The Design and Implementation of a 3D Information System for Ship Pump Systems

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This project creates a Web-based Information System for ship pump systems that can display 2D and 3D representations for demonstration and monitoring purposes which can be extended later to overlay faults information from some sensors on the real system. The project is introduced by an industrial partner, Lloyd's Register, and is a part of a larger project that collects, processes and displays data for monitoring, repairing and training purposes. This system acts as the presentation layer for a multi-layered system which includes collecting real data from components and sensors for analysis, predicting faults and presenting information. The information system allows navigation and understanding of elements within 3D models of circuits and centrifugal pumps. End-users will be able to navigate various pumps, browse information about their components which are clickable and navigable, and display information from multiple sensors in the system. Separating or dissecting parts of the pumps is possible with different control elements showing multiple views of the system. Information other than the pump’s components is shown, such as possible faults, maintenance data, and component information.

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Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology provides broad-ranging support of AEC (architecture, engineering, and construction) industry needs. The inclusion of a web display provides increased support to BIM users and it is desirable that global CAD (computer-aided design) and BIM design software should provide increased access to building product specifications via web browser. Recent actions towards to develop a BIM-based Web3D environments evidence the effort of facing the situation which request to integrate IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) with web technology, such as WebGL. This paper discusses a method to create 3D visualization for BIM models in web browser by combining IFC standard and WebGL technology. The solution is developed based upon a conversion of IFC text into object file (OBJ) and a subsequent OBJ compilation in WebGL. The main work consists of three parts. First, based on IFC standard, the IFC-to-OBJ transforming method is constructed for encoding specific IFC attributes into the OBJ file. Second, through WebGL programming, a visualization method is presented for creating 3D performance in web browser. Thirdly, a visualization platform with three-layered structure is designed based on IFC and WebGL integration for BIM data. The testing of the approach and the platform suggested demonstrated consistency in the conversion process and stability and rendering quality in the display of models over the Web browser. The method may be applied in planning and design workflows, particularly in multiuser, multi-BIM-application and real-time environments, which require BIM models or exported IFC files to be visualized easily in the web browser.
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The article discusses that ground water sources provides a viable replacement or even a new water source for many applications. Ground water amounts to more than 97 percent of known fresh water supplies in existence, even though it comprises only 0.61 percent of the total water supply in the world. It is found that much of the ground water supplies in the United States is located in deep underground aquifers and specialized pumps are usually required to transport this water to the surface.
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Researchers have examined building information modeling (BIM), or parametric three-dimensional computer-aided design, from a myriad of technological perspectives. Many of these studies focus on examining or enhancing the interoperability of building information modeling technologies across project networks. The interoperability of business practices that must complement technological interoperability has been largely ignored. In this paper we examine building information modeling practice paradigms in project networks. We combine qualitative and quantitative data and analytical approaches to investigate 26 specific cases of firms using BIM tools. We identify four distinct practice paradigms and then induce an evolutionary model for building information modeling practice paradigm trajectories in project networks. The findings highlight the importance of understanding and developing interorganizational work practices to reap the benefits of building information modeling.
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With this third edition of Open Source GIS: A GRASS GIS Approach, we enter the new era of GRASS6, the first release that includes substantial new code developed by the International GRASS Development Team. The dramatic growth in open source software libraries has made the GRASS6 development more efficient, and has enhanced GRASS interoperability with a wide range of open source and proprietary geospatial tools. Thoroughly updated with material related to the GRASS 6, the third edition includes new sections on attribute database management and SQL support, vector networks analysis, lidar data processing and new graphical user interfaces. All chapters were updated with numerous practical examples using the first release of a comprehensive, state-of-the-art geospatial data set. Open Source GIS: A GRASS GIS Approach (third edition) preserves the continuity of previous editions by maintaining the proven book's structure and continues to target professional audience composed of researchers and practitioners in government and industry as well as graduate students interested in geospatial analysis and modeling. URL:
Architects must synthesize broader societal concerns of climate change and resource use together with the site specific environmental concerns of architecture. Temperature, humidity, light, sound, energy, and air flow are critical issues in the design of buildings - but how do we bring these more meaningfully into the architect's studio? Whereas in the past many of these concepts were addressed using physical testing, increasingly these are integrated into the digital design environment through simulation. What are the architectural implications of this new way of working? What innovative projects do leading architects have underway? And what tools are architects using to compute the environment? Over the past decade, in parallel to advances in digital technologies, there has been an emerging interest and expertise in ecological design strategies in the building industry. 'Computing the Environment’ presents descriptions of the tools, algorithms, and workflows used by designers to gain feedback on their designs, and discusses the theories that underlie these methods. The latest design tools for measuring, modeling and simulating environmental parameters are examined in a behind the scenes look at the tools and techniques needed to ‘compute the environment’. Practice profiles of leading international offices including BIG, Foster + Partners, 3XN/GXN, and Kieran Timberlake highlight new directions in practice alongside the works of key thinkers in this field such as William Braham, Neil Katz, Kiel Moe, and Werner Sobek. In this book, a range of approaches to simulating and visualizing aspects of the environment such as energy use, daylighting, carbon emissions, flows of material and lifecycle are presented along with analysis and discussion of real world challenges in practice. 'Computing the environment' examines fundamental relationships between buildings, technology, people, and nature, imagining an integrated and sustainable future for architectural design.
Having access to the right information at the right time has been, and remains a pervasive problem during operations and maintenance (O&M) and thus hinders an asset owner’s ability to ensure their facilities performance are being optimized. Typically, asset managers are often confronted with ‘As-built’ documentation that is prepared using Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) and is often incomplete, erroneous and/or redundant, which adversely impacts an asset’s integrity and productivity during O&M. With this mind, the quality of information contained within ‘As-Built’ electrical documentation for an ‘Underground Railway Station’ is evaluated by quantifying the errors and omissions contained within them. The cost to document information using CAD compared to the development of a System Information Model (SIM) is determined. A retrospective SIM is constructed and a bi-directional link with a three dimensional (3D) model is established to ensure the integrity of the information required for O&M. The use of a SIM instead of CAD can provide engineers with a new medium and process for preparing the design and documentation of electrical systems as it provides them with an ability to obtain significant productivity and cost benefits. The empirical research presented in this paper provides the impetus for future research in the fertile and unexplored area of Digital Asset Management for infrastructure projects.
Interest in visualization design has increased in recent years. While there is a large body of existing work from which visualization designers can draw, much of the past research has focused on developing new tools and techniques that are aimed at specific contexts. Less focus has been placed on developing holistic frameworks, models, and theories that can guide visualization design at a general level—a level that transcends domains, data types, users, and other contextual factors. In addition, little emphasis has been placed on the thinking processes of designers, including the concepts that designers use, while they are engaged in a visualization design activity. In this book we present a general, holistic framework that is intended to support visualization design for human-information interaction. The framework is composed of a number of conceptual elements that can aid in design thinking. The core of the framework is a pattern language—consisting of a set of 14 basic, abstract patterns—and a simple syntax for describing how the patterns are blended. We also present a design process, made up of four main stages, for creating static or interactive visualizations. The 4-stage design process places the patterns at the core of designers’ thinking, and employs a number of conceptual tools that help designers think systematically about creating visualizations based on the information they intend to represent. Although the framework can be used to design static visualizations for simple tasks, its real utility can be found when designing visualizations with interactive possibilities in mind—in other words, designing to support a human-information interactive discourse. This is especially true in contexts where interactive visualizations need to support complex tasks and activities involving large and complex information spaces. The framework is intended to be general and can thus be used to design visualizations for diverse domains, users, information spaces, and tasks in different fields such as business intelligence, health and medical informatics, digital libraries, journalism, education, scientific discovery, and others. Drawing from research in multiple disciplines, we introduce novel concepts and terms that can positively contribute to visualization design practice and education, and will hopefully stimulate further research in this area.
This chapter examines the relatively new concept of building information modelling (BIM). It starts with a definition and discussion of the concept of BIM, followed by a discussion on the need for better integration and dataflow. The BIM approach and its implications for design, costing and quantification and the challenges it presents the current professional teams and constructors, together with possible effects on the approaches to design economics, are discussed. A unified BIM database integrates input from design, estimating, scheduling, and on-site production data. This live dataset provides immediate feedback and analysis whenever new information becomes available and allows stakeholders to better understand the impact of new data on the project as a whole. BIM dramatically enhances the understanding of the design and actual construction and provides the ability to perform value engineering to optimise the design.
The additive machines, which use a range of laser-based or advanced printing techniques to build up models layer by layer offers several advantages. The technology offers freedom to the designers that enable the production of lightweight optimized components that are impossible to make with traditional techniques. The EADS team has already succeeded in growing aligned nanotubes within additive-layer manufacturing (ALM) structures. EADS used computerized stress analysis and topology optimization to reveal the location of the loads and stresses in the component and used that data to design a component that consists only of the sections that carry the load. Hague's team is working to reduce waste, weight and emissions during both the production of a component and its use with the use of additive techniques. Airbus is trailing components including control surfaces, cooling systems and the reduced-weight landing gear and bracket components.
Construction projects involve a complex set of relationships, between parties with different professional backgrounds trying to achieve a very complex goal. Under these difficult circumstances, the quality of information on which projects are based should be of the highest possible standard. The line-based, two dimensional drawings on which conventional construction is based render this all but impossible. This is the source of some major shortcomings in the construction industry, and this book focuses on the two most fundamental of these: The failure to deliver projects predictably: to the required quality, on time and within budget; and the failure of most firms in the industry to make a survivable level of profit. By transforming the quality of information used in building, BIM aims to transform construction completely. After describing and explaining these problems, the way in which BIM promises to provide solutions is examined in detail. A discussion of the theory and practice of BIM is also provided, followed by a review of various recent surveys of BIM usage in the US, UK and selected European economies. The way in which other industries, including retail and manufacturing, have been transformed by information are explored and compared with current developments in the deployment of BIM in construction. Five case studies from the UK show how BIM is being implemented, and the effects it is having on architects and contractors. This book is perfect for any construction professional interested in improving the efficiency of their business, as well as undergraduate and postgraduate students wishing to understand the importance of BIM.
All 3-D modelling systems must have the following capabilities to import data and partial analyses from other systems: to hold them in true 3-D coordinates; to allow modifications and additions to be made; to hold and display information about the internal composition of the geo-objects (not just their boundary surfaces); to treat features such as faults as events which are liable to influence, and be influenced by, the adjacent geo-objects; to be able to deal with the time dimension; to support mathematical modelling; to visually satisfy the user; to cope with large scale differences and large ranges of detail and certainty in the same model; and to allow the model and its derived reports to be stored in major generally accessible databases. -from Author
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a unique conceptual framework for integrated asset management strategy that includes making use of available facility assessment methods and tools such as BREEAM In-Use, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED); and highlights proposes areas of commonality between these and the use of as-built Building Information Modelling, that ultimately becomes the Asset Information Model (AIM). This framework will consider the emerging requirements for the capture of Building Performance Attribute Data (BPAD), and how these can be managed in order to assist with effective post-construction building performance evaluation. Design/methodology/approach – A review of the current process relevant to the development of as-built BIMs and AIMs was undertaken which included a discussion of BIM standards and of the COBie process. This was combined with data provided by industry practitioners. This led to the concept of BPADs being developed, to be used within existing green building tool, BREEAM In-Use, COBIE and FM/Asset management methods. In turn these methodologies were used to identify possible synergies and areas of integration in AIM-enabled environments. Findings – Recognising the cyclical nature of asset management and BIM, a conceptual model was generated. It was found that BPADs could be aggregated within an AIM model which could influence the delivery of effective facilities and asset management. The model considers the use of existing Building Management Systems (BMS) and Computer Aided Facility Management Systems (CAFMs) and identifies issues associated with the overall sustainability strategy. Originality/value – A conceptual framework is generated that proposes the use of effective information management and aggregation of BPAD within an AIM.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a systems information model (SIM) that is akin to a building information model (BIM) and can be used by asset managers and staff to make more informed and quicker decisions about maintenance. Design/methodology/approach – The problems associated with managing assets are examined alongside recent international efforts to standardize methods of data collection for meeting the objectives of owners. A case study in the domain of electrical, control and instrumentation (ECI) documentation is examined in detail, with particular reference to the amelioration of errors and omissions in “as built” drawings in order to provide the underlying foundation to support effective asset management (AM). Findings – The findings show that object oriented data models such as SIM provide a robust structure for effective and efficient AM and associated leverage of benefits throughout the entire facility lifecycle of a project. In particular object oriented data enables appropriate and reliable information to be created as a project progresses through its lifecycle, at little cost to the creators. Originality/value – The above special approach to enabling data collection at the point of creation is in alignment with recent Government initiatives such as Construction Operations Building Information Exchange, which are beginning to gather traction within the industry. While the potential benefits for AM of such systems are espoused throughout the industry, there are few successful examples in existence with measurable realization of benefits.
For decades, the North American construction industry has seen a decline in productivity due to many underlying reasons. Moreover, the construction industry in general and electrical construction companies in particular struggled with coordination and productivity. Within the last decade, building information modeling (BIM) has become the means for a real solution to these problems. This paper attempts to highlight the practices and state of BIM in the electrical construction industry. Through an extensive survey and interview process, this research has provided three main conclusions. First, electrical contractors have not yet advanced their implementation of BIM, with 59% of respondents having three years or less experience with BIM. Second, in order to maintain a positive outcome for the use of BIM on a project, contractors should maintain one to three staff members as BIM specialists, adding a cost of 2% or less from the total project cost to implement BIM. Third, BIM does indeed reduce field conflicts and improve coordination. Other than quantifying the current state of practice and impact of BIM on electrical contractors and approximating its future use in this industry, this study contributes to the body of knowledge about BIM by offering the electrical contractors recommendations that will assist them in allocating the proper resources and to understand the evolving use of BIM.
Not long after the industry began to look for tools that would help productivity improvement, rigorous efforts to integrate different computer application systems in the construction industry have been occurred. Nevertheless, most of these research efforts seem to have focused on technical solutions without having identified the key business functions to integrate and the rationale behind the integration. In order to help with this problem, this paper proposes a methodology to effectively illustrate the complex interrelationship between construction business functions and data in terms of data sharing. A case-study was performed in order to validate the proposed methodology. Findings, lessons learned, and further implementations based on this study are briefly introduced as well. Journal of Architectural Institute of Korea
The widespread use of computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems within the engineering domain has provided significant advances in the capability to model design solutions. However, the focus of these systems on detailed design solutions has resulted in a corresponding lack of automated design assistants for the generation of conceptual design solutions, the primary reason being the incompatibility between the emphasis on geometric coordinates in detailed design and the emphasis on qualitative definitions in conceptual design. This paper presents one approach to bridging this representation gap, through the use of a qualitative geometric reasoner for integrated design (GRID). The paper presents a prototype GRID system that uses artificial intelligence representation and reasoning techniques to interpret CAD models and respond to qualitative geometric queries from automated design assistants within an integrated design environment. The expansion of qualitative geometric reasoning beyond spatial reasoning to include temporal and logical reasoning is introduced as a primary focus of the GRID system.
IntroductionBackgroundA Case Study on the Implementation of BIMBuilding Information Modelling in the UKInnovation through BIMConclusion
Building Information Modelling (BIM) is an expansive knowledge domain within the Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Operations (AECO) industry. To allow a systematic investigation of BIM's divergent fields, its knowledge components must be defined and expanding boundaries delineated. This paper explores some of the publicly available international guidelines and introduces the BIM Framework, a research and delivery foundation for industry stakeholders. This is a ‘scene-setting’ paper identifying many conceptual parts (fields, stages, steps and lenses), providing examples of their application and listing some of the Framework's deliverables. This paper also identifies and deploys visual knowledge models and a specialised ontology to represent domain concepts and their relations.
Conference Paper
Museums and Cultural Heritage institutions have a growing interest in presenting their collections to a broader community via the Internet. The photo-realistic presentation of interactively inspectable digital 3D replicas of artifacts is one of the most challenging problems in this field. For this purpose, we seek not only a 3D geometry but also a powerful material representation capable of reproducing the full visual appeal of an object. In this paper, we propose a WebGL-based presentation framework in which reflectance information is represented via Bidirectional Texture Functions. Our approach works out-of-the-box in modern web browsers and allows for the progressive transmission and interactive rendering of digitized artifacts consisting of 3D geometry and reflectance information. We handle the huge amount of data needed for this representation by employing a novel progressive streaming approach for BTFs which allows for the smooth interactive inspection of a steadily improving version during the download.
Conference Paper
The main objective of this paper is to present the characteristics of business renovation efforts and the research on some aspects of the business process and information modelling. Process renovation is a re-engineering strategy that critically examines current business policies, practices and procedures, re-thinks them through and then redesigns the mission-critical products, processes, and services. Renovation is presented as the key element of e-business orientation and the highest level of strategy for managing change that usually cannot be handled by continuous improvement and reengineering methods or organisational restructuring. The paper also introduces different business rule categories and discusses the relationships that exist between business rules and other business-related concepts, addressed in business modelling.
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