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Formulation and Development of Polyherbal mosquito Repellent Incense Sticks



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Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 13(1): January 2020
ISSN 0974-3618 (Print)
0974-360X (Online)
Formulation and Development of Polyherbal mosquito Repellent Incense
Aditi Bahadur1, K S Chandrashekar2, Vasudev Pai2*
1Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, MAHE, Manipal, Karnataka, India
2Department of Pharmacognosy, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, MAHE, Manipal, Karnataka
*Corresponding Author E-mail:
Currently the use of synthetic mosquito repellent chemicals has several issues related to environment and human
health. This project was formulated and developed to have safer mosquito repellent free from carcinogenic
chemicals and are significantly cheaper and simple to develop. Dried powdered herbs like acorus, pyrethrum
flower head, camphor, benzoin, neem leaves were used to make mosquito repellent formulation. The powdered
blend were mixed with binders and additives like joss powder, charcoal powder. The solid formulation was
rolled in the form of incense sticks. Further to add value, it was later scented with essential oil like lemongrass
oil and dried. The incense sticks when ignited releases vapours with a pleasant fragrance and herbs which repels
the mosquitoes. The incense sticks was tested for its potency by burning near the mosquito net cage with
sufficient mosquitoes. The sticks also distributed to random peoples for feedback and were deemed to be very
effective in controlling the mosquitos.
KEYWORDS: Mosquito repellent, Incense sticks and Essential oil.
Mosquitoes are most irritating and blood sucking insect
disturbing human beings1. Some of the mosquito species
which belongs to genera Anopheles, Aedes and Culex are
known to be vectors for the most of the disease
pathogens like malaria, dengue fever, Myiasis, yellow
fever, encephalitis etc. Protozoan diseases- In Malaria
the female Anopheles mosquito carries the malarial
parasite. The four different species of protozoa causes
Malaria, namely Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium
vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae. It is
the leading cause of premature mortality and caused
more than half a million deaths according to the WHO
report in 2012 and the death rate has increased to one
million as of 2018, according to the American
Association of Mosquito control. Symptoms are high
fever and chills.2-4
Received on 06.06.2019 Modified on 04.07.2019
Accepted on 01.08.2019 © RJPT All right reserved
Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(1): 124-128.
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00025.6
Dengue fever is an acute mosquito transmitted disease
which is characterized by fever, body ache, headache,
joint and muscle pains, skin rash, nausea followed by
vomiting. The causative organism of Dengue Fever is
arbovirus and is spread by genus Aedes mosquitoes.
Some of the infections in Dengue are Haemorrhagic
Fever, Shock Syndrome which can threat the patient’s
life by increased vascular permeability which leads
shock. Over the past twenty years, there has been global
increase in the frequency of Dengue Fever incidence.
Several factors which are responsible for the resurgence
of dengue epidemic are: (i) Uncontrolled population
growth; (ii) Urbanization; (iii) Improper waste
management; (iv) Improper water supply (v) Increased
mosquitoes (vi) Improper mosquito control and (vii)
Public health deterioration.5-7
Botflies are parasites which feed on human tissues, such
a phenomenon is called myiasis. The Human botfly
dermatobiahominis attaches its eggs to the underside of a
mosquito, when the mosquito takes a blood meal the
parasitic larvae is injected in the blood stream of a
human being, and it hatches due to the warm temperature
of human blood. This causes rapid necrosis of the
tissues. This is very rare now days due to the better
Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 13(1): January 2020
sanitation in our societies but it still occurs in developing
or under developed countries.
Viral diseases - Viral diseases like yellow fever,
chikungunya, dengue, etc. is transmitted by the
Aedesaegypti mosquito symptoms range from swelling,
edema, high fever to coma to death.
Helminthiasis - Some species of mosquito carry the
filariasis worm that causes extreme swelling (hence also
called Elephantitis) of the body parts. Mosquitoes are
dangerous, humans over the years have tried many ways
to keep them away from entering spaces and spread
deadly diseases.
Anatomy of mosquitos:
Mosquitoes are very small insect and has three major
parts namely head followed by thorax and abdomen. The
head of the mosquitos consists of sensors which helps
the mosquitos to find the host for feeding. Mosquitos has
eyes two in number with tine lens which can feel even
little movements. The mosquito antennae are feathery
and are located on head and are highly specialised
sensitive capacity which can detect the human carbon
dioxide from breath from around 100 feet. The maxillary
palp near the antennae catches the odour of ocentol and
other prime chemicals released from humans sweat. In
the middle nearly between antennae proboscis which is a
mouth part used to pierce in the skin and suck blood out.
The thorax is continuation of the head and has a pair of
wings. Mosquitos has six legs with tiny claws which
help to keep intact to the surface. The abdomen hangs on
the thorax and has stomach and lungs.8 Both male and
female mosquitos feed plant juice. Male mosquitos will
not bite human beings whereas female mosquitos suck
human blood only after mating because they need some
proteins for their maturation of eggs.9 Therefore the
mosquitos act as a vector for many deadly disorders
which transmits virus or parasite from person to person
or animals.10
Prevention of Breeding and Creating Safety Nets:
The methods to limit breeding of mosquitoes are to make
sure there is no stagnant water in our respective locality
as mosquito larvae grow and hatch in stagnant water. If
in case there are ponds or lakes with fresh water, we
should make sure that we let the fish Poecillia reticulate
which is commonly known as the ‘Guppy’ fish grow and
breed in them as they consume mosquito larvae as food.
In our houses, we can attach nets to our windows and use
a mosquito net while sleeping in order to limit the
amount of mosquitoes that enter our houses. However,
though these methods are very effective to limit the
amount of mosquitoes in our environment, they are still
not able totally prevent mosquitoes from entering our
homes and workspaces. There is still a change of a
mosquito entering our house and biting us and even one
bite is enough for the transmission of deadly diseases,
which were previously discussed. It is especially difficult
in India to reduce the amount of mosquitoes in our
environment due to the monsoon season, when stagnant
water collect in every nook and cranny. Hence, here
enters the role of mosquito repellents.11-13
Mosquito Repellents:
Mosquito repellents are substances that prevent
mosquitoes from being in an environment. There are
various types of synthetic mosquito repellents used in the
market; these are manufactured on a large scale by
industries. They are widely used and are very popular.
However, there are various drawbacks to these mosquito
repellents. The ingredients used in them are harmful for
the humans as well as the environment.
Harmful ingredients in synthetic herbal repellents
Synthetic herbal repellents have a number of harmful
ingredients, which are harmful to the health of human
beings when inhaled or ingested, and are harmful to the
environment either during the process of manufacture or
during the use of these mosquito repellents in the
average Indian household.
DEET (N, N Diethyl-Meta-Toluamide)-This is a
standard additive in mosquito repellents; it is used as a
very popular pesticide. However, it has several very bad
effects on the health and environment. It is toxic for
pregnant women and can cause foetal abnormalities; it
has neurological effects and olfactory effects. It is also
very bad for the environment, particularly fresh water
fish and zooplankton.
Synthetic pyrethrins- such as Allethrin, Transfluthreine
are the synthetic derivatives of naturally occurring
Pyrethrins derived from Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium.
They are fast acting Pyrethrins which have many side
effects like anxiety, tremor, convulsions and some
individuals are allergic to them.
Octacholrodipropylether is also used as a synergist and it
is a very potent lung carcinogen. It is banned in the
United States but not banned in India. It may be listed as
S-2 in the ingredient list.
Deodorized kerosene - It is used as the suspending agent
or solvent for any mosquito repellents. It has toxic
effects for the respiratory system, cardiovascular system,
nervous system. It is a confirmed carcinogen for animals
and has been suspected to have carcinogenic and
mutagenic properties for humans as well. It is very
harmful for the environment.
Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 13(1): January 2020
Aerosols- many mosquito repellents are in the form of
aerosols that release their content in the air when the coil
of the machine of the repellent is heated. Aerosols can be
toxic to the cardiovascular system and can have several
nervous system side effects such as tremors and
convulsions. In addition, aerosols with a pleasant
fragrance can contain several harmful chemicals like
xylene and formaldehyde that are carcinogens. Aerosols
are also known to harm the environment.
Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (B.H.T) - is used as an
antioxidant, it can cause hepatic or renal toxicity if
ingested or inhaled.
Apart from these terrible drawbacks on our health and
environment, the commercially available are also very
expensive and difficult for the common person. This is
what led to developing a safe herbal mosquito repellent.
Development of safe and herbal mosquito repellent
incense sticks:
As we now that mosquitoes are very dangerous and the
commercially available mosquito repellents contain
certain dangerous chemical ingredients, which are potent
carcinogens and are extremely harmful for the humans
and environment as well. They are easily accessible only
to the urban population. Considering all this, we
developed a product that contains herbal ingredients with
no known side effects. The herbs are easily available and
since there are no synthetic ingredients. The production
and cost of these incense sticks are very economical.
Several herbs that have been used in India for
generations to repel insects have been used and
combined, making a strong and effective product.
Herbs and additives used in the formulation:
Dried Pyrethrum flower head-This is the dried flower
head of Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium. It has potent
insecticidal activity and has been used for generations. It
targets the nervous system of insects by blocking the
voltage gated sodium ion channels that extends nerve
firings; this causes paralysis in the mosquito. This is due
to the compound called Pyrethrin that is present in the
flower head.
Neem (Azadirachta indica) - This is a widely available
plant with many beneficial properties, neem is an
effective mosquito repellent and has been used for
generations. There are published studies stating that
neem is a very effective mosquito repellent. This is due
to the compound Azadirachthin, which irritates the
mucous membranes of the mosquito and is used an
anantifeedant (stops the feeding of the mosquito and it
cannot consume human blood meal).
Lemon grass oil- Lemon grass oil or Citronella oil is the
essential oil obtained from Cymbopogon nardus plant.
Its strong scent irritates the mosquitoes and other insects
and hence the mosquito usually stays away from the
scent and cannot sense the presence or scent of a human
being. Thus is very effective as a mosquito repellent and
has a very pleasant scent.
Camphor - Camphor is originally a white and oily resin
of the tree Cinnamommum camphora. Its crystals are
also widely available in the market. It has been used for
generations as an effective repellent of mosquitoes and
Acorus calamus - This herb contains the compound β-
asarone which has anti-feedant and larvicidal properties
which also like neem prevents the mosquito from
feeding on the blood meal of humans as well as prevents
the mosquito larvae from growing and maturing in the
surrounding areas.
Benzoin- Also known as Sambhrani in Southern India, is
the resin obtained from the aromatic tree Styrax genus.
Its odour also repels mosquitoes and it has been used for
generations in India, China, etc. as a mosquito repellent.
Joss/Jigat powder- This is the bark powder of the Persea
marcantha tree used as an adhesive and binding agent in
incense sticks.
Charcoal powder- This is used as a binder obtained from
partially burnt husk of coconut shell.16-19
Method of preparation of Incense sticks:
All the dried herbs were finely powdered in a mixer
and then passed through a sieve (mesh no.80). The
powder should be very fine or else there will be
problems in the binding and burning. Total 100
grams of powder premix taken to prepare 20 incense
sticks. The quantity of plant material taken is listed in
Table 1.
Water was gradually added to the fine powder until it
attains dough like consistency. It should be well
mixed and not too watery dough otherwise it creates
problem in making sticks.
The dough was divided in portions and was rolled by
hand in small quantities on plain bamboo sticks. This
can be done by a machine in large scale production.
The sticks were dried for 24 hours under shade. Tray
dryer can also be used to dry the sticks faster.
The dried incense sticks were then scented with
lemon grass oil.
Finally sticks were packed in a suitable packing
material preferably plastic.
Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 13(1): January 2020
Table 1. Quantity of material taken for 20 Incense sticks
Sl No
Neem powder
10 grams
5 grams
5 grams
5 grams
10 grams
50 grams
Joss powder
Lemongrass oil Q.S
100 grams
Testing mosquito repellent activity of incense sticks
using mosquito net cage method:
The mosquitos used in this experiment were caught by
big plastic cover and transferred carefully in the net cage
with approximately 60cm X 60cm. About 30 mosquitoes
are transferred in the net cage between 7pm to 10pm
since most of the mosquitos bite at that time. The three
full incense stick were burned in the room with sufficient
ventilation and the mosquito net cage is kept at the
center of the room and duration of exposure is 3 hours.
The behavior of the mosquitos was assessed. The
behaviors of the mosquitos were given in Table 2 and
Figure 1 mosquitos with no movement after 3 hours of
exposure. Figure 2 shows the mosquito net cage.
Table 2: Behaviour of the mosquitos when incense stick were
7 pm to
8 pm
8 pm to
9 pm
9 pm to
10 pm
Figure 1: Mosquitos with no movement.
Figure 2: Mosquito net cage with mosquitos
The mosquito net cage method was used to assess the
behavior of the mosquitos when the incense sticks were
burned near the net cage for about 3hrs. Around 3
complete incense sticks were burned near the net cage
from 7 pm to 10 pm. The results are given in Table 2.
and the mosquitos with no movement lying on floor
number noted every hour, the first, second and third hour
result shows 6, 17, 25 respectively, whereas 4 mosquitos
aligned on the net after 3 hours. The figure 1 shows that
mosquitoes with no movement after 3 hours of exposure.
Feedback of the mosquito repellent incense sticks taken
from 20 people and asked to evaluate the formulation.
The feedback results are given in table 3. The prepared
mosquito repellent incense sticks and sticks ignited in
the area outdoor where mosquitos crowded shown in
figure 3.
Table 3: Feedback of questionnaire report
Product elegance
Mosquito repellency
Odor of the incense
Allergy related issue
Product satisfaction
rating out of 1 to 5
score (Average)
Figure 3: Final product of mosquito repellent incense sticks and
ignited for testing potency
Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 13(1): January 2020
A through literature survey was carried out before the
development of mosquito repellent incense sticks. Plants
have mosquito repellent activity like neem, camphor,
acorus calamus, benzoin, pyrethrum and lemongrass oil
was selected, powdered and made the incense sticks by
adding binders. The incense sticks are subjected for
evaluation by using mosquito net cage method and the
results were very satisfactory in repelling the mosquitos.
The feedbacks of the product were also satisfactory
when given to 20 people and the product satisfaction
rating score given was 4 out of 5. The product also tested
for any allergy symptoms when used and there is no such
allergic symptoms like discomfort, sneezing, wheezing
were reported. Overall the product is safe to use and
have significant mosquito repellent activity.
Funding: No funding
Competing interests: None declared
Ethical approval: Not applicable
The authors are thankful to Manipal college of
pharmaceutical sciences, MAHE, Manipal for providing
the infrastructure and lab facilities to carry out the work.
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... Mosquitoes are a biological vector of many diseases such as filaria, malaria, dengue, and Rift Valley fever (1)(2)(3)(4)(5) . In Egypt, the most common mosquito-borne diseases include filaria (6) , malaria (7) and dengue fever (8) . ...
... The present study conducted in the locations listed in table (1) and illustrated in figure (1) namely, Shubrakhit, Abu Almatamir, Wadi Elnatrun and Idku, which belonging to Beheira Governorate, Egypt. A survey was carried out from January to December 2019. ...
... The behavior of the mosquitoes was compared with the positive control (black dragon). The experiment was performed in triplicate [14]. ...
Full-text available
Objective: The present research work aimed to develop herbal mosquito repellents as gels, incense sticks, and liquids for plug-in devices and also to assess their performance characteristics. Methods: Herbal materials possessing mosquito-repellent activity were selected from the literature review based on percentage repellency and protection period. In this study, lavender, rosemary, lemongrass, and cedarwood oils were selected as actives. Span 20 and tween 80 were used to emulsify the volatile materials and then incorporated into Carbopol 934 base to form F1 and F2 gels which were evaluated for homogeneity, pH, spread ability, viscosity, and extrudability. Incense sticks were developed using charcoal and jigat as base materials. The prepared incense sticks F3 and F4 were evaluated for burning time, ash weight, and smoke. Solutions F5 and F6 were prepared using surfactants and cosolvents and were evaluated for phase separation. All formulations were screened for their mosquito repellency by screen cage method and their performance was compared to that of the marketed herbal repellents. Results: Reared mosquitoes were identified as Culex species by microscopical observations of the antenna and maxillary palps. Mosquito repellency in 4 h is 93%, 87%, 89%, 79%, 89%, and 85% for F1, F2, F3, F4, F5 and F6, respectively. Among all, gel formulation F1 expressed the highest mosquito-repellent activity with 93% and is a better candidate. Conclusions: Gel, incense sticks, and liquids prepared for use in plug-in devices exhibited reasonably good percentage repellency comparable to that of the standard. All the developed formulations are suitable for indoor protection from mosquito bites. However, safety, stability, and field studies need to be carried out to demonstrate suitability for regular use.
... Mosquito repellents function with the same working principle, wherein, the synthetic small molecules present in the repellent inhibit the action of some of the major proteins in mosquitoes, rendering them inactive against humans. However, the continued use of synthetic repellents affects humans adversely [1][2][3], due to which alternative approaches are now being preferred. Insects, including mosquitoes, have several proteins in them which can be targeted depending on their functions. ...
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Aedes aegypti is an etiological agent for dengue, chikungunya, zika, and yellow fever viruses. With the advent of the use of natural alternatives as repellents, their precise mode of action during the event of binding is still unclear. Geraniol is one such bioactive natural that has been previously shown to have some insecticide properties. Thus, the present study aimed to understand the mechanism of the binding event of geraniol with the whole proteome of A. aegypti. Twenty protein target categories were shortlisted for the mosquito, wherein the proteins were downloaded with respect to the reference proteome. Conserved domain analysis was performed for the same using the CDD search tool to find the proteins that have common domains. 309 proteins were modeled using RaptorX standalone tool, and validated using Ramachandran plots from SAVES v6.0 from ProCheck. These modeled and validated proteins were then docked against geraniol, using POAP software, for understanding the binding energies. The top 3 best-docked complexes were then analyzed for their stabilities and event of binding via 100 ns simulation studies using DESMOND’s Maestro environment. The docking results showed that the geraniol-voltage-gated sodium channel had the best energy of − 7.1 kcal/mol, followed by geraniol-glutathione-S-transferase (− 6.8 kcal/mol) and geraniol-alpha esterase (− 6.8 kcal/mol). The simulations for these 3 complexes revealed that several residues of the proteins interacted well with geraniol at a molecular level, and all three docked complexes were found to be stable when simulated (RMSD: 16–18 Å, 3.6–4.8 Å, 4.8–5.6 Å, respectively). Thus, the present study provides insights into the mechanism of the binding event of geraniol with the major A. aegypti targets, thereby, assisting the use of geraniol as a natural repellent.
... Incense sticks are long cylindrical-shaped fragrant materials used for spreading aroma in homes and temples during the worshipping of deities, and are sometimes also used as an insect-repelling agent [1,2]. The burning of incense sticks leaves behind ashes known as incense stick ash (ISA) [3][4][5][6]. Every year, a million tons (MTs) of incense sticks are burned around the whole globe, out of which India alone is expected to have had a turnover of around Rs 7500-8000 crore from August to December 2021. ...
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With rapid industrialization, there is an ever-increasing demand for iron oxides, calcium oxides, aluminum oxides, silica, and zeolites as raw materials for various industries, but reserves of such metal oxides are continuously diminishing. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore new alternatives for such value-added minerals. One such material is incense stick ash (ISA), which is among the most unexplored byproducts from residential and holy places. Currently, ISA is of no use and it is disposed of in millions of tons (MTs) in rivers and other water bodies in India due to its sacred value. The major chemical composition of ISA is calcium, silica, alumina, ferrous minerals, magnesium, and traces of Na, K, P, Ti, etc. Major fractions of ISA, i.e., 50–60%, are made up of calcium and magnesium oxides; 20–30% of ISA is made up of silica, alumina, and ferrous minerals, as revealed by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). In the present research work, methods of recovery of value-added micro and nano minerals from ISA are suggested, using cost-effective techniques and an eco-friendly approach. Firstly, magnetic fractions were recovered by a magnetic separation method; then, alumina, silica, and calcium oxides were synthesized from non-magnetic fractions. The confirmation of the synthesized and extracted nanomaterials was done by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size analyzer (PSA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy with electron diffraction spectroscopy (FESEM-EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The purity of synthesized particles varied from 40–80%. In the future, ISA will prove to be an alternative resource material for Fe, Ca, Si, C, Al, and zeolites, which will minimize solid waste pollution and water pollution arising due to the disposal of ISA into water bodies.
... Similarly, the higher concentration of azatrol, triple action neem oil and pure neem oil were able to repel aphids feeding on sweet pepper plants (Shannag et al., 2014). Recently, Incense sticks of different herbal products along with neem were made and these sticks on burning were proved to be the most effective to control mosquito (Bahadur et al., 2020). ...
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Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a member of Meliaceaefamily, a fast-growing tropical evergreen plant whose products were found effective against economically important insect pests and diseases. All parts of this plant particularly leaf, bark, and root extracts have the biopesticidal activities. Azadirachtin, abiopesticideobtained from neem extract, can be used for con-trolling various insect pests in agriculture. It acts oninsectsby repelling them, by inhibiting feeding, and by disrupting their growth, and reproduction. Neem-based formulations do not usually killinsectsdirectly, but they can alter their behavior in significant ways to reducepestdamage to crops and reduce their reproductive potential. The neem is considered as an eas-ily accessible, eco-friendly, biodegradable, cheap, and non-toxic biopesticide which control the target pests. Thus, this re-view highlighted the extract, byproducts and roles of neem that can be used as potential biopesticide in agriculture.
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Simple herbs are a remedy for various problems and holds good even for mosquito menace. Mosquitoes are well known vectors of several disease-causing pathogens. They are a cause of concern for various diseases like malaria, filariasis, dengue haemorrhagic fever and chikungunya.DEET (N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) is so far the golden standard for mosquito repellant effect. Many synthetic mosquito repellants are available but question of safety is an issue. Thus the need for a safer alternative with herbs has aroused. In Ayurveda treatise the combination of Chandana (Santalum album) and Sarshapa (Brassica campestris) as dhupana (fumigation) has been said as krimighna (insecticidal). The extracts of these two drugs have proved to have mosquito repellant action against Aedes aegypti. The study was conducted by Cone bioassay and Cage Bioassay methods. The repellency activity of these plant extracts were tested at five different concentration (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 mg/cm2) and at the density of 100 mosquitoes against 3-4 days old, blood starved female Ae.aegypti. The skin repellency activity of Santalum album and Brassica campestris plant extract gave maximum protection at 5.0 mg/cm2 concentration (6.30 hours).
Due to the increase in allergic reactions to synthetic drugs, there has been a demand to expand the range of medications based on medicinal plant-based raw materials. Tanacetum vulgare is a medicinal plant that contains large amount of biologically active substances and is widely used in traditional and modern medicine. The aim of the study was to elaborate the chemical composition and pharmacological activity of extracts (the essential oil, the tincture and the petroleum extract) derived from medicinal plant-based raw materials of Tanacetum vulgare. The object of the study was essential oil obtained from fresh Tanacetum vulgare grass, petroleum extraction of Tanacetum vulgare and tincture obtained from Tanacetum vulgare using the maceration method. The qualitative composition of essential oil, tincture and petroleum extraction was determined by chromatography-mass spectrometry. In essential oil, regardless of the preparation method, the maximal antioxidant activity is shown by the petroleum extraction from the grass of Tanacetum vulgare. Hydrodistillation was performed using a Ginsberg method or hydrodistillation using a Cleveger method. More than 80 compounds have been identified; more than 100 compounds have been identified in tincture, and more than 150 compounds have been identified in petroleum extraction,such as camphor, borneol, ascaridiol, isoaromadendrene, cubenol, limonene, carvacrol, pinene, cineol, terpineol and chrysanthenon. Tincture and essential oil exhibit antioxidant activity slightly lower than petroleum extraction.
Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) is the principal vector for several diseases and despite having synthetic repellents to curb its feeding and transmission, they pose a threat to humans upon chronic use. Therefore, this study explores natural alternative thymol, via both structural and molecular binding properties against whole proteome targets of A. using a multi-target approach. Properties of thymol were studied using ProTox-II to determine the toxicity class. A preliminary screening of the proteome of A. aegypti was performed using existing microarray data analysis, conserved domain studies and protein modelling to narrow down the target categories. RaptorX standalone high-computing server was utilised for 309 protein structure modelling. Molecular docking was performed for 20 shortlisted protein categories against thymol, and top three docked complexes were simulated at 100 ns. Results showed that thymol belonged to class 4 low-toxicity, and molecular docking and 100 ns simulations in dynamic environment revealed stable complexes of thymol with glutathione-S-transferase (GST), octopamine receptor and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GGCC). Free energy binding via molecular mechanics revealed thymol with GST and GGCC to be stable. Our multi-target study presents insights into the molecular binding events that take place when thymol binds to newly identified A. aegypti targets.
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Citronella grass has been serving from years as a mosquito repellent in the field of ancient and modern medicine. Commercially available mosquito repellents are chemical based and disastrous to human health. An attempt has been made to prepare a 100% herbal product based on Citronella leaf remains which is left out and of no use after steam distillation. It is cheap, effective and environment friendly. It is a first and preliminary work based on formulating and evaluating herbal mosquito repellent cakes using natural binders such as neem powder, potato starch, corn starch, coconut shell powder, wood powder and cow dung. The efficacy of prepared citronella leaf cakes were evaluated on three different parameters such as flammability, burning time and mosquito repellency test. Also, the cakes were sprayed with different concentrations of Citronella oil. Based on the results obtained from these parameters, the residual percentage of each combination of cakes was calculated and it suggested that Neem powder cake has the most effective repellency activity when impregnated with 10% Citronella oil
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Mosquito repellents play an important role in preventing man-mosquito contact. In the present study, we evaluated the synergistic mosquito-repellent activity of Curcuma longa, Pogostemon heyneanus and Zanthoxylum limonella essential oils. The mosquito repellent efficacies of three essential oils were evaluated separately and in combination under laboratory and field conditions. N,N-Diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA) and dimethylphthalate (DMP) were used for comparison of the protection time of the mixture of essential oils. At an optimum concentration of 20%, the essential oils of C. longa, Z. limonella and P. heyneanus provided complete protection times (CPTs) of 96.2, 91.4 and 123.4min, respectively, against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in the laboratory. The 1:1:2 mixture of the essential oils provided 329.4 and 391.0min of CPT in the laboratory and field trials, respectively. The percent increases in CPTs for the essential oil mixture were 30 for DMP and 55 for N,N-diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA). The synergistic repellent activity of the essential oils used in the present study might be useful for developing safer alternatives to synthetic repellents for personal protection against mosquitoes. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Essential oils from Cedrus deodara, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon flexuous, C. winterianus, Pinus roxburghii, Syzygium aromaticum and Tagetes minuta were evaluated for bioactivity against the adults of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. Serial dilutions of the oils were made in deodorized kerosene to obtain a range of concentrations (0.5-10%) and the adults were exposed to the vapour of the different oils for 1h in WHO kits for sensitivity testing. C. winterianus and S. aromaticum oils were equi effective and found most effective with LC50 and LC95 values respectively at 0.5 and 0.9 % for C. quinquefasciatus and 1.0 and 2.0 % for A. aegypti. Activity was found in the order. S. aromaticum > C. flexuous > E. citriodora > C. winterianus > C. deodara > T. minuta.
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This study investigated insect bite protection and length of the protection with 30 repellents which were divided into 3 categories: plant oil, essential oil and essential oil with ethyl alcohol, tested against three mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles minimus and Culex quinquefasciatus, under laboratory conditions. The plant oil group was comprised of Phlai (Zingiber cassumunar) and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Both substances were effective as repellents and feeding deterrents against An. minimus (205 minutes protection time and a biting rate of 0.9%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (165 minutes protection time and 0.9% biting rate) and Ae. aegypti (90 minutes protection time and 0.8% biting rate). Essential oil from citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) exhibited protection against biting from all 3 mosquito species: for An. minimus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, the results were 130 minutes and 0.9%, 140 minutes and 0.8%, and 115 minutes and 0.8%, respectively. The period of protection time against Ae. aegypti for all repellent candidates tested was lower than the Thai Industrial Standards Institute (TISI) determined time of greater than 2 hours.
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Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes are the primary vector responsible for Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Macha, Zambia. Because insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have the potential to alter host feeding behavior, the extent of the zoophilic and exophagic tendencies of the vector was evaluated during the two rainy seasons after ITN introduction. Centers for Disease Control light traps, paired indoor/outdoor human landing catches, and outdoor cattle-baited collections were used to assess potential changes in host preference. Results support the hypothesis that An. arabiensis mosquitoes in Macha remain highly anthropophilic despite high ITN use. Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Macha appear to be relatively exophagic and have been caught biting outdoors immediately after sunset and before sunrise, potentially circumventing some of the protective effects of ITNs.
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Methanol leaf extracts of two Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants viz., Lomisar [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. (Poaceae)] and Bisana [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Croton macrostachyus Del. (Euphorbiaceae)] were screened for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector in Ethiopia. The larval mortality was observed 24 h of post treatment. Both plant extracts demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis. Cymbopogon citratus extract has exhibited potent larvicidal activity than Croton macrostachyus at lower concentrations. The LC50 and LC90 values of Cymbopogon citratus were 74.02 and 158.20 ppm, respectively. From this data, a chi-square value 2.760 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. While, the LC50 and LC90 values of Croton macrostachyus were 89.25 and 224.98 ppm, respectively and the chi-square value 1.035 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. The present investigation establishes that these plant extracts could serve as potent mosquito larvicidal agents against Anopheles arabiensis. However, their mode of actions and larvicidal efficiency under the field conditions should be scrutinized and determined in the near future.
This paper reveals the trend of knowledge and self-reported practice of traditional insect repellent plants (TIRPs) and could serve as a baseline data to identify/formulate novel plant-based insect repellents in the near future. Insect repellent plants usage is a long-standing and age old tradition. Thus, the major objective of this survey was to assess the knowledge and self-reported practice of the local inhabitants on TIRPs in Western Hararghe zone, Ethiopia. The ethnobotanical survey was conducted between January and March 2011 via administering pre-tested questionnaire by involving the selected 150 household members in the study area. The survey results clearly reveal that nearly 92.1% [90.1% (99/110) of female and 97.5% (39/40) of male] of the respondents have had adequate awareness on TIRPs. Leaves were the most widely applied plant parts and burning/smoldering the plant materials in order to generate smoke was the most common practice. Chi-square statistical analysis shows that there was no significant difference observed in the knowledge of the repellent plants between the gender (P-value=0.134), average monthly income (P-value=0.529) and educational status (P-value=0.107) but there was a significant association with the age (P-value=0.012) of respondents. However, repellent plants usage custom is significantly associated with gender (P-value=0.021) and educational status (P-value=0.003) of the respondents but, there was such no significant relationship between the age (P-value=0.312) average monthly income (P-value=0.111) and repellent plants usage custom. Conducting more ethnobotanical survey on TIRPs is extremely important in order to generate and maintain the data-base. Besides, identifying the bio-active molecules, which are responsible for the repellent activity and eventually conducting laboratory and field based studies to evaluate their efficacy and safety are extremely imperative to formulate new classes of plant-based insect repellents/insecticides in the near future.
This review aims to examine the effectiveness of citronella preparation used as a mosquito repellent. Multiple computerized databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, and AMED, were searched for controlled laboratory experiments that compared the effectiveness of citronella products to control in repelling Aedes, Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes using the cage or room methods. Outcomes measures were protection time and percentage repellency. The weighted mean difference and 95% confidence interval were calculated comparing the outcomes in the citronella and control groups. Meta-analysis was performed using the DerSimonian and Laird method under a random-effects model. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria. Based on a meta-analysis of studies using the cage method, protection time of the citronella oil for preventing Aedes mosquitoes was less than that in the DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) group, with a difference in protection time of 253 min (95% confidence interval: 169-336). The combination of citronella oil and vanillin is likely to have a longer protection time compared with citronella oil alone. In studies using the room method, citronella oil and/or the combination of citronella oil and vanillin provided complete repellency at least 3 h. In Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, a combination of citronella oil and vanillin product demonstrated a comparable protection time against DEET; however, it remained inconclusive due to a limited number of studies. Citronella products are less effective than DEET products in terms of duration of protection. Adding vanillin to citronella oil products could prolong the protection time.