulation [16], shared space management [17], safety [18], environmental impact [19], parking analysis [20], geofences [21], e-scooter injuries [22], and COVID-19 [23]. While aspects such as infrastructure and commercialization are important, gaining a deep understanding of mobility behavior related to e-scooters plays a pivotal role in the ongoing transition of urban mobility systems worldwide [24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of micromobility services in the form of dockless shared e-scooters has resulted in a wide range of behavioral changes in urban environments. In order to effectively steer these changes towards sustainability targets, the characteristics of e-scooter trips and users’ behaviors should be understood further. However, there is a lack of systematic literature reviews in this domain. To address this gap, we provide a two-fold systematic literature review. The first aspect focuses on the categorization of temporal and spatial patterns of shared e-scooter usage. The second aspect focuses on a deeper understanding of e-scooter users’ behaviors, utilizing the principles of persona design. The analysis of temporal patterns highlights the commonality of midday, evening, and weekend peak usage across cities, while spatial patterns suggest e-scooters are used for traveling to recreational and educational land use, as well as city center areas. The synthesis of findings on users’ behaviors has resulted in six categories, with four user types based on usage frequency (one time, casual, power, and non-adopters), and two motivation-based personas (users who are not satisfied with current mobility options and users who have had positive travel experience from e-scooter usage). The overall findings provide important lessons for evaluating this emerging mobility service, which should be considered for steering its development in public-private stakeholder networks.
... Moreover, fights or robberies may also be characterized by sudden strong motions. Some other examples may include riding bikes or vehicles on pedestrian sidewalks, overspeeding vehicles, etc. [2,36,27]. Therefore, we hypothesize that most of the anomalous events can be characterized by the motion depicted. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Due to the limited availability of anomaly examples, video anomaly detection is often seen as one-class classification (OCC) problem. A popular way to tackle this problem is by utilizing an autoencoder (AE) trained only on normal data. At test time, the AE is then expected to reconstruct the normal input well while reconstructing the anomalies poorly. However, several studies show that, even with normal data only training, AEs can often start reconstructing anomalies as well which depletes their anomaly detection performance. To mitigate this, we propose a temporal pseudo anomaly synthesizer that generates fake-anomalies using only normal data. An AE is then trained to maximize the reconstruction loss on pseudo anomalies while minimizing this loss on normal data. This way, the AE is encouraged to produce distinguishable reconstructions for normal and anomalous frames. Extensive experiments and analysis on three challenging video anomaly datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach to improve the basic AEs in achieving superiority against several existing state-of-the-art models.
... There is widespread public concern but little published research about the risks that e-scooters pose to pedestrian from collisions or tripping over e-scooters left on sidewalks (see Sikka et al., 2019). The percentage of e-scooter-related injuries involving pedestrians has ranged from 1% (Austin Public Health, 2019; Portland Bureau of Transportation, 2019) to 8% (Trivedi et al., 2019) in US studies. ...
Article
Shared electric scooter (e-scooter) schemes debuted in US cities in 2017 and have spread to many cities worldwide. Rider inexperience and the inexperience of other road users in interacting with e-scooters may be contributing to injuries. Shared e-scooters came to Brisbane, Australia, in November 2018 and our observational study in February 2019 found a high level of non-compliance with regulations by riders of shared, but not private, e-scooters. This paper examines whether e-scooter safety improved over time by comparing the numbers and behaviors of shared and private e-scooter riders with a follow-up observational study conducted in October 2019. Riders of e-scooters (and bicycles) were counted at six sites in inner-city Brisbane by trained observers over four weekdays. Type of e-scooter (private, Lime, Neuron), helmet use, gender, age group, riding location, time of day and presence of passengers were recorded. The number of shared e-scooters observed dropped from 711 in February to 495 in October but the number of private e-scooters increased from 90 to 269, resulting in a slight reduction in the total number of e-scooters. The correct helmet wearing rate increased non-significantly from 61.4% to 66.8% for shared e-scooters and remained high for riders of private e-scooters (95.5% in February and 94.3% in October). The percentage of e-scooters ridden on the road (which is illegal in central Brisbane) remained roughly the same (shared: 6.6% in February, 4.2% in October; private: 4.5% in February, 4.9% in October). The percentage of children and adolescents (illegally) riding shared e-scooters fell from 10.3% to 6.7%. The prevalence of any of these illegal behaviors among shared e-scooter riders fell significantly for shared e-scooter riders from 49.6% to 39.1% while the prevalence of illegal behaviors by other riders remained lower and did not change. The reduction in illegal behavior among shared e-scooter riders accompanied by the tripling of usage of private e-scooters suggests that e-scooter safety is likely to have improved.
... It is also necessary to reduce the chances of injury in scooter accidents with pedestrians so that the maximum speed of e-scooters does not exceed 10 km per hour. Sikka et al. (2019) also confirmed that children and the elderly are most at risk of e-scooter accidents. ...
Article
This paper evaluates a priori acceptance of shared dockless e-scooters in Iran using the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The proposed extended model includes subjective norms, hedonic motivation, and environmental awareness in the acceptance of e-scooters in addition to the original TAM constructs. Also, two open-ended questions were proposed to assess the role of control beliefs. Data were collected from an online survey of 1078 participants. Structural Equation Modeling was used to evaluate the proposed model. Besides the original TAM constructs , subjective norms were found to be the strongest predictor of intention. Environmental awareness was also a significant predictor. Results from open-ended questions revealed that most participants believed using e-scooters instead of motorcycles and private cars on short-distance trips could help the environment, and its positive effects outweigh their disadvantages. On the other hand, the lack of specific rules in their use and safety-related issues are the main barriers.
... 8,9 Some research focuses on electric scooter-related pedestrian safety, due to the growing popularity of micro-mobility vehicles. 10 Furthermore, the potential collisions between pedestrians and PTDs are understudied, although it is reasonable to hypothesize that the potential collision leads to actual collisions. Eventually, the danger of unsafe roads will discourage pedestrian activities. ...
Article
Objective To identify factors that contribute to near-miss collisions between pedestrians and personal transportation devices (PTDs) in a university campus using a novel data collection method, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Participants A total of 3,349 pedestrians and 173 PTD riders were detected through UAV observations. Methods The researchers employed UAV technology to capture and geocode the interactions and behavior of pedestrians and PTD riders. Then, a multilevel logistic regression model examined factors that contribute to near-miss collisions between pedestrians and PTDs. Results The model outputs indicate that higher speed, non-bicycle PTDs (eg, skateboard and scooter), and some preventive actions, like reducing speed, deviating, and weaving, increase the probability of a PTD rider getting involved in a near-miss collision. Conclusions Findings can guide campus planners to redesign the streets as a safe environment for all transportation modes and implement appropriate regulations and education programs, especially for non-bicycle PTD riders.
Article
Background: The popularity of electric scooters (e-scooters) and the shared e-scooter services as new means of transportation worldwide led to high numbers of injuries requiring emergency department (ED) visits. Private and rental e-scooters have different sizes and capabilities, offering several possible riding positions. While the rising use of e-scooters and their associated injuries have been reported, little is known about the influence of riding position on injury characteristics. The purpose of this study was to characterize e-scooter riding positions and their related injuries. Methods: E-scooters related ED admissions were retrospectively collected between June 2020 and October 2020, in a level-I trauma center. Demographics, ED presentation data, injury information, e-scooter design, and clinical course were collected and compared according to e-scooter riding position (“foot-behind-foot” vs ”side-by-side“). Results: During the study period, 158 patients were admitted to the ED with e-scooter related injuries. The majority of riders used the foot-behind-foot position (n = 112, 71.3 %) compared to the side-by-side position (n = 45, 28.7 %). Orthopedic fractures were the most common injuries (n = 78, 49.7 %). ”Foot-behind-foot“ group had a significantly higher fracture rate compared to ”side-by-side“ group (54.4 % vs 37.8 % within group, respectively; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Riding position is associated with different injury types, with orthopedic fracture rates significantly higher in the more commonly used “foot-behind-foot” riding position. Practical Application: These study findings suggest that the common e-scooter narrow-based design is considerably more dangerous, calling for further research to introduce safer e-scooter designs and update recommendations for safer riding positions.
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Safe mobility is a prerequisite in the paradigm shift toward sustainable cities and societies. Yet, the serious safety concerns associated with the practice of emerging modes such as electric scooters (e-scooters) are a major challenge for a smooth adoption of these transport modes. We have systematically reviewed peer-reviewed e-scooter safety papers with a primary focus on transport and a secondary focus on medical research domains. Our findings suggest a dire need for analysing interactions of e-scooters with other road users, and, subsequently, adopting surrogate safety measures for e-scooters. Also, it is determined that head and face injuries are the most common injury types for e-scooter riders involved in collisions. The absence of uniform regulations for the practice of e-scooters could potentially affect their safe adoption. The findings highlight the importance of providing uniform regulations for safety gears as well as the prevention of riding under the influence.
Article
In Germany, police reports published via press are neither uniformly written nor accessible to the public. There is a lack of comprehensive and factual data-based analyses of e-scooter crashes and their causes. We collected 1936 crash-related reports over two years via the German press portal based on a systematic web content mining process. Sentiment analysis results revealed that the police reports’ coverage is predominantly factual and neutral and, therefore, useful for keyword-based analyses. After identifying the 46 most relevant keywords in the reports, we generated an adjacency matrix to investigate the keywords’ dependencies, visualized the network and dependencies of the most relevant keywords, and categorized them into four thematic clusters using the Louvain algorithm. Our results and findings reveal that driving under drug influence, especially alcohol, is one serious problem. Riding e-scooter in pairs and on forbidden terrain or in the wrong direction are also common causes of crashes. Consequences for e-scooter riders are severe injuries, driving license revocation, fines, criminal charges, and incurring for property damage. Further, wearing protective gear and helmets is of low acceptance among the e-scooter ridership. Based on our results and findings, we recommend e-scooter bans during the night times for some locations, obligatory driving tests before first e-scooter use, and helmet wearing.
Article
This study explores travelers’ preference for shared micromobility in the context of last-mile travel from shared parking lots to their final destination in the city center. Based on the results of the stated preference experiment and error component logit model incorporating latent variables, we found that the preference for shared micromobility is affected by the uncertainty of availability as well as both travel time and fare. More specifically, our alternative-specific part-worth utility approach shows that their marginal effects are non-linear, and this suggests several policy implications. Also, we found that there is a significant substitution between shared micromobility modes. Furthermore, various latent perspectives, including safety and management concerns of shared micromobility, have significant impacts on the preference.
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A coleção de trabalhos intitulada “Entre Ciencia e Ingenieria 3” é uma obra que tem como foco principal a discussão científica por intermédio de diversos trabalhos que compõe seus capítulos. O volume abordará de forma categorizada e interdisciplinar, pesquisas cujos resultados possam auxiliar na tomada de decisão, tanto no campo acadêmico, quanto no profissional. Nos capítulos apresentados, são encontrados estudos de grande valia nas áreas da simulação computacional, materias, gestão energética, aspectos industriais, estudos ambientais, na área da educação e otimização. A composição dos temas buscou a proposta de fundamentar o conhecimento de acadêmicos (as), mestres (as) e todos (as) aqueles (as) que de alguma forma se interessam pela área da Engenharia, através de temáticas atuais com resoluções inovadoras, descritas nos capítulos da coleção. Sendo assim, a divulgação científica é apresentada com grande importância para o desenvolvimento de toda uma nação, portanto, fica evidenciada a responsabilidade de transmissão dos saberes através de plataformas consolidadas e confiáveis, como a Atena Editora, capaz de oferecer uma maior segurança para os novos pesquisadores e os que já atuam nas diferentes áreas de pesquisa, exporem e divulgarem seus resultados.
Article
Micromobility systems became very popular in Turkey as well as in many parts of the world in recent years. The main reasons for the increase in the popularity of micromobility systems are the increasing vehicle sharing systems, being an economical alternative especially in short distances defined as the last kilometer or last mile, being adversely affected by traffic jams at the lowest level and the perception of these systems being environmentally friendly. However, the extent to which these thoughts or perceptions reflect reality is an issue that should be carefully considered. Micromobility systems are modes of transportation that have become very popular, largely among youngsters as they have an enjoyable use. However, ther are alternatives that have low security, can not offer solutions to traffic jams, and have adverse effects on the environment, contrary to the general public perception. However, they offer an important and positive transportation alternative when used as a complementary mode of transportation in the last kilometer instead of motor vehicles. On the other hand, comprehensive studies such as social benefit/cost analyzes should be carried out to determine the effectiveness of micromobility systems, and important legal regulations should be made regarding the use of these systems.
Article
Dockless e-scooters were used for 86 million trips in the United States in 2019, indicating great potential as a new transportation mode in U.S. cities and on university campuses. Yet, little is known about how e-scooter users interact with people walking, bicycling, and driving. Although several studies have examined e-scooter injuries reported in hospital data, transportation-related near misses are chronically understudied in general, and even more so for this newer mode of transportation. In this paper we present the results of an online survey of 1,256 university staff (22% response rate) in Tempe, AZ. Using a single population, we compared the prevalence of self-reported incidents and injuries among those who use e-scooters, walk, and bicycle. Our results indicated a higher percentage of respondents reported incidents associated with walking (25%) than e-scooting (11%) or bicycling (9%), but e-scooter users were the most likely to report incidents resulting in a crash. E-scooter users were also more likely to report issues related to pavement, equipment, or losing control, whereas people walking and bicycling were more likely to report conflicts with other roadway users. Our findings suggest important areas for policy and infrastructure innovation, including prioritizing separate space for e-scooters to mitigate conflicts with pedestrians, and continuing to evolve rider training and speed governance to help keep e-scooter users safe. Other findings underscore the importance of measuring near misses to develop a comprehensive picture of transportation safety.
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Background: The actual number of accidents in e‑scooter drivers in Germany seems to be significantly higher than the current figures from the Statistisches Bundesamt suggest. This epidemiological study examines e‑scooter injuries and compares them with e‑bike and bicycle injuries. Objective: In order to create a comparable database on the dangers of e‑scooters, e‑bikes and bicycles, the typical injury patterns were analyzed and prevention options derived from them. Material and methods: All accidents involving e‑scooters, e‑bikes and bicycles that were presented via the university emergency room of a level 1 trauma center between 15 June 2019 and 31 October 2020 were prospectively investigated. Results: In our study, 68 accidents in e‑scooter drivers were included, of which only 11.8% (n = 8) were recorded by the police. Significantly more of them were male than female (p = 0.032) with a mean age of 31.1 (±13) years. At the same time, we registered 34 accidents in e‑bike riders and 356 in cyclists. In all three groups, most injuries occurred to the head, followed by injuries to the upper extremities. Significantly more e‑scooter drivers had an ISS ≥ 16 than in the group of injured cyclists (p = 0.016). E‑scooter riders who had an accident had a significantly longer length of stay in hospital, than e‑bike riders (p = 0.003) and cyclists (p = 0.001), 52.9% (n = 18) of e‑bike riders and 53.3% (n = 113) cyclists wore a helmet, compared to only 1.5% (n = 1) of e‑scooter riders. The most common cause of accidents among e‑bike riders (17.7%; n = 6) and cyclists (10.4%; n = 37) was slipping away on tram rails, while for e‑scooter riders it was colliding with a curb (7.4%; n = 5). Conclusion: The three patient collectives examined showed different causes and profiles of injuries. The reasons for an increased proportion of seriously injured people compared to cyclists are electromobility, driving under the influence of alcohol and inadequate wearing of a helmet on e‑scooters when head injuries dominate. 73.5% (n = 50) of the e‑scooter accidents recorded by us were not registered by the police and therefore do not appear in the current statistics of the statistisches Bundesamt. As a result, a much higher number of e‑scooter accidents can be assumed. Preventive measures could include the introduction of compulsory helmets, a higher number of traffic controls and the expansion of bike tracks.
Article
Shared electric scooters (e-scooter) are booming across the world and widely regarded as a sustainable mobility service. An increasing number of studies have investigated the e-scooter trip patterns, safety risks, and environmental impacts, but few considered the energy efficiency of e-scooters. In this research, we collected the operational data of e-scooters from a major provider in Gothenburg to shed light on the energy efficiency performance of e-scooters in real cases. We first develop a multiple logarithmic regression model to examine the energy consumption of single trips and influencing factors. With the regression model, a Monte Carlo simulation framework is proposed to estimate the fleet energy consumption in various scenarios, taking into account both trip-related energy usage and energy loss in idle status. The results indicate that 40% of e-scooter battery energy was wasted in idle status in the current practice, mainly due to the relatively low usage rate (0.83) of e-scooters. If the average usage rate drops below 0.5, the wasted energy could reach up to 53%. In the end, we present a field example to showcase how to optimally integrate public transport with e-scooters from the perspective of energy efficiency. We hope the findings of this study could help understand and resolve the current and future challenges regarding the ever-growing e-scooter services.
Article
Since august 2018 electric scooters (e-scooters) are available in selected cities in Sweden, operated by several different operators. There is a growing concern regarding their safety as they grow in popularity. The aim with this study was to investigate injuries associated with e-scooters in Sweden and to identify accident characteristics. In addition, the aim was to observe how different data collection procedures and samples may influence the results. Two complementary data sets were used; insurance data including all reported injuries to Folksam Insurance Group during the period January 2019 to May 2020 and the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition database (STRADA), the national system for road traffic injury data collection, was used to study accident related to e-scooter use in the Stockholm city area between May and the end of August 2019. Most of the injuries associated with e-scooters occurred in single crashes, but in 13% of the accidents another road user was injured, either due to interactions with e-scooters or due to a parked e-scooter being a hazard. In both data sets more than half of the accidents occurred during weekends. In total 46% of all who had visited an emergency department the accident occurred during night-time (10 pm to 6 am). The overall large proportion of injuries to the head and face indicates the need for actions aimed to increase helmet use among e-scooter riders. Local authorities should take a wider responsibility since one third of all accidents primarily occurred due to lack of maintenance or that the rider hit a curb stone. In comparison to hospital data, insurance claims include riders with all types of injuries irrespectively what type of healthcare the rider was seeking. Hence, to better understand the consequences and to make the right decisions regarding countermeasures aimed to improve the safety of e-scooter riding, data from different data source are needed.
Article
With the mass introduction of shared, dockless electric scooter (e-scooter) programs, many cities are struggling to understand injury implications. This article systematically documents what is known about e-scooter injuries using emergency department (ED) studies; it also provides recommendations to better understand the health and safety risks of this emerging mode. A systematic review was performed for all e-scooter articles through November 2019, retaining injury-related articles. In the case where surveillance data and exposure data were available, injury rates were explored. A total of 18 articles were identified, including: five that used surveillance data methods; seven examining all e-scooter injuries from one to three hospitals; and six examining a medically specific subset of those injured. Variations in the reporting structure of data make pooling difficult, but some trends are emerging. Three surveillance studies report an injury rate of 20–25 ED visits per 100,000 trips. Those injured rarely wear helmets, resulting in a high proportion of head injuries. Extremity injuries, including fractures, are also widespread. The profile of the injured appears to be a 30-year-old male. However, once normalized by exposure data, female, young, and older riders may be at higher risk of injury. Comparisons with other modes remain unclear; this is as much a challenge of the exposure data for the other modes as information on e-scooters. Assumptions about comparisons with bicyclists should be more thoroughly examined. Data harmonization and collaboration between vendors, municipalities, and public health departments would improve the quality of data and resulting knowledge about e-scooter safety risk.
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Importance Since September 2017, standing electric scooters have proliferated rapidly as an inexpensive, easy mode of transportation. Although there are regulations for safe riding established by both electric scooter companies and local governments, public common use practices and the incidence and types of injuries associated with these standing electric scooters are unknown. Objective To characterize injuries associated with standing electric scooter use, the clinical outcomes of injured patients, and common use practices in the first US metropolitan area to experience adoption of this technology. Design, Setting, and Participants This study of a case series used retrospective cohort medical record review of all patients presenting with injuries associated with standing electric scooter use between September 1, 2017, and August 31, 2018, at 2 urban emergency departments associated with an academic medical center in Southern California. All electric scooter riders at selected public intersections in the community surrounding the 2 hospitals were also observed during a 7-hour observation period in September 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures Incidence and characteristics of injuries and observation of riders’ common use practices. Results Two hundred forty-nine patients (145 [58.2%] male; mean [SD] age, 33.7 [15.3] years) presented to the emergency department with injuries associated with standing electric scooter use during the study period. Two hundred twenty-eight (91.6%) were injured as riders and 21 (8.4%) as nonriders. Twenty-seven patients were younger than 18 years (10.8%). Ten riders (4.4%) were documented as having worn a helmet, and 12 patients (4.8%) had either a blood alcohol level greater than 0.05% or were perceived to be intoxicated by a physician. Frequent injuries included fractures (79 [31.7%]), head injury (100 [40.2%]), and contusions, sprains, and lacerations without fracture or head injury (69 [27.7%]). The majority of patients (234 [94.0%]) were discharged home from the emergency department; of the 15 admitted patients, 2 had severe injuries and were admitted to the intensive care unit. Among 193 observed electric scooter riders in the local community in September 2018, 182 (94.3%) were not wearing a helmet. Conclusions and Relevance Injuries associated with standing electric scooter use are a new phenomenon and vary in severity. In this study, helmet use was low and a significant subset of injuries occurred in patients younger than 18 years, the minimum age permitted by private scooter company regulations. These findings may inform public policy regarding standing electric scooter use.
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Objective- To describe demographic and injury characteristics of hospitalized injured patients involved in E-bike and M-scooter accidents at a national level in Israel divided to different road users; riders and pedestrians. Methods - A retrospective study based on data from the National Trauma Registry, between 1.1.2013 and 31.12.2015. All hospitalized casualties due to the involvement of an E-bike or M-scooter were included. The type of hospitalized road user was further categorized and described by different variables. Conclusions- E-bike and M-scooter riders represent the majority of patients hospitalized due to related traffic incident. This finding questions the social and the economic advantages of electric-powered two-wheeled vehicles.
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In Europe, the use of electric bicycles is rapidly increasing. This trend raises important safety concerns: Is their use compatible with existing infrastructure and regulations? Do they present novel safety issues? How do they impact other traffic? This study sought to address these concerns, using instrumented electric bicycles to monitor e-cyclists’ behavior in a naturalistic fashion. Data was collected from 12 bicyclists, each of whom rode an instrumented bicycle for two weeks. In total, 1500 km worth of data were collected, including 88 critical events (crashes and near-crashes). Analysis of these critical events identified pedestrians, light vehicles and other bicycles as main threats to a safe ride. Other factors also contributed to crash causation, such as being in proximity to a crossing or encountering a vehicle parked in the bicycle lane. A comparison between electric and traditional bicycles was enabled by the availability of data from a previous study a year earlier, which collected naturalistic cycling data from traditional bicycles using the same instrumentation as in this study. Electric bicycles were found to be ridden faster, on average, than traditional bicycles, in addition to interacting differently with other road users. The results presented in this study also suggest that countermeasures to bicycle crashes should be different for electric and traditional bicycles. Finally, increasing electric bicycle conspicuity appears to be the easiest, most obvious way to increase their safety.
Article
Background: The Segway® Personal Transporter™ (SPT) is used widely as a means of transport for city sightseeing tours, law enforcement, and professionals working in large facilities and factories. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature to assess SPT-related injuries. Following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines, we queried PubMed from 1990 to 2017. The search terms Segway, personal transporter, and injury were used. Only English-language studies were included. Data were extracted from each article, specifically the sample size, study setting, and design, as well as the prevalence of specific injuries. Results: A total of six articles were included that included data on 135 patients. Sample size per study varied from 1 to 41 patients. Studies occurred in both the emergency department and inpatient settings, including medical-surgical wards, and intensive care units. The most commonly reported injuries were orthopedic cases (n = 45), maxillofacial cases (n = 13), neurologic cases (n = 8), and thoracic cases (n = 10). Conclusions: The SPT is an innovative transportation method; however, its use is associated with a wide range of injuries. Many of these injuries require hospital admission and surgical intervention, incurring significant morbidity and high costs.
Article
Background: The acceptance and usage of electric bicycles has rapidly increased in Switzerland in the last years. Hence this topic has been addressed by policy makers with the aim to facilitate new transport modes and, moreover, to improve their safety. Methods: Police-recorded accidents of the years 2011 and 2012 involving a total of 504 e-bikers and 871 bicyclists were analysed. National figures were compared with those of a rural and an urban environment. Results: Most e-bikers who were involved in accidents were 40-65 years old. It was found that most e-bikers sustained single accidents and that helmet usage was higher in the investigated rural environment than in the investigated urban area. The evaluation of the injury severity of e-bikers, particularly compared to bicyclists, lead to diverging results. Conclusions: The findings presented in this study are intended to serve as a benchmark since basic information on characteristics of e-bike accidents is provided. With respect to differences between the injury severity of e-bikers and bicyclists to-date no clear statement can be drawn. It is suggested to regularly evaluate e-bike accidents to show trends and/or identify changes.
Article
We describe a case series of emergency department (ED) visits for injuries related to the Segway® personal transporter. This was a retrospective case review using a free-text search feature of an electronic ED medical record to identify patients arriving April 2005 through November 2008. Data were hand extracted from the record, and further information on admitted patients was obtained from the hospital trauma registry. Forty-one cases were included. The median age was 50 years, and 30 patients (73.2%) were women. Twenty-nine (70.7%) of the patients resided outside the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia, and 32 (78.1%) arrived between June and September. Seven (17.1%) patients had documented helmet use. Ten (24.4%) were admitted. Four patients (40% of admitted patients) required admission to the ICU. The severity of trauma in this case series of patients injured by the use of the self-balancing personal transporter is significant. Further investigation into the risks of use, as well as the optimal length and type of training or practice, is warranted. A distinct E-code and Consumer Product Safety Commission's product code is needed to enable further investigation of injury risks for this mode of transportation.
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