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TrAM -Transport: Advanced and Modular

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Europe has taken a leading role in the international effort for a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Transport systems play a crucial role in this effort and the competition among the various transportation modes for the shrinkage of their environmental footprint, is mounting. Maintaining its focus on sustainability, Europe is seeking to produce transport solutions with a cost effective and environmentally friendly life cycle, integrated in its smart cities. This is what the H2020 funded project "TrAM-Transport: Advanced and Modular" aims to offer (https://tramproject.eu/). It is validating a concept for waterborne transport by implementing state-of-the-art "Industry 4.0" holistic ship design and production methods, for fully electrical vessels, operating at reasonably high speed in the vicinity of urban areas. The project will lead to significant lower construction costs and reduction in engineering hours for new zero emission fast vessels. Three different catamarans will be designed by implementing the developed methods, while one of them will be undergoing detailed design and physical model testing, prior to its construction and start of operation in Stavanger/Norway before the end of the TrAM project in 2022. The paper outlines the objectives, first R&D outcomes and the main challenges of the project.
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Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, April 27-30, 2020, Helsinki, Finland
TrAM Transport: Advanced and Modular
Evangelos Boulougourisa*, Alexandros Priftisa, Mikal Dahleb, Edmund Toloc,
Apostolos Papanikolaoud, Yan Xing-Kaedingd, Christoph Jürgenhakee, Thomas
Svendsenf, Morten Bjellandg, Aphrodite Kanellopoulouh, Geoff Symondsi, Torleif
Stokkej, Patrick Bollaertk, Marie Launesl
aUniversity of Strathclyde, Richmond Street 16, Glasgow G1 1XQ, United Kingdom
bKolumbus, Jernbaneveien 9, NO-4005 Stavanger, Norway
cFjellstrand yard, Omavegen 225, NO-5632 Omastrand, Norway
dHamburg Ship Model Basin, Bramfelder Str. 164, Hamburg D-22305, Germany
eFraunhofer IEM, Hansastradde 27C, Munchen 80686, Germany
fHydro, Metallvägen, Vetlanda 574 81, Sweden
gLeirvik, Storhaugvegen 130, NO-5416 Stord, Norway
hNational Technical University of Athens, Heroon Polytechniou 9, Athens 15773, Greece
iMBNA Thames Clippers, The Studio, The O2, London SE10 0DX, United Kingdom
jServogear, Brubakken 73, NO-5420 Rubbestadneset, Norway
kDe Vlaamse Waterweg nv, Oosdijk 110, Willeborek 2830, Belgium
lNCE Maritime CleanTech, Meatjonnsvegen 74, NO-5412 Stord, Norway
Abstract
Europe has taken a leading role in the international effort for a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions. Transport systems play a crucial role in this effort and the competition among the various transportation
modes for the shrinkage of their environmental footprint, is mounting. Maintaining its focus on sustainability,
Europe is seeking to produce transport solutions with a cost effective and environmentally friendly life cycle,
integrated in its smart cities. This is what the H2020 funded project “TrAM Transport: Advanced and Modular”
aims to offer (https://tramproject.eu/). It is validating a concept for waterborne transport by implementing state-
of-the-art “Industry 4.0” holistic ship design and production methods, for fully electrical vessels, operating at
reasonably high speed in the vicinity of urban areas. The project will lead to significant lower construction costs
and reduction in engineering hours for new zero emission fast vessels. Three different catamarans will be designed
by implementing the developed methods, while one of them will be undergoing detailed design and physical model
testing, prior to its construction and start of operation in Stavanger/Norway before the end of the TrAM project in
2022. The paper outlines the objectives, first R&D outcomes and the main challenges of the project.
Keywords: Industry 4.0; modular production; holistic ship design; zero emission transport; battery electric systems;
electrically powered vessels
1.1.1. Nomenclature
TrAM Transport: Advanced and Modular
CAD Computer-aided design
* Evangelos Boulougouris. Tel.: +44 (0)141 548 3875;
E-mail address: evangelos.boulougouris@strath.ac.uk
Boulougouris et.al. / TRA2020, Helsinki, Finland, April 27-30, 2020
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CFD Computational fluid dynamics
FEA Finite element analysis
GHG Greenhouse gas
MBSE Model-based system engineering
SFI code Classification system for the maritime and offshore industry introduced by the Ship Research
Institute of Norway (SFI: Skipsteknisk Forskningsinstitutt)
2. Introduction
2.1. The challenge
The transport sector is considered as one of the main polluters globally. The challenge to create solutions for
environmentally friendly transport is reflected in public policy on a national, European and global level. There is
a joint effort to mitigate climate change and introduce sustainable solutions and this indicated in the strategic plans
on clean energy technologies implemented on means of transport, including infrastructure. The European
Commission’s 2050 Low Carbon Economy policy states that GHG emissions should be reduced to 80% below
1990 levels, done through making low carbon transition feasible and affordable (European Commission 2019a).
In the EU Maritime Transport policy, maritime transport is recognized as “a catalyst for economic development
and prosperity”, while stating we should “minimise the environmental impact” of maritime transport (European
Commission 2019b). On Sustainable Transport the Commission writes that there should be “technical innovations
and a shift towards the least polluting and most energy efficient modes of transport especially in the case of long
distance and urban travel” (European Commission 2019c). At the same time the Commission’s economic policies
states that it is important to create jobs, where lower cost through working smart will be key for the European
shipyards to remain competitive while paying high wages (European Commission 2019d). This is further in line
with UN sustainable development goals on Affordable and Clean Energy (7), Industry, Innovation and
Infrastructure (9), Sustainable Cities and Communities (11), Responsible Consumption and Production (12) and
Climate Action (13).
With regards to the maritime transport, European ship operators and city councils have already started taking
measures against the climate change. In Norway, Rogaland County Council and its ferry operator subsidiary
Kolumbus have planned their transition to zero emission waterborne transport. In the United Kingdom, Thames
Clippers, one of the river Thames ferry operators is facing increasing pressure to move to more environmentally
friendly propulsion alternatives. This needs to be accomplished with zero emission vessels without reducing their
high operational speed for keeping competitive market services. In Belgium, De Vlaamse Waterveg, a major
regulator of the country’s inland waterways, sees modular zero emission transport as the solution to regain
competitiveness on economic and environmental levels. Thus, there is a need for lower priced, environmentally
friendly ships that may operate up to high speeds, depending on the transport scenario.
2.2. The solution
The Horizon 2020 European Research project “TrAM Transport: Advanced and Modular” is a joint effort of 13
European maritime stakeholders that aims to develop and validate a concept for waterborne transport by
implementing state-of-the-art “Industry 4.0” modular design and production methods, with a main focus on
electrically powered vessels operating in protected waters (coastal areas and inland waterways). The structure of
the project starts with a set of requirements from operators, use cases, industry processes and standards. It includes
three work packages on methods development that are applied to and refined through the physically build
demonstrator of what can become the world’s first large zero emission fast ferry. The demonstrator will be an
electrically powered passenger ferry that will service a multi-stop commuter route into the city of Stavanger in
Rogaland County. The vessel will be innovative due to its modular design, all electric power system, reusability
and the employed state-of-the-art design/CAD and optimisation methods. Use of the modular production concepts
are also used on several replicators in the last phase of the project (Fig. 1).
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Fig. 1 TrAM project structure
The design for the demonstrator is being finalized in Q1 2020 and vessel build is due to start in Q3 2020.
3. The TrAM project approach
3.1. Objectives
TrAM focuses mainly on the modular design approach and the introduction of zero emission, yet reasonably fast
vessels. As far as the former objective is concerned, the development of cost-effective design and production
methods is one of the main goals of the project. TrAM aims to decrease the design and production costs for electric
vessels by applying a standardised modular approach and a deeper multi-modal integration of modules and a state-
of-the-art parametric CAD software tool. Modular design approach offers the ability to design the various system
components in such a way that they are reusable across vessel types. Such practice can lead to reductions in design
and engineering hours, whilst versatility of the vessels is assured by verifying that a list of components and methods
can be replaced after construction.
Through this project, research is carried out regarding the hydrodynamic optimisation of the hull form and use of
lightweight materials by applying “first principles” design methods. Therefore, energy consumption can be
reduced. The latter is also achieved through the introduction of new propulsion and hull solutions related to the
concept of electrically driven vessels. The complex issue involving the high-power demand of a high-speed ferry
in conjunction with the implementation of a zero-emission vessel is tackled in TrAM. The optimisation of the hull
shape for minimum power requirements and reduced wave wash, the careful weight control of structure and the
innovative technologies regarding batteries and recharging methods/plan contribute to the achievement of the
aforementioned goals.
Finally, the integration of electrically powered vessels with land side interfaces forms another goal of the project.
The introduction of smart city infrastructure will ensure co-modality with other transport modes, such as bikes or
other means of public transport, promoting eco-friendly solutions and seamless integration with transportation
services. The challenge of fast battery charging at the ferry terminal is also addressed in TrAM.
3.2. Concept and methodology
The project’s methodology is divided into three main phases; (a) the identification phase during which the
requirements and needs for the demonstration cases are set, (b) the innovation phase which includes the
development of modular design and production methods and their application to the Norwegian/Stavanger
demonstration case and (c) the replication phase, assuring that the results of the second phase are applicable to
broader cases.
TrAM is based on four major principles;
modularity
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zero emission
high speed operations
reuse and reconfiguration.
3.2.1. Modularity
At the core of the new production and design concepts to be developed in this project, are new modular design
methods derived from systems engineering. The modularity approach combines standardisation and flexibility.
Standardisation allows us to produce using the same components and interfaces, which may be used in various
applications. This lowers the cost of tasks, including responding to a tender, designing and engineering a ship,
dealing with sub-contractors, and constructing the vessel. At the same time, flexibility is needed. Hull, propulsion
and energy systems are arrangements that must be designed and configured differently depending on the
operational profile of the vessel (Fig. 2).
In recent years, there has been theoretical work on advanced modularity in the maritime industry, but the
commonly used method is a hierarchical system with one-dimensional dependencies among modules, typically
based on functional modes (e.g. the “SFI code” used in the Norwegian maritime industry). Moving to more
advanced methods, allowing better understanding of how modules fit together, the project will build on experience
from other transport industries. In the automotive industry, modular construction is mature, with very advanced
and efficient modular methods in use by world renowned car manufacturers. In our project, this experience is
brought by Fraunhofer IEM, with a long history working with Volkswagen and other car manufacturers.
Fraunhofer IEM will work with the industry partners and maritime R&D institutions to couple the SFI matrix (and
similar one-dimensional approaches), describing ship components, with more advanced engineering concepts such
as MBSE. This will give a much deeper multi-modal model of how components fit together, and simultaneously
prepare the maritime industry for future possibilities like “Industry 4.0” concepts. The project further builds on
modular production methods from the railway industry, where project partner Hydro is a major component
provider. Combining experiences and theories across domains enables the project to leapfrog development stages
and implement a modular design system for the maritime industry (Gausemeier et al. 2013, Kaiser et al. 2013).
Fig. 2 High level modules
The modular approach applied to the production methods is closely related to the ship design methodologies
applied within the project. University of Strathclyde, HSVA and National Technical University of Athens bring
their expertise on holistic ship design optimisation in TrAM to combine the newest methods from parametric ship
design with the modular production approach (Papanikolaou 2010, Papanikolaou et al. 1995, Zaraphonitis et al.
2003). The introduction of parameterisation has allowed researchers to perform optimisation studies on ship
design. Optimisation enables designers to identify preferable solutions in the design space, based on specific needs
and requirements. When many objectives are incorporated in an optimisation study, there is always a dilemma in
choosing between high fidelity tools such as CFD or FEA, which increase the required resources in computational
time and power, and empirical methods which provide less accurate results but in short time. Uncertainties and
changes in future operational requirements also need to be considered as part of the ship design process and life
cycle design optimisation. Risk-based design is applied, introducing a probabilistic approach to tackle this issue.
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Stochastic optimisation can be utilised to address the uncertainty in ship design, by creating alternative future
scenarios and assigning probability distributions respectively.
3.2.2. Zero emission high speed operations
The development of zero emission, all electric vessels for inland waterways is now an established technology, to
which the project partners have been strong contributors. For instance, Fjellstrand yard built the world’s first all-
electric car ferry “MF Ampere”. TrAM goes one step further in introducing the high-speed electric vessels, which
is a radical step ahead, disrupting the impression that an electric ship must be inherently slow due to limitations in
battery technology and recharging facilities.
It is important to demonstrate the possibility and the ability to offer a low cost, zero emission alternative for fast
ferries through application of new production methods. Electric vessels are a good fit for a modularity strategy,
since the ability of electric systems to be updated is of great importance due to the rapid technological progress.
Also, a high-speed inland ferry needs to run with low wave wash due to its potential impact on the onshore
environment, including the safety of people.
3.2.3. Reuse and reconfiguration
The project allows operators of electric powered vessels to extend their business horizon with longer term
depreciation of investments, achieved through securing the possibility to adjust and adapt the vessel's
configuration, including its energy system, to changing needs over time. Further, by implementing eco-design
principles, we maximise reuse opportunities after the vessel’s projected life cycle.
4. Stavanger demonstrator
To verify and validate the applicability of the project the partners will apply the proposed methodology and develop
a 1:1 proof of concept in terms of a demonstrator for Norway’s case. By doing so, the developed results can be
evaluated and further developed. In this way, possible corrective measures can be identified within the framework
of demonstrator development. A suitable route for the demonstrated operated by the mobility provider Kolumbus
(Rogaland County Council) has been identified. The demonstrator will be a cost-efficient transport alternative
compared to diesel operation for a up to 12 stops, 20-minute route between Stavanger and Hommersåk, operating
at a service speed of 23 knots and able to transport 147 passengers and 20 bikes. The vessel will be fully operated
by batteries and leave zero emission to air and sea.
Fig. 3 Stavanger demonstrator
4.1 Hydrodynamic Hull Form Optimisation
A two stage optimisation procedure has been applied for the hydrodynamic optimisation of the catamaran’s hull
form with respect to calm water resistance and propulsion. It consists of a global optimisation leading to optimal
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ship main dimensions/characteristics (length, draft, demihull beam, separation distance, integral hull form
characteristics) and a local hull form optimisation of mainly the ship’s stern area. The latter includes the
optimisation of the ship’s transom stern and propeller, as well as rudder and propeller shaft arrangements. Some
details of the applied procedure are outlined in the following.
4.1.1 Parametric Model of Hull Form
Both the global and local hull form optimisation are based on the development of a parametric model for the
catamaran’s hull form, allowing the systematic variation of the hull form within certain limits of the ensuing design
parameters. This parametric model of the catamaran vessel was developed by use of the CAESES® software
(Harries and Abt, 2019). CAESES® allows the use of built-in methods of parametric surface modelling and is also
used as the general process integration and design optimization environment (PIDO), utilizing the coupling
mechanisms to set up process chains for automated optimization studies. A set of four (4) design variables for the
ship’s main dimensions (length at the waterline, demihull’s beam, initial design draft and transom width), as well
as of six (6) local hull form parameters for the shape of transom and bow area were defined. Based on the specified
values of the design parameters, a grid of parametrically defined curves was created, consisting of a set of principal
curves and on a set of parametrically defined sections and diagonals. Subsequently, a series of meta-surfaces and
lofted surfaces was generated, as shown in Fig. 4. After the hull definition, a Lackenby transformation is used in
order to adjust the prismatic coefficient and the longitudinal position of the centre of buoyancy of the hull to the
specified values.
Fig. 4: Parametric hull form model of Stavanger Demonstrator by CAESES
left: Grid of Control Curves and right: Generated Lofted Surfaces
4.1.2 Global Optimisation of Main Dimensions for Minimum Resistance
In the frame of the global optimisation, the calm water resistance of the parametrically varied catamaran hull form
was calculated by use of HSVA’s 3D panel code ν-Shallo (Gatchell et al., 2000). A series of response surfaces
(surrogate models) was created in CAESES® by applying a Design-Of-Experiment (DoE) sampling procedure;
this enables the very fast and sufficiently accurate estimation of the calm water resistance for hundreds of generated
design variants. Based on this, a global optimisation was performed by the use of the NSGAII genetic algorithm
to identify the optimum combination of the main design variables for the Stavanger demonstrator, while assuming
the overall length and beam (as specified by ship’s deck arrangement) fixed. The objective of the study was to
minimize the calm water resistance of the demihulls considering the effect of wave interference between two
demihulls. As the shipbuilder and operator were interested in obtaining a hull form with superior characteristics in
a range of displacements and speeds, a multi-objective optimisation was conducted considering the resistance for
three different speeds (21, 23 and 25 knots) and three displacement volumes (Δ1 < Δ2 < Δ3), while the weighted
average of the calm water resistance was the criterion for the final selection of the globally optimised hull form.
A set of constraints was also applied, in order to verify that each feasible design alternative disposes sufficient
space for the installation of the battery racks and the fitting of a large propeller diameter in the tunnelled transom
stern area.
In Fig. 5 some representative results of these optimization studies are illustrated, noting that shown resistance data
are non-dimesionalised by a fixed reference value (confidential). Out of 1,000 generated designs, the 824 proved
feasible, whereas 176 violated the set constraints. Based on the obtained results, the overall optimum design
Boulougouris et.al. / TRA2020, Helsinki, Finland, April 27-30, 2020
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(marked with green circle) corresponds to a very slender hull form with a length at WL close to the maximum, a
demihull beam close to the set minimum and an increased draught. In addition, as can be observed from the figures,
for the lightest displacement Δ1, hull forms with the smaller beam at WL are those having lower calm water
resistance, whereas for the heavier displacement Δ3 at 25kn, hull forms with a larger beam at WL are exhibiting
lower calm water resistance values.
Fig. 5: Calm water resistance against Beam at WL at 21 knots (left) and 25knots (right)
4.1.3 Local Hull Form Optimisation
The criteria for the selection of the final design for the local hull form optimisation included next to the calm water
resistance comparative performance, issues of the easiness of hull construction and the outfitting/maintenance of
the main equipment. The local hull form optimisation focused on the propeller tunnel area, which was
mathematically captured by six design local parameters. In addition, five parameters related to the propeller
characteristics, such as propeller diameter, position and shaft inclination were included in the optimisation thus
eleven parameters in total. The Dakota Optimisation Toolkit of Sandia National Laboratories disposed in
CAESES® has been utilized. This toolkit allows excellent exploration of the multi-parametric design space by
use of proper sampling methods, such as Latin hypercube sampling, orthogonal arrays, and Box-Behnken designs.
In total nine design constraints were eventually specified, mainly for reasons of seamless fitting the propeller, its
shaft and brackets. Generated designs were evaluated by use of a RANS-QCM coupling method (Xing-Kaeding
et al. 2017), where both the HSVA in-house RANSE code FreSCo+ (Hafermann, 2007) and the propeller panel
code QCM (Chao and Streckwall, 1989) are coupled through the actuator disk method at an iterative basis to
evaluate the hydrodynamic performance at self-propulsion condition. In this procedure, the free surface, free
sinkage and trim of the catamaran are being considered as well. The numerical mesh applied has 5.3 Mil cells in
total, including a refinement around the free surface region and the propeller/ship transom stern region.
Due to the many specified design constraints, only 8 (eight) out of 1,000 generated designs proved feasible. The
identified best design with respect to the required delivered horsepower (DHP) was further fine-tuned to minimize
the risk of air suction in the propeller tunnel. For the selection of the best hull form, a range of displacements and
speeds were evaluated to assess the performance of the hull variants at various off-design conditions. Figure 6.1
shows the computed wave field of the best hull form at different speeds (21, 23, 25 and 27 knots) viewed from the
bottom, while the propeller body force disk and rudder can be also seen. The propeller is simulated via the body
force method, where the three-dimensional blade forces coming from the panel code QCM are incorporated, as
can be better observed in Fig. 6.2.
Boulougouris et.al. / TRA2020, Helsinki, Finland, April 27-30, 2020
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Fig. 6.1: Free surface deformation at 21 knots (upper left), 23 knots (upper right),
25 knots (lower left) and 27knots (lower right); view from bottom
Fig. 6.2: Wave field and propeller body force distribution at 23 knots
4.1.4 Speed Power Prediction
The calculated speed-delivered horsepower predictions for the three different displacements can be seen for the
optimised hull form in Fig. 7. Pending the verification of the obtained numerical results by physical model
experiments at HSVA’s towing tank in December 2019, it proves that the Stavanger demonstrator can achieve the
required service speed of 23 knots with the planned e-propulsion installation and battery recharging plan. Margins
for higher speeds at the light displacement seem also feasible, even more when battery weight and space
requirements are likely to decrease in the future.
Fig. 7: Numerical power-speed curve for the optimized hull at three displacements
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5. Replicators
To make sure that the production system developed in the TrAM project applies to a wide set of use cases, the
refined modularity concept will be also applied to two replicators in the last phase of the project.
5.1 London replicator
Fig. 8 London passenger ferry
This replicator, operated by project partner Thames Clippers, was chosen because it stretches the limitation of zero
emission alternatives to an inner-city operation. Compared to the Stavanger Demonstrator, this replication case
needs to more carefully take into account wave wash effects. Work on this replicator is planned for 2021 and it
may be assumed that at that time considerable improvements in battery systems will allow even greater flexibility
in design and operation.
5.2 Flanders replicator
Fig. 9 Flanders inland waterways passenger ferry
Boulougouris et.al. / TRA2020, Helsinki, Finland, April 27-30, 2020
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This replicator is run by project partner De Vlaamse Waterweg, that is in charge of the inland waterways in
Flanders. It was chosen because of unique challenges, namely developing transport systems operating with few or
no crew (autonomous), which means that a full electric energy-power system needs to be automated to the largest
extent possible.
6. Conclusions
The challenge to create environmentally friendly, marine transport solutions at low cost is reflected in public policy
on national, European and a global level. In TrAM, leading European research and industrial companies are
developing and validating a concept for waterborne transport by implementing modular design and production
methods, with main focus on electrically powered vessels operating at high speed in protected waters (coastal areas
and inland waterways). TrAM clearly moves beyond state-of-the-art in waterborne transport, with considerable
innovation potential, by developing a new design concept for modular production of vessels while at the same time
expanding the capabilities of electrically powered vessels to higher speeds of operation.
7. Acknowledgements
TrAM has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under
grant agreement No 769303. Dr. Boulougouris work was also partially supported from DNVGL and RCCL,
sponsors of the MSRC. The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not reflect the views of
DNVGL and RCCL.
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... The battery-powered catamaran ferry, which is expected to be operational in 2022-2023, will operate in a multi-stop route in the Stavanger area in Norway up to 20 h per day with each round trip including up to 12 stops upon passenger's request. This ferry is part of the TrAM project, which is funded by the European Union [30]. Two more studies were carried out in London and Belgium for the same type of vessel. ...
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This paper reviews a state-of-the-art zero emission propulsion system for a battery-powered small craft. The main aspects considered are the available propulsion systems, energy storage, and dock battery charging. This underlying activity is part of the KISS project, a research and development program in the frame of the EU-funded “Piano Operativo Regionale CALABRIA FESR-FSE 2014–2020 ASSE I–PROMOZIONEDELLA RICERCA E DELL’INNOVAZIONE”, which is aimed at designing and building a physical prototype. Its hull form is based on previous research conducted by the authors, and the powering performances were preliminarily predicted by CFD simulation. The KISS project represents a successful example of an electric small craft with performances and a mission profile comparable to competitors with conventional propulsion. Such a target has been achieved by a concurrent design that considers the hull form, engine, propulsion system, and energy storage onboard. Safety issues and the regulatory frame are also highlighted.
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Recent regulations are targeting the carbon footprint of ships and the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has set a target to reduce the GHG emissions by 50% until 2050, compared to the 2008 levels. Therefore, attention has been placed on the variety of available fuels and technologies that can be potential pathways for decarbonisation and special focus has been given to developing practical design options for the new generation ships. Shipping applications of batteries, hydrogen and ammonia powered fuel cells have a critical role to meet the IMO requirements by 2050. Hydrogen and batteries are emerging technologies that can be effective solutions, especially for short shipping routes. On the other hand, ammonia is also an attractive alternative option and with further development, it can potentially be utilised for ocean-going vessels. However, safety and risk assessments must be performed to support the endorsement of any new marine system design. Therefore, this work aims to guide safe and practical design solutions that can comply with the decarbonising regulatory framework. Therefore, a qualitative Hazard Identification (HAZID) approach was conducted for potential solutions with hydrogen, battery and ammonia and guidance for potential safe designs were proposed. Considering the lack of past accident statistics due to the novelty of applications, the HAZID results were discussed with experts. Hydrogen is usually stored in liquefied form in double-walled super-insulated tanks to reduce the risk of large accumulations of gas in the air, in case of potential leakage, which can induce fire (4-75% gas concentrations in the air) or explosion risks (18-59% gas concentrations in the air). Fuel cells, which produce the electricity required, should be placed within gastight enclosures in a well-ventilated space with redundant hydrogen or ammonia detection systems. Batteries use stored energy to produce electric energy, however, their use is associated with high fire risk. They are placed in battery holds/compartments in which fire doors and effective firefighting systems are mandatory to prevent the escalation of fire in adjacent places and reduce the fire duration respectively. Leakage in the fuel cell room due to pipe damage and fire in the battery room was considered the most severe hazards for hydrogen and battery version respectively. On the other hand, ammonia is considered as a low reactive gas and explosion should be a concern of only enclosed spaces at concentrations close to the stoichiometry. However, ammonia is a highly toxic gas and in high concentration, it can even be even fatal. Therefore, one of the main hazards for ammonia is the ammonia leakage from different parts of the system that can lead to injuries or fatalities to the crew due to the high toxicity of ammonia. This can be prevented with various measures, among which are sufficient ventilation and identification of hazardous zones. Overall, all the designs seem feasible in terms of safety provided that proper safety measures are considered. Redundancy of equipment and proper arrangement of safety valves, ventilation and detection systems as well as firefighting protection are amongst the most effective risk control options to mitigate the hazards.
Conference Paper
The paper describes the implementation of state-of-the-art “Industry 4.0” methods and tools, a holistic ship design optimization and modular production methods, as well as advanced battery technologies to enable a fully electrical, fast zero-emission waterborne urban transport. The design of a fast catamaran passenger ferry demonstrator planned for operation as a waterborne shuttle in the Stavanger/Norway area and of a replicator for operation at Thames River/London are elaborated, including infrastructural issues for their operation. The presented research is in the frame of the H2020 funded project “TrAM – Transport: Advanced and Modular” (www.tramproject.eu)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The development of a formalised multi-objective optimisation procedure for the internal compartmentation of Ro-Ro Passenger ships is presented. The objectives of the optimisation are the maximization of ship’s survivability after damage, expressed by the Attained Subdivision Index and the vessel’s efficiency, in terms of transport capacity and building cost. The developed procedure is based on modeFrontier, a software package for Multi Objective and Collaborative Design Optimisation. In the framework of the developed procedure, modeFrontier is integrated with NAPA, a well known naval architecture design software package, used herein to generate the internal watertight subdivision based on a set of design variables and to perform the stability assessment after damage based on the probabilistic concept as well as all other necessary naval architectural calculations, including transport capacity and structural weight estimation. Case studies for a Ro-Ro passenger ship were performed to demonstrate the applicability of the above procedure, and characteristic results of these studies are herein presented.
Article
Full-text available
Ship design is a complex endeavor requiring the successful coordination of many disciplines, of both technical and non-technical nature, and of individual experts to arrive at valuable design solutions. Inherently coupled with the design process is design optimization, namely the selection of the best solution out of many feasible ones on the basis of a criterion, or rather a set of criteria. A systemic approach to ship design may consider the ship as a complex system integrating a variety of subsystems and their components, for example, subsystems for cargo storage and handling, energy/power generation and ship propulsion, accommodation of crew/passengers and ship navigation. Independently, considering that ship design should actually address the whole ship’s life-cycle, it may be split into various stages that are traditionally composed of the concept/preliminary design, the contractual and detailed design, the ship construction/fabrication process, ship operation for an economic life and scrapping/recycling. It is evident that an optimal ship is the outcome of a holistic optimization of the entire, above-defined ship system over her whole life-cycle. But even the simplest component of the above-defined optimization problem, namely the first phase (conceptual/preliminary design), is complex enough to require to be simplified (reduced) in practice. Inherent to ship design optimization are also the conflicting requirements resulting from the design constraints and optimization criteria (merit or objective functions), reflecting the interests of the various ship design stake holders.
Chapter
The present chapter provides a brief introduction to the holistic approach to ship design optimisation and its historical development. It defines the generic ship design optimisation problem for life cycle and discusses the implementation of the holistic approach to ship design on the basis of a typical ship design optimisation problem with multiple objectives and constraints, namely the design of an AFRAMAX tanker ship. Optimisation results show significantly improved designs with partly innovative features, increased cargo carrying capacity and transport efficiency, reduced required powering and fuel consumption and last but not least increased safety of the marine and aerial environment.
Berechnung der Propellerumstroemung mit einer Vortex-Lattice Method
  • K Y Chao
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