Article

Associations between duration and type of electronic screen use and cognition in US children

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This study investigated associations between screen-use (time and type) and cognition in children and tested the hypothesis that across all screen types, time spent on screens is negatively associated with cognition. Methods This study presents cross-sectional data from 11,875 US children aged 9–10 years. Exposures were self-reported daily recreational screen-use. The primary outcome was global cognition measured by the Youth NIH Toolbox®. Covariates included child education, pubertal development, parental education, household income, race/ethnicity, physical activity, and sleep duration. Findings The mean (SD) daily recreational screen time was 3.8 (3.1) hours and 99.7% of children reported using some form of screen daily. More screen time was accumulated on weekends compared to weekdays [4.6 (3.6) vs. 3.5 (3.1) hours, d = 0.34, p < 0.001], and boys reported more screen time than girls [4.1 (3.1) vs. 3.4 (3.0) hours, d = 0.22, p < 0.001]. Children in the high (7.2 h/day; β = −1.76 [-2.12, −1.40]) and middle (2.9 h/day; β = −0.82 [-1.15, −0.48]) daily screen time tertiles had lower measures of cognition compared to children in the low tertile (1.2 h/day). Children in the high tertile for TV watching (2.5 h/day; β = −0.99 [-1.55, −0.64]), video watching (2.3 h/day; β = −1.05 [-1.43, −0.67]), and social media (1.4 h/day; β = −0.79 [-1.14, −0.44]) had lower measures of cognition compared to children in the low tertile for each variable (0.3 h/day, 0.1 h/day, and 0.0 h/day, respectively). Higher video game time was positively associated with cognition compared to the low tertile (β = 0.12 [-0.25, 0.48], p = 0.53). Conclusions Higher daily screen time is associated with lower cognition in children. These findings suggest moderating screen-use for promoting cognitive development in children.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Research so far shows mixed consequences of screen time on cognitive abilities related to intelligence [10][11][12][13] . This is further complicated because different types of screen activities might have distinct effects on intelligence 3,13 . ...
... Research so far shows mixed consequences of screen time on cognitive abilities related to intelligence [10][11][12][13] . This is further complicated because different types of screen activities might have distinct effects on intelligence 3,13 . For example, a large longitudinal study found that watching TV and using computers both led to worse school performance, but there were no short-or long-term effects from playing video games 14 . ...
... Baseline association with screen time Watching and Socializing were negatively correlated with intelligence at baseline measures when children were 9-10 years old, while Gaming showed no association. These results were mostly in line with a study with the same sample of American children from ABCD 13 . Like here, they found that both Watching activities and Socializing activities were negatively associated with baseline cognition. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Digital media defines modern childhood, but its cognitive effects are unclear and hotly debated. We estimated the impact of different types of screen time (watching, socializing, or gaming) on children’s intelligence while controlling for genetic differences in cognition and socioeconomic background. We analyzed 9855 children from the ABCD dataset with measures of intelligence at baseline (ages 9-10) and after two years. At baseline, time watching and socializing were negatively correlated with intelligence, while gaming had no correlation. After two years, gaming positively impacted intelligence, but socializing had no effect. This is consistent with cognitive benefits documented in experimental studies on video gaming. Unexpectedly, watching videos also benefited intelligence, contrary to prior research on the effect of watching TV. Broadly, our results are in line with research on the malleability of cognitive abilities from environmental factors, such as cognitive training and the Flynn effect.
... In available literature, effects have been heatedly discussed in different areas, such as mental and physical health [5], social skills [6], as well as cognitive functions [7]. Findings show consistent evidence about negative effects mainly depending on both the duration and content of media use [8,9]. ...
... In earlier research, effects of using digital media on cognitive abilities been discussed controversial [7,[9][10][11]. This topic is further complicated because cognitive abilities comprise a variety of mental processes such as attention, perception, inhibition, and decision making. ...
Article
Full-text available
Using digital media has become the most popular leisure activity for children and adolescents. The effects of digital media use on the developing brain and cognitive processes of children are subject to debate. Here, we examine the effect of digital media use on attention subdomains in children aged 6 to 10 years. In total, 77 children participated in the study. Selective and divided attention as well as switching between attentional subdomains were quantified by the SwAD-task. Parents were asked to assess the screen time of their children (smartphone, laptop/PC, game console, tablet, TV). Results show no main or interaction effects of screen time on any of the attention conditions investigated. Based on the present findings as well as previous studies, we suggest a possible non-linear relationship between the amount of screen time and attention function. Furthermore, we emphasize the relevance of considering the socio-economic background of children and a need for longitudinal studies.
... Les données de la littérature mettent en évidence des différences notables dans les usages des écrans (tous confondus) par les enfants en fonction de leur environnement culturel (Clément, 2020 ;Combes, 2021). Ainsi, les enfants américains sont les plus exposés aux écrans avec une durée moyenne qui était d'environ 5 heures par jour (ET = 4,1) entre 3 et 7 ans en (Parent et al., 2016, et d'environ 4 heures par jour (3,46 heures par jour en semaine et 4,62 heures par jour le weekend) chez des enfants de 9-10 ans en 2020 (Walsh et al., 2020). Ces durées sont nettement inférieures, moins de 2 heures par jour, chez les enfants finlandais (3-6 ans : 56 minutes par jour ; Määttä et al., 2017), suédois (4 ans : 1 h 22 par jour en semaine et 1 h 56 par jour le weekend ; Berglind & Tynelius, 2018), australiens (2-5 ans : 1 h 36 par jour ; Hinkley et al., 2018) et près de 3 heures pour les enfants chinois de 3-4 ans (Zhao et al., 2018). ...
... Il faut sans doute envisager que d'autres facteurs non identifiés sur le plan des habitudes de vie, du contexte, par exemple, puissent avoir interagit sans que nous soyons parvenus à les déterminer dans nos analyses. Par ailleurs, à la lecture de nos résultats, les enfants français semblent faire partie des plus faibles utilisateurs des écrans en regard de la littérature internationale (e.g., Walsh et al., 2020 ;Zhao et al., 2018). Toutefois, et bien que les méthodologies de recueil soient les mêmes dans les autres pays, il convient de rester prudent dans la mesure où les réponses des parents, obtenues par questionnaires, pourraient présenter un biais de désirabilité sociale sur cette question d'actualité. ...
Article
Cette étude avait pour objectif de caractériser les usages des écrans des enfants français âgés de 2 à 12 ans, à partir d’un échantillon de 580 enfants dont les parents ont rempli un questionnaire en ligne. Nos résultats mettent en évidence des différences dans les temps d’usages selon l’âge des enfants et le niveau socio-éducatif des parents. Un effet partiel du sexe a également été constaté. Par ailleurs, une augmentation conséquente du temps d’écran apparaît entre l’avant et l’après premier confinement chez les enfants de notre cohorte. The objective of this study was to characterize the use of screens by French children aged 2 to 12 years, from a sample of 580 children whose parents completed an online questionnaire. Findings highlight differences in screen time according to the age of the children and the socio- educational level of the parents. A partial effect of sex is also found. In addition, a considerable increase in screen time between the period before and after the first lockdown is observed for the children in our cohort.
... At this point they tend to prefer online games and entertainment applications to traditional play [59]. The use and consumption of content through screens involves possible risks, among them, the alteration of the learning system, which may not only generate addiction but also subsequent problems with attention and memory [60,61]. It is therefore necessary to support families by offering them other entertainment and game options that moderate the consumption of their children's favourite channels [61]. ...
... The use and consumption of content through screens involves possible risks, among them, the alteration of the learning system, which may not only generate addiction but also subsequent problems with attention and memory [60,61]. It is therefore necessary to support families by offering them other entertainment and game options that moderate the consumption of their children's favourite channels [61]. In the same way that nations have generated platforms of educational resources and support for education, it is necessary to offer families different options for leisure and free time, which could be carried out in the family nucleus. ...
Article
Full-text available
YouTube has become an educational and entertainment tool among Western European families, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study monitored the main channels for children aged 0–5 years by using the social media analysis (SNA) methodology from March 24, 2020 to August 24, 2020. The software used has been FanpageKarma, which allows the collection and interpretation of data. The results indicate not only a growth in the use of such channels during confinement, but also how their expansion is related to the evolution of the COVID-19, reflecting, in turn, the consequences of the government policies adopted. Social distancing generated a greater consumption of recreational content, but not a greater growth in educational content regardless of the country or culture.
... Likewise, empirical evidence has shown that excessive ST was negatively correlated with the visual word form and the regions related to cognitive control and language; therefore, the authors concluded that limiting ST for schoolchildren was important [57]. Walsh et al. [58] conducted a cross-sectional study with 11,875 American schoolchildren and reported that ST was negatively associated with cognition; likewise, children with high and middle ST classifications had poorer cognition measures than theirs peers in the low classification of ST. Along this same line, another study showed that healthy lifestyle behaviours (i.e., met 60 min of PA, 2 h or less of ST and 9-11 h sleep per night) were associated with better cognition in children [59]. ...
... To this end and, contrary to our results, another study reported that smartphone use positively predicted some executive function; therefore, this study indicated that it is important to evaluate the frequency and problematic use of technology rather than ST [26]. Moreover, another study showed that more video game time was positively related to cognition compared with students who played for fewer hours per day [58]. Future studies are needed to clarify the prolonged effects of ST on children's cognition in different contexts [61]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this investigation was to determine the association between selective attention and concentration with physical fitness (i.e., cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), V˙O2max, the standing long jump test (SLJ) and handgrip muscle strength (HGS)), lifestyle parameters (i.e., physical activity (PA) level, screen time (ST), sleep duration and food habits) and anthropometric measures (i.e., body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) among Chilean schoolchildren. Two hundred and forty-eight schoolchildren (137 boys, 111 girls, 11.80 ± 1.17 and 11.58 ± 1.09 years, respectively) participated. Selective attention, concentration and lifestyle (PA, ST, sleep duration and Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence) were determined using a standard questionnaire. CRF, SLJ, HGS and anthropometric indicators (BMI and WC) were also measured. Selective attention showed a positive association with MD adherence score (β; 5.012, p = p < 0.05). Concentration was linked inversely to ST (β; −5.498, p = p < 0.05). Likewise, concentration presented a positive association with MD adherence (β; 2.904, p = p < 0.05). In conclusion, children’s lifestyles are related to the selective attention and concentration of children; therefore, promoting healthy habits could be a cost-effective strategy in the promotion of cognitive development, as it relates to selective attention and concentration.
... Die ABCD-Studie (Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development-Study) ist die größte Langzeitstudie der Vereinigten Staaten, die die Gehirnentwicklung und Gesundheit von Kindern untersucht (rund 12 000 Kinder, Startalter bei 9 -10 Jahre) und dabei auch die Bildschirmnutzung der Kinder als möglichen Einflussfaktor überwacht (bspw. Paulich, Ross, Lessem & Hewitt, 2021;Walsh, Barnes, Tremblay & Chaput, 2020). Dabei zeigten sich in einer Mehrheit der Studien negative Zusammenhänge zwischen der Bildschirmnutzung und den kognitiven Kompetenzen (Kirlic et al, 2021;Walsh, Barnes, Tremblay & Chaput, 2020) Kaur, Gupta, Malhi & Grover, 2019;Pagani et al., 2010). ...
... Paulich, Ross, Lessem & Hewitt, 2021;Walsh, Barnes, Tremblay & Chaput, 2020). Dabei zeigten sich in einer Mehrheit der Studien negative Zusammenhänge zwischen der Bildschirmnutzung und den kognitiven Kompetenzen (Kirlic et al, 2021;Walsh, Barnes, Tremblay & Chaput, 2020) Kaur, Gupta, Malhi & Grover, 2019;Pagani et al., 2010). In einer Längsschnittstudie (Pagani et al., 2010) bestätigt sich dies: Fernsehkonsum im Alter von 2.5 und 4.5 Jahren (nach Auskunft der Eltern) hängt negativ mit den Schulleistungen in der vierten Klasse (Angabe der Lehrpersonen) zusammen. ...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Hintergrund: In zwei Studien werden die Zusammenhänge zwischen dem Bildschirmkonsum bei Kindern und Jugendlichen und deren kognitiven Kompetenzen für den deutschsprachigen Raum untersucht. Begründet wird der Zusammenhang (u.a.) dadurch, dass der Bildschirmkonsum dem Konzentrationsvermögen schadet und lernförderliche Freizeitaktivitäten verdrängt. Methoden: In der ersten Studie werden Berliner Gymnasiasten retrospektiv zu ihrer Bildschirmzeit im Alter von 5 und 10 Jahren erfragt und Zusammenhänge mit heutiger Bildschirmzeit und Schulleistungen verglichen ( N = 104, 18 bis 20 Jahre, Pfadmodell). In Studie 2 wird der deutsche PISA-Datensatz reanalysiert ( N = 6504, 15-Jährige, multiple Regression), um den Einfluss des Bildschirminhalts (Unterhaltung vs. Wissensaneignung) mit anderen bewährten Variablen zur Vorhersage kognitiver Kompetenzen zu vergleichen, wie das Bildungsverhalten der Eltern und die Selbstwirksamkeit des Kindes. Ergebnisse: In einer Pfadmodellierung (Studie 1) zeigen sich die höchsten Zusammenhänge zwischen dem erinnerten Bildschirmkonsum im Alter von fünf Jahren und den Schulleistungen in Deutsch und Englisch (β = –.29). Der gegenwärtige Bildschirmkonsum wirkt stärker auf Schulleistungen in Mathematik und Deutsch (β = –.20). In der zweiten Studie weist der lernhinderliche Bildschirmkonsum ähnlich hohe Zusammenhänge auf (β = –.22) wie die Selbstwirksamkeit (β = –.21), wohingegen der lernförderliche Bildschirmkonsum keine signifikanten Zusammenhänge mit den Kompetenzen andeutet (β = .08). Diskussion: Zukünftige längsschnittliche Studien sollten die Muster einschließlich möglicher Rückeffekte von Fähigkeit auf Bildschirmkonsum untersuchen. Gerade vor dem Hintergrund der Corona-Schutzmaßnahmen (und damit verstärkt einhergehender Bildschirmkonsum) sind die Ergebnisse relevant für Pädagogen, Psychologen und Eltern. Den lernhinderlichen Bildschirmkonsum für Kinder und Jugendliche zu reduzieren, sollte Aufgabe von Programmen der Prävention und Intervention sein.
... Several studies allude to such vulnerabilities and issues. To start, a study of over 10,000 children (9-10 years old) demonstrated that the mean leisure screen time was 3.8 hours/day, and that it is higher in boys (4.1 hours/day) than in girls (3.4 hours/day) [5]. These are high numbers, because time spent on such activities, consistent with the displacement hypothesis [6], cannot be spent on other activities that are necessary for normal functioning. ...
... Further supporting this concern, the abovementioned study [5] found that children with high and medium screen time presented lower cognition compared to those with low screen time. These declines appear to be pronounced in TV, video and social media activities. ...
... BOYS (N = 4,520) GIRLS ( association between adherence to the physical activity recommendation and suicide attempts documented among girls. Fourth, we were unable to examine this association in relation with different types of screen time, which vary between girls and boys (Walsh, Barnes et al. 2020). For example, screen use by girls tends to be higher in social media use (Sampasa-Kanyinga and Lewis 2015), while for boys it tends to be higher in computer gaming (Walsh, Barnes et al. 2020). ...
... Fourth, we were unable to examine this association in relation with different types of screen time, which vary between girls and boys (Walsh, Barnes et al. 2020). For example, screen use by girls tends to be higher in social media use (Sampasa-Kanyinga and Lewis 2015), while for boys it tends to be higher in computer gaming (Walsh, Barnes et al. 2020). Social media use has been linked to both risks (e.g., social comparisons and cyberbullying victimization) and benefits (e.g. ...
Article
Background The 24-hour movement guidelines for children and youth recommend ≥60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, ≤2 h/day of screen time, 9-11 h/night of sleep for 11-13 years and 8-10 h/night for 14-17 years. The objectives of this study were to examine the associations between meeting combinations of the recommendations contained within the 24-hour movement guidelines for children and youth and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and test whether age and gender moderate these associations. Methods Data on 10,183 students were obtained from the 2015-2017 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a representative cross-sectional survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12 (mean [SD] age, 15.2 [1.8] years). Results Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were reported by 13.1% and 3.3% of students, respectively. Meeting individual recommendations or combinations of recommendations were differentially associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts between adolescent boys and girls and younger and older (three-way interactions statistically significant for both outcomes). Meeting all 3 recommendations was associated with lower odds of suicidal ideation (OR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.09 – 0.69) and suicide attempts (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.02 – 0.41) among boys aged 15 to 20 years, but not those aged 11 to 14 years nor girls in both age groups. Limitations The cross-sectional nature of the data precludes causal inferences and there is possibility of bias related to self-reports. Conclusions These findings suggest that adherence to the 24-hour movement guidelines among adolescents is related to lower odds of suicidality in older boys.
... Early male adolescents generally spent significantly more time than early female adolescents using computers and watching television during the pandemic. The findings on the gender effects were consistent with the preliminary results in our previous study before the pandemic [14] and other studies before [34][35][36] and during the pandemic [37]. Therefore, irrespective of the pandemic, early male adolescents tended to spend more time using display devices than early female adolescents. ...
... Regarding their health-related quality of life, early male adolescents, as compared to early female adolescents, reported a significantly lower mean score for three out of the eight scales in the physical and mental domains of health-related quality of life, including physical functioning, role limitation due to physical problems, and social functioning. Though our study did not explore what kinds of recreational activities the early adolescents engaged in when they used different display devices, studies conducted in the U.S.A. [34], Sweden [35], and Australia [36] revealed that male adolescents in different countries spent more time playing video games, resulting in higher screen time than female adolescents. While access to display devices is essential for supporting school-related activities during the lockdown or school closure, it is conceivable that their health-related quality of life is also adversely affected if early male adolescents have more opportunities to use display devices for recreational activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the influence of screen time during COVID-19 on the physical and mental domains of the health-related quality of life of early adolescents. A total of 860 early adolescents were recruited. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey was used to measure their health-related quality of life. The early adolescents reported their average daily time spent using smartphones and computers and watching television over the previous week. The results show that most early adolescents, on average, spent less than 1 h to more than 4 h per day during COVID-19 using smartphones (n = 833, 96.9%) and computers (n = 783, 91.0%), and watching television (n = 804, 93.5%), respectively. Though early male and female adolescents spent a similar amount of time daily on average using smartphones, early male adolescents spent more time using computers and watching television than early female adolescents and reported a significantly lower mean score for three out of the eight scales in the physical and mental domains of health-related quality of life. While health-related quality of life of early female adolescents was negatively associated with time spent using smartphones only, early male adolescents were adversely affected by the time spent using smartphones and computers and watching television (p < 0.05). Therefore, early adolescents who spent more time using display devices during COVID-19 had significantly poorer outcomes in their health-related quality of life, and gender difference was found in the influence of screen time on health-related quality of life.
... Contudo, nós ainda não temos condições de avaliar, exatamente, quais serão as consequências do uso intensivo dessas tecnologias no dia a dia da sociedade (ex. pesquisas acerca da forma como os dispositivos inteligentes podem alterar o nosso pensamento e comportamento só começaram a ser realizadas a poucos anos - Walsh et al., 2020). ...
... Os preditores sociais da tecnofobia estão associados a medos coletivos em relação às tecnologias e razões objetivas. Observa-se um "gap" considerável entre o momento que uma inovação tecnológica é criada e passa a ser usada pela sociedade com as suas consequências negativas (Walsh et al., 2020). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As inovações tecnológicas causam uma ambivalência psicológica de conforto e dano ao indivíduo. No nível psicodinâmico, esta ambivalência é expressa pela tecnofilia (atração pela tecnologia) e pela tecnofobia (rejeição à tecnologia). A tecnofilia e a tecnofobia são os dois extremos da relação entre tecnologia e a sociedade. Destarte, o objetivo do estudo foi analisar o nível de tecnofobia e tecnofilia dos jovens da atual sociedade. Para alcançar o objetivo proposto foi aplicada um survey em quatro países (Brasil, México, Paraguai e Portugal). Um total de 220 jovens (entre 17 e 24 anos) participaram do estudo. Os dados foram analisados por meio de técnicas de Análise de Variância. Os resultados sugerem que os países da América Latina possuem um grau elevado de tecnofilia. Destaque especial foi observado para os mexicanos que apresentaram o maior índice entre os países analisados. Num sentido contrário, os portugueses apresentaram um grau moderado de tecnofilia. / Technological innovations cause a psychological ambivalence of comfort and harm to the individual. At the psychodynamic level, this ambivalence is expressed by technophilia(attraction to technology) and technophobia (rejection of technology). Technophilia and technophobia are the two extremes of the relationship between technology and society. Therefore, the study aims to analyze the level of technophobia and technophobia among young people in today's society. To reach the proposed objective, a survey was applied in four countries (Brazil, Mexico, Paraguay and Portugal). A total of 220 young people (between 17 and 24 years old) participated in the study. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance techniques. The results suggest that Latin American countries have a high degree of technophilia. A special highlight was observed for Mexicans, who presented the highest index among the countries analyzed. On the other hand, the Portuguese presented a moderate degree of technophilia.
... More than half a century ago, televisions entered the households of children around the globe, followed by game consoles in the 1970s. Today, more than a third of children have their own smartphone or tablet device ( Walsh et al., 2020). This topic is further complicated because cognitive abilities comprise a variety of mental processes such as attention, perception, inhibition, and decision making. ...
Preprint
Using digital media has become the most popular leisure activity for children and adolescents. The effects of digital media use on the developing brain and cognitive processes of children are subject to debate. Here, we examine the effect of digital media use on attention subdomains in children aged 6 to 10 years. In total, 77 children participated in the study. Selective and divided attention as well as switching between attentional demands were quantified by the SwAD task. Parents were asked to assess the screen time of their children (TV, smartphone, laptop/PC, game console, tablet). Results show no main or interaction effects of screen time on any of the attention conditions investigated. Based on the present findings, as well as previous studies, we suggest a possible non-linear relationship between the amount of screen time and attention function. Furthermore, we emphasize the relevance of considering the socio-economic background of children and a need for longitudinal studies.
... Although speculative, consistent with the Differential Susceptibility Theory, TV viewing, rapid paced video gaming with 3D-graphics, and recreational computer use likely require different amounts of cognitive effort and produce different magnitudes of physiological (brain) stimulation, and thus it is reasonable to speculate that the effects on BDNF may differ, even if the "dose" is comparable. This speculative hypothesis is supported by systematic and narrative review data showing modality of screen exposure is differentially related to mental health outcomes (Hoare et al., 2016;Mougharbel and Goldfield, 2020), overall cognition, fluid and crystallized intelligence (Walsh et al., 2020) and brain function (Paulus et al., 2019), outcomes in which BDNF plays an integral role in regulating (Park and Poo, 2013;Zhao et al., 2018) Although not measured in our study, applying the Differential Susceptibility Theory in future research is appealing, given that it accounts for screen quality (i.e. content). ...
Article
Purpose: Low levels of brain derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and excessive screen exposure are risk factors for neurocognitive deficits and obesity in youth, but the relationship between screen time and BDNF remains unknown. This study examined whether duration and/or type of sedentary screen time behavior (TV viewing, video games, recreational computer use) are associated with serum BDNF levels in youth with obesity. Methods: The sample consisted of 250 inactive, post-pubertal adolescents with obesity (172F/78M, aged 15.5 + 1.4 years) at the baseline assessment of the Healthy Eating, Aerobic, resistance Training in Youth Study. Results: After controlling for self-reported age, sex, race, parental education, puberty stage, physical activity, and diet, higher total screen exposure was significantly associated with lower serum BDNF levels (β= -0.21, p=0.002). TV viewing was the only type of screen behavior that was associated with BDNF levels (β = -0.22, p=0.001). Conclusions: Higher exposure to traditional forms of screen time was independently associated with lower serum BDNF levels, and this association appears to be driven primarily by TV viewing. Future intervention research is needed to determine whether limiting screen time is an effective way to increase BDNF and associated health benefits in a high-risk population of youth with obesity.
... Children aged 5 -15 years in the UK spend an average of 1 h 52 min in front of a TV set (Ofcom, 2018), compared to around 3.8 h per day in the USA (Walsh et al., 2020) and 3 h per day in Canada (Statistics Canada, 2019). The UK's regulatory authority for broadcasting, Ofcom, suggests that children aged 4 -15 years were exposed to 34% fewer HFSS food advertisements following the introduction of statutory legislation in 2007 (Ofcom, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The World Health Organisation has urged all governments to address rising rates of obesity by implementing population-based interventions, such as restrictions on the marketing to children of unhealthy food and beverage items. However, the relationship between unhealthy food advertisements and childhood obesity is disputed by industry-sponsored reports, which recommend promoting physical activity and weight loss campaigns rather than policies to limit exposure to advertisements. We aimed to elucidate this debate by providing a narrative review of the evidence on the relationship between unhealthy TV and online food advertisements, short-term food consumption and childhood obesity. We also examined the impact of unhealthy food advertisements on vulnerable groups and identified which policy interventions are supported by current evidence. We conducted a rapid overview of reviews published since 2006. From a synthesis of 18 reviews meeting the inclusion criteria, we conclude that exposure to unhealthy TV and online food advertising is a contributing factor to childhood obesity. Evidence of a relationship between exposure to unhealthy food advertisements and childhood obesity was evident at all stages of the causal pathway, including a clear dose-response relationship. The evidence base was particularly strong for children aged 3-12 years of age and for children from socio-economically disadvantaged and minority ethnic backgrounds. The introduction of statutory regulation is a potentially cost-effective policy option, in terms of healthcare savings outweighing the costs of implementing the policy, although voluntary codes were shown to be ineffective, with exposure to unhealthy food advertisements similar in countries before and after their introduction. Food advertising, however, is just one factor in the wider obesogenic environment and further advertising restrictions must be implemented alongside population-based interventions that aim to address systemic causes of poor diet.
... Internet use research has accentuated the differentiated effects that are linked to different types of screen use. Results from a meta-analysis indicated a negative association between the frequency of social networking and academic performance for adolescents and young adults [15], and a recent study by Walsh and colleagues [16] showed that a higher overall screen time spent watching TV or videos or viewing social media was associated with lower cognitive test scores for children aged 9-10 years old. Männikkö and colleagues [17] provided a systematic review and meta-analysis of problematic gaming behavior and found that moderate amounts of gaming can serve as a means of relaxation and stress reduction, but that excessive gaming is associated with various detrimental health-related outcomes, such as depression and anxiety. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the profiles of elementary-school-aged children’s Internet use in relation to their emotional and behavioral problems. Participating in this cross-sectional study were 877 child–parent dyads from Latvia, Lithuania, and Taiwan. Children (8–10 years old) provided information on three variables: the amount of time they spent online, frequency of online activities, and knowledge of how to do things online. Latent profile analysis including these three variables provided a four-class solution for child Internet use. A comparison between Latvia, Lithuania, and Taiwan on the percentage of the sample distribution in each class showed that there was no difference between sites for the high class (high ratings on all three variables). The largest differences were for the low and average classes (low and average ratings on all three variables, namely, time online, frequency, and knowledge): the Lithuanian and Taiwanese samples were similar in that a higher percentage of each sample was in the low class, whereas the Latvian sample had children equally distributed between the low class and the average class. Analysis of the data from the entire sample for differences in parent-reported child behavioral difficulties suggested that children in the high class had an elevated level of behavioral problems and compulsive Internet use.
... We multiplied the average weekday screen time by five and the average weekend screen time by two, summed these two values, and divided that total by seven. Our analyses provided consistent results with the literature (e.g., Rideout, 2017) such that children's age was positively correlated with average daily screen time. 2 While children younger than age 2 had approximately 1 hour of daily screen time, this duration increased to nearly 2.5 hours between the ages of 2 and 4 and to 3 hours for 5- Some studies found sex differences in terms of screen time where boys spend more time viewing and interacting with screens (Huber et al., 2018;Walsh et al., 2020), yet we did not observe any sex differences in terms of screen time. To examine what constitutes children's screen time, we asked parents about the media content their children consume. ...
Preprint
We investigated the use of screen media by Turkish children younger than age six and how this use relates to child-related (e.g., temperament), parent-related (e.g., parental stress), and home-related (e.g., family size) factors via an online survey for parents (N = 1214). Our results showed that children spent more time using screen media when they grew up in more crowded homes and when their temperament was perceived as more difficult by their parents. Their screen time was also longer when their parents used more screen media, received less support from others, and had more positive attitudes towards the use of technological devices. Furthermore, parental stress was related to parents' problematic use of mobile devices which led to more interruptions in parent-child interactions. Our findings suggest that factors related to parents and the home environment are closely linked to children's screen media consumption.
... Some studies have reported that TV viewing replaces other activities such as socializing, homework, physical activity or sleeping [15], besides other hypothesis postulates that TV viewing can also reduce children's mental effort [16], which has a detrimental effect on academic performance. Although it has been suggested that the association of screen time with academic achievement depends on the type of screen analyzed [14,50] our data agree with previous studies showing a negative association of TV time with academic achievement [14,15,51] especially language and mathematics. In addition to these findings, our data show the worst academic achievement among children in the higher categories of TV viewing and total screen media use, for both sexes. ...
... Multiple studies have found that increased screen time for children is associated with an increased risk of obesity, attention problems and hyperactivity, sleep problems, unsatisfactory academic performance, and unhappiness [3,4]. In addition, studies have found that excessive screen time is associated with poor early cognitive and motor development outcomes in children [5,6]. Greater screen time for children may reduce engagement in interactive activities with other children or adults and may lead to fewer learning opportunities t [6,7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Globally, children’s exposure to digital screens continues to increase and is associated with adverse effects on child health. We aimed to evaluate the association of screen exposure with child communication, gross-motor, fine-motor, problem-solving, and personal-social development scores. Methods We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study with cluster sampling among children 0–60 months of age living in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Child screen time was assessed by maternal report and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations were used to define excessive screen time exposure. Child development was assessed with the Brazilian Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Generalized linear regression was used to determine the association of screen exposure with developmental outcomes. We also examined the potential non-linear relationship of screen time with development scores using spline analyses. Results A total of 3155 children 0–60 months of age had screen time exposure evaluated and 69% percent were identified as exposed to excessive screen time. This percentage of excess screen time increased with child age from 41.7% for children 0–12 months to 85.2% for children 49–60 months. Each additional hour of screen time was associated with lower child communication (standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.03; 95% CI: − 0.04, − 0.02), problem solving (SMD: -0.03; 95% CI: − 0.05, − 0.02) and personal-social (SMD: -0.04; 95% CI: − 0.06, − 0.03) domain scores. Conclusions Excess screen time exposure was highly prevalent and independently associated with poorer development outcomes among children under 5 years of age in Ceará, Brazil.
... Nevertheless, past research is also restricted in several aspects. For example, many studies have focused on well-being, satisfaction with life, loneliness, and depression, but not other constructs, such as fundamental cognitive abilities and skills (e.g., intelligence, information processing, spatial perception, etc.; for exceptions, see Barr et al., 2015;Minear et al., 2013;Takeuchi et al., 2018;Walsh et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
In adolescence, smartphone use in general and social media use in particular has often been associated with negative effects, such as higher anxiety levels and body dissatisfaction. Other outcomes – such as fundamental cognitive abilities and skills (e.g., intelligence, information processing, spatial perception) – have rarely been the focus of research. Here, we analysed data from a large sample of adolescents (12–16 years; N > 12,000) who performed a series of psychometric tests ranging from intelligence, spatial perception, and information processing, to practical numeracy, and compared their test results with their social media usage (average active and passive time per day, problematic social media use). We additionally applied a random-forest model approach, useful for designs with many predictors and expected small effect sizes. Almost all associations did not outperform known age- and sex-differences on social media use; that is, effect sizes were small-to-tiny and had low importance in the random-forest analyses compared to dominant demographic effects. Negative effects of social media use may have been overstated in past research, at least in samples with adolescents.
... We multiplied the average weekday screen time by five and the average weekend screen time by two, summed these two values, and divided that total by seven. Our analyses provided consistent results with the literature (e.g., Rideout, 2017) such that children's age was positively correlated with average daily screen time. 2 While children younger than age 2 had approximately 1 hour of daily screen time, this duration increased to nearly 2.5 hours between the ages of 2 and 4 and to 3 hours for 5- Some studies found sex differences in terms of screen time where boys spend more time viewing and interacting with screens (Huber et al., 2018;Walsh et al., 2020), yet we did not observe any sex differences in terms of screen time. To examine what constitutes children's screen time, we asked parents about the media content their children consume. ...
Chapter
We investigated the use of screen media by Turkish children younger than age six and how this use relates to child-related (e.g., temperament), parent-related (e.g., parental stress), and home-related (e.g., family size) factors via an online survey for parents (N = 1214). Our results showed that children spent more time using screen media in more crowded homes and if their temperament was perceived as more difficult by their parents. Their screen time was also longer when their parents used more screen media, received less support from others, and had more positive attitudes towards technological devices. Furthermore, parental stress was related to parents’ problematic use of mobile devices, which led to more interruptions in parent-child interactions. Our findings suggest that factors related to parents and the home environment are closely linked to children’s screen media consumption.KeywordsScreen mediaMobile devicesSurveyEarly childhood
... 13,15,16 As an example, a recent study of 9-to 10year-old children (N=11,875) found that children used screens (for TV, video, video-game playing, texting, chatting, and social media) for an average of 3.8 hours per day and almost all children reported using screens daily. 17 The COVID-19 pandemic increased the extent to which individuals use digital screens because of the need to stay at home and the incentive to work, learn, and socialize remotely. 16,[18][19][20][21][22] For many individuals, in-person school and meetings were closed or cancelled and replaced with virtual learning and events. ...
Article
Full-text available
Zaina Al-Mohtaseb,1 Scott Schachter,2 Bridgitte Shen Lee,3 Jaclyn Garlich,4 William Trattler5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 2Presbyopia and Ocular Surface Disease, Allergan, an AbbVie Company, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Vision Optique, Houston, TX, USA; 4Envision Optometry, Boston, MA, USA; 5Center for Excellence in Eye Care, Miami, FL, USACorrespondence: Zaina Al-MohtasebDepartment of Ophthalmology, Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, 6565 Fannin Street, Houston, TX, 77030, USATel +1-713-798-5143Fax +1-713-798-3027Email zaina@bcm.eduAbstract: Dry eye disease is characterized by tear film instability that can result in ocular surface damage. Patients with dry eye disease may experience ocular pain/discomfort and visual disturbances that may negatively impact quality of life. Increased use of digital screens for work, communication, and entertainment, especially during times of pandemic, may contribute to dry eye. Extensive cross-sectional studies have shown that digital screen use duration is associated with an increased risk of severe symptoms and clinical diagnosis of dry eye disease in adults. Smartphone use duration has also been found to be greater in school-age children with dry eye disease than in those without dry eye disease. A commonly accepted hypothesis for the relationship between digital screen use and dry eye disease is that digital screen use changes blinking dynamics, leading to ocular dryness. This review describes evidence that digital screen use is associated with dry eye disease, that digital device use alters blinking dynamics, and that dry eye affects mental health and work productivity in digital screen users. Helpful prevention and management strategies for dry eye disease exist for those who use digital screens.Keywords: blinking, ocular surface, quality of life, smartphone, computer, visual display
... Multiple studies have highlighted the undesirable effects of excessive screen time on the developmental, psychosocial, and physical health of children. Among these negative effects were visual symptoms after prolonged screen use [13]; speech delay; and unfavorable development of physical, cognitive, and academic abilities of children [14][15][16][17][18]. Moreover, studies also report increased body fat and obesity as a result of increased food consumption and exposure to unhealthy food advertisements during screen viewing [19]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Globally, there is an increasing prevalence of excessive screen time exposure among young children, including Malaysia. Parents are advised to limit this exposure but there are barriers for many of them to follow this recommendation. To date, there is a lack of studies on the factors that cause these parental barriers. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to determine the parental barrier towards the reduction of excessive child’s screen time and its predictors among parents of children under five years old in Petaling District, Selangor. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2019 to June 2020 among 789 parent-child dyads attending child health clinics in Petaling District, Selangor. Validated self-administered questionnaires were used to capture information on sociodemographic factors, parental influences, child-related factors, environmental factors, and parental barriers. Stratified sampling with probability proportionate to size was employed. Data were analysed with IBM SPSS version 25. Descriptive analysis and bivariate analysis were performed before multiple linear regression was used to identify the predictors of parental barriers. RESULTS The overall mean score of parental barriers was 3.51 ± 0.83, indicating that the average numbers of barriers experienced by parents were more than three. The multivariate analysis showed that the predictors of parental barriers included monthly household income (adjusted β: -0.031, 95% CI: -0.048 to -0.015), parents who worked in public sectors (adjusted β: 0.178, 95% CI: 0.063 to 0.292), positive parental attitude on screens (adjusted β: 0.684, 95% CI: 0.576 to 0.793), parents’ low self-efficacy to influence child’s physical activity (adjusted β: -0.318, 95% CI: -0.432 to -0.204), and child’s screen time (adjusted β: 0.042, 95% CI: 0.024 to 0.061). CONCLUSIONS The strongest predictor of the parental barriers to reduce excessive child’s screen time was the positive parental attitude on screen time. Thus, future intervention strategies should aim to foster correct parental attitudes towards screen time activities among young children.
... Multiple studies have highlighted the undesirable effects of excessive screen time on the developmental, psychosocial, and physical health of children. Among these negative effects were visual symptoms after prolonged screen use [13]; speech delay; and unfavorable development of physical, cognitive, and academic abilities of children [14][15][16][17][18]. Moreover, studies also report increased body fat and obesity as a result of increased food consumption and exposure to unhealthy food advertisements during screen viewing [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Globally, there is an increasing prevalence of excessive screen time exposure among young children, including in Malaysia. Parents are advised to limit this exposure, but there are barriers for many of them to follow this recommendation. To date, there is a lack of research on the factors that cause these parental barriers. Objective: This study aimed to determine the parental barrier toward the reduction of excessive child screen time and its predictors among parents of children aged younger than 5 years in the Petaling District, Selangor, Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2019 to June 2020 among 789 parent-child dyads attending child health clinics in the Petaling District. Validated self-administered questionnaires were used to capture information on sociodemographic, parental, child-related, and environmental factors and parental barriers. Stratified sampling with probability proportionate to size was employed. Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics version 25 (IBM Corp). Descriptive analysis and bivariable analysis were performed before multiple linear regression was used to identify predictors of parental barriers. Results: The overall mean score of parental barriers was 3.51 (SD 0.83), indicating that the average numbers of barriers experienced by parents were more than 3. The multivariable analysis showed that the predictors of parental barriers included monthly household income (adjusted β=-.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.02), parents who worked in public sectors (adjusted β=.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.29), positive parental attitude on screens (adjusted β=.68, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.79), low parent self-efficacy to influence child's physical activity (adjusted β=-.32, 95% CI -0.43 to -0.20), and child screen time (adjusted β=.04, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.06). Conclusions: The strongest predictor of parental barriers to reduce excessive child screen time was the positive parental attitude on screen time which could contribute to their abilities to limit child screen time. Thus, future intervention strategies should aim to foster correct parental attitudes toward screen time activities among young children.
Article
Background The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth recommend ≥60 min of physical activity per day, ≤2 h of recreational screen time per day, and 9−11 hours of sleep per night for 11–13 years old and 8−10 hours per night for 14–17 years old. Objective This study examined the association between combinations of these recommendations and school bullying and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration among adolescents. Participants and Setting A total of 5615 Canadian students (mean age = 15.2 years) who participated in the 2017 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) self-reported their physical activity, screen time, sleep duration, and their involvement in bullying. Methods Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for important covariates. Results Meeting the screen time recommendation alone was associated with lower odds of being a victim (OR: 0.64; 95 % CI: 0.46−0.88) or a bully (OR: 0.64; 95 % CI: 0.43−0.96) at school and a victim of cyberbullying (OR: 0.67; 95 % CI: 0.49−0.91). Meeting both the screen time and sleep duration recommendations was associated with lower odds of being a bully (OR: 0.51; 95 % CI: 0.30−0.88). Meeting all 3 recommendations showed stronger associations (i.e. lowest risk) with being a victim of school bullying (OR: 0.32; 95 % CI: 0.19−0.54), a bully-victim (OR: 0.25; 95 % CI: 0.08−0.78) or a victim of cyberbullying (OR: 0.37; 95 % CI: 0.17−0.84). Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that meeting the 24 -h movement guidelines is associated with lower odds of bullying involvement. Encouraging adherence to the 24 -h movement guidelines could be a good behavioural target to prevent involvement in both school bullying and cyberbullying.
Article
Full-text available
Digital media defines modern childhood, but its cognitive effects are unclear and hotly debated. We believe that studies with genetic data could clarify causal claims and correct for the typically unaccounted role of genetic predispositions. Here, we estimated the impact of different types of screen time (watching, socializing, or gaming) on children’s intelligence while controlling for the confounding effects of genetic differences in cognition and socioeconomic status. We analyzed 9855 children from the USA who were part of the ABCD dataset with measures of intelligence at baseline (ages 9–10) and after two years. At baseline, time watching (r = − 0.12) and socializing (r = − 0.10) were negatively correlated with intelligence, while gaming did not correlate. After two years, gaming positively impacted intelligence (standardized β = + 0.17), but socializing had no effect. This is consistent with cognitive benefits documented in experimental studies on video gaming. Unexpectedly, watching videos also benefited intelligence (standardized β = + 0.12), contrary to prior research on the effect of watching TV. Although, in a posthoc analysis, this was not significant if parental education (instead of SES) was controlled for. Broadly, our results are in line with research on the malleability of cognitive abilities from environmental factors, such as cognitive training and the Flynn effect.
Research
Full-text available
what can education stakeholders do to help close the digital skills gap in schools?
Article
This paper investigates the effects of screen time on child development and cognition and the setting of ‘safe’ screen time limits for young children, specifically children aged 6-to-12 years. Guidelines on screen time vary across constituencies, and the debate around screen time is contentious with many questions yet to be answered. A review of literature was undertaken to compare current screen time recommendations against the evidence from Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Psychology and Pediatrics that quantify screen time effects on the children's brain development. Based on this comparison, conclusions are made that can guide education policies around ‘remote learning’ and ‘home schooling’ to align them with the available research on the effects of screen time on children and inform a re-evaluation of the role of parents and educators in the setting of ‘safe’ limits on screen time.
Article
Objective To examine the associations of passive (i.e., television) and active (i.e., electronic games, computer use) screen time (ST) with perceived school performance of adolescents across gender. Methods Data were from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey conducted across 38 European countries and Canada. Perceived school performance was assessed using an item and dichotomised as high (good/very-good) vs. the remainder (average/below-average as reference). Participants reported hrs/d of time spent watching television, playing electronic games, and using a computer in their free time. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. Results A total of 197,439 adolescents (average age 13.6 [SD 1.63] years; 51% girls) were analysed. Multivariable modelling showed that engaging in >2 hrs/d of ST was progressively and adversely associated with high performance in both boys and girls. Adolescents reporting >4 hrs/d of television time (≤1 hr/d as reference) had 32% lower odds in boys (OR 0.68; 95%CI:0.65-0.71) and 39% lower odds in girls (OR 0.61; 95%CI:0.58-0.65) of reporting high performance. Playing electronic games for >4 hrs/d was associated with high performance with odds being 38% lower in boys (OR 0.62, 95%CI:0.59-0.66) and 45% lower in girls (OR 0.55, 95%CI:0.52-0.57). Sex differences in the estimates were mixed. Conclusions High screen use, whether active or passive, was adversely associated with perceived high performance, with association estimates being slightly stronger in girls than boys, and for mentally active than passive screen use. Discouraging high levels of screen use of any type could be beneficial to school performance.
Article
Background Research has shown that cyberbullying victimization is associated with short sleep duration among adolescents; however, the association between cyberbullying perpetration and sleep duration is unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the factors that could moderate these associations. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the associations of cyberbullying victimization, perpetration, or both with short sleep duration among adolescents, and to test whether age, sex, and adherence to the screen time recommendations (≤2 hours/day) moderate these associations. Methods Data on 6834 adolescents aged 11-20 years were derived from a representative cross-sectional study of middle and high school students across Ontario, Canada. Short sleep duration was self-reported and defined as sleeping less than the age-appropriate sleep duration recommendations. Multivariable logistic regression models were adjusted for important covariates. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Results Cyberbullying victimization (AOR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.37-1.86), perpetration (AOR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.16-1.79), or both perpetration and victimization (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.27-2.30) was associated with greater odds of short sleep duration. Results further indicated that younger students who were not cyberbullied had a lower probability of short sleep duration, but there was no difference in the probability of short sleep duration between being cyberbullied or not among older adolescents. Sex and screen time did not moderate any of the associations between cyberbullying involvement and short sleep duration. Conclusion Involvement in cyberbullying as either a victim, a perpetrator, or both is associated with short sleep duration among adolescents. Strategies that can help to eliminate cyberbullying are needed in public health.
Article
Full-text available
Screen time has substantially increased for children and youth in Ontario and globally during the COVID-19 pandemic. Emergency measures introduced during the pandemic such as closures of schools and recreation contributed to increased screen time. There is a growing body of evidence associating increased screen time with harms to physical (e.g., decreased physical activity, eye strain and headaches), cognitive (e.g., attentiveness) and mental (e.g., reported symptoms of depression and anxiety) health in children and youth. There are evidence-based strategies to promote healthy screen habits for children and their families which offer an approach to encourage healthier screen use in the home setting and mitigate potential harms. However, the burden to reduce screen time cannot fall to parents and families alone. Policies are needed to avoid closures of schools and recreation, and ensure alternatives to screen time for children and youth of all ages that promote socialization and physical activity. In addition, there are key equity considerations when it comes to accessibility of alternatives to screen time such as child care and community recreation.
Article
Full-text available
Time on screens (screen time) on multiple digital devices (computers, mobile phones, tablets, television screens, etc.) due to varied motivations (work, leisure, entertainment, gaming, etc.) has become an integral part of population behaviour. However, a significant evidence gap exists in screen time accumulated over ubiquitous mobile devices such as smartphones. This study aimed to develop an accurate, reliable and replicable methodology to derive objective screen time (i.e., screen-state) from all types of citizen-owned smartphones. A convenience sample of 538 adults (≥18 years) from two largest urban centres in Saskatchewan, Canada (Regina and Saskatoon) was recruited in 2017 and 2018. Participants used a custom-built smartphone application to provide objective and subjective data. A novel methodology was developed to derive objective screen-state, and these data were compared with subjective measures. The findings showed that objective screen-state from smartphones can be derived and assessed across a range of cut-points that take into consideration varied measurement errors. When objective measures were compared with subjective reporting, the results indicated that participants consistently underreported screen time. This study not only provides a methodology to derive objective screen-state from ubiquitous mobile devices such as smartphones but also emphasises the need to capture context via subjective measures.
Article
Full-text available
Background A major contributor to the growing obesity crisis is screen based sedentary behaviour among young children. Media parenting practices may be an important determinant of children’s screen time, however published research exploring the influence of parenting practices on children’s screen time has mainly focused on children’s television use and the parenting practices of the mother. This study examined children’s use of mobile media devices (as well as television use) and included the role of fathers in media parenting, allowing a fuller understanding of the role mothers’ and fathers’ media parenting practices play on children’s screen time in the current media environment. Methods Secondary data analysis was conducted using data from 62 children between 1.5 and 5 years of age and their parents (39 mothers, 25 fathers), who were part of the Guelph Family Health Study - phase 2 pilot. Linear regression using generalized estimating equations was used to examine associations between media parenting practices and children’s weekday and weekend screen-time. Results Mothers’ screen-time modeling, mealtime screen use, and use of screens to control behaviour were positively associated with children’s weekday screen-time. Mothers’ practices of monitoring screen-time and limiting screen-time were inversely associated with children’s weekday screen-time. Fathers’ mealtime screen use was positively associated with children’s weekday screen-time; whereas fathers’ monitoring screen-time and limiting setting were inversely associated with children’s weekday screen-time. Fathers’ modeling and use of screens to control behaviour was not significantly associated with children’s weekday screen time. While most associations were similar for weekend day screen time there were a few differences: Fathers’ use of screens to control behaviour was positively associated with children’s weekend screen-time. Mothers’ and fathers’ modeling and mealtime screen use were not significantly associated with children’s weekend screen time. Conclusion Mothers’ and fathers’ media parenting practices were associated with children’s screen-time. Interventions aimed at reducing children’s screen-time should address both mothers’ and fathers’ media parenting practices.
Article
Full-text available
As a crucial living environment, the Internet shapes cognition. The Internet provides massive information that can be accessed quickly via hyperlinks, but the information is typically fragmentary and concrete rather than integrative. According to construal level theory, the processing of this concrete and fragmentary information, should reduce attentional scope. Two experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In Experiment 1, three groups of participants were asked to shop online, read magazines or have a rest respectively, and a divided attention Navon-letter task was employed to measure the attentional scope before and after the assigned activity. It was found that the difference between reaction times in response to local vs. global targets was decreased only after Internet use, while there was no decrease in either the reading or resting group. In Experiment 2, the same procedure was used, and EEG/ERP methods were used to record both behavioral response and neural activity. Results showed that before the assigned activity, there was no significant difference in N2 amplitude in response to local vs. global targets in any of the three groups; during the activity, the lower-alpha activity induced by Internet use was significantly lower than that induced by reading or resting; after the activity, correspondingly, a more negative N2 wave was induced by the global than local targets only in the Internet group, while there were no significant differences in the other groups. Consistent with construal level theory, the results suggest that when surfing the Internet, attentional scope is reduced, and this effect might continue after Internet activity.
Article
Full-text available
The ABCD study is a new and ongoing project of very substantial size and scale involving 21 data acquisition sites. It aims to recruit 11,500 children and follow them for ten years with extensive assessments at multiple timepoints. To deliver on its potential to adequately describe adolescent development, it is essential that it adopt recruitment procedures that are efficient and effective and will yield a sample that reflects the nation's diversity in an epidemiologically informed manner. Here, we describe the sampling plans and recruitment procedures of this study. Participants are largely recruited through the school systems with school selection informed by gender, race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and urbanicity. Procedures for school selection designed to mitigate selection biases, dynamic monitoring of the accumulating sample to correct deviations from recruitment targets, and a description of the recruitment procedures designed to foster a collaborative attitude between the researchers, the schools and the local communities, are provided.
Article
Full-text available
American youth spend more time with media than any other waking activity: an average of 7.5 hours per day, every day. On average, 29% of that time is spent juggling multiple media streams simultaneously (ie, media multitasking). This phenomenon is not limited to American youth but is paralleled across the globe. Given that a large number of media multitaskers (MMTs) are children and young adults whose brains are still developing, there is great urgency to understand the neurocognitive profiles of MMTs. It is critical to understand the relation between the relevant cognitive domains and underlying neural structure and function. Of equal importance is understanding the types of information processing that are necessary in 21st century learning environments. The present review surveys the growing body of evidence demonstrating that heavy MMTs show differences in cognition (eg, poorer memory), psychosocial behavior (eg, increased impulsivity), and neural structure (eg, reduced volume in anterior cingulate cortex). Furthermore, research indicates that multitasking with media during learning (in class or at home) can negatively affect academic outcomes. Until the direction of causality is understood (whether media multitasking causes such behavioral and neural differences or whether individuals with such differences tend to multitask with media more often), the data suggest that engagement with concurrent media streams should be thoughtfully considered. Findings from such research promise to inform policy and practice on an increasingly urgent societal issue while significantly advancing our understanding of the intersections between cognitive, psychosocial, neural, and academic factors.
Article
Full-text available
Observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents may identify neurological anomalies and other clinically relevant findings. Planning for the management of this information involves ethical considerations that may influence informed consent, confidentiality, and communication with participants about assessment results. Biomedical ethics principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Each project presents unique challenges. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study (ABCD) collaborators have systematically developed recommendations with written guidelines for identifying and responding to potential risks that adhere to biomedical ethics principles. To illustrate, we will review the ABCD approach to three areas: (1) hazardous substance use; (2) neurological anomalies; and (3) imminent potential for self-harm or harm to others. Each ABCD site is responsible for implementing procedures consistent with these guidelines in accordance with their Institutional Review Board approved protocols, state regulations, and local resources. To assure that each site has related plans and resources in place, site emergency procedures manuals have been developed, documented and reviewed for adherence to ABCD guidelines. This article will describe the principles and process used to develop these ABCD bioethics and medical oversight guidelines, the concerns and options considered, and the resulting approaches advised to sites.
Article
Full-text available
Leaders from the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children and youth aged 5-17 years respect the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period). The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and systematic reviews of evidence informing the guidelines were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, integrated behaviours) examining the relationships between and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by expert consensus. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using Canadian Health Measures Survey data to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and health indicators. A stakeholder survey was employed (n = 590) and 28 focus groups/stakeholder interviews (n = 104) were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines. Following an introductory preamble, the guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations for a healthy day (24 h), comprising a combination of sleep, sedentary behaviours, light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Proactive dissemination, promotion, implementation, and evaluation plans have been prepared in an effort to optimize uptake and activation of the new guidelines. Future research should consider the integrated relationships among movement behaviours, and similar integrated guidelines for other age groups should be developed.
Article
Full-text available
Background: The relationship among physical activity (PA), fitness, cogni-tive function, and academic achievement in children is receiving considerable attention. The utility of PA to improve cognition and academic achievement is promising but uncertain; thus, this position stand will provide clarity from the available science. Objective: The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions: 1) among children age 5–13 yr, do PA and physical fitness influence cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function? 2) Among children age 5–13 yr, do PA, physical education (PE), and sports programs influence standardized achievement test performance and concentration/ attention? Study Eligibility Criteria: This study used primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on, PA, fitness, or PE/sport participation and cognition, learning, brain function/structure, academic achievement, or concentration/attention were included. Data Sources: Two separate searches were performed to identify studies that focused on 1) cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function and 2) standardized achievement test performance and concentration/ attention. PubMed, ERIC, PsychInfo, SportDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and Embase were searched (January 1990– September 2014) for studies that met inclusion criteria. Sixty-four studies met inclusion criteria for the first search (cognition/learning/brain), and 73 studies met inclusion criteria for the second search (academic achievement/ concentration).
Article
Full-text available
The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB) includes 7 tests covering 6 cognitive abilities. This chapter describes the psychometric characteristics in children ages 3-15 years of a total summary score and composite scores reflecting two major types of cognition: "crystallized" (more dependent upon past learning experiences) and "fluid" (capacity for new learning and information processing in novel situations). Both types of cognition are considered important in everyday functioning, but are thought to be differently affected by brain health status throughout life, from early childhood through older adulthood. All three Toolbox composite scores showed excellent test-retest reliability, robust developmental effects across the childhood age range considered here, and strong correlations with established measures of similar abilities. Additional preliminary evidence of validity includes significant associations between all three Toolbox composite scores and maternal reports of children's health status and school performance.
Article
Full-text available
The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward.
Article
Full-text available
To be successful takes creativity, flexibility, self-control, and discipline. Central to all those are executive functions, including mentally playing with ideas, giving a considered rather than an impulsive response, and staying focused. Diverse activities have been shown to improve children’s executive functions: computerized training, noncomputerized games, aerobics, martial arts, yoga, mindfulness, and school curricula. All successful programs involve repeated practice and progressively increase the challenge to executive functions. Children with worse executive functions benefit most from these activities; thus, early executive-function training may avert widening achievement gaps later. To improve executive functions, focusing narrowly on them may not be as effective as also addressing emotional and social development (as do curricula that improve executive functions) and physical development (shown by positive effects of aerobics, martial arts, and yoga).
Article
Full-text available
A number of prospective cohort studies have examined the association between intelligence in childhood or youth and life expectancy in adulthood; however, the effect size of this association is yet to be quantified and previous reviews require updating. The systematic review included an electronic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE and PSYCHINFO databases. This yielded 16 unrelated studies that met inclusion criteria, comprising 22,453 deaths among 1,107,022 participants. Heterogeneity was assessed, and fixed effects models were applied to the aggregate data. Publication bias was evaluated, and sensitivity analyses were conducted. A 1-standard deviation (SD) advantage in cognitive test scores was associated with a 24% (95% confidence interval 23-25) lower risk of death, during a 17- to 69-year follow-up. There was little evidence of publication bias (Egger's intercept = 0.10, P = 0.81), and the intelligence-mortality association was similar for men and women. Adjustment for childhood socio-economic status (SES) in the nine studies containing these data had almost no impact on this relationship, suggesting that this is not a confounder of the intelligence-mortality association. Controlling for adult SES in five studies and for education in six studies attenuated the intelligence-mortality hazard ratios by 34 and 54%, respectively. Future investigations should address the extent to which attenuation of the intelligence-mortality link by adult SES indicators is due to mediation, over-adjustment and/or confounding. The explanation(s) for association between higher early-life intelligence and lower risk of adult mortality require further elucidation.
Article
Full-text available
In many everyday situations, speed is of the essence. However, fast decisions typically mean more mistakes. To this day, it remains unknown whether reaction times can be reduced with appropriate training, within one individual, across a range of tasks, and without compromising accuracy. Here we review evidence that the very act of playing action video games significantly reduces reaction times without sacrificing accuracy. Critically, this increase in speed is observed across various tasks beyond game situations. Video gaming may therefore provide an efficient training regimen to induce a general speeding of perceptual reaction times without decreases in accuracy of performance.
Article
Full-text available
To assess the test-retest reliability of the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire. A sample of 4,619 male and female high school students from white, black, Hispanic, and other racial/ethnic groups completed the YRBS questionnaire on two occasions approximately two weeks apart. The questionnaire assesses a broad range of health risk behaviors. This study used a protocol that maintained anonymity yet allowed matching of Time-1 and Time-2 responses. The authors computed a kappa statistic for the 72 items measuring health risk behaviors, and compared group prevalence estimates at the two testing occasions. Kappas ranged from 23.6% to 90.5%, with a mean of 60.7% and a median of 60.0%. Kappas did not differ by gender, grade, or race/ethnicity of the respondent. About one in five items (22.2%) had significantly different prevalence estimates at Time 1 vs. Time 2. Ten items, or 13.9%, had both kappas below 61% and significantly different Time-1 and Time-2 prevalence estimates. Overall, students appeared to report health risk behaviors reliably over time, but several items need to be examined further to determine whether they should be revised or deleted in future versions of the YRBS.
Article
Full-text available
Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for cognitive, attention, and socioemotional skills measured prior to school entry, as well as a host of family background measures. Across all 6 studies, the strongest predictors of later achievement are school-entry math, reading, and attention skills. A meta-analysis of the results shows that early math skills have the greatest predictive power, followed by reading and then attention skills. By contrast, measures of socioemotional behaviors, including internalizing and externalizing problems and social skills, were generally insignificant predictors of later academic performance, even among children with relatively high levels of problem behavior. Patterns of association were similar for boys and girls and for children from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds.
Article
Background: The objective of this study was to examine individual and concurrent associations between meeting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth (9-11 hours of sleep per night, ≤2 hours of recreational screen time (ST) per day, and at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day) and dimensions of impulsivity. Methods: Data from this cross-sectional observational study were part of the first annual curated release of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Participants included 4524 children between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Results: In analyses, it was shown that adherence to individual movement behavior recommendations as well as combinations of adherence to movement behavior recommendations were associated with each dimension of impulsivity. Meeting all 3 movement behavior recommendations was associated with lower positive urgency (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.12 to -0.05), negative urgency (95% CI: -0.04 to -0.08), Behavioral Inhibition System (95% CI: -0.08 to -0.01), greater perseverance (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.15), and better scores on delay-discounting (95% CI: 0.57 to 0.94). Meeting the ST and sleep recommendations was associated with less impulsive behaviors on all dimensions of impulsivity: negative urgency (95% CI: -0.20 to -0.10), positive urgency (95% CI: -0.16 to -0.08), perseverance (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.15), Behavioral Inhibition System (95% CI: -0.15 to -0.03), Behavioral Activation System (BAS) reward responsiveness (95% CI: -0.04 to -0.05), BAS drive (95% CI: -0.14 to -0.06), BAS fun-seeking (95% CI: -0.15 to -0.17), and delay-discounting task (95% CI: 0.68 to 0.97). Conclusions: Findings support efforts to determine if limiting recreational ST while promoting adequate sleep enhances the treatment and prevention of impulsivity-related disorders.
Article
The adolescent brain undergoes profound structural changes which is influenced by many factors. Screen media activity (SMA; e.g., watching television or videos, playing video games, or using social media) is a common recreational activity in children and adolescents; however, its effect on brain structure is not well understood. A multivariate approach with the first cross-sectional data release from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study was used to test the maturational coupling hypothesis, i.e. the notion that coordinated patterns of structural change related to specific behaviors. Moreover, the utility of this approach was tested by determining the association between these structural correlation networks and psychopathology or cognition. ABCD participants with usable structural imaging and SMA data (N = 4277 of 4524) were subjected to a Group Factor Analysis (GFA) to identify latent variables that relate SMA to cortical thickness, sulcal depth, and gray matter volume. Subject scores from these latent variables were used in generalized linear mixed-effect models to investigate associations between SMA and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, as well as fluid and crystalized intelligence. Four SMA-related GFAs explained 37% of the variance between SMA and structural brain indices. SMA-related GFAs correlated with brain areas that support homologous functions. Some but not all SMA-related factors corresponded with higher externalizing (Cohen's d effect size (ES) 0.06–0.1) but not internalizing psychopathology and lower crystalized (ES: 0.08–0.1) and fluid intelligence (ES: 0.04–0.09). Taken together, these findings support the notion of SMA related maturational coupling or structural correlation networks in the brain and provides evidence that individual differences of these networks have mixed consequences for psychopathology and cognitive performance.
Article
Background: Childhood and adolescence are crucial periods for brain development, and the behaviours during a typical 24 h period contribute to cognitive performance. The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth recommend at least 60 min physical activity per day, 2 h or less recreational screen time per day, and 9-11 h sleep per night in children aged 8-11 years. We investigated the relationship between adherence to these recommendations and global cognition. Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, we obtained data from the first annual curated release of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, a 10-year longitudinal, observational study. Data were collected from 21 study sites across the USA between Sept 1, 2016, and Sept 15, 2017. The participants were 4524 US children aged 8-11 years from 20 study sites. Exposures of interest were adherence to the physical activity, recreational screen time, and sleep duration guideline recommendations. The primary outcome was global cognition, assessed with the NIH Toolbox (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA), which we analysed with multivariable linear mixed-effects models to examine the relations with movement behaviour variables. Findings: Complete movement behaviour data were available for 4520 participants. The mean number of guideline recommendations met was 1·1 (SD 0·9). Overall, 2303 (51%) participants met the sleep recommendation, 1655 (37%) met screen time, and 793 (18%) met the physical activity recommendation. 3190 (71%) participants met at least one recommendation, whereas 216 (5%) of participants met all three recommendations. Global cognition was positively associated with each additional recommendation met (β=1·44, 95% CI 0·82-2·07, p<0·0001). Compared with meeting none of the recommendations, associations with superior global cognition were found in participants who met all three recommendations (β=3·89, 95% CI 1·43 to 6·34, p=0·0019), the screen time recommendation only (β=4·25, 2·50-6·01, p<0·0001), and both the screen time and the sleep recommendations (β=5·15, 3·56-6·74, p<0·0001). Interpretation: Meeting the 24 h movement recommendations was associated with superior global cognition. These findings highlight the importance of limiting recreational screen time and encouraging healthy sleep to improve cognition in children. Funding: National Institutes of Health.
Article
Excessive internet use is shown to be cross sectionally associated with lower cognitive functioning and reduced volume of several brain areas. However, the effects of daily internet use on the development of verbal intelligence and brain structures have not been investigated. Here, we cross sectionally examined the effects of the frequency of internet use on regional gray/white matter volume (rGMV/rWMV) and verbal intelligence as well as their longitudinal changes after 3.0 ± 0.3 (standard deviation) years in a large sample of children recruited from the general population (mean age, 11.2 ± 3.1 years; range, 5.7–18.4 years). Although there were no significant associations in cross sectional analyses, a higher frequency of internet use was found to be associated with decrease of verbal intelligence and smaller increase in rGMV and rWMV of widespread brain areas after a few years in longitudinal analyses. These areas involve areas related to language processing, attention and executive functions, emotion, and reward. In conclusion, frequent internet use is directly or indirectly associated with decrease of verbal intelligence and development to smaller gray matter volume at later stages.
Article
Background Sleep recommendations are widely used to guide communities on children’s sleep needs. Following recent adjustments to guidelines by the National Sleep Foundation and the subsequent consensus statement by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, we undertook a systematic literature search to evaluate the current evidence regarding relationships between objectively measured sleep duration and cognitive function in children aged 5 to 13 years. Methods Cognitive function included measures of memory, attention, processing speed, and intelligence in children aged 5 to 13 years. Keyword searches of 7 databases to December 2016 found 23 meeting inclusion criteria from 137 full articles reviewed, 19 of which were suitable for meta-analysis. Results A significant effect (r = .06) was found between sleep duration and cognition, suggesting that longer sleep durations were associated with better cognitive functioning. Analyses of different cognitive domains revealed that full/verbal IQ was significantly associated with sleep loss, but memory, fluid IQ, processing speed and attention were not. Comparison of study sleep durations with current sleep recommendations showed that most children studied had sleep durations that were not within the range of recommended sleep. As such, the true effect of sleep loss on cognitive function may be obscured in these samples, as most children were sleep restricted. Conclusions Future research using more rigorous experimental methodologies is needed to properly elucidate the relationship between sleep duration and cognition in this age group.
Article
Adolescence is characterized by numerous social, hormonal and physical changes, as well as a marked increase in risk-taking behaviors. Dual systems models attribute adolescent risk-taking to tensions between developing capacities for cognitive control and motivational strivings, which may peak at this time. A comprehensive understanding of neurocognitive development during the adolescent period is necessary to permit the distinction between premorbid vulnerabilities and consequences of behaviors such as substance use. Thus, the prospective assessment of cognitive development is fundamental to the aims of the newly launched Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Consortium. This paper details the rationale for ABC’lected measures of neurocognition, presents preliminary descriptive data on an initial sample of 2299 participants, and provides a context for how this large-scale project can inform our understanding of adolescent neurodevelopment.
Article
Aim: This study compared the time spent using screen-based media or reading on the functional connectivity of the reading-related brain regions in children aged 8-12. Methods: We recruited 19 healthy American children from a private school in Cincinnati, USA, in 2015-6 after advertising the study to parents. The parents completed surveys on how many hours their children spent on independent reading and screen-based media time, including smartphones, tablets, desktop or laptop computers and television. The children underwent magnetic resonance imaging that assessed their resting-state connectivity between the left visual word form area, as the seed area, and other brain regions, with screen time and reading time applied as predictors. Results: Time spent reading was positively correlated with higher functional connectivity between the seed area and left-sided language, visual and cognitive control regions. In contrast, screen time was related to lower connectivity between the seed area and regions related to language and cognitive control. Conclusion: Screen time and time spent reading showed different effects on functional connectivity between the visual word form area and language, visual and cognitive-control regions of the brain. These findings underscore the importance of children reading to support healthy brain development and literacy and limiting screen time. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study incorporates a comprehensive range of measures assessing predictors and outcomes related to both mental and physical health across childhood and adolescence. The workgroup developed a battery that would assess a comprehensive range of domains that address study aims while minimizing participant and family burden. We review the major considerations that went into deciding what constructs to cover in the demographics, physical health and mental health domains, as well as the process of selecting measures, piloting and refining the originally proposed battery. We present a description of the baseline battery, as well as the six-month interim assessments and the one-year follow-up assessments. This battery includes assessments from the perspectives of both the parent and the target youth, as well as teacher reports. This battery will provide a foundational baseline assessment of the youth's current function so as to permit characterization of stability and change in key domains over time. The findings from this battery will also be utilized to identify both resilience markers that predict healthy development and risk factors for later adverse outcomes in physical health, mental health, and substance use and abuse.
Article
A recent study has implicated the nucleus accumbens of the ventral striatum in explaining why online-users spend time on the social network platform Facebook. Here, higher activity of the nucleus accumbens was associated with gaining reputation on social media. In the present study, we touched a related research field. We recorded the actual Facebook usage of N = 62 participants on their smartphones over the course of five weeks and correlated summary measures of Facebook use with gray matter volume of the nucleus accumbens. It appeared, that in particular higher daily frequency of checking Facebook on the smartphone was robustly linked with smaller gray matter volumes of the nucleus accumbens. The present study gives additional support for the rewarding aspects of Facebook usage. Moreover, it shows the feasibility to include real life behavior variables in human neuroscientific research.
Article
The aim of this article is to systematically review the literature studying the association between television viewing and children’s executive function, academic performance, attention, language and play. Using keywords: television, children, infants, attention, language, education and cognition, five online databases were searched. Seventy-six studies that met all the inclusion criteria were reviewed. The findings suggest the relationship between television viewing and children’s development is complex. First, the likely effects of television may depend on children’s individual characteristics, family and social context. Second, the features of television, such as content and editing pace, and the type of exposure (foreground or background) may affect outcomes. Specifically, watching high-quality educational content during preschool years improves children’s basic academic skills and predicts subsequent positive academic performance. Conversely, television viewing in infancy is disruptive to play; it reduces the quality and quantity of child-parent interactions and is associated with inattentive/hyperactive behaviours, lower executive functions, and language delay, at least in the short-term. It remains unclear whether these interactions between television and cognition are long lasting. Future research should focus on the systematic investigation of the pathways that link particular components of television and the type of exposure with individual and contextual factors, to investigate their potential unique and combined effects on development. Researchers must also address the challenge of investigating the diverse and rapidly changing technologies to which the current generation of children are exposed.
Article
The study objective was to examine whether meeting the new Canadian 24-h movement guidelines was associated with health indicators in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. Cross-sectional findings are based on 4157 (1239 fasting subsample) children and youth aged 6–17 years from cycles 1–3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Sleep and screen time were subjectively measured while moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) was accelerometer-determined. Health indicators in the full sample (body mass index (BMI) z scores, waist circumference, blood pressure, behavioral strengths and difficulties score (lower = better), and aerobic fitness) and fasting subsample (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and insulin) were measured. Meeting the overall guidelines was defined as: 9–11 h/night (5–13 years) or 8–10 h/day (14–17 years) of sleep, ≤ 2 h/day of screen time, and ≥ 60 min/day of MVPA. Compared to meeting all three recommendations, meeting none, one, and two recommendations were associated with a higher BMI z-score, waist circumference, and behavioral strengths and difficulties score and lower aerobic fitness in a gradient pattern (Ptrend < 0.05). Additionally, compared to meeting all three recommendations, meeting none and one recommendation were associated with higher systolic blood pressure and insulin (Ptrend < 0.05). Finally, compared to meeting all three recommendations, meeting no recommendations was associated with higher triglycerides and lower HDL-cholesterol (Ptrend < 0.05). Collectively, meeting more recommendations within the 24-h movement guidelines was associated with better overall health. Since a small proportion (17%) of this representative sample was meeting the overall guidelines, efforts to promote adoption are needed.
Article
In today's society, social media have become an almost indispensable part of daily life, particularly among university students, who are generally heavy social media users. Social media multitasking has also been increasingly prevalent. Little, however, is known about how social media usage and social media multitasking influence the academic performance of university students. This study examined whether and how these two behaviors predict academic performance among university students. From a sample of 348 undergraduate students at a comprehensive university in Hong Kong, this study found that using social media for academic purposes was not a significant predictor of academic performance as measured by cumulative grade point average, whereas using social media for nonacademic purposes (video gaming in particular) and social media multitasking significantly negatively predicted academic performance.
Despite accumulating evidence linking screen-based sedentary behaviours (i.e. screen time) with poorer health outcomes among children and youth <18 years of age, the prevalence of these behaviours continues to increase, with roughly half of children and youth exceeding the public health screen time recommendation of 2 h per day or less. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of key research initiatives aimed at understanding the associations between screen time and health indicators including physical health, quality of life and psychosocial health. Available evidence suggests that screen time is deleteriously associated with numerous health indicators in child and youth populations, including adiposity, aerobic fitness, quality of life, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour, academic achievement, depression and anxiety. However, few longitudinal or intervention studies have been conducted, with most of these studies focusing on physical health indicators. While most studies have used self-reported assessments of screen time, the availability of more objective assessment methods presents important opportunities (e.g. more accurate and precise assessment of sedentary time and screen time) and challenges (e.g. privacy and participant burden). Novel statistical approaches such as isotemporal substitution modelling and compositional analysis, as well as studies using longitudinal and experimental methodologies, are needed to better understand the health impact of excessive screen time, and to develop strategies to minimise or reverse the negative impacts of these behaviours. The evidence to date suggests a clear need for policy aimed at minimising the hazardous health consequences associated with screen time among children and youth.
Article
The current generation of young people indulge in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive media multitasking in everyday life may be associated with decreased attentional control. In the current study, 149 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24 years) performed speech-listening and reading tasks that required maintaining attention in the presence of distractor stimuli in the other modality or dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. Brain activity during task performance was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied the relationship between self-reported daily media multitasking (MMT), task performance and brain activity during task performance. The results showed that in the presence of distractor stimuli, a higher MMT score was associated with worse performance and increased brain activity in right prefrontal regions. The level of performance during divided attention did not depend on MMT. This suggests that daily media multitasking is associated with behavioral distractibility and increased recruitment of brain areas involved in attentional and inhibitory control, and that media multitasking in everyday life does not translate to performance benefits in multitasking in laboratory settings.
Article
Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: (1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and (2) playing action video games (a particular subtype of video games). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, whereas playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. Because these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impacts of technology use on attention. Across four tasks (AX-continuous performance, N-back, task-switching, and filter tasks), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we showed that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports, though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking sometimes performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers, suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video-game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly, this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together, these findings show that media consumption can have complex and counterintuitive effects on attentional control.
Article
Previous studies have suggested that excessive use of the internet can affect the daily cognitive functioning of users. Furthermore, it has been argued that excessive users of the internet could demonstrate addiction behaviour patterns. Social network sites (SNS) are currently one of the most popular applications of internet use and have almost one billion active users. Studies which examined the dependence on the use of internet have found significant association with sleep deprivation. This study examined associations between questionnaire measures of SNS use, sleep quality and everyday cognitive failures in 324 users of SNS. The sample ranged from 18 to 58 years old and was drawn from 29.6% males and 70.4% females from diverse countries and educational backgrounds. Additionally, behaviours indicating potential dependence on SNS were examined with a new-developed questionnaire. Results indicated that increased dependence on SNS was correlated with decreased sleep quality and with increased everyday cognitive failures. The correlation of SNS use with cognitive failures was mediated by sleep quality. Finally, the final nine items of the new developed questionnaire indicated Withdrawal and Compulsion as two distinct but correlated aspects of possible dependence on SNS.
Article
The ready availability of data via searches on the Internet has changed how many people seek and perhaps store and recall information, although the brain mechanisms underlying these processes are not well understood. This study investigated brain mechanisms underlying Internet-based versus non-Internet-based searching. The results showed that Internet searching was associated with lower accuracy in recalling information as compared to traditional book searching. During fMRI, Internet searching was associated with less regional brain activation in the left ventral stream, the association area of the temporal-parietal-occipital cortices, and the middle frontal cortex. When comparing novel items to remembered trials, Internet-based searching was associated with higher brain activation in right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lower brain activation in right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) when facing those novel trials. Brain activations in the MTG were inversely correlated with response times, and brain activations in the OFC were positively correlated with self-reported search impulses. Taken together, the results suggest that while Internet-based searching may have facilitated the information-acquisition process, this process may have been performed more hastily and be more prone to difficulties in recollection. In addition, people appear less confident in recalling information learned through Internet searching and that recent Internet searching may promote motivations to use the Internet. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Since coming into mainstream culture in the 1970s, video games have become increasingly popular. While both men and women play video games, game companies have begun developing games specifically for women that, unfortunately, adhere to stereotypes about females (i.e., pink, fashion, and shopping). This study aims to help game developers better understand the gaming patterns of gamers, both male and female, through a questionnaire which asks questions about video game usage, preferences, behaviors, and spending habits. Results reveal that men overwhelmingly played more violent video games than women. However, women tend to play both violent and non-violent almost equally. Male gamers were more likely than female gamers to be drawn to games from the Strategy, Role Playing, Action, and Fighting genres whereas female gamers were more likely than male gamers to play games from the Social, Puzzle/Card, Music/Dance, Educational/Edutainment, and Simulation genres. Overall, more men than women treated playing video game as their primary hobby, while women were more likely to regard playing video games as a less important hobby after other more important hobbies such as watching television.
Article
The relationships between participation in various types of electronic media and time spent on other leisure activities have not been examined to any great extent and the research findings in the reported studies have been mixed. In this article, research is described in which 219 adolescents’ electronic media use (TV/video watching, computer/video game playing and Internet/web surfing) was monitored using a time use survey and the experiential sampling method. Behavioral and experiential data were analyzed with a particular focus on the impact of electronic media use on participation in physically active leisure. The findings were consistent with the “displacement” hypothesis. Those adolescents who engaged in higher levels of electronic media activities, in particular, TV/video watching and computer/video game playing, not only reported lower levels of physically active leisure but had more free time as a result of displacing non-leisure activities such as homework. While the overall patterns were similar for females and males, TV/video viewing among females and computer/video gaming among males created the greatest displacement in physically active leisure. More sedentary adolescents not only engaged in less physically active leisure but when they did participate they were less likely to experience intrinsically rewarding flow, and consequently, the psychological growth opportunities it provides.
Article
Puberty is a central process in the complex set of changes that constitutes the transition from childhood to adolescence. Research on the role of pubertal change in this transition has been impeded by the difficulty of assessing puberty in ways acceptable to young adolescents and others involved. Addressing this problem, this paper describes and presents norms for a selfreport measure of pubertal status. The measure was used twice annually over a period of three years in a longitudinal study of 335 young adolescent boys and girls. Data on a longitudinal subsample of 253 subjects are reported. The scale shows good reliability, as indicated by coefficient alpha. In addition, several sources of data suggest that these reports are valid. The availability of such a measure is important for studies, such as those based in schools, in which more direct measures of puberty may not be possible.
Article
Learning to read is extremely difficult for about 10% of children; they are affected by a neurodevelopmental disorder called dyslexia [1, 2]. The neurocognitive causes of dyslexia are still hotly debated [3-12]. Dyslexia remediation is far from being fully achieved [13], and the current treatments demand high levels of resources [1]. Here, we demonstrate that only 12 hr of playing action video games-not involving any direct phonological or orthographic training-drastically improve the reading abilities of children with dyslexia. We tested reading, phonological, and attentional skills in two matched groups of children with dyslexia before and after they played action or nonaction video games for nine sessions of 80 min per day. We found that only playing action video games improved children's reading speed, without any cost in accuracy, more so than 1 year of spontaneous reading development and more than or equal to highly demanding traditional reading treatments. Attentional skills also improved during action video game training. It has been demonstrated that action video games efficiently improve attention abilities [14, 15]; our results showed that this attention improvement can directly translate into better reading abilities, providing a new, fast, fun remediation of dyslexia that has theoretical relevance in unveiling the causal role of attention in reading acquisition.
Article
SUMMARY To attempt a categorization of sleep disorders in children, we developed a 27 item Likert-type rating scale (Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children: SDSC) and assessed the psychometric properties was developed. The scale was distributed to the mothers of 1304 children (1157 controls, mean age 9.8y; 147 sleep disorder subjects, mean age 9.2y, composed of four clinical groups: Insomnia 39 subjects, Hypersomnia 12 subjects, Respiratory disturbances during sleep 25 subjects and Parasomnias 71 subjects). The internal consistency was high in controls (0.79) and remained at a satisfactory level in sleep disorder subjects (0.71); the test/retest reliability was adequate for the total (r = 0.71) and single item scores. The factor analysis (variance explained 44.21%) yielded six factors which represented the most common areas of sleep disorders in childhood and adolescence. Enuresis was the only item with a factor loading lower than 0.40 and with a low inter-item correlation and was therefore eliminated, resulting in a final scale of 26 items. The re-evaluation of the sample, using the factor scores, supported the validity and the discriminating capacity of the scales between controls and the four clinical groups. The correlation between factor scores corroborated the hypothesis that childhood sleep disturbances are not independent entities nor do they cluster into different groupings related to each other. The SDSC appears to be a useful tool in evaluating the sleep disturbances of school-age children in clinical and non-clinical populations.
Article
While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on 'action video games' produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning.
Article
To highlight standard PhenX (consensus measures for Phenotypes and eXposures) measures for nutrition, dietary supplements, and cardiovascular disease research and to demonstrate how these and other PhenX measures can be used to further interdisciplinary genetics research. PhenX addresses the need for standard measures in large-scale genomic research studies by providing investigators with high-priority, well established, low-burden measurement protocols in a web-based toolkit (https://www.phenxtoolkit.org). Cardiovascular and Nutrition and Dietary Supplements are just 2 of 21 research domains and accompanying measures included in the PhenX Toolkit. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide promise for the identification of genomic markers associated with different disease phenotypes, but require replication to validate results. Cross-study comparisons typically increase statistical power and are required to understand the roles of comorbid conditions and environmental factors in the progression of disease. However, the lack of comparable phenotypic, environmental, and risk factor data forces investigators to infer and to compare metadata rather than directly combining data from different studies. PhenX measures provide a common currency for collecting data, thereby greatly facilitating cross-study analysis and increasing statistical power for identification of associations between genotypes, phenotypes, and exposures.
Article
Lifespan theories of cognitive development (LTCD) provide an integrative framework for the description, explanation, and optimization of cognitive development across different functional domains and age periods. Generally, LTCD make two central assumptions: (a) cognitive development reflects the operation of two components, one biological and the other cultural; (b) during development, the biological component is invested into various cultural domains, thereby leading to the acquisition of culturally transmitted bodies of knowledge. Based on the general lifespan dynamics between biology and culture, the biological component is expected to decline after maturity. In contrast, the cultural component is expected to increase with age as long as knowledge maintenance and knowledge acquisition outweigh age-based losses in biological potential. This prediction of multidirectionality in lifespan trajectories has gained ample empirical support. LTCD include the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence by Raymond B. Cattell and John Horn, as well as the distinction between the mechanics and the pragmatics of cognition by Paul Baltes. Compared with other, more specialized cognitive-developmental theories, LTCD form a small and rather homogeneous set. Their major function is synthetic: to articulate disparate bodies of knowledge about cognitive development with each other, with general propositions about the overall architecture of human ontogeny, and with neighboring fields and disciplines.
Article
Electronic media have often been considered to have a negative impact on the sleep of children and adolescents, but there are no comprehensive reviews of research in this area. The present study identified 36 papers that have investigated the relationship between sleep and electronic media in school-aged children and adolescents, including television viewing, use of computers, electronic gaming, and/or the internet, mobile telephones, and music. Many variables have been investigated across these studies, although delayed bedtime and shorter total sleep time have been found to be most consistently related to media use. A model of the mechanisms by which media use may affect sleep is presented and discussed as a vehicle for future research.
Article
To identify mechanisms for the impact of visual media use on adolescents' school performance. We conducted a 24-month, four-wave longitudinal telephone study of a national sample of 6,486 youth aged 10 to 14 years. Exposure measures: latent construct for screen exposure time (weekday time spent viewing television/playing videogames, presence of television in bedroom) and variables for movie content (proportion of PG-13 and R movies viewed). Outcome measure: self- and parent reports of grades in school. Effects of media exposures on change in school performance between baseline and 24 months were assessed using structural equation modeling. Information about hypothesized mediators (substance use, sensation seeking, and school problem behavior) was obtained at baseline and at the 16-month follow-up. Adjusted for baseline school performance, baseline levels of mediators, and a range of covariates, both screen exposure time and media content had adverse effects on change in school performance. Screen exposure had an indirect effect on poor school performance through increased sensation seeking. Viewing more PG-13 and R-rated movies had indirect effects on poor school performance mediated through increases in substance use and sensation seeking. R-rated viewing also had an indirect effect on poor school performance through increased school behavior problems. The effect sizes of exposure time and content on the intermediate variables and ultimately on school performance were similar to those for previously recognized determinants of these mediators, including household income, parenting style, and adolescents' self-control. These aspects of visual media use adversely affect school performance by increasing sensation seeking, substance use, and school problem behavior.
The ubiquity of the screen: An overview of the risks and benefits of screen time in our modern world
  • A G Leblanc
  • K E Gunnell
  • S A Prince
  • T J Saunders
  • J D Barnes
  • J.-P Chaput
LeBlanc, A. G., Gunnell, K. E., Prince, S. A., Saunders, T. J., Barnes, J. D., & Chaput, J.-P. (2017). The ubiquity of the screen: An overview of the risks and benefits of screen time in our modern world. Transl J Am Coll Sport Med, 2, 104-113.
Children and parents: Media use and attitudes report
Ofcom. (2018). Children and parents: Media use and attitudes report. Children, 175.
The common sense census: Media use by kids age zero to eight
  • V Rideout
Rideout, V. (2017). The common sense census: Media use by kids age zero to eight. Common Sense Media.