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Routledge Handbook of International Cybersecurity

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Abstract

The Routledge Handbook of International Cybersecurity examines the development and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) from the perspective of international peace and security. Acknowledging that the very notion of peace and security has become more complex, the volume seeks to determine which questions of cybersecurity are indeed of relevance for international peace and security and which, while requiring international attention, are simply issues of contemporary governance or development. The Handbook offers a variety of thematic, regional and disciplinary perspectives on the question of international cybersecurity, and the chapters contextualize cybersecurity in the broader contestation over the world order, international law, conflict, human rights, governance and development.
Article
The global digital revolution transforms technological and economic structures, social relations and the very philosophy of human life. Along with that, it has a dramatic impact on states as key actors in international relations. For many centuries sovereignty has been a fundamental principle of a functioning state and has been mainly defined in physical and geographical terms. However, the transboundary nature of the digital environment has brought new issues to the agenda: how actors, including states, should function in a new digital reality; where the borders between the ‘national’ and the ‘transnational’ should lie and by which rules the new environment should be regulated. The key question summarizing all the above-stated is: ‘What does “state sovereignty” mean in the digital era?’. To answer this question, the article identifies key characteristics of digital space vis-à-vis sovereignty, studies the evolution of two approaches to the internet – as a new exceptional environment or as the next stage of telecommunications’ development – and points out challenges to maintaining digital sovereignty along with ways to mitigate them. Noting that the digital space is a unique environment for intergovernmental interaction which continuously evolves due to technological progress and the socio-economic practices, the authors observe the organic emergence of cyber-borders which brings seemingly obsolete idea of state sovereignty back into play. Modern states face a difficult challenge: how to find effective mechanisms to ensure sovereignty in the digital space without losing the benefits of the digital revolution while guaranteeing the equality and security of all parties involved. The absence of unified methodology and generally accepted conceptual terms in the previous scientific studies and political practice underpins the academic novelty of the research. At the same time, the study is practically oriented, since it is the digital technological sovereignty of the state that serves as a basis of its leadership in the new era and as a necessary condition for establishing and maintaining political independence and national coherence.
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Siguiendo a los países desarrollados, los países latinoamericanos comienzan a prestar cada vez más atención al desarrollo de sus capacidades de ciberseguridad. Alineados con estos, cada vez más países de la región crean su propia estrategia nacional de ciberseguridad, estableciendo los principales objetivos e intereses y definiendo los principales desafíos y amenazas. El estudio tiene como objetivo analizar y comparar estas estrategias publicadas por los principales estados de la región. El artículo tiene un diseño de investigación basado en métodos mixtos. La metodología utilizada consiste en su mayor parte en el análisis de datos secundarios basados en bases de datos internacionales, así como el análisis sistemático de las estrategias mediante técnicas de análisis documental. Los resultados esperados, por lo tanto, tienden a resumir las principales estructuras de estas estrategias -incluyendo los principales intereses y desafíos que se definen con respecto a los estados estudiados- identificar patrones comunes de las estrategias considerando el contexto político e internacional de la región y hacer sugerencias para desarrollos futuros mediante la comparación de la situación actual y las principales estructuras de estos países.
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Andrey Vladimirovich Krutskikh is the Special Representative of the President of the Russian Federation for International Cooperation in the field of Information Security since 2014, and a leading expert in this field in Russia and around the world. He served as Chairman of the UN Panel of Government Experts on Advances in Information and Telecommunications and the SCO Member States Panel of Experts on International Information Security (IIS). Since 2020, A.V. Krutskikh holds the position of Director of the Department for International Information Security (DIIS) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, since 2017 he is Director of the Center for International Information Security, Science and Technology Policy of MGIMO University. Andrey Vladimirovich is the author of fundamental works devoted to IIS issues, the scientific editor of the three volume comprehensive textbook “International Information Security: Theory and Practice,” prepared by the CIIS team of authors. During the interview A.V. Krutskikh spoke about Russia’s approaches to international information security, the role of our country in developing the rules of the responsible State behavior in the global information space.
Chapter
Last few decades, technology has changed the way we communicate, live, work, and do business. Especially, technology helps businesses to become more profitable by enhancing performance and decisions, improving communications among stakeholders, and reducing costs. It also facilitates businesses to expand worldwide and become accessible to everyone everywhere. Moreover, technological attachment affects business culture, efficiency, and relations across industries. Furthermore, technology adaptation makes business faster, easier, and smarter. Importantly, technology may contribute to both—the data security of own businesses, and threats to the data security of others’ businesses. No matter how the size of a company is—technology has had inevitable effects on business operations. Hence, it can be concluded that new business models, technology, and cybersecurity are closely interconnected. Keeping that in view, this chapter explains the interrelations among business models, technology adoption, and cybersecurity. The findings of this chapter will enlighten all stakeholders regarding the prospects and problems of some emerging technologies in businesses and the possible way forward.
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Although religious freedom significantly affects certain people, the guarantees for its observance also have implications for the quality of social life and the security of the state. Polarization and conflict between religious groups is not only a conflict for new believers, but also contributes to the weakening of the internal state. It seems that one of the elements of such a destabilization of states is the promotion and lack of reaction to the phenomenon of ridiculing religion and its followers in cyberspace. As can be seen from reports on the situation in Poland, there are increasing signs of hostility to religion, stereotyping, and discrimination. The issues can be considered on two levels: individual protection for freedom of speech, and state protection. At the end of this paper, proposals for measures to prevent crimes based on religion or belief are presented.
Article
The increasing use of digital technologies by governments and companies raises numerous questions regarding the regulation of these technologies, particularly regarding the rights and legal protections citizens are entitled to. The focus is mostly on the application and potential modification of existing (fundamental) rights. However, the debate and legal research in this area lacks a broader discussion on which new rights citizens should have in the digital era. Only now and then new concepts surface, such as the ‘right to be forgotten’. This article deals with the question which new, additional rights could be imagined in the digital era if we were to draft them right now, from scratch, rather than being tied to a set of existing fundamental rights. In order to start a broader legal debate on this, various new rights for citizens in the digital area are proposed.
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Cybercrime has been a contentious issue among security actors, vis-à-vis the extent to which international cooperation may be fostered to respond to the accelerating incidence of cyber-attacks. This paper contrasts between the cyber-governance approaches adopted by two non-Western regional organizations, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the Gulf Cooperation Council, over the past decade. Considering their similar institutional origins, Most Similar Systems Design methodology was employed to assess how ASEAN and GCC have distinctly responded to cybercrime. It considers the dynamics of the digital divide — a divide which is exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic — and in which ASEAN and the GCC are challenged to bolster their cyber-capabilities. Findings reveal that GCC increasingly diffuses norms of international cooperation to tackle cybercrime. By contrast, ASEAN embodies cyber norms which regulate behavior along the lines of intra-regional cooperation, wherein norms of international cooperation are rendered subsidiary to norms of regional autonomy.
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