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Reduction of Textile Industrial Waste water Pollution

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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental performance and the impacts of the textile waste water from wet processing, and to find some approaches for pollution prevention or reduction. Taha Textile Mill at Khartoum North is taken as a case. The study includes the important parameters affecting pollution overload associated with the wet processing stages, such as, desizing, scouring, bleaching, dyeing, finishing and washing. Different industrial wastewater samples were taken at different intervals of time, and subjected to various tests, and analytical methods. The study proved that, the extensive use of chemicals, dyestuffs and water results in generation of highly polluted water differing in magnitude and quality, such as: COD, BOD, turbidity, heavy metals, anions, alkalinity, color, pH, TDS, electrical conductivity, strong smelling, high temperature, etc. When the obtained results are compared with some international standards such as (U.S EPA), Pakistan (NEQS); it is found that, they mostly exceed these international standard limits. The study proved that, pollution can be reduced by reduction of water consumption such as: effluent reuse, discoloration , precipitation with metal salts, carbon adsorption, oxidation, etc. The study proved that, dye bath from vat and sulfur dyes can be reused for four times; the obtained shades and color fastnesses are both good. High reduction in both color concentration of the residual wastewater and pH is obtained, which will indicate that the other pollution parameters such as COD, BOD, TDS, etc. are reduced.
Gezira j. of Eng. & applied. Sci . 10- (1): 93-108 (2015)
Reduction of Textile Industrial Waste water Pollution
Mutasim Abdalla Ahmed
Faculty of Textile
University of Gezira, Wad Madani, 20, Sudan
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental performance
and the impacts of the textile waste water from wet processing, and to find some
approaches for pollution prevention or reduction. Taha Textile Mill at Khartoum
North is taken as a case. The study includes the important parameters affecting
pollution overload associated with the wet processing stages, such as, desizing,
scouring, bleaching, dyeing, finishing and washing. Different industrial
wastewater samples were taken at different intervals of time, and subjected to
various tests, and analytical methods. The study proved that, the extensive use
of chemicals, dyestuffs and water results in generation of highly polluted water
differing in magnitude and quality, such as: COD, BOD, turbidity, heavy metals,
anions, alkalinity, color, pH, TDS, electrical conductivity, strong smelling, high
temperature, etc. When the obtained results are compared with some
international standards such as (U.S EPA), Pakistan (NEQS); it is found that,
they mostly exceed these international standard limits. The study proved that,
pollution can be reduced by reduction of water consumption such as: effluent
reuse, discoloration , precipitation with metal salts, carbon adsorption, oxidation,
etc. The study proved that, dye bath from vat and sulfur dyes can be reused for
four times; the obtained shades and color fastnesses are both good. High
reduction in both color concentration of the residual wastewater and pH is
obtained, which will indicate that the other pollution parameters such as COD,
BOD, TDS, etc. are reduced.
Key words: Dyestuff - Wastewater - Pollution - colorfastness - Fabric
Mutasim Abdalla Ahmed
[94]
INTRODUCTION
Current concern over environmental issues is reaching fever pitch to the
extent that it affects most of the working population to some degree, even
in financial and banking circles. Governments are concerned with the
protection of health and safety of people from potentially dangerous
products. Many countries intended to produce a new generation of
consumers and employees with a high level of awareness over
environmental matters. (Carr, 1995).
The environmental effects of the textile industry have increased during
the last decade with the introduction of fast fashion in which the media
introduces new seasonal trends for each fashion season. The textile
manufacturing process is characterized by a high consumption of
resources: like water, fuel, and a variety of chemicals. The main
environmental problems are associated with water body pollution caused
by the discharge of untreated effluents, in addition to air emission of
volatile organic compounds, and excessive noise.( Indian textile journal,
2009).
Textile manufacturing is one of the largest industrial wastewater
producers approximately 160 liter of water per 1/kg fabric,(Amna, 2010).
In Sudan there are so many textile factories, some are capable of
producing bleached, colored, and finished products. The coloration and
finishing operations involve a lot of wet processing stages. Every single
operation requires chemicals, dyestuffs, and auxiliaries. Some of these
chemicals may have harmful effects to the environment, consequently
much wastewater and effluents will be produced. Textile industries use
different fibers, materials and processes. These processes include a series
of stages of dry and wet processing. Among these series wet processing
have the most adverse effects to the environment. (Mutasim , 2006).
Since most of the factories have no proper treatment plants, the
wastewater may directly be released to the environment, and this may
lead to pollution overload.
Reduction of Textile Industrial Waste water Pollution
[95]
In Sudan there are 45 textile factories, most of them have wet processing
operations. The coloration and finishing operations involve a lot of wet
processing stages. Wet processes require significant quantities of water,
chemicals, auxiliaries and dyestuffs,(Abosalma, 2005).
There is low knowledge and awareness about wastewater management
and cleaner production technology. These defects are expected to
generate hygienic diseases such as cancer and asthma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Wastewater samples were collected at different processing operations
from Taha Textile Factory (TTM) located at Khartoum north . The samples
were taken at different periods of time (five batches). The samples were
tested using different instruments and machines. Analytical and
spectrophotometric methods were carried out. The results were analyzed
statistically and compared with some standard acceptable limits.
The following Experiments and Tests were carried out:
1. Tests for pH. Digital pH meter, model Hm 20 E, Tokyo.
2. Spectrophotometric tests. UV-Spectrophotometer, model-450,
Hach Company, Loveland
3. Determination of the total dissolved solids (TDS).
4. Determination of turbidity. Turbidity meter Hach, model 2100A,
Hach Company, Loveland Co.
5. Reuse of wastewater. Automatic dyeing machine, type LA-121,
Japan.
6. Measurement of color. Spectrophotometer 721 model (Fen
Guang Duji Shanghai, China)
7. Measurement of the concentration of some heavy metals. Atomic
Absorption Spectrophotometer 580, Hach, Loveland Co
8.Measurement of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (COD)
Chemical Oxygen Demand Reactor, Reflux Apparatus, Erlenm
Dyestuffs:
The following dyestuffs were used for the preparation of the standard
solutions used to determine the dye concentrations of wastewater samples:-
Sulfur black B. R, Bezathrene olive green B (vat dye), Bemacron yellow
SERD (Disperse dye), and Direct Brown R.
Mutasim Abdalla Ahmed
[96]
Chemicals: All chemicals used are laboratory purpose reagents
Test methods:
Tests for pH: the samples were tested for pH in two ways, one by using
litmus paper and the other by using a digital pH meter (model Hm 20E
Japan; using method (J.I.S., L0886, 1978).
Spectrophotometric Tests:
The samples were tested for absorbance and transmittance using
spectrophotometer (Model 721 Fen Guang Du Ji Shanghai) (J.I.S., method
L0869, 1971).
Testing method for color fastness to washing , rubbing and light:
The wastewater dyed samples were tested for color fastness to washing
using a Japanese Industrial Standard (J.I.S.), method L0844, 1973.
Measurement of the Color concentration:
The test method is platinum-cobalt standard method (Hach 8025),
adapted from standard methods for examination of water and wastewater
(water research, 1996), using a UV-Spectrometer instrument.
Measurement of anions (suphates ,chlorides):
The instrument used was UV-Spectrometer. The collection of samples,
the calibration of instrument, and the standard curve were performed
according to the standard method (8051). (EPA, 1992).
Measurement of the Concentration of Some Heavy Metals:
Metals such as chromium and copper were traced in wastewater by using
atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Nitric acid digestion method (APHA,
3030E) was used. After the samples were collected according to the
standard method (within two hours before the test), the instrument was
calibrated using standard solutions.
Measurement of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD):
The method used was "ISO 5815", (1989), using 300ml incubator bottles,
and air incubator, thermostatically controlled at 20 oC. The samples were
collected from the factory according to the standard method (1hour before
test), and the dilutions were made using air-saturated distilled water.
Measurement of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD):
The method used was standard method (ISO 6060, 1989),
(http://www.iso.org/iso/en/Catalogue Detail Page. Catalogue Detail). The
samples to be tested were collected according to the standard method (1hour
before test). Fabric sample; Bleached cotton fabric (100%).
Reduction of Textile Industrial Waste water Pollution
[97]
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results of Concentrations and pH of wastewater samples
Table (1) Calculated concentrations of dye samples and pH wastewater
results .
Rang of pH
Concentration
of dye g/l
Absorbance
Specification
of wastewater
12.3 - 13.4
0.2 -0.7
0.45 -1.52
Vat dye
9.9 - 12.9
1.0 -1.25
1.0 -1.6
Sulphur dye
6 - 6.5
0.4
1.25
Direct dye
6 - 5
4.
0.24
0.35
Disperse dye
From table 1, the highest dye concentration is achieved for sample No. 7
which is Sulphur dye wastewater, whereas the lowest one is for sample
18 which is disperse dye.
From the 19 samples tested only three samples are acidic, the rest are
alkaline. On comparison of pH results with some standards, most of the
samples are not within the accepted limit which is (6-9), where most of the
aquatic life function best within this limit. http://www.2gharta.com/wastewater)
Results of colour fastness of the reused (vat and sulfur) dye
wastewater.
The concentrations of waste water from vat and sulfur dyes were
calculated using a colorimeter. The results are shown in Table (1) . The
wastewater samples were reused four times for dyeing of bleached
cotton fabric using exhaustion methods. The concentrations of the waste
water from the last reused dye bath were also estimated using heat
colorimetry. The dyed cotton samples after each cycle were then tested
for washing , rubbing, and light fastness.
Mutasim Abdalla Ahmed
[98]
Assessment of the color fastness was done using Japanese standards ;
grey scales and blue scale. The results of color fastness are tabulated as
in table 3. Statistical analysis was carried out for reduction in
concentration , and the color fastness.
The concentration of vat dye was reduced from 0.7 g/l to 0.15 g/l. The
concentration of sulfur dye was reduced from 1.0 g/l to 0.2 g/l.
Consequently the values of BOD, COD, anions , cations, TDS, and
turbidity of the remaining wastewater were reduced by 50 to 75%. The
color fastness of the dyed samples were almost good. From table3 it can
be said that, pollution load can be reduced by reusing of wastewater. It is
possible to dye samples of fabric with the same dye bath to different
shades (medium and light shades). The dye bath left is of low color value
which can easily be treated, decolorized, or can be renovated (i.e. new
dyestuff is added) and reused for many times. Reduction in color
concentration is calculated as 79% for vat dye wastewater, where as it is
80% for sulfur dyes. This indicates that significant saving in color has
taken place. Water is saved by 70%, energy is also saved by 45%, this is
because dyeing is carried out in hot liquor, and no need to heat the dye
bath for the next reuse, and this will also save time. The fastness
properties of the dyed samples are good, especially the light and the
washing fastness.
Reduction of Textile Industrial Waste water Pollution
[99]
Table (2) Results of colour fastness of the reused vat and sulfur dye bath
Sample No.
4
7
Specification of wastewater
Vat dye
Sulfur dye
Number of reuse cycles
4
4
Concentration before reuse
0.7 g/L
1 g/L
Concentration after the last reuse
0.15 g/L
0.2 g/L
Washing fastness
Cycle no.
good
Medium- good
1st
4
4
2nd
4
4
3rd
4
3-4
4th
3-4
3-4
Rubbing fastness
Cycle no.
good
Medium-good
1st
4
4
2nd
4
3-4
3rd
4
3-4
4th
3-4
3-4
Light fastness
Cycle no.
good
good
1st
6-7
6-7
2nd
6-7
6
3rd
6
6
4th
6
5-6
*Wash and rubbing fastness (excellent=5, good=4, medium=3, poor =2, bad=1).
*Light fastness (excellent=8, good to very good=6-7, fair = 4-5, poor 2-3, bad=1).
Mutasim Abdalla Ahmed
[100]
Results of the mean values of different parameters for all the wastewater
samples
Table (3) Mean values of the results of samples for different parameters
Mean
values
4
3
2
1
Range
11
10.6
9.8
11.5
11.7
pH
5859
3871
9962
2433
7170
Electrical conductivity (SCM-1
)
4105
2709
6973
1703
5036
Total dissolved solids mg/l
973
348
1201
1077
1347
Alkalinity( Carbonate mg/l)
4221
3842
4380
3883
4748
Na flame photometer PPM
1842
1842
_
_
_
Turbidity NTU
The mean values of the results of pH, electrical conductivity, total
dissolved solids, alkalinity, sodium concentration, and turbidity were
calculated for all the tested samples. The average value of pH is 11, the
accepted limits in many countries ranges from pH 6-9, where most of
the aquatic organisms function best. Below or above this range a serious
effect on an ecosystem by indirectly altering other aspects of water
chemistry, consequently water becomes more toxic when combined
with certain metals and chemicals .
The values of TDS could be considered as indicators to pollution
overload. High concentration of TDS is due to the presence of inorganic
dissolved solids which include chlorides, nitrates, sulfates, phosphates
of sodium, magnesium, calcium, and iron. High concentrations of TDS
can cause water balance problems for organisms and result in lower
dissolved oxygen levels (DO).
As Table (3) show, and by comparing the results obtained with the
wastewater acceptability standards, where turbidity levels for aquatic
life should not exceed 100 NTU, it was found that, the mean value of
turbidity is higher than the limits which are internationally allowable.
Reduction of Textile Industrial Waste water Pollution
[101]
It is known from literature that, higher level of turbidity can affect
several aquatic lives; it can result in low dissolved oxygen levels by
preventing photosynthesis, by blocking sun light and raising water
temperature, by absorbing more heat from the Sun. (WHO, 1993).
Results of COD, BOD, cations, and anions
Table (4) Results of COD, BOD, cations, and anions,
Chromium
mg/l
Copper
mg/l
Chloride
mg/l
Sulfate
mg/l
BOD
mg/l
COD
mg/l
Type of
waste
0.00
0.00
95.7
45.6
457
1121
Washing
0.00
0.00
342.4
68.5
426
1470
Scouring
0.00
0.00
250.8
76.3
354
1149
Bleaching
1.23
0.43
385.4
224.9
562
2124
Dyeing,
(vat)
0.39
0.38
496.2
758.7
518
1850
Dyeing,
(reactive)
Results of Chemical and Biological Oxygen Demands (COD and BOD)
are relatively high for wastewater from dye bath due to the use of jigger
machines where high dosage of dyes and auxiliaries are required to
achieve the desired shade, low exhaustion%, and the higher percentage of
the hydrolyzed reactive dye. The values of COD and BOD from fabric
preparation are also high enough compared to the standard limit values
(NEQS limits 80-150 mg/L); this can be attributed to the fact that, most of
the contamination in the fabric, such as dust, coloring matters, waxes,
fats, sizing materials, etc., are removed here. The high values of these
parameters indicate potential depletion of dissolved oxygen in the water
body, which could affect the biological activity in water environment.
The highest concentration of anions (sulfates, and chlorides) is
reported for reactive dyes and vat dyes waste water, this may be
attributed to the addition of salts during the dye manufacture for (salting
out), or during dye application as electrolytes for improvement of the dye
exhaustion and leveling.
Mutasim Abdalla Ahmed
[102]
The sulfate ion concentration of waste water from reactive dyes is the
only one which exceeds the National Environmental Quality Standards
(NEQS) limit which is(600mg/L).
Copper and chromium ions were observed in wastewater from dyeing.
When comparing chromium results with the NEQS limits, it is found
that, the sample (vat dyed) have got higher results than (reactive dyed).
Chromium is toxic to aquatic animals, and harmful to human above the
limits specified, the toxicity is a function of temperature, pH, degree of
water hardness, and chromium species. The negative health effect may be
“lung cancer, kidney damage, headaches”. Usually chromium has
cumulative effect, which tends to accumulate in the food chain of living
organisms.
Results of Ratios of BOD to COD
Table (5) Ratios of BOD to COD
Sample
No
.
Type of waste
COD
mg/L
BOD
mg/
L
Ratio of
BOD/CO
D
30
Washing
1121
457
0.41
31
Scouring
1470
426
0.29
32
Bleaching
1149
354
0.31
33
Dyeing, (vat)
2124
562
0.26
34
Dyeing,
(reactive)
1850
518
0.28
The high values of both COD and BOD as shown in table 6. indicate
high organic pollution levels and a great deal of organic materials enter
the water, the environmental effect is that microorganisms are required to
degrade and break down the organic substances consequently the
microorganisms consume large quantities of oxygen in the process. This
essentially causes suffocation of aquatic organisms that require oxygen to
survive.
Reduction of Textile Industrial Waste water Pollution
[103]
3.6 Results of waste water mean values in comparison to standards
Table (6)Mean values of waste water samples compared to NEQS and U.S.
EPA standards
pollution Parameters
Mean
Values
NEQS
Limits
U.S. Limits
EPA
pH
11
6-9
6-9
Electrical conductivity (Scm1-)
5859
1500
1750
Total dissolved solids (mg/L)
4105
3500
2500
Alkalinity(mg carbonate /L)
1043
208
250
Na (mg/L)
4221
147
200
Turbidity (NTU)
1842
100
100
BOD(mg/L)
463
80
30
COD(mg/L)
1542
150
200
Sulfates(mg/L)
235
600
800
Chlorides(mg/L)
314
1000
800
Chromium(mg/L)
0.32
1.0
0.10
Copper (mg/L)
0.16
1.0
0.25
Color (Pt-Co)(mg/L)
1366
150
150
When the mean values of wastewater characteristics as in table7 are
compared with the standard limits, the following points are revealed:
1. pH of the samples exceeds the upper limits of both NEQS and EPA
standards.
2. The electrical conductivity, the total dissolved solids, the alkalinity, and
the sodium ion both exceed the NEQS and EPA limits.
3. BOD, COD in all the reported cases, exceed the NEQS and EPA limits.
4. Sulfates and chlorides are below the NEQS and EPA limits.
5. Chromium and copper ions are below the NEQS limits, although they
exceed the EPA limits.
6. Color (mean value) exceeds the NEQS and EPA limits, although certain
individual cases are well within or below the limits.
Mutasim Abdalla Ahmed
[104]
CONCLUSIONS
1. The wet processing employs much water 180 litre/ Kg of fabric.
2. The environmental impacts of wet processing is due to various
processing stages .
3. Some substances are said to be toxic and represent a chronic health
risk.
4. The wastewater is usually disposed hot, mostly alkaline which
contains high BOD, COD and highly colored.
5. Heavy metals; chromium and copper are observed.
6. Anions, higher turbidity and electrical conductivity are reported.
7. Wastewater from dyeing, have the highest pH, color, COD, BOD,
electrical conductivity, anions, cations and of high pollution load
8. The ratios of BOD to COD are almost not within the acceptable
standard limits,
9. Decolourization of wastewater is obtained through, precipitation,
carbon absorption, reusing or recycling. 10.Wastewater can be
reused, or renovated for the same process or others.
10. Wastewater from dyeing (vat and sulfur) can be reused or renovated
for dyeing up to four times.
11. The reused dye bath gives good color fastness when it is applied on
bleached fabric .
12. The reused wastewater strength was greatly improved, color, COD,
BOD and TDS were reduced by 50 -75%, pH is reduced to the
standard range(6-9), anions and cations were reduced by 65%.
Reduction of Textile Industrial Waste water Pollution
[105]
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Book
This book focuses on the technological aspects of the chemical processing of textiles, and on the modifications necessary for specific work environments. Coverage ranges from fibre structure and its relationship to tensile properties, textile aesthetics, comfort physiology, and end-use performance, through to the effect of domestic processing by the consumer on the textile product. The book also examines the nature of environmental control and the development of alternative technology to produce less environmental impact.
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