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Youth Entrepreneurs Characteristic and Motivation

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The main objective of the scientific monograph is to determine the key characteristics, trends in entrepreneurial development at the national and regional level, as well as the entrepreneurial environment in Slovakia and Bratislava ecosystem.
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Our study focuses on the impact of systematic entrepreneurship training comprising both active and passive learning activities on entrepreneurial alertness and efficacy among adolescent youth. Reports from a two-wave online survey among 328 students from five secondary schools (aged 13–16 years; 34.8% male and 65.2% female) reveal that those who went through entrepreneurship training (treatment group, N = 142) had significantly higher entrepreneurial alertness and efficacy levels compared to those who did not go through training (control group, N = 186). We also find that even with gender effects accounted for, the higher entrepreneurial alertness and efficacy levels in the treatment group are due in part to both passive and active/hands-on elements of the program. Our study offers direct evidence that conducting entrepreneurship training programs among secondary school students could be an effective means to enhance entrepreneurial competencies among the youth. Specifically, our findings highlight the value of entrepreneurial training in improving age-appropriate competencies of entrepreneurial alertness and efficacy.
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Entrepreneurship intention for graduate students like many other job and work career options depends on other considerations. Individuals who pursue their intentions are most likely to implement their intention. Interest in entrepreneurship as career appears to be growing. Reviews show the need in investigating the determinants of entrepreneurship as a career intention of students and it has remains the focus of most of the recent studies. This is due to the facts that entrepreneurs are creating jobs and driving economic development of a nation. In this study, the Theory of Planned Behaviour is applied to investigate students’ entrepreneurial motivation and entrepreneurship intention. A total of 413 sets of completed questionnaire collected using the structured sampling methodology from the various faculties, races and student seniority at a University located in Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia were used in the analyses. The factors of entrepreneurial motivation affecting career entrepreneurship intention were found to be behavioural control, subjective norm, and attitude towards entrepreneurship. Behavioural control is found to be at a very good level while subjective norm and attitude towards entrepreneurship are both at a good level. Multiple regression analyses indicated that subjective norm and attitude of self-employment are both significantly related to student immediate and future entrepreneurship intentions. The behavioural control entrepreneurial motivation indicated significant relationship with student immediate career intention. However it was found that it is not related to entrepreneurship career intention. This study implies that young aspirant entrepreneur can be identified and targeted for development via the Planned Behaviour model for entrepreneurial interventions initiatives. Keywords: entrepreneur, entrepreneurial motivation, planned behaviour model
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In this paper, we use a social support perspective and hypothesize that the scope of start-up activities is positively associated with two types of instrumental family support, financial and social capital. We further argue that the effect of instrumental family support is enhanced by the level of emotional support, in the form of family cohesiveness. To test our hypotheses, we draw from the 2011 Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students' Survey (GUESSS), a survey of university students from 19 countries. We focus on those nascent entrepreneurs who are in the process of starting their new venture (n = 12,399). Our findings indicate that family social capital is positively associated with the scope of start-up activities, family financial capital is negatively associated with the scope of start-up activities, and family cohesiveness amplifies the effect of family social capital on the scope of start-up activities. Theoretical, practitioner, and public policy implications are discussed.
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The main purpose of this paper is to corroborate the relationship between entrepreneurship development and poverty alleviation constructed on empirical reviews. In this study, we conducted general search to accumulate empirical literatures by the name of entrepreneurship development and poverty alleviation in different online database sources such as Google Scholars, Springer Link, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, Emerald full text, Scopus, and EBSCO HOST etc. We found innovation, entrepreneurship training & education, family background, government support program, social entrepreneurship, women participation, individual entrepreneurial characteristics, participation of micro, small & medium enterprises, youth empowerment, collaboration of government-university-industry is the key tool for entrepreneurship development which is stimulating employment are eventually alleviating poverty.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to cumulate published empirical studies (1980-2009) on the relationship between individual variables and entrepreneurial status. The authors categorize repeatedly analyzed determinants into six perspectives (trait, cognitive, affective, intentions, learning, and economic), review empirical findings for each determinant and each perspective, investigate trends in the field, and propose avenues for future research. Design/methodology/approach – The authors categorize determinants into one of the six paradigms and review findings for 46 repeatedly studied variables from 131 studies. Support for each variable, publication outlets chosen, and temporal trends in exploring entrepreneurial intentions, entrepreneurial status or differences between entrepreneurs and other individuals are analyzed. Findings – Prior studies have focused on trait and economic perspectives with strong support, followed by the learning and intentions perspectives. The affective perspective is a still under-researched, yet growing field. Most articles were published in the 1990s. The emphasis on theoretical perspectives varies over decades. Directions for future research include integrating the perspectives (e.g. across the cognitive and affective domain), testing the temporal stability of influences, and developing and testing cross-level models that incorporate contextual influences. Originality/value – The paper complements prior reviews and meta-analyses by picturing the breadth of the field and adding important points to the research agenda.
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Extant studies on entrepreneurial success that focus on the process of resource acquisition and value creation have led to a deeper understanding of the resource requirements of entrepreneurs, but have shed less light on the antecedents to the propensity for entrepreneurial startups. Our study models the characteristics of university students as antecedents to startups. These are background and experience, beliefs about organizations and attitudes towards entrepreneurship. Background and attitudes are hypothesized to predict the propensity for entrepreneurship while beliefs are hypothesized to moderate the relationship between attitudes and the propensity to start a new business. Empirical data from a large survey of university students in Singapore provide support for the model.
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The existence of enterprising activities in the economy will further increased the country’s gross domestic income, job opportunity and living standard of the citizen. It is importance to encourage the young adult to take up the challenges to be an entrepreneur. The students with high entrepreneurial intention will tend to start up a business of their own in future. This research is conducted to explore the factors that influence the entrepreneurial intention among students in higher education. This paper is attempt to assess the significance of students’ attitudes, family role models, academic major, perceived university environment and perceived educational support in influencing the university students’ entrepreneurial intention. A total of 787 samples were collected from the first degree students at Universiti Malaysia Sabah. The samples had to answer questionnaires consisting of demographic and Likert-scale questions. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyse the data collected. The results confirmed that attitude is the most significant variable that correlated with the entrepreneurial intention of young adults. The findings had provided some insight into understanding the entrepreneurial intention of young adults.
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Entrepreneurship has long been considered a significant factor for socioeconomic growth and development because it provides millions of job opportunities, offers a variety of consumer goods and services, and generally increases national prosperity and competitiveness. Due to this positive impact of entrepreneurship, recent decades have seen a tremendous rise in entrepreneurship education at various universities and colleges around the globe, including in Iran. In the middle of this expansion remains the challenges and problems of development and changes for entrepreneurship. This paper investigates the state, trends, challenges and solutions in entrepreneurship education in Iran which emerged from an extensive review of literature. The literature reviewed indicates that entrepreneurship education in Iranian higher education faces with economic, political, social, and cultural challenges. Also this article offers some approaches and recommendations for resolving the challenges as well as encouraging and fostering entrepreneurship in higher education. The findings of this study provide valuable insights for policy makers, educators, students and graduate entrepreneurs. Stakeholders could use this study to make better choices in relation to the improvement of entrepreneurship education in Iranian higher education system.
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This paper examines entrepreneurship education in the light of debates about the future of the business school, the nature of the MBA, with which management education is generally synonymous, and the links that need to be created between teaching and research. There is increasing focus on the general utility of entrepreneurial skills and aptitudes (i.e. creativity, independent thinking, opportunity recognition and exploitation, etc.), and it is our contention that entrepreneurship education offers an innovative new paradigm for business school education that answers some of the challenges that are currently levelled against the MBA. Given the breadth of relevance in terms of the issues around Entrepreneurship Education and future pedagogical development in Business Schools, this paper is also well placed as a vehicle to introduce the rest of the coverage in this special issue of TASM. This paper therefore also summarises the papers presented in terms of their contribution to our understanding of the role of entrepreneurship and innovation in higher education. All suggest the need for the broadening of human and social capital, while some propose a fundamental shift in the delivery of professional education.
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Purpose – Fostering entrepreneurship needs a twofold policy that should focus on both the current situation and future prospect of entrepreneurship. Although many scholars and policy makers devote their attention to the first foci of issue, it is equally important to map out the future context of entrepreneurship. The purpose of this paper is to fill this void by analysing the impacts of some contextual factors on entrepreneurial intention of university students. Design/methodology/approach – In the study, a model was proposed and empirically tested on a sample of 300 university students in Turkey. The entrepreneurial support model (ESM) considers predominantly the impact of contextual factors on entrepreneurial intention. In the model, entrepreneurial intention is taken as a function of educational, relational, and structural supports. Findings – The results of the survey showed that educational and structural support factors affect the entrepreneurial intention of students. Research limitations/implications – The paper contributes to the literature by theorizing and empirically testing how some factors affect the entrepreneurial intention of university students. Although the study is subject to some limitations, it is believed that these limitations can be overcome with further studies. Practical implications – The results of the study may have valuable implications for the policy makers and educators. Originality/value – Since today's youth are the potential entrepreneurs of the future, understanding their perception about contextual factors can be a contribution to the development of the literature and an important step in designing a more effective policy mechanism.
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This study investigates the inclination towards entrepreneurship among university students in the northern region of the Peninsular Malaysia. Specifically, it aims to examine the relationship between entrepreneurship education and inclination towards entrepreneurship. The influence of demographic characteristics and family business background on university students' inclination towards entrepreneurship is also being examined. An empirical test carried out on the data gathered from questionnaires demonstrates that two entrepreneurship education variables are found to have statistically significant relationship on the inclination towards entrepreneurship. At the meantime, two demographic variables and a family business background variable have an effect on university students' inclination towards entrepreneurship. Finally, based on the findings, the implications of the study have been forwarded.
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Several drivers of entrepreneurial aspirations and entrepreneurial motivations are investigated using country-level data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) for the years 2005 and 2006. We estimate a two-equation model explaining aspirations using motivations and socioeconomic variables, and explaining motivations using socioeconomic variables. We find that countries with a higher incidence of increase-wealth-motivated entrepreneurs tend to have a higher prevalence of high-job-growth and export-oriented entrepreneurship and that a country’s level of social security relates negatively to the prevalence of innovative, high-job-growth, and export-oriented entrepreneurship. We also find that the increase-wealth motive mediates the relationship between socioeconomic variables and entrepreneurial aspirations.
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The impact of education on the business success of an entrepreneur has been the subject of much discussion and speculation in both the popular and academic press. The literature is full of folklore focusing on the high-school drop out who made it big in the business world armed with an education from the school of hard knocks. Until recently this was part of the myth surrounding entrepreneurship. The myth takes shape in three basic areas. The first looks at the entrepreneur's level of education relative to the general public. The second area addresses the effect of education on people becoming entrepreneurs on a macro level. Do people with higher levels of education start more businesses than people with less education, does it increase the probability of becoming an entrepreneur? The third area concerns the micro-economic effect on individual entrepreneurs. Does education help an entrepreneur succeed?Past research on education and entrepreneurship consists mostly of institutional studies at universities with established programs. These offer good support for the outcome of educational programs. However, these studies are poorly circulated and seldom published because of the limited sample sizes (McMullan (1988) summarized several such studies). In this study the literature is reviewed in three areas mentioned above and new information on the relationships between education, experience, and self-employment is provided.The empirical part of this study examines the effect of education and experience using U.S. census data. Self-employment is used as a surrogate for entrepreneurship and the analysis controlled for farmers and professionals (medical doctors, lawyers, accountants, etc.) so that it would more closely fit our conception of an entrepreneur. Earnings potential was used as a measure of success. We recognize that success is a subjective experience based on one's expectations and actual outcomes; however, we believe that earnings provided a global indicator of success that is quantifiable relative to the sample used. Four specific hypotheses were generated and tested using the data.The first hypothesis (Self-employed have more years of formal education than those who do not work for themselves.) was confirmed with the years of education for the self-employed being 14.57 years for all workers, 14.71 years for males, and 14.13 years for female workers. Wage and salaried workers came in nearly one full year lower with: 13.58 years for all worked, 13.73 for male workers, and 13.40 for female workers.Hypothesis two (The number of years of formal education will increase the probability of becoming self-employed.) was supported with the probability of becoming self employed increasing by 0.8% for each year of education providing a significant relationship (t = 32.11 for all workers, t = 21.95 for males, and t = 20.76 for females, p < .0001 for all three).Hypothesis three (The relationship between years of formal education and success of the self-employed, as well as the general population will be positive and significant.) was supported using the “Beta” coefficients in a “Probit” regression model, indicating that self-employment and wage and salaried earnings increase significantly for each year of education. Self-employment earnings increased $1207.63 a year for each year of education ($1212.76 for males and $414.81 for females). Wage and salaried workers earnings increased $825.99a year for each year of education ($1023.33 for males and $369.37 for females).Hypothesis four (The relationship between experience and self-employment success will be positive and significant, but weaker than the impact of education.) was supported. All self-employed workers, both male and female, had over two years more experience than their wage and salaried counterparts. There is a strong positive relationship between self-employment and both experience and earnings with the exception of self-employed females whose experience did not significantly impact their earnings.In conclusion, a general education has a strong positive influence on entrepreneurship in terms of becoming self-employed and success. Experience has a similar relationship although not as strong. Future studies need to examine the impact of specific types of education, such as business school or entrepreneurship classes, on the entrepreneurial outcomes in the studies.
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Youth entrepreneurship figures prominently in the development agendas of many developing countries including Malaysia. This paper offers a glimpse into what empirically constitutes contemporary Malaysian youth entrepreneurship through an analysis of the findings of a field research involving 531 youth entrepreneurs located in the country’s Klang Valley. The aim is to arrive at a general profiling of the youths in terms of personality traits, socio-economic background, nature of business activities and level of enterprise development. The study found that Malaysian youth entrepreneurs were mostly Malay males, aged between 25 and 40, had an upper secondary and university education, married, and possessed the normal business attributes of willingness to take risk, to work hard, to continually learn, and to be undaunted by challenges. They had participated in at least a business course and were running enterprises they built rather than inherited. Their enterprises, mainly of the sole proprietorship type and set more for selling goods than services , had been running for the past one to ten years. They started with less than RM50,000 (USD 15,000) initial capital, employed up to seven male and female employees, and were at a moderate development stage at the time of the study. The paper concludes that the insights this study had furnished qualify, if not contradict, the stereotype long held about the relative inability of Malays to participate in competitive modern business, and may thus help agencies concerned with the economic development of the nation’s youths to finetune their intervention strategies.
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We study a unique sample of 1,547 nascent entrepreneurs in Germany and analyze which factors are associated with their self-reported satisfaction regarding their start-up. Our study identifies a new facet of procedural utility and offers new insights about the motivations and goals of nascent entrepreneurs. Most importantly, we identify a group of nascent entrepreneurs that “cannot get satisfaction” with their start-up—not because their start-up fails to deliver financial returns, but because they did not choose to become entrepreneurs in the first place. This group of unsatisfied entrepreneurs includes individuals starting a business after a period of long-term unemployment and those individuals with a lack of better employment alternatives (necessity entrepreneurs). In addition, we provide additional evidence for the importance of both financial and non-financial incentives of entrepreneurs. While financial success is the most important determinant of start-up satisfaction, achievement of independence and creativity is also highly important. Our results emphasize the relevance of procedural utility for understanding economic behavior.
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Nascent academic entrepreneurs need to acquire entrepreneurial competencies to create successful spin-off ventures. In this article, we examine difficulties in this pursuit prior to venture formation and offer a systematic classification of inhibitors. We confirm, combine, and extend two previously identified inhibiting mechanisms into a relational inhibitor category, classify additional structural and cultural-cognitive inhibitors, and highlight how these inhibitors exist both at the individual and the organizational level. We then advance theoretical understanding of the interrelated, multilevel functions of inhibitors on the development of entrepreneurial competencies, and offer policy insights on how universities can mitigate their effects.
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I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
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Increasingly, managers must make decisions based on almost unlimited information. How can they navigate and organize this vast amount of data? Essentials of Business Research Methods provides research techniques for people who aren't data analysts. The authors offer a straightforward, hands-on approach to the vital managerial process of gathering and using data to make clear business decisions. They include critical topics, such as the increasing role of online research, ethical issues, data mining, customer relationship management, and how to conduct information-gathering activities more effectively in a rapidly changing business environment. This is the only text that includes a chapter on qualitative data analysis, and the coverage of quantitative data analysis is more extensive, and much easier to understand than in other texts. The book features a realistic continuing case throughout that enables students to see how business research information is used in the real world. It includes applied research examples in all chapters, as well as ethical dilemma mini cases, and exercises.
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Our purpose in this article is to take stock of the education preoccupations that animate research on entrepreneurship focusing on the context of higher education. More specifically, we content-analyze a sample of 103 peer-reviewed entrepreneurship education articles through the prism of Bertrand's (1995) Contemporary Theories and Practice in Education. Our results indicate that this literature is articulated around four major types of education preoccupations: (1) preoccupations with the social and economic roles of entrepreneurship education for individuals and society, as well as with the institutions of higher education themselves; (2) preoccupations with the systematization of entrepreneurship education (i.e., instructional design, the use of multimedia environments, and curriculum development); (3) preoccupations with the content matter to be taught and how this content should be delivered; and (4) preoccupations with considering the needs of individual students in structuring teaching interventions. Yet, three education preoccupations remain underaddressed, that is, those proceeding from social-cognitive, psycho-cognitive, and spiritualist or ethical theories. While we consider five obstacles that may prevent management scholars from studying these dimensions, we argue that to address this limitation, scholars must develop a dual expertise in management and education research. To this aim. we highlight a number of specific theoretical and empirical references associated with different education research preoccupations.
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Entrepreneurship offers a viable and proven pathway to economic growth and personal fulfillment. However, the number of individuals engaged in entrepreneurial behaviors remains low. This discrepancy between entrepreneurial attitudes and action underscores the need for programs that foster the development of entrepreneurship in today's youth. We argue that a relational developmental systems approach can help researchers understand and facilitate the development of entrepreneurship. In this study, we triangulate across quantitative and qualitative data from the Young Entrepreneurs Study, showing that self-regulation skills, financial risk tolerance, innovation orientation, and the presence of entrepreneurial adults may be especially important for promoting entrepreneurial intent in older adolescents and young adults. We discuss limitations of the present data set and future directions for research.
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Entrepreneurship education is growing worldwide, but key educational and didactical issues remain. What are we talking about when we talk about entrepreneurship education? What are we really doing when we teach or educate people in entrepreneurship, in terms of the nature and the impact of our interventions? What do we know about the appropriateness, the relevancy, the coherency, the social usefulness and the efficiency of our initiatives and practices in entrepreneurship education? Addressing these issues and challenges, this article suggests that at least two major evolutions might reinforce the future of entrepreneurship education. First, we need strong intellectual and conceptual foundations, drawing from the fields of entrepreneurship and education, to strengthen our entrepreneurship courses. And finally, we also need to deeply reflect on our practices, as researchers and educators, taking a more critical stance toward a too often adopted “taken for granted” position.
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Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Basic Student Entrepreneurial Programme (BSEP) among local university graduates who have undergone the training programme in entrepreneurship development. Design/methodology/approach ‐ In total, 410 respondents who had participated in BSEP were interviewed with a structural questionnaire to gather information on their social attitude towards the effectiveness of BSEP on their intention to become an agri-entrepreneur. Chi-square analysis was used to determine the relationship between demographic variables towards motivating agri-entrepreneurship among the participants. Findings ‐ The results show that the participants agreed upon the effectiveness of BSEP in developing graduates' intention towards becoming agri-entrepreneurs. The results also show that there is a significant relationship between three variables which motivate participants to become agri-entrepreneurs. These were the origin of the participant, the presence of family members already involved in entrepreneurial activities and educational background. Research limitations/implications ‐ The paper is only concerned with students' perceptions towards the effectiveness of BSEP in encouraging them to become agri-entrepreneurs. The results from this paper are limited in terms of determining whether they really become an agri-entrepreneur or not because this research only focuses on intention. Practical implications ‐ The paper provides an important exploratory analysis of the BSEP programme to enable further research to take place in the area of entrepreneurship education. The findings provide a valuable insight on effective teaching methodologies in the area of entrepreneurship education. Originality/value ‐ The paper expands on Ajzen's framework to provide a basis to improve the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in Malaysia.
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In this paper we propose two conceptual developments in understanding entrepreneur motivations and their effects. First, we argue that entrepreneur motivations develop dynamically in relation to career, household and business life courses. Second, we conceptualize how motivation and life courses develop interactively. We present an exploratory test of these ideas. In a sample of enterprise programme participants, we identify motivation profiles employing more robust cluster analyses than hitherto presented: our profiles are termed reluctant, convenience, economically driven, social, learning and earning, and prestige and control entrepreneurs. We then demonstrate statistical relationships between motivation profiles at a particular phase in the business life course (early establishment) and career and household life course factors. Motivations are also related to business resources, behaviour and performance. This initial confirmation of our conceptual claims suggests that further testing is warranted.
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The study examines the change in n Achievement and Locus of Control of individuals in an 9 months entrepreneurship programme. The experiment comprised of two experimental groups (n = 10 and n = 9), and two control groups (n = 19 and n = 32). All groups consisted of male and female students. All groups were at similar educational levels, age, and area of study. All participants had finished high school or an equivalent level of education. Need for Achievement was measured with Thematic Apperception Test consisting of six pictures. Locus of Control was measured with Rotter’s Internal-External test. A pretest was carried out in the beginning of the experimental and control groups education, the posttest after 7 months. A statistically significant increase in n Achievement (t = -3.33, p < 0.005) and in internal Locus of Control (t = 3.63, p = 0.001) were obtained as a result of participating in entrepreneurship education, while the control group showed no change. The result supports the hypothesis that participating in an entrepreneurship programme should increase Need for Achievement and internal Locus of Control of Reinforcement.
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Purpose - This paper aims to assess the state of development of entrepreneurship education, determine the importance of entrepreneurship in the South African higher education institutions (HEIs), and offer recommendations for improving preparations for the developing field. Design/methodology/approach - An e-mail survey has been conducted on South African HEIs. The respondents were academic staff members who are involved in teaching and researching entrepreneurship. Findings - Results indicate that the entrepreneurship education in South Africa is in its developmental stage, although it is perceived as important in elevating the profile of any institution and there is increasing commitment from the institutions in academic, research and outreach offerings in entrepreneurship. The teaching and assessment methods follow traditional classroom delivery while research in entrepreneurship in South Africa is perceived as less rigorous than other management disciplines. Research limitations/implications - Although all HEIs were requested to become respondents in this survey, some have decided not to participate. Also, some academics involved in entrepreneurship may have been excluded if they are not on the e-mail list of the Academic Entrepreneurship Society (AcES) of South Africa. Practical implications - The findings suggest recommendations geared towards curriculum development, evaluation of teaching and assessment methodologies as well as the creation of partnerships with local communities for opportunities in internships and worksite visits. Originality/value - This is the first study conducted on entrepreneurship education in South Africa, based on a national study encompassing most HEIs in this country.
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In this study associations are sought between certain biographical, family, personality and career variables and the likelihood that managers will develop their own business venture. Results, based on an analysis of questionnaires completed by 194 managers, reveal that ownership of a business by self or parents together with certain personal characteristics predispose managers towards business founding. Contrary to expectations, job and career frustration does not incline managers towards proprietorship.
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Firm growth is widely considered to be a measure of success for entrepreneurial businesses. Data indicate that there are systematic differences between minority and nonminority-owned firms with respect to growth. Black entrepreneurs are 50 percent more likely to engage in start-up activities than white entrepreneurs, however, black-owned firms are smaller and less profitable than their white-owned counterparts. Following the effort–performance–outcome–logic of expectancy theory and using data from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics (PSED), our paper investigates the differences between black and white entrepreneurs' motivations to start and intentions to grow a new venture. Findings indicate that there are significant differences in motivations between black and white entrepreneurs both in starting and in their intentions to grow the new venture. Implications for future research are discussed.
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The relationships between gender, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial intentions were examined for two sample groups: adolescents and adult master of business administration (MBA) students. Similar gender effects on entrepreneurial self-efficacy are shown for both groups and support earlier research on the relationship between self-efficacy and career intentions. Additionally, the effects of entrepreneurship education in MBA programs on entrepreneurial self-efficacy proved stronger for women than for men. Implications for educators and policy makers were discussed, and areas for future research outlined.
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Investigates the degree to which entrepreneurialtraining and enterprise experience cultivate entrepreneurial characteristics inyouth. Following a review of the literature on entrepreneurshipeducation, ethnic entrepreneurship, and entrepreneurial characteristics, anumber of hypotheses are presented. Taken together, the hypothesessuggest that students receiving entrepreneurial training and experience attainhigher levels of entrepreneurial qualities such as achievement motivation,personal control, self-esteem, and creativity. Data from a survey of 502 minority students from an inner-city schooldistrict in New Jersey are used to test the hypotheses. Survey resultsindicate that students engaged in entrepreneurial training and classroom-basedenterprise did indeed possess higher degrees of entrepreneurial qualities thandid their untrained classmates. It is concludedthat training andenterprising behavior can have a significant impact on entrepreneurialcharacteristics and that policy makers should allocate resources forentrepreneurship education. (SAA)
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This paper attempts to renew interest in a line of research that largely has been ignored for two decades but which is critical to the study of entrepreneurial cognitions, intentions, and their conversion into entrepreneurial behaviors. That area is entrepreneurial motivation. This is not a comprehensive review of all areas of motivation research but rather a challenge a reinvigorate research efforts on an important aspect of the entrepreneurial process that has been examined only at the margins so far. It is an attempt to show how one very important topic, “entrepreneurial motivation,” still needs more study if we are to address the question of “have we learned anything at all about entrepreneurs?”
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Entrepreneurship has emerged over the last two decades as arguably the most potent economic force the world has ever experienced. With that expansion has come a similar increase in the field of entrepreneurship education. The recent growth and development in the curricula and programs devoted to entrepreneurship and new-venture creation have been remarkable. The number of colleges and universities that offer courses related to entrepreneurship has grown from a handful in the 1970s to over 1,600 in 2005. In the midst of this huge expansion remains the challenge of complete academic legitimacy for entrepreneurship. While it can be argued that some legitimacy has been attained in the current state of entrepreneurship education, there are critical challenges that lie ahead. This article focuses on the trends and challenges in entrepreneurship education for the 21st century.
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Nascent entrepreneurs continuously evaluate the merits of the opportunities they pursue and so can abandon those that lack promise and persist with those that remain attractive. This paper articulates this evolving judgment about the opportunity as the nascent entrepreneur's opportunity confidence. It situates this construct in the context of the nascent entrepreneur's human capital and early planning actions in respect to the pursued opportunity, and in respect to the emergence of the nascent venture. Analyses of PSED data show that opportunity confidence positively affects venture emergence and that, through it, entrepreneurial experience and early planning have only indirect effects on venture emergence. In contrast, industry experience has a direct, positive effect on venture emergence. These results provide some novel insights into the nascent entrepreneurial process as well as into the role of human capital and early planning in that process. Copyright (c) Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2009.
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The paper examines the role and influence of self-employment across the OECD. The overall trend in self-employment, at the economy level in the years since 1966, has been down in most countries. The main exceptions to this are Portugal, New Zealand and the United Kingdom where the trend has been upward. For most countries there is a negative relationship between the self-employment rate and the unemployment rate. The probability of being self-employed is higher among men than women and rises with age. The least educated have the highest probability of being self-employed, however, evidence is found that the most highly educated also have relatively high probabilities. The self-employed have higher levels of job satisfaction than employees. I could find no evidence that increases in the self-employment rate increased the real growth rate of the economy; in fact there was even evidence of the opposite. The self-employed are less willing to move from their neighborhoods, towns and regions than are employees, presumably because of the pull of their customers. I developed a flexibility index based on information provided by individuals in 1995. According to this index the US economy was the most flexible, followed by Canada, Germany and the Netherlands. Latvia, Russia and Hungary were found to be the least flexible countries. Of the OECD countries examined, Austria and Ireland were ranked lowest.
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Self-employment is an important aspect of the immigrant experience in the labor market. Self-employment rates for immigrants exceed 15 percent for some national groups. Using the 1970 and 1980 U.S. Censuses, the analysis shows that self-employment rates of immigrants exceed those of native-born men; that there is a strong, positive impact of assimilation on self-employment rates; that more recent waves of immigrants are opting with increasing frequency for the self-employment option; and that part of the immigrant/native-born differential in self-employment rates can be attributed to "enclave" effects.
A Promising Start: Initial Impacts of Year Up on Low-Income Young Adults' Careers. Economic Mobility Corporation
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Roder A, Elliott M. A Promising Start: Initial Impacts of Year Up on Low-Income Young Adults' Careers. Economic Mobility Corporation 2011.
Are Malaysian Workers Paid Fairly?: An Assessment of Productivity and Equity Malaysia: Bank Negara Malaysia
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Murugasu A, Hakim M, Yau Y. Are Malaysian Workers Paid Fairly?: An Assessment of Productivity and Equity Malaysia: Bank Negara Malaysia; 2018.
Eleventh Malaysia Plan 2016-2020 Anchoring Growth On People
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Preliminary Findings From The Youth Entrepreneurs: Students Entrepreneurs Characteristic And Motivation
  • Y K Khan
  • Nha Halil
Khan YK, Halil NHA, S.Z.S M. Preliminary Findings From The Youth Entrepreneurs: Students Entrepreneurs Characteristic And Motivation. ASEAN Entrepreneurship Journal. 2018;4(2):123.
Tracking entrepreneurship in South Africa: A GEM perspective: Graduate School of Business
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Herrington M, Kew J, Kew P, Monitor GE. Tracking entrepreneurship in South Africa: A GEM perspective: Graduate School of Business, University of Cape Town South Africa; 2010.
Exploring the characteristics of potential entrepreneurs: An empirical study
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