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Ghee is a type of clarified butter fat that has been produced and utilized in India from antiquity. It is used in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent and also for religious rituals. It is popular in India because of its nutritional attributes and characteristic flavor and aroma and is considered as sacred food. It is made from milk, cream, or butter of several animal species. Ghee processing may be achieved by drawing fat from milk, cream or butter using direct heat with or without fermentation. Ghee is unique type of fat by its characteristic flavor which is basic criterion for its acceptance and is greatly influenced by the processing methods i.e. fermentation of cream, butter or milk and even heating processes. It is fairly shelf stable because of low moisture content as well as possible natural antioxidants contents. As a human food, ghee has been accepted universally as superior fat to other fats, mainly because of its characteristic short chain fatty acids content, which are responsible for its better digestibility and anti-cancer properties. Ghee is also an important carrier of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) and essential fatty-acids (linolenic acid and arachidonic acid), apart from having rich and pleasant sensory properties. Ghee is believed to be a coolant, capable of increasing mental power, physical appearance, curative of ulcers and eye diseases.
Ghee : Its Properties, Importance and Health Benefits
Ghee is a type of clarified butter fat that has been
produced and utilized in India from antiquity. It is used in
Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent and also for religious
rituals. It is popular in India because of its nutritional
attributes and characteristic flavor and aroma and is
considered as sacred food. It is made from milk, cream,
or butter of several animal species. Ghee processing
may be achieved by drawing fat from milk, cream or
butter using direct heat with or without fermentation.
Ghee is unique type of fat by its characteristic flavor
which is basic criterion for its acceptance and is greatly
influenced by the processing methods i.e. fermentation
of cream, butter or milk and even heating processes. It is
fairly shelf stable because of low moisture content as
well as possible natural antioxidants contents. As a
human food, ghee has been accepted universally as
superior fat to other fats, mainly because of its
characteristic short chain fatty acids content, which are
responsible for its better digestibility and anti-cancer
properties. Ghee is also an important carrier of fat-
soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) and essential fatty-acids
(linolenic acid and arachidonic acid), apart from having
rich and pleasant sensory properties. Ghee is believed to
be a coolant, capable of increasing mental power,
physical appearance, curative of ulcers and eye-
Key Words: Ghee, Physico-chemical properties,
composition, importance, health benefits
Dairy activities and business have traditionally been
rooted to India's rural economy. India is the leading
producer and consumer of dairy products. As per the
report of India Dairy Products Market Forecast &
Opportunities, 2017, the market for dairy products has
opened a wide window in food processing sector,
simultaneously if provided with proper stable and
sanitized conditions to achieve the international
standards. The market in our country has grown rapidly
over the last few decades and predicted to be growing at
a faster rate as compared to the global dairy market.
Amongst all dairy products, ghee is most valuable item
as per its cost, nutrition and flavor attribute.
In ancient India, ghee (Ghrita) was produced far back as
1500 BC (Achaya, 1997). Some reports have also
mentioned similar type of product in Middle East,
available probably since same ancient times (Abdalla,
1994). It is one of the costlier and most acceptable type
of fat on the Indian subcontinent, because of its
economic, nutritional and sensory characteristics. In
ghee manufacturing, the fermentation of milk to curd
may or may not be performed to render fat from the
medium. It can also be achieved directly by separating
the cream form the milk followed by heat treatment. The
term “Desi ghee” is generally used for milk fat obtained
from fermented milks whether from cow or buffalo in
which curd has to be churned to form butter followed by
heat clarification to separate out fat from non-fat
medium. Similarly, manufacturing of ghee can be
achieved by numerous methods (figure 1) with respect to
raw material utilized (milk, cream or butter), treatments
given at different stages and the handling towards the
final products (semi-finished or fully formed ghee).
Ghee is one of important cooking medium, because the
taste it adds to food is absolutely pleasant and also
promotes good health. It remains a top choice among
households in India in comparison of other fats/oils, with
some trusted brands (Gowardhan, Anik, Milkfood,
Madhusudhan,Verka, Amul, Healthhaid, Gopaljee,
Nestle Everyday, Patanjali and Britannia) having their
stronghold in the market. However, it is essential for
good health up to some extent, consuming it beyond the
individual limit may show detrimental health effects,
because of having cholesterol content and is also highly
saturated in nature.
Figure 1. Flow diagram illustrating four methods of ghee
manufacture: milk butter (MB) (desi); cream butter (CB);
direct cream (DC); pre-stratification (PS).
Anil Kumar, Shreya Tripathi, Nidhi Hans, Falguni Pattnaik, Satya Narayan Naik
Centre for Rural Development & Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi-110016
Heat clarification
Fat phase
Heat clarification
PS method
DC method
CB method
MB method
(Desi method)
January - December 2018, Volume-6
Indian Scenario
Indian dairy sector contributes large share in agricultural
gross domestic products. Presently there are around
70,000 village dairy cooperatives across the country.
Milk production gives employment to more than 72
millions dairy farmers. By, India’s current year (CY) 2018,
fluid milk production was forecasted at 167 million metric
tons (MMT) assumed a normal monsoon, increased by
3.7 percent from previous year. The Government of India
(GOI) estimates demand for milk to increase to 200 MMT
by the year 2021-22, requiring a 20 percent increase in
milk production. In order to augment the milk production
to fulfill rising domestic demand, GOI has implemented
the National Dairy Plan (NDP) through the National Dairy
Development Board (NDDB).
India ranked first in milk production with per capita
availability of milk is from 225 grams per day in 2001-
2002 to 355 grams per day by 2016-17 (NDDB, 2018).
The market size of ghee in India is more than 10,000
crores as of 2017. India is the world’s largest producer of
ghee and also largest consumer. In CY 2018, combined
butter and ghee (clarified butter) production is estimated
at 5.6 MMT, increased by 3.7 percent from previous year
on rising domestic demand due to population growth and
demographic shifts (GAIN, 2018). The demand for ghee
(clarified butter) and butter continues to remain robust.
Reportedly, ghee is the most consumed value added
dairy product and is primarily used for cooking and frying
and as dressing or toppings for various foods. It is also
used in the manufacture of snacks and sweets often
mixed with vegetables, cereals, fruits, and nuts. In some
parts of the world, ghee is considered as a sacred
product and is used in religious rites (Mortensen, 2011).
Physico-chemical properties of ghee
Milk fat is one of the complex forms of lipids existing in
nature. Ghee is processed milk fat and basically known
as clarified butter fat or anhydrous milk fat. It is mainly
composed of glycerides (usually mixed), and other minor
constituents found, are free fatty acids, phospholipids,
sterols, sterol esters, fat-soluble vitamins, carbonyls,
hydrocarbons, carotenoids (only in milk fat derived from
cow). It also contains small amounts of charred casein
and traces of calcium, phosphorus, iron and so on. The
moisture content in ghee is very negligible (0.3%) and
the major part composed of glycerides (~98 % of the total
matter). Of the remaining constituents about 2 %, sterol
(mostly cholesterol) occurs to the extent of about 0.5%.
Ghee may also contain good amount of conjugated
linoleic acids, a reported anti- cancer agent (Clement et
al, 1994).
Ghee is unique fat; because of flavor it imparts to the
food articles and therefore, enhances overall
acceptability of the product. Hence, flavor is primary
criterion of its acceptability, which is greatly influenced by
different factors like fermentation of the cream or butter
and the heat treatments used. The key ghee flavoring
compounds reported are carbonyls, lactones and free
fatty acids (Wadhwa and Jain, 1990). It is fairly shelf-
stable fat, because of its low moisture content, which is
regulated by time and extent of heat treatment used in
processing. It also has possible antioxidative properties,
responsible for its stability by preventing oxidation.
Therefore, it is more convenient product than butter and
cream in the tropics regions, because it remains stable
under warm conditions. Basically, the low moisture and
milk solid non-fat contents in ghee are responsible for the
restricted bacterial growth in it (O'Mahony, 1988). The
other factors in ghee may be because of its
phospholipids contents (ca. 400 mg/Kg), low acidity and
the presence of natural antioxidants, which are also
believed to contribute to the extension of its shelf life
(Sserunjogi, et al, 1998).
Ghee can be served to the people of all age groups for
their nourishment. It is a good carrier of fat-soluble
vitamins (A, D, E and K) along with essential fatty acids
(linolenic and arachidonic acid) which are responsible for
wellbeing. The only concern of ghee is of its cholesterol
level (0.2–0.4%) which makes appreciable contribution
to cholesterol intake when consumed at high level. In
recent years, the consumers becomes extra aware
about the cholesterol-containing foods, hence is
affecting the uses and the market growth of such
products (Kumar, et al., 2010).
Being a valuable product, the standards and quality
parameters of ghee has been prescribed by Government
of India to ensure genuine product to the consumer,
under FSSAI rules, 2011 (Table 1) and Agmark rules,
1981 (Table 2). However these standards are not
comprehensive for detecting adulteration in ghee, and
can hardly establish the type and the level of added
adulterants. This may be because of wide variations in
the physico-chemical makeup of milk fat owing to
different factors like animal species, feeding practices
and nutritional management etc.
LIPID UNIVERSE 7January - December 2018, Volume-6
Table 1. Standards of Ghee under FSSAI Rules (2011)
a. Baudouin test shall be negative
b. By cotton tract is meant the areas in the state where cotton seed is extensively fed to the cattle and so notified
by the State Govt. concerned.
c. Usually such cotton tract areas ghee has low RM value and high BR reading compared to other areas.
January - December 2018, Volume-6
Table 2. Standards of ghee under AGMARK Rules (1987)
a. * Areas other than cotton tracts of Saurashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
b. @ Recognized cotton tracts (of Saurashtra and Madhya Pradesh).
c. By cotton tract is meant that area where cotton seed is extensively fed to the cattle.
d. **Ghee with Reichert Meissl value between 19 and 21 shall be graded only after a phytosterol acetate test has been
performed and the result thereof found to be negative.
e. Percentage of Free Fatty Acids (as Oleic acid) shall not exceed 3.0 for Standard Grade Ghee.
Gross composition of ghee
Bulk of ghee is mainly made up of triglycerides (~98 %),
derived whether from cow or buffalo milks (table 3). The
other classes of lipids which are present in minor
quantities in ghee are: diglycerides (1-2%),
monoglycerides (0.1-0.2%), free fatty acids (1-10
mg/100 g), phospholipids (0 to 80 mg/l00, sterols (mainly
cholesterol), fat soluble vitamins, carbonyl (4-6 ug/g),
glyceryl ethers (O.8uM /g) and alcohols (1.8-2.3uM/g).
The levels of diglycerides, monoglycerides and free fatty
acids vary due to breakdown of triglycerides by
hydrolysis during storage of ghee. The concentration of
phospholipids in ghee also increases with time and
temperature used during clarification of butter or cream
to ghee. Furthermore, the levels of vitamin A, carotene
and tocopherols (within certain limits), depend directly
on the levels of these components in the ration of the
animal (Ramamurthy, 1980).
January - December 2018, Volume-6
Table 3. Gross composition of ghee.
S-Saturated, U-Unsaturated
Table adopted from the works reviewed by Achaya, 1997
LIPID UNIVERSE 10 January - December 2018, Volume-6
Fatty acid Composition
Ghee is a common term, mainly used for heat clarified
milk fat derived whether form cow or buffalo or mixture
thereof. The major fatty acids found in ghee are myristic,
palmitic, stearic and oleic acids. There is slight
differences in fatty acid composition of ghee from the two
species (buffalo and cow) as reported by Kumar et al,
2015. The average percentage of unsaturated fatty acids
of buffalo and cow ghee are 28.73 and 32.21,
respectively. This indicates that cow ghee is slightly more
unsaturated than buffalo ghee. In addition, buffalo ghee
possessed slightly higher proportion of C4:0, C6:0,
C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids than those of cow ghee.
There is a lower level of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 and C20:0
fatty acids in buffalo ghee than in cow ghee. Similar
differences in fatty acid profile of milk fats from the two
species have also been reported by other workers (Lal &
Narayan, 1984; Jensen et al, 1991). The differences
noticed in the fatty acid composition of milk fats form both
the species may be attributed to the species, breed, feed
composition, physical health of herds and many more.
The studies shown here are carried out under identical
conditions of feeding and other parameters.
*The first figure refers to the number of carbon, and the second figure to the number of double bonds.
**Data represent the mean±SE of six determinations
Similarly, numerous studies showed the compositional variation of ghee in different seasons. Summer season’s (May-
June) samples showed slight increase in the unsaturated fatty acids, whereas in monsoon (July-August) and winter
(January-February) seasons marginal decrease in unsaturated fatty acids was observed (Ramamurthy & Narayan,
1971; Frelich et al, 2009, Kumar et al, 2015, Upadhyay et al, 2018).
Table 4. Fatty acid composition of ghee.
January - December 2018, Volume-6
The shelf life of ghee
Ghee deterioration may occur as a result of development
of oxidized and/or rancid flavors (van den Berg, 1988).
Basically, the thermal processing involved in ghee
manufacturing lowers down the moisture content which
plays an important role in destruction of most bacteria
and further restricts them to grow. Buffalo ghee has been
reported to be more resistant to lipolysis than cow ghee
(van den Berg, 1988), mainly because of low
unsaturated fats. The keeping quality of ghee is
governed by several factors i.e. ripening of cream,
method of manufacture, clarification temperature and
the permeability of the packaging material to air and
moisture (Singh and Ram, 1978). The shelf life of ghee
may be of 06-08 months, even at ambient temperatures.
Although, some studies reported it up to two years
(Bekele and Kassaye, 1987). However, such variations
in shelf life could be due to regional preferences in taste
and many other factors.
Furthermore, the storage stability of ghee is attributed to
the low moisture content (ca. 0.2%) and high content of
phospholipids (ca. 400 mg kg~1) and perhaps the free
amino acids, which are liberated from the phospholipid-
protein complex into the fat phase (Achaya, 1997). The
low acidity of the ghee and the presence of natural
antioxidants are also believed to contribute to extend its
shelf life (van den Berg, 1988). Cow ghee is apparently
more shelf stable than buffalo ghee due to the higher
content of natural antioxidants in the former (van den
Berg, 1988). Generally, ghee derived from fresh
cream/butter has a longer shelf life than ripened
cream/butter ghee (Ganguli and Jain, 1972; Singh et al,
Similarly, the antioxidant properties of different
constituents in ghee were also been studied. Pagote and
Bhandari (1988) reported that phospholipids particularly
cephalin, possess antioxidant properties, therefore the
antioxidant property of ghee does not depend on one
constituent alone. Other constituents such as amino
acids, sulphydryl compounds, free sugars and products
of their interaction with proteins during heating are also
considered to contribute, mainly because of their
reducing capacity. Phospholipids may exhibit
antioxidant activity by binding metals, regenerating other
antioxidants, and providing synergism with phenolic
antioxidants. Sripad et al (1996) has associated the
antioxidant properties of the ghee residue with the
presence of tocopherols, phospholipids and products of
browning reactions. Similarly, Harendra and Vijayender
(1987) investigated the role of polar carbonyls, produced
during heating in the preparation of ghee, on its oxidative
Textural changes may also occur in ghee during storage.
The fat in ghee crystallizes with the formation of solid,
semisolid and liquid layers. Ghee stored at 20°C or
below has been reported to solidify uniformly with fine
crystals. However, the ghee stored above 20°C and
below 30°C solidifies with a loose structure. It has been
suggested that ghee should be stored at temperatures
below 20°C to avoid layer formation (Ganguli and Jain,
Importance of ghee
Modern science now verified, what Ayurvedic health
science has said since thousands years ago: Ghee is a
health booster, offers cooking benefits and is good for
the mind and spirit. Here are a few benefits:
Ghee is considered as ideal medium for deep frying
because it possess high smoke point (250 °C) which is
well above the normal cooking temperatures (180-200
°C) and also higher than most of the vegetable oils
(Bader, 2010; Deosarkar et al, 2016). Ghee does not
require refrigeration conditions to store, therefore not
spoil easily. It is not likely to affect people with a dairy or
casein intolerance. Ghee is made from butter but the milk
solids and impurities have been removed, so most
people who are lactose or casein intolerant have no
issue with ghee. It is rich in the oil soluble vitamins A and
E (Achaya, 1997) and also rich in vitamin K2 and CLA
(Conjugated Linoleic Acid); an antioxidant with anti-viral
and anti-cancer properties, if sourced from grass fed
cows (Dhiman et al, 1999, 2000).
Ghee is nutritionally superior to other oils/fats because of
its medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) content, which are
absorbed directly by the liver and burned to provide
energy. Therefore, for athletes it can be of consistent
energy source. Also, the energy from medium chain fatty
acids can be used to burn other fats in the system and to
lose weight (St-Onge & Jones, 2008: Nokasa et al,
2009), therefore the anti-obesity properties of these
MCFAs are well recognized. Ghee (unlike other oils)
exclusively contain butyric acid; a short chain fatty acid
(Kumar et al, 2015), which contributes to its distinct flavor
and easy digestion. Beneficial intestinal bacteria convert
fiber into butyric acid and then use that for energy and
intestinal wall support (Maurice Bugaut, 1987). A healthy
body therefore makes its own form of ‘ghee’ but we are
aiding that greatly by consuming of it. It is proved that
people with unhealthy digestive tracts do not produce
January - December 2018, Volume-6
butyric acid. Research shows that adequate production
of butyric acid supports the production of killer T cells in
the gut and thus a strong immune system (Chang et al,
In addition, ghee based formulations are well scripted in
Ayurvedic system of medicines used for wound healing
purposes (Vure & Dorle, 2006). It was also observed that
when rats fed with diets containing greater than 2.5 wt%
of ghee showed lower levels of serum cholesterol
compared with rats fed diets containing groundnut oil
(Matam et al, 2000). Other study revealed that the
consumption of ghee up to a 10% level in the diet altered
blood lipid profiles in such a manner as not to elevate the
risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (Matam et al,
1999). Ayurvedic physicians have been using ghee
enemas for centuries to decrease inflammation.
Ghee stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, thus aiding
in the digestive process.
In Ayurveda, ghee is placed under most satvic foods,
and is considered to promote positivity, growth and
expansion of consciousness. The positive subtle effects
of ghee is said to come from the fact that it comes freely
from cows. Cows are domestic animal in most parts of
the world, but these are considered special and holy in
Hindu cultures of India. Therefore, the milk from cows
contains the essence of all those energies, and ghee is
the essence of the milk. Ghee is used as a suitable
carrier for many herbs and spices with different
medicinal properties, which are to be absorbed and
transported to targeted areas of the body. This is why,
Ayurveda uses ghee in thousands of different herbal
preparations for curing various ailments.
Ghee has been considered immensely superior to other
fats mainly because of the presence of characteristic
short chain fatty acids, carrier of four fat soluble vitamins
viz., A, D, E, K and essential fatty acids such as linolenic
acid and arachidonic acid. The market penetration of
ghee is about 37% in urban areas and about 21% in rural
areas. Daily consumption of ghee in an adequate
amount, imparts various health benefits such as binds
toxins, enhances complexion and glow of the face and
body, a great rejuvenator for the eyes, increases
physical and mental stamina etc. in addition to providing
sustaining energy.
Since, ghee is a fat-rich product; therefore natural
antioxidants and other constituents like phospholipids
and protein residues etc plays major role in preventing
rancidity. Generally, synthetic antioxidants are also used
in ghee to increase shelf life by preventing it from
oxidative deterioration. Now, as per the mentioned
benefits of ghee, more research is to be needed to
validate the health promoting properties of ghee. It is one
of the costlier products; hence ghee manufacturing could
be a profitable business for rural India. At present, GOI,
come up with different schemes for setting own business
in dairy sector to improve the livelihood of the Indian
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January - December 2018, Volume-6
... Further, iodine value of cow and buffalo milk ghee was 31.9 and 33.1 mg/g respectively ( Table 1). The lower iodine value for cow ghee might be the presence of saturated fatty acid and the absence of polyunsaturated fatty acid (Mehta 2013;Kumar et al. 2018). Free fatty acid (FFA) contents in cow and buffalo milk ghee were 2.4 and 2.8 (% oleic acid) respectively; however, the presence of FFA is undesirable as it may be responsible for the rancid flavor typified by butyric acid as reported by Munro et al. (1992). ...
... Beta-carotene is abundant in cow ghee, while it is lacking from buffalo ghee due to the buffalo's metabolism of beta-carotene into vitamin A Saleem 2018, 2020). Buffalo ghee lacks in carotene resulted in whitish with slightly greenish tinge due to the presence of bilirubin and biliverdin which gives it a greenish tint (Achaya 1997;Kumar et al. 2018). The texture scores of cow ghee and buffalo ghee were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the method of pre-cooling ( Table 2). ...
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Low-fat spread (LFS) is the product harmonizing with the idea of healthy nutrition. At the same time, it has a good taste and flavour, as well as very good spreadability at refrigerator temperature. The present investigation studied the effect of method of cooling on the properties of cow and buffalo milk ghee, and comparative evaluation of LFS prepared from them. Slowly pre-cooled cow ghee had intense yellow colour than rapidly pre-cooled cow ghee, whereas slowly pre-cooled buffalo ghee has creamish white colour and rapidly pre-cooled buffalo ghee had white colour. Rapidly pre-cooled cow ghee had a very smooth and pasty texture than rapidly pre-cooled buffalo ghee. The LFS of cow ghee had shown maximum sensory scores for colour and appearance, body and texture, spreadability, and overall acceptability, as compared to buffalo ghee LFS. Chemically it was observed that both the LFS differs in FFA content, while they had similar fat, protein, carbohydrate, ash and total solids content, as well as pH. Oiling off and wheying off was found higher in cow ghee LFS over buffalo ghee LFS. Colour, appearance and flavour score were found improved by the addition of butter annatto colour and diacetyl flavour respectively. Color and appearance, body and texture, spreadability, as well as overall acceptability scores were higher for cow ghee LFS when subjected to 35 °C for 10, 20, and 30 minutes. It was found that after 10 minutes of exposure to 35 °C, the physical qualities of both LFS were unchanged, but the sensory properties diminished as time passed.
... Although antiviral medicines are required for treating covid-19 , as per Rasayan chikitsa (a specialty of Ayurveda, stating about rejuvenation therapy) host immunity J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f Page 5 of 33 plays a vital role for prevention of cytokine storm and quick tissue regeneration and retard aging [13]. Bos Indicus ghee (BIG) has been shown to possess anti-toxic, improves digestion, antipyretic, endurance enhancement, and immune boosting properties [14]. Bos Indicus Milk (BIM), promotes tissue repair and boosts immunity [15]. ...
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Introduction Limited treatment options exist for COVID-19 infections; thus, attempts from complementary and alternative systems (CAM) of medicine are being explored as possible therapeutic options. Ayurcov is a formulation made of ingredients mentioned in Ayurveda. These constituents have proven antiviral, detoxifying, immune-modulating, and bio-enhancing properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of Ayurcov in patients with various severity states of COVID-19 infections. Methods A randomized, single blinded, controlled trial was carried out in adults diagnosed with mild-to-moderate, and severe COVID-19 infections confirmed by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRTPCR) test. The interventional group received three doses of ‘Ayurcov’. It is constituted of Haridra Churna (Curcuma Longa), Go ark (Bos Indicus Distilled Urine), Sphatika (Alum), Sita (Rock Candy), Godugdham (Bos Indicus Milk) milk, Goghritam (Bos Indicus ghee) on Day 1, as an adjuvant to the standard of care, and the control group received only the standard of care. Key outcomes included: proportion of patients and time taken for symptom resolution, reduction in the rRT-PCR Ct values, safety, and functional status until 42 days after discharge. Results Ninety patients with mild-to-moderate and 30 patients with severe COVID-19 disease were recruited. It was observed that significantly more proportions of patients receiving Ayurcov had symptom relief much earlier than control group. Additionally, the interventional group showed significantly lower rRT-PCR Ct values. However, a shorter time of resolution of symptoms was observed with the interventional group in the mild to moderate category but not with those having severe symptoms. Similarly, a significantly better functional status was observed with interventional group on days 7 and 28 after discharge. Ayurcov was not observed with higher risks of any adverse/serious adverse events. Conclusions Ayurcov as adjuvant with standard of care was associated with significantly earlier resolution of COVID-19 related symptoms than standard of care alone.
... During storage, CG may experience textural changes. Storing ghee below 20 • C has been reported to have fine crystals with uniform solidification whereas storing it in the temperature range 20-30 • C solidifies it with loose structure (Kumar et al., 2018). Also, ghee in the liquid state is more prone to oxidation (Rajorhia, 1993). ...
Application of microfluidization can influence physicochemical, structural, rheological and functional properties of the food matrix, significantly. In the present research, effect of high pressure microfluidization treatment (50–200 MPa, single pass) on pH, refractive index (RI), free fatty acid (FFA) values, colour measurements, rheology, particle size, structural properties and thermal properties of cow ghee (CG) were investigated. Upon microfluidization, the pH values of CG significantly increased from 4.5 to 4.9. The shear-thinning nature of microfluidized CG was demonstrated by a Rheogram between apparent viscosity and shear rate. At 50 MPa, the apparent viscosity of the sample increased but then decreased as the microfluidization pressure was increased. Thermal analysis revealed an increase in glass transition temperature (Tg) at 50 MPa from 32 to 37 °C and a significant effect was observed on it as the pressure was increased. GC-MS analysis revealed that microfluidization at 150 MPa reduced the cholesterol level in CG by 39.37%. The current research is the first one on microfluidization of CG and can open new channels on the research end.
... Beneficial intestinal bacteria convert fibre into butyric acid and then use that for energy and intestinal wall support . [22] [25]. As per Kaiyadeva Nighantu honey possess Medhya and vilepana properties. ...
Panchamritha is a combination of five ingredients which are Goksheera (cow’s milk), Dadhi from Goksheera (curd from cow’s milk), Goghrita (cow’s ghee), Kshoudra (honey) and Sarkara (sugar). Panchamritha improves immunity and physical strength. Panchamritha is considered as Rasayana because all the five ingredients will support each other to reach the target area of the body, proper absorption and assimilation. It helps to support brain functions like intelligence, memory, grasping power and creative abilities. Panchamritha is a rare combina- tion of Vedas which have both religious and health benefits. It is a combination of five nutraceutical products as ingredients that will support each other to reach the target area of the body, proper absorption and assimilation. This traditional combination is having almost all the proteins, vitamins, micro and macro elements and it helps in the development and functioning of the body. This article highlights and correlates the scientific evidence for the nutraceutical value of Panchamritha. Keywords: Panchamritha, Ksheera, Gogritha, Dadhi, Madhu, Sarkara
... Ghee comprises compounds, such as linoleic acid, butyric acid and myristic acid, which may impart anticancerous properties (Parmar and Mehta 2018;Hammam 2019). Additionally, the digestibility of ghee (99%) is reported to be higher than other vegetable fats (91% in palm oil and 86% in sunflower oil) (Boateng et al. 2016;Kumar et al. 2016). Ghee is also utilised in other parts of the world since equally ancient time by other names such as samna (Egypt) (Abou-Donia and El-Agamy 1993), samin (Sudan) (Dirar 1993), samin (Middle East) and rogan (Iran) (Urbach and Gordon 1994) and samuli (Uganda) (Sserunjogi and Abrahamsen 1998). ...
This work explored the differences in the fatty acid profile and physico‐chemical composition of ghee prepared from the milk of different camel breeds using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Bikaneri ghee was observed to contain 11 individual fatty acids. Chemometric analysis identified the breed‐specific differences among various groups. The higher concentration of medium‐ and long‐chain fatty acids along with fatty acid indices (n‐3/n‐6 ratio, Atherogenic index and Thrombogenic index) in Kachchi ghee established its superiority in terms of nutritional values. Correlation network indicated the strong interdependence of different fatty acids with similar physiological and molecular characteristics, while positions of transmittance peaks confirmed significant differences in the fatty acids. Characterization of Ghee from Milk of Indian Camel Breeds.
... It is a good carrier of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) along with essential fatty acids (linolenic and arachidonic acid) which are responsible for wellbeing. (Kumar et al., 2018). Short chain fatty acids in ghee give a longer storage life than butter with less rancid off-flavor. ...
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Background: Constipation is a very distressful symptom, affecting to all age group. The only treatment is laxatives, which is having many adverse effects mainly dependency on laxatives. Purpose: To evaluate the laxative effect of raisins and to get relief from daily dependency on laxative medicines for acute and chronic constipation Methods: Interventional / Experimental study of raisins and clarified butter or ghee performed at 'Vishwaraj Hospital' Pune, Maharashtra, India from March 2021 to June 2021, after appropriate ethical approval obtained from the Vishwaraj Hospital's Ethics Committee (Registration number-ECR/1138/Inst/MH/2018). Fifty one patients of constipation who were on laxatives or PR enema enrolled in this study, diagnosis confirmed by gastro-enterologist. Laxatives had been asked to stop before enrollment. Questionnaire form were given at the time of enrollment and telephonic follow up for OPD patients and by visiting to admit patients had been taken on 2 nd day after consumption of raisins and clarified butter or ghee then on 7 th and 15 th day. Forms were collected once they were visit to their respective doctors for follow up. Results: Statistical tool used in this study is the 95 % confidence interval. The variables of interest were 1) percent of patients have restarted laxatives or not and 2) number of days required to get relief from constipation. 94.12 % of patients (n=48) did not restart laxatives after consumption of raisins and clarified butter or ghee and the population percent of patients that might not restart laxatives would be 88% to 100% with 95 % confidence. Also the number of days to get relief from constipation after consumption of raisins and clarified butter or ghee for a patient in population would be 3-4 days with 95 % confidence. Conclusion: Raisins and CB or ghee had given relief from acute and chronic constipation; worked very well on irritable bowel syndrome, fissure in ano, hemorrhoids and helped to stop PR bleeding and bloating causes by these diseases. Patients got relief from constipation on 3rd and 4th day. This study concluded that raisins with clarified butter or ghee can be taken instead of laxatives or enema to get relief from constipation; this might be the great substitute for laxatives and per rectum enema.
... The ingredients in this combination have been proven to possess anti-microbial, antipyretic, and immune boosting properties. [6][7][8] Ayrucoro-3 is dispensed through pharmacy stores as well as patients can order it in the product website. ...
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Background: At the backdrop of absence of any approved treatment for COVID-19 infections, Ayurvedic treatment can be explored for its potential. AyurCoro-3 is a combination of Gomutra (bos indicus urine), hot water, turmeric, Turati churna (potassium Alum), candy sugar (khadisakhar), Bos indicus milk with two teaspoons of Go Ghrut (Ghee) with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. The present study evaluated the responses from individuals who consumed Ayurcoro-3. Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out based on the participants who consumed Ayurcoro-3. Participants were asked about their reasons for taking the drug, whether as prophylaxis/treatment, duration of symptoms following the drug intake compared to baseline, their satisfaction with Ayurcoro-3, and adverse events. Results: Two thousand participants were recruited, and majority consumed Ayurcoro-3 as a prophylactic drug (1285, 64.25 %). Amongst those who were symptomatic, 317 had cough and 328 had fever, and 299 had positive RT-PCR test. The mean (SD) duration of symptoms were significantly shorter following the intake of Aurcoro-3 as follows: cough [before: 4.64 (3.26), after: 2.26 (1.34) days; p < 0.05], fever [before: 4.16(2.40), after: 2.15(1.34) days; p < 0.05], breathlessness [before: 5.56 (2.66), after: 2.30 (1.19) days; p < 0.05], and weakness [before: 5.69 (3.08), after: 2.36 (1.13) days; p < 0.05]. Majority of the participants stated that they were very satisfied with Ayurcoro-3. None of the participants reported any serious adverse reaction and only few adverse events were reported. Conclusion: We found that Ayurcoro-3 to be highly effective and safe in preventing/treating COVID-19 related symptoms and the patients are highly satisfied with the response. Key words: Coronavirus infections, COVID-19, Ayurveda, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, prophylaxis.
BACKGROUND Cow ghee is one of the expensive edible fats in dairy sector. Ghee is often adulterated with low-priced edible oils like soybean oil, due to its high market demand. The existing adulteration detection methods are time-consuming, requires sample preparation and expertise in these fields. The possibility of detecting soybean oil adulteration (from 10 to 100%) in pure cow ghee was investigated in this research. The fingerprint information of volatile compounds was collected using a flash gas chromatography electronic nose (FGCEN) instrument. The classification results were studied using pattern recognition chemometric models such as principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). RESULTS The most powerful fingerprint odor of all the samples was acetaldehyde (Z)-4-heptenal, 2-propanol, ethyl propanoate and pentan-2-one as identified from FGCEN analysis. The odor analysis investigation was accomplished with an average analysis time of 90 s. A clear differentiation of all the samples with an excellent classification accuracy of more than 99% was achieved with PCA and DFA chemometric methods. However, results of SIMCA model showed that SIMCA could be used to detect higher concentration levels (30 to 100%) of ghee adulteration only. The validation study shows good agreement between FGCEN and GC–MS methods. CONCLUSION The demonstrated methodology coupled with PCA and DFA methods for adulteration detection in ghee using FGCEN apparatus has been an efficient and convenient technique. The present research explored the capability of the FGCEN instrument to tackle the adulteration problems in ghee. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Ghee, the most valuable fat is sold at a premium price over other fats and oils. Unscrupulous sellers take this advantage by mixing it with less expensive fats or oils. The addition of coconut oil (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 15%) in ghee was detected using ATR-FTIR and chemometrics. The spectra of pure ghee, coconut oil and adulterated samples (total 240 samples) were analyzed in the wavenumber region of 4000–500 cm⁻¹. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed the distinct grouping of pure ghee and adulterated samples in the selected wavenumber range (1170-1141 and 1117–1100 cm⁻¹). Soft independent modelling by class analogy (SIMCA) was able to categorize the pure ghee and coconut oil samples of the validation set with a classification efficiency of 100% using both Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) and Principal components regression (PCR) models constructed on the training set. R² values of greater than 0.99 between the actual and predicted values of adulterated ghee with coconut oil were observed in both the calibration and validation sets for the developed PLS and PCR models. The study revealed that coconut oil adulterated samples can be detected even at a lower concentration of 2% in ghee.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the fat system type (milk fat - MF, palm oil - PO or oleogel - OG, i.e. RO-LO – rapeseed oil and linseed oil mixture structured by candelilla wax) on the properties of soy creams, in comparison with dairy cream. The MF exhibited the most increase of acid value (2.5-fold), and the RO-LO – increase of peroxide value (3-fold), after 30 days of storage at 20°C. The PO was the most oxidative stable. The OG presented the slightest oxidative changes, the highest slip melting point (39°C) and centrifugal stability (99.6%). The pH and total acidity values of soy creams were similar to soy drink. All creams exhibited unimodal distribution of dispersed particles. The average particle size and dispersity indexes of these emulsions were in range of 1.74-1.80 µm and 0.93-1.16, respectively. The creams with MF or OG exhibited a greater viscosity than sweet dairy cream – 1.66 10⁻⁵ nm⁻², and a higher degree of shear-thinning. The accelerated creaming phenomenon (flotation of lipids molecules) occurred during centrifugation. The cream with PO had the lowest resistance to centrifugal force (instability index – 0.052). The possibility to obtain a stable vegan soy creams containing oleogel (as replacer of conventional fats) has been demonstrated.
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The fatty acid composition of fats and oils is unique to the specific fat and oil.The differences in the fatty acid composition coupled with the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), was utilized to assess the possibilities of detection of the adulterant oil (groundnut oil) and fat (goat body fat) in cow ghee and buffalo ghee. The results revealed that the ghee when spiked with groundnut oil individually and in combination with goat body fat could be detected at a level of 10%, while goat body fat when spiked individually could be detected at the level of 5% using PCA approach.
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The fatty acid (FA) composition of bulk milk fat was examined on three mountain dairy farms in the Czech Republic. Milk samples were collected in the period of indoor grass silage feeding (November-April) and in the grazing period (May-October). In total fifty FAs were identified in the milk fat. The two-way ANOVA with factors of the farm and of the period of milk sample collection was used for the evaluation of variation in FA concentrations. Significant differences between the farms (P < 0.01) were found in the concentration of five FAs, which accounted for 30.40 g/100 g total FAs. Significant differences between the indoor and the grazing period (P < 0.01) were found in the concentration of sixteen FAs, which accounted for 63.86 g/100 g total FAs. The content of long-chain (> C16), mono- and polyunsaturated FAs in the milk fat was higher in the grazing period (49.22, 31.69 and 4.69 g/100 g total FAs) than in the indoor period (42.25, 27.55 and 4.15 g/100 g total FAs, respectively; P < 0.01). The proportion of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was also higher in the grazing period (1.09 g/100 g total FAs) than in the indoor period (0.74 g/100 g total FAs; P < 0.01). The medium-chain (C12-C16) and the saturated FAs were more abundant in the milk fat in the indoor period (48.91 and 67.16 g/100 g total FAs) than in the grazing period (41.31 and 62.16 g/100 g total FAs; P < 0.001 and P < 0.01; respectively). These results indicated a positive influence of seasonal grazing on the FA profile of cow milk fat as regards its potential health effects in consumers.
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Two type of adulterants i.e. soybean oil (SO) and buffalo depot fat (BDF) along with pure cow and buffalo milk fats, collected and prepared after every two months of interval for a complete one year, were analyzed for their fatty acid composition using gas liquid chromatography. Both the adulterants were added individually at 5, 10 and 15 percent levels (v/v) as well as in their combinations at 5+5 (10), 10+10 (20) and 15+15 (30) percent levels (v/v) in both types of milk fat separately. It was observed that soybean oil consisted of high amount (51.86 percent) of linoleic (C18:2) acid, while buffalo depot fat possessed high content (49.17 percent) of oleic (C18:1) acid. Milk fats from both the species of cow and buffalo were found containing more of myristic (C14:0), palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids. The results revealed that the SO was detected even at 5 percent level using linoleic (C18:2) acid as marker, while BDF was detectable at 5 percent level using oleic (C18:1) acid as the base. When the ratios of some fatty acids (C14:0/C16:0, C14:0/C18:1, C14:0/C18:2, C16:0/C18:1, C16:0/C18:2 and C18:0/C18:2) were calculated for detecting adulteration, it was noticed that two fatty acid ratios (C14:0/C18:1 and C14:0/C18:2) were found more useful in detecting adulteration in maximum number (78 percent) of samples. Whereas, on the basis of the ratios of sum of C4:0 to C14:1 / sum of C15:0 to C20:0 fatty acids and vice-versa, addition of both the adulterants at all the levels (added individually as well as in their combinations) in both the milk fats was easily detected.
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T cells are central players in the regulation of adaptive immunity and immune tolerance. In the periphery, T cell differentiation for maturation and effector function is regulated by a number of factors. Various factors such as antigens, co-stimulation signals, and cytokines regulate T cell differentiation into functionally specialized effector and regulatory T cells. Other factors such as nutrients, micronutrients, nuclear hormones and microbial products provide important environmental cues for T cell differentiation. A mounting body of evidence indicates that the microbial metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have profound effects on T cells and directly and indirectly regulate their differentiation. We review the current status of our understanding of SCFA functions in regulation of peripheral T cell activity and discuss their impact on tissue inflammation.