ArticlePDF Available

Generic Review of New Zealand Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

Article

Generic Review of New Zealand Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

Abstract and Figures

The leaf beetle subfamily Chrysomelinae is reviewed for New Zealand. The native fauna consists of six genera, three new, all of which are described: Aphilon Sharp, 1876; Caccomolpus Sharp, 1886; Chalcolampra Blanchard, 1853; Mauroda gen. nov.; Nanomela gen. nov.; Zeaphilon gen. nov.. Chalcolampra is the senior synonym of Cyrtonogetus Broun, 1915 (comb. nov.). These genera include 51 species, nine newly described and eight in new combinations, as follows: Caccomolpus laticollis (Broun, 1893) comb. nov., from Aphilon; C. pretiosus (Broun, 1880) comb. nov., from Aphilon; Chalcolampra crassa (Broun, 1915) comb. nov., from Cyrtonogetus; Maurodus arcus sp. nov.; M. cinctiger (Broun, 1921) comb. nov., from Caccomolpus; M. impressus (Broun, 1914) comb. nov., from Aphilon; M. lepidus sp. nov.; M. maculatus (Broun, 1893) comb. nov., from Caccomolpus; M. nunni sp. nov.; M. occiduus sp. nov.; M. ornatus (Broun, 1910) comb. nov., from Caccomolpus; M. owenensissp. nov.; M. plagiatus (Sharp, 1886) comb. nov., from Caccomolpus; M. supernus sp. nov.; Nanomela tiniheke sp. nov.; Zeaphilon marskeae sp. nov.; Z. mirandum sp. nov.. All 11 species in the genus Maurodus are described and a key given for their identification. Type material of the New Zealand species of Aphilon (10 species), Caccomolpus (14 species) and Chalcolampra (13 species) is reviewed and lectotypes designated for 16 species, as well as M. cinctiger. A type species is designated for Caccomolpus: C. globosus Sharp, 1886. Holotypes are confirmed for 26 species. Seven genera and 13 species of exotic Chrysomelinae also occur in New Zealand and their presence is briefly reviewed. One of these exotics has been misnamed as Paropsisterna variicollis (Chapuis, 1877), a junior synonym of P. cloelia (Stål, 1860) (syn. nov.). A key to all genera of Chrysomelinae in New Zealand is provided.
Content may be subject to copyright.
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4740.1.1
http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0941B63B-331E-44B1-8D6B-2362DB24057F
ZOOTAXA
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Accepted by M. Schoeller: 17 Oct. 2019; published: 18 Feb. 2020
4740
ZOOTAXA
Magnolia Press
Auckland, New Zealand
Zootaxa 4740 (1): 001–066
https://www.mapress.com/j/zt/
Copyright © 2020 Magnolia Press Monograph
Generic Review of New Zealand Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
RICHARD A.B. LESCHEN1, CHRIS A. M. REID2 & KONSTANTIN S. NADEIN3
1 Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research, New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Private Bag 92170, Auckland, New Zealand
E-mail: leschenr@landcareresearch.co.nz
2Australian Museum Research Institute, Australian Museum, 1 William Street, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia
E-mail: chris.reid@austmus.gov.au
3Functional Morphology and Biomechanics, Institute of Zoology, University of Kiel, Am Botanischen Garten 1-9, 24118 Kiel, Germany.
E-mail: k.nadein@gmail.com
LESCHEN ET AL.
2 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
RICHARD A.B. LESCHEN, CHRIS A. M. REID & KONSTANTIN S. NADEIN
Generic Review of New Zealand Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
(Zootaxa 4740)
66 pp.; 30 cm.
18 Feb. 2020
ISBN 978-1-77670-885-7 (paperback)
ISBN 978-1-77670-886-4 (Online edition)
FIRST PUBLISHED IN 2020 BY
Magnolia Press
P.O. Box 41-383
Auckland 1346
New Zealand
e-mail: magnolia@mapress.com
https://www.mapress.com/j/zt
© 2020 Magnolia Press
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored, transmitted or disseminated, in any form, or by any
means, without prior written permission from the publisher, to whom all requests to reproduce copyright
material should be directed in writing.
This authorization does not extend to any other kind of copying, by any means, in any form, and for any
purpose other than private research use.
ISSN 1175-5326 (Print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (Online edition)
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 3
Table of Contents
Abstract ...................................................................................................4
Introduction ................................................................................................4
Material and methods ........................................................................................5
Chrysomelinae .............................................................................................5
Key to New Zealand Genera ...................................................................................7
Aphilon Sharp, 1876 .........................................................................................7
Aphilon convexum Broun, 1893 ...............................................................................9
Aphilon enigma Sharp, 1876 ..................................................................................9
Aphilon latulum Broun, 1893 .................................................................................9
Aphilon minutum Broun, 1880 ...............................................................................10
Aphilon monstrosum Broun, 1886 ............................................................................10
Aphilon praestans Broun, 1893 ...............................................................................10
Aphilon punctatum Broun, 1880 .............................................................................10
Aphilon scutellare Broun, 1893 ..............................................................................10
Aphilon sobrinum Broun, 1886 ...............................................................................11
Aphilon sternalis Broun, 1921 ................................................................................11
Caccomolpus Sharp, 1886 ...................................................................................11
Caccomolpus amplus Broun, 1921 ............................................................................14
Caccomolpus flectipes Broun, 1914 ...........................................................................14
Caccomolpus fuscicornis Broun, 1917 .........................................................................14
Caccomolpus globosus Sharp, 1886 ...........................................................................14
Caccomolpus hallianus Broun, 1917 ...........................................................................15
Caccomolpus laticollis (Broun, 1893), comb. nov. ................................................................15
Caccomolpus montanus Broun, 1921 ..........................................................................16
Caccomolpus nigristernis Broun, 1917 .........................................................................16
Caccomolpus pretiosus (Broun, 1880), comb. nov. ...............................................................16
Caccomolpus pullatus Broun, 1893 ...........................................................................17
Caccomolpus subcupreus Broun, 1921 ........................................................................17
Caccomolpus substriatus Broun, 1917 .........................................................................17
Caccomolpus tibialis Broun, 1917 ............................................................................17
Caccomolpus viridescens Broun, 1917 .........................................................................18
Chalcolampra Blanchard, 1853 ...............................................................................18
Chalcolampra crassa (Broun, 1915), comb. nov. .................................................................22
Chalcolampra fuscipes (Broun, 1917) ..........................................................................23
Chalcolampra limbata (Broun, 1893) ..........................................................................23
Chalcolampra marginata (Sharp, 1882) ........................................................................23
Chalcolampra media (Broun, 1917) ...........................................................................23
Chalcolampra morosa (Broun, 1893) ..........................................................................24
Chalcolampra nigricollis (Broun, 1917) ........................................................................24
Chalcolampra picticornis Broun, 1917 .........................................................................24
Chalcolampra praestans (Broun, 1917). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Chalcolampra robusta (Broun, 1917) ..........................................................................25
Chalcolampra speculifera Sharp, 1882 .........................................................................25
Chalcolampra subsulcata (Broun, 1917) .......................................................................25
Chalcolampra tarsalis Broun, 1917 ............................................................................26
Maurodus nov. gen. ........................................................................................26
Key to species of Maurodus ..................................................................................33
Maurodus arcus sp. nov. ....................................................................................34
Maurodus cinctiger (Broun, 1921), comb. nov. ...................................................................34
Maurodus impressus (Broun, 1914), comb. nov. ..................................................................36
Maurodus lepidus sp. nov. ..................................................................................39
Maurodus maculatus (Broun, 1893), comb. nov. .................................................................39
Maurodus nunni sp. nov. ....................................................................................40
Maurodus occiduus sp. nov. .................................................................................42
Maurodus ornatus (Broun, 1910), comb. nov. ...................................................................43
Maurodus owenensis sp. nov. ................................................................................44
Maurodus plagiatus (Sharp, 1886), comb. nov. ...................................................................45
Maurodus supernus sp. nov. .................................................................................46
Nanomela gen. nov. ........................................................................................47
Nanomela tiniheke sp. nov. ..................................................................................51
Nanomela mainland group ...................................................................................52
Zeaphilon nov. gen. ........................................................................................52
LESCHEN ET AL.
4 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
Zeaphilon marskeae sp. nov. .................................................................................53
Zeaphilon mirandum sp. nov. ................................................................................57
Introduced Chrysomelinae in New Zealand ......................................................................60
Acknowledgements .........................................................................................61
Literature cited ............................................................................................61
Abstract
The leaf beetle subfamily Chrysomelinae is reviewed for New Zealand. The native fauna consists of six genera, three new,
all of which are described: Aphilon Sharp, 1876; Caccomolpus Sharp, 1886; Chalcolampra Blanchard, 1853; Mauroda
gen. nov.; Nanomela gen. nov.; Zeaphilon gen. nov.. Chalcolampra is the senior synonym of Cyrtonogetus Broun,
1915 (comb. nov.). These genera include 51 species, nine newly described and eight in new combinations, as follows:
Caccomolpus laticollis (Broun, 1893) comb. nov., from Aphilon; C. pretiosus (Broun, 1880) comb. nov., from Aphilon;
Chalcolampra crassa (Broun, 1915) comb. nov., from Cyrtonogetus; Maurodus arcus sp. nov.; M. cinctiger (Broun,
1921) comb. nov., from Caccomolpus; M. impressus (Broun, 1914) comb. nov., from Aphilon; M. lepidus sp. nov.; M.
maculatus (Broun, 1893) comb. nov., from Caccomolpus; M. nunni sp. nov.; M. occiduus sp. nov.; M. ornatus (Broun,
1910) comb. nov., from Caccomolpus; M. owenensis sp. nov.; M. plagiatus (Sharp, 1886) comb. nov., from Caccomolpus;
M. supernus sp. nov.; Nanomela tiniheke sp. nov.; Zeaphilon marskeae sp. nov.; Z. mirandum sp. nov.. All 11 species in
the genus Maurodus are described and a key given for their identification. Type material of the New Zealand species of
Aphilon (10 species), Caccomolpus (14 species) and Chalcolampra (13 species) is reviewed and lectotypes designated
for 16 species, as well as M. cinctiger. A type species is designated for Caccomolpus: C. globosus Sharp, 1886. Holotypes
are confirmed for 26 species. Seven genera and 13 species of exotic Chrysomelinae also occur in New Zealand and their
presence is briefly reviewed. One of these exotics has been misnamed as Paropsisterna variicollis (Chapuis, 1877), a
junior synonym of P. cloelia (Stål, 1860) (syn. nov.). A key to all genera of Chrysomelinae in New Zealand is provided.
Key words: host plants, bryophyte, endemic, biocontrol, introduced
Introduction
The subfamily Chrysomelinae is the second largest of the New Zealand leaf beetles, next to Galerucinae (Maddison
2010), and contains 51 native species in six genera, as recognised in this study. An additional seven genera contain-
ing 13 introduced species are also present. The native fauna has few host records. Most native species are relatively
small, cryptic, collected by sifting leaf-litter or moss, and probably nocturnal. Most native species are also apterous,
a few are brachypterous, and only one species is fully winged. Larvae have not been fully described. In general,
the group remains poorly-known, taxonomically and biologically. Here we review the chrysomelines, describe new
taxa, revise the nomenclature and highlight taxonomic issues of the endemic New Zealand taxa, while making note
of introduced species.
Chrysomelines can easily be distinguished from other New Zealand subfamilies by their round to oval bodies
and widely separated antennal insertions (Fig. 1E), in addition to the presence of a well-developed lateral pronotal
carina (Fig. 1D), oval and weakly transverse procoxae with exposed trochantins (Figs 3F, 14B) and a membranous
anteclypeus (Fig. 5B) (Lawrence and Ślipinìski 2013): these characters distinguish the subfamilies from all others,
including cassidines introduced to New Zealand that have the head covered by the anterior portion of the prothorax
and potentially similar looking eumolpines that have the aforementioned characters but lacking the membranous
anteclypeus. Much of the diversity was described by Thomas Broun (1880–1921) with a few species named by
David Sharp (1876, 1882, 1886); both authors described what were recognised at their time as endemic genera, two
of which were later treated as subgenera of the widespread Australian and Asian genus Chalcolampra Blanchard
by Daccordi (1994; Allocharis Sharp and Eualema Broun). Aphilon Sharp (Figs 1A,B), Caccomolpus Sharp (Figs
1C,D), Chalcolampra (Figs 2–3), and Cyrtonogetus Broun (Fig. 3B) are presently placed in Phyllocharitini in the clas-
sification recognised by Daccordi (1994, 1996) but this system is artificial (Reid 2006). All genera require thorough
systematic revision and the current taxonomic limits of Aphilon, Caccomolpus and Chalcolampra (sensu lato) are
problematic.
The purpose of this study is to provide a framework for further study of New Zealand Chrysomelinae. We treat
the genus Cyrtonogetus Broun as a junior synonym of Chalcolampra, describe three new genera and 10 new spe-
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 5
cies, and establish new combinations and lectotypy where needed. A key to all genera is included, as is background
information on biology and geographic distribution, and a checklist is provided (Appendix 1). The exotic genera in
New Zealand are included so that all Chrysomelinae present in this country are identifiable to genus.
Material and methods
Specimens examined are from the Auckland War Memorial Museum (AMNZ), Natural History Museum, London
(BMNH), Australian Museum Research Institute, Australian Museum, Sydney (AMS), Australian National Insect
Collection, Canberra (ANIC), Entomological Museum, Lincoln University, Canterbury (LUNZ), and the New Zea-
land Arthropod Collection, Auckland (NZAC). Two-letter acronyms for geographic distributions follow Crosby et
al. (1998). Material examined was georeferenced where possible.
Examination of type material and protocols follow Lord & Leschen (2014) and Leschen & Newton (2015)
with red labels affixed to holotypes and lectotypes and blue labels affixed to paralectotypes in the following format:
“LECTOTYPE Aphilon sternalis Broun, 1921 designated by R. Leschen, 2015”. The chrysomeline specimens con-
tained in the Broun Collection (BMNH), did not have the typical round “type” labels with coloured borders. A large
number of specimens were dissected and remounted by Mauro Daccordi with male genitalia extracted and glued
onto newer points or cards. The female terminalia were often remounted in a “window-mount” which consisted
of a thick card with a circular cut containing sleeves of acetate that held genitalia and terminalia within mounting
media.
Morphological terms used by chrysomeloid workers are not entirely uniform. Here we follow the terminology
of Lawrence et al. (2010) and Švácha & Lawrence (2015). Terms for the characters on the frons and vertex were
modified or directly referenced from various sources including Konstantinov & Vandenburg (1996) and can be seen
in Figs 1E, 3D, 5B, 6D, and 7E. Paired lines that mark the inner margin of the postantennal calli and a medial line
that arises from the frontoclypeal suture are referred to as postclypeal lines. Most New Zealand species have the me-
dian postclypeal line absent while the lateral postclypeal lines are variable. The postantennal calli tend to be weakly
developed and in some taxa the position is marked by pale areas of the cuticle indicating muscle insertion points.
The area below the eye in many chrysomelines may bear antennal grooves that may have well-developed carinae
on either side where the antennae may rest (Reid et al. 2009). In New Zealand forms the groove may have a ridge
just below the eye (Fig. 18A), ridges may be completely absent, though a groove may still be present (Fig. 18C),
and there may be a distinct antennal groove indicated by ridges on either side (Fig. 18B). The shape of the mentum
refers to the visible portion, excluding the area hidden beneath the intermaxillary process.
At the corners of the pronotum of many beetles, including chrysomelids, there may be setiferous punctures re-
ferred to as trichobothria by most chrysomelid workers. In chrysomelines, and in all New Zealand genera, there are
separate asetose glandular openings on the prothorax (and elsewhere on the body, e.g., the elytra) that are observed
in cleared dissections (Figs 18D, E) and have ducts that penetrate deep into to the body cavity (e.g., Pasteels et al.
1988). In the New Zealand endemic taxa, pronotal ducts are serially arranged and open above the lateral carina,
some of which have smaller proximal ducts indicating, perhaps, the production of two different compounds.
Presence of humeral calli at the anterior corners of the elytra are common in winged beetles, but when wings are
reduced or absent the calli likewise may be reduced to absent. A short midbasal impression or stria may be present
between the humeral callus and the scutellary shield. Genitalia for only a handful of species for each genus were
examined, apart from Maurodus, and the description of these and other internal characters should be regarded as
provisional.
Length was measured from the midline of the anterior pronotal margin (not the head because this is commonly
hidden) to the tip of the elytra; width was measured at the greatest widths of the pronotum and the elytra.
Chrysomelinae
Diagnosis. Body subovoid to ovoid, sides of body somewhat parallel-sided to rounded, dorsum generally glabrous.
Head partly concealed but not covered entirely by pronotum, not constricted behind eyes. Antennal grooves on
head present or absent. Antennal insertions not approximate. Pronotum with lateral carina; procoxal cavities open
LESCHEN ET AL.
6 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
or closed behind. Procoxae ovate and weakly transverse. Tergite VII hidden or almost completely hidden in dorsal
view.
Description. Length 1.5–8.0 mm. Body shape predominantly subovoid to ovoid; prothorax and elytra often
forming a continuous outline in dorsal view; tergite VII hidden or almost completely hidden in dorsal view. Dorsum
brightly uni- or bicoloured or dull, glabrous. Dorsal surfaces usually smooth; pronotal disc often with non-uniform
punctation coarser at the base. Head prognathous rarely forming a short muzzle with genae extending a short dis-
tance beyond level of antennal and maxillary insertions, retracted into prothorax, not covered entirely by pronotum,
not strongly constricted behind eyes; deep grooves absent on the vertex, but postantennal calli and postclypeal lines
may be present. Eyes almost circular to strongly transverse-oblong, with or without anterior emargination; flat to
strongly protuberant. Clypeus transverse to trapezoidal, anterior margin straight. Genae usually short and not ex-
tended greatly beyond mandibular insertions (long in some species of Nanomela). Antennal insertions exposed from
above, and widely separated, postantennal calli present or absent; when not delimited by a line, pale cuticular spots
may be present; subantennal grooves absent or present. Frontoclypeal suture present or absent; lateral postclypeal
lines present or absent, medial postclypeal line absent. Antennae 11-segmented, filiform, subfiliform, or clavate.
Mandibles with two incisors, terebral edge with (Nanomela) or without serrate edge, prostheca setose. Pronotum
transverse, length usually 2.3–2.5x its width, usually widest at base, lateral pronotal carinae complete, with margin
or bead visible from above; each anterior and posterior angle with or without trichobothrium. Procoxal cavities
transverse-ovate or rounded, externally open, narrowly opened or closed. Scutellary shield usually triangular and
anteriorly rounded (sometimes reduced or absent). Elytra in combination varying in shape from almost circular to
elongate, irregularly punctate or with as many as 16 distinct puncture rows; elytral apices concealing all abdominal
tergites. Hind wings absent or present but often reduced. Metaventrite with or without subcoxal lines, discrimen
and transverse metaventral (metakatepisternal) suture present or absent. Legs with globular to transverse procoxae
that are not projecting; femora fusiform to claviform; tibial apices generally widened or clubbed and sometimes
weakly dimorphic (e.g., male tibiae are slightly more robust and elbowed); tibial spurs absent; tarsi 5-5-5 or 4-4-
4 (Nanomela and smaller species of Aphilon lacking tarsomere 4 or tarsomeres 4 and 5 fused) with tarsomere 3
apically bilobed or truncate, first tarsomeres often expanded in males; tarsal claws simple, bifid or appendiculate.
Abdomen with five ventrites, free and lacking deep impressions, ventrite 1 generally about twice as long as 2, with
or without postcoxal lines; tergite VII usually forming sclerotised pygidium, usually completely hidden by elytra in
dorsal view. [Based on Reid 2014]
Comments. The diagnosis and short description above will distinguish New Zealand members of the chrys-
omelines from other subfamilies occuring in the Pacific region. There are approximately 130 genera, with over
3,000 species, worldwide (Reid 2017). Two tribes are recognised by Reid (2014), Timarchini and Chrysomelini,
the latter variously subdivided into 4–12 subtribes (Seeno & Wilcox 1982; Daccordi 1994; Bouchard et al 2011),
with all of the New Zealand endemic genera being placed into the Phyllocharitini of Daccordi (1994). Details of the
composition of the endemic genera are below. The few introduced members of the the mainly Australian subtribe
Paropsina (sensu Daccordi 1994) feed on exotic Acacia and Eucalyptus and are ovate with epipleura completely
hidden in lateral view (Fig. 17B, D–F).
Chrysomeline larvae and adults are generally external feeders on plants, feeding on leaves, rarely flowers, and
usually, not on pollen. Their plant hosts are usually core eudicots, rosids and asterids, but a few species feed on
Bryophyta (Reid 2017). The host associations of New Zealand endemic species are poorly known because most
species are cryptic, ground-dwelling and probably nocturnal. Attempts to obtain additional specimens of poorly
collected forest-dwelling taxa by sifting mostly mosses during summer 2018 in the South Island, resulted in ad-
ditional geographic records but few specimens (i.e., Maurodus ornatus (Broun) and Zeaphilon marskeae, nov. sp.),
but confirmed that many species are bryophyte specialists. Larvae are rarely collected and have not been described.
The larvae of Aphilon have oddly fused terga and have been collected feeding on liverworts. The single illustration
of an undetermined Chalcolampra larva (as Allocharis in Reid [1995]) shows an individual with a well sclerotised
circular plate formed from terga VII–IX indicating burrowing habits and is the same species that has been recorded
by Wardle et al. (1971) feeding on the composite Olearia colensoi.
Included genera. Aphilon Sharp, 1876 (endemic), Caccomolpus Sharp, 1886 (endemic), Chalcolampra
Blanchard, 1853 (=Allocharis Sharp, 1882, = Cyrtonogetus Broun, 1915, syn. nov., = Eualema Broun, 1903)
(Southeast Asia, Australia and New Zealand), Chrysolina Motschulsky, 1860 (introduced for biological control),
Maurodus gen. nov. (endemic), Dicranosterna Motschulsky, 1860 (introduced), Gonioctena Chevrolat, 1836 (in-
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 7
troduced), Nanomela gen. nov. (endemic), Paropsis Olivier, 1807 (introduced), Paropsisterna Motschulsky, 1860
(introduced), Peltoschema Reitter, 1888 (introduced), Zeaphilon gen. nov. (endemic), Trachymela Weise, 1908
(introduced).
Key to New Zealand Genera
The following key to genera includes invasive or deliberately introduced genera (*) which are briefly treated at the
end of this publication.
1. Epipleura hidden in lateral view; last maxillary palpomere greatly expanded and apically truncate (Fig. 17H); procoxal cavities
widely open (Fig. 17J), tarsal claws toothed ................................................................2
- Epipleura visible in lateral view (Figs 1B, D); last maxillary palpomere not or only slightly expanded apically (Fig. 1E) and
typically conical; procoxal cavities closed or slightly open (Figs 3F, 14B); tarsal claws simple (Fig. 15D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2(1) Elytral surface smooth, striate and with relatively weakly impressed punctures (Fig. 17E) ...........................3
- Elytral surface usually verrucose, at least apical third, or if not, elytral punctures large, deep and not distinctly striate (Figs
17B, D) ............................................................................................4
3(2) Posterior angles of pronotum with a trichobothrium; smaller and more depressed, length under 5 mm; feeding on Acacia . . .
.........................................................................................Peltoschema*
- Pronotal angles without trichobothria; larger and more convex, length over 5 mm; feeding on Eucalyptus ....Paropsisterna*
4(2) Prosternum with short right-angled lateral lobes at base of prosternal process (Fig. 17J); sides of pronotum unevenly margined
(Fig. 17K) ...................................................................................Paropsis*
- Prosternum without pair of lateral lobes; pronotal lateral carinae evenly convex ...................................5
5(4). First maxillary palpomere flattened in cross-section (Fig. 17G); elytral surface smooth between punctures (Fig. 17B), puncta-
tion more or less confused; inner margin of elytral epipleuron with row of short erect setae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dicranosterna*
- First maxillary palpomere more or less rounded in cross-section (Fig. 17I); elytral surface verrucose with punctures arranged
into weakly-organised striae (Fig. 17F); elytral epipleuron without row of erect setae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trachymela*
6(1) Meso- and metatibiae with large angular subapical projections (Fig. 17C); colour pale yellowish, not dark or metallic ......
..........................................................................................Gonioctena*
- Tibiae lacking subapical projections; colour dark, with or without pale pattern, sometimes with metallic lustre ...........7
7(6) Pronotum with pair of sublateral grooves (Fig. 17A); apical quarter of elytral epipleuron with a row of short erect setae ....
..........................................................................................Chrysolina*
- Pronotum without sublateral grooves; epipleuron without row of short erect setae ..................................8
8(7). Tarsal claws appendiculate or toothed; pronotal angles bearing erect setae or trichobothria .................Chalcolampra
- Tarsal claws simple; pronotal angles lacking erect setae or trichobothria .........................................9
9(8). Metaventrite with subcoxal lines convex forming a broad axillary space ........................................10
- Metaventrite with subcoxal lines parallel to coxal cavity forming a narrow ridge or space (Figs 9D, 10D, 11E) ..........11
10(9). Abdominal ventrite I with subcoxal lines convex, forming a broad axillary space (Fig. 1F) .................Caccomolpus
- Abdominal ventrite I with subcoxal lines parallel to metacoxal cavity forming a narrow ridge (Fig. 14C) ..........Aphilon
11(9). Anterior of metaventral intercoxal lobe truncate; mesoventral intercoxal lobe reduced to a thin elevated transverse ridge, with
straight anterior and posterior edges (Fig. 6B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maurodus gen. nov.
- Anterior of metaventral intercoxal lobe convex; mesoventral intercoxal lobe reduced to a thin elevated ridge, with convex
anterior and concave posterior edges (Figs 11E, 14D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
12(11). Body length less than 2.5 mm; eyes reduced and consisting of 1 to about 15 ommatidia (Figs 15A–C); antenna with well-
formed antennal club and inserted far from apex of head (Figs 10A–D), prosternal process not vaulted, tarsomere 3 not dis-
tinctly bilobed (Figs 15D, E H) ...........................................................Nanomela gen. nov.
- Body length over 2.5 mm; eyes well-developed with over 30 ommatidia (Fig. 11F); antenna without club and inserted at apex
of head; prosternal process vaulted (Fig. 11F), tarsomere 3 distinctly bilobed (Fig. 11C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zeaphilon gen. nov.
Aphilon Sharp, 1876
(Figs 1A, B, E, 13A)
Aphilon Sharp, 1876:100. Type species: Aphilon enigma Sharp, 1876, by monotypy.
Diagnosis. Body length 1.3–3.2 mm; round and strongly convex; unicoloured, sometimes with a green or blue me-
tallic sheen. Antennae clavate. Procoxal cavities externally open. Hindwings absent. Anterior edge of metaventrite
curved or rounded; metaventral lines distal forming a broad surface behind the mesocoxae. First abdominal ventrite
with subcoxal lines parallel and not extending to middle of ventrite.
Description. Length 1.3–3.20 mm. Body rounded, strongly convex, globose; colouration dark brown to black
and sometimes with a green or blue metallic sheen.
LESCHEN ET AL.
8 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
Head not forming a short muzzle with genae extending a short distance beyond level of antennal and maxillary
insertions, scarcely visible in dorsal view with mouthparts directed ventrally, vertex or frons wide, nearly flat to
feebly convex; postantennal calli weakly developed, pale areas present. Eyes small, elliptical, and convex, coarsely
facetted and consisting of about 20 to 30 ommatidia; inner margin of eye without a small seta. Antennae relatively
short, not reaching far beyond the hind margin of the pronotum; antennal club well developed (antennomeres 7–11);
insertions contacting or not the margin of eye (distance between insertion and margin of eye is less than diameter of
insertion), with distance between insertions about 3 times length of the scape. Clypeus triangulate or semicircular,
frontoclypeal suture present, frons without postclypeal lines. Labrum somewhat rectangular and transverse with
curved sides, anterior margin emarginated, surface with 3 setae per side, anterior margin at middle lacking distinct
setal fringe, tormae long and thin, over 3 times longer than labral plate. Mandible lacking serrate terebral edge.
Maxillary palpus relatively long, palpomere 1 longer than wide, palpomere 2 transverse and shorter than wide, pal-
pomere 3 about 2 times longer than wide, greater in length than palpomere 2, conical to weakly acute. Labium with
relatively narrow ligula, narrower than lengths of palpomeres 1 and 2 combined, apex undivided, palpal insertions
separated by at least the width of the basal palpomere, palpi relatively short, palpomere 1 as wide as long, palpomere
2 slightly longer than wide, palpomere 2 times longer than wide with narrowed and truncated apex. Mentum rect-
angular and transverse 3 to 5 times wider than long to almost quadrate; width of mentum equal to, or shorter than
the length of labial palpomere 1. Intermaxillary process delimited behind by a ridge and not extending anteriorly far
beyond maxillary insertions, bead present or absent.
Pronotum transverse, very convex, with a bead along anterior and lateral margins, its base as wide as or just
slightly shorter than the base of elytra; anterior margin straight in dorsal view, lateral margins rounded and con-
verging anteriorly, anterior angles not projecting and rounded to subacute; sides distinctly converging anteriad and
straight or weakly curved, posterior margin weakly convex; posterior angles acute; disc convex without sublateral
groove, trichobothria absent, coarse and dense punctures at middle of posterior margin present or absent; lateral
carinae complete. Prosternum not vaulted at middle (weakly vaulted in one undescribed species), without transverse
notches in front of coxal cavities; prosternal lines present and parallel and extending forward reaching anterior edge
of sternite, or divergent anteriorly, or absent; prosternal process broad, short and extending a short distance behind
procoxae, expanded laterally behind coxae but not contacting the hypomeral process; posterior weakly emarginate,
procoxal cavities externally open. Notopleural suture distinct. Scutellary shield small, triangular with an acute or
rounded apex or not visible between elytral bases. Elytra short, convex, humeral calli and midbasal striae absent;
surface smooth to punctate punctures weakly impressed confused to striate; epipleura wide and well developed, vis-
ible in lateral view, apex without ctenidium. Hind wings absent. Mesoventrite mostly hidden in ventral view, poste-
rior portion between mesocoxae visible as a narrow strip; mesal part of mesoventrite with vertical surface confluent
with prepectus. Meso- and metacoxae widely separated. Metaventrite shorter or longer than abdominal ventrite I
at midline, mesocoxal process very short and broad with a curved or rounded anterior margin, metaventral lines
not parallel, discrimen absent, transverse metaventral (metakatepisternal) suture present and crossing the midline
or absent. Metendosternite lacking stalk and laminae, widely spaced lateral arms with subapical anterior tendons.
Legs with only metatibiae flattened in cross section, not clubbed and gradually widened distally, apically setose;
tarsomeres usually 5-5-5 (some smaller species may be 4-4-4) and variable, T1 2–3 times longer than T2, about 2
times longer than wide, T2 transverse and wider than long, T3 about as wide as long and deeply incised (bilobed),
tarsomere 4 minute or absent, T5 longer than T2+T3, claws simple, tarsomere 1 on all or anterior and middle legs
of male greatly enlarged.
Abdominal ventrite 1 long, but shorter than ventrites 1–5 combined, with a broad metacoxal process that is
wider than long and with a straight apical margin, ventrites 2–4 equal in length and much shorter than ventrite 1,
ventrite 5 longer than ventrites 3 and 4 combined with rounded posterior margin; first abdominal ventrite with sub-
coxal lines parallel to coxal cavity not extending to middle of ventrite. Aedeagus curved in lateral view and rounded
in cross section; apex in dorsal view subrounded to subacute or apiculate; flagellum present or absent. Ovipositor
with coxites elongate, more than 3 times longer than wide and lacking a stylus. Spermatheca curved and C-shaped,
collum present, with spermathecal duct inserted onto base, spermathecal gland absent.
Comments. This endemic genus contains 10 species with the exclusion of one species transferred to Maurodus
(A. impressus Broun, 1914) and two species transferred to Caccomolpus (see below). All live at ground level and are
flightless having relatively short metaventra and lack hindwings. Aphilon species are similar to some Caccomolpus,
but most species can be distinguished by their small size and almost completely round and highly convex bodies,
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 9
though a break in contour is present in A. latulum Broun, but, most importantly, all have parallel subcoxal lines
on abdominal ventrite 1 (including larger species like A. monstrosum Broun, 1886). Most Aphilon have distinctly
clavate antennae, but this character is also present in Nanomela and Zeaphilon. The round and highly convex body
shape of Aphilon distinguishes this genus from members of Maurodus, Zeaphilon, and Nanomela. Some species
have been collected at night feeding on mosses and liverworts (Kuschel 1990), otherwise they can be collected by
sifting leaf litter.
We are unable to provide a key to the species as the exact number of valid species is undetermined and the status
of the described species must be confirmed by further revision of both Aphilon and Caccomolpus. However the type
material is reviewed below, with lectotype designations where appropriate. The unusual larva with fused terga noted
by Reid & Leschen (2003) needs full description.
Included species. Aphilon convexum Broun, 1893, A. enigma Sharp, 1876, A. latulum Broun, 1893, A. minu-
tum Broun, 1880, A. monstrosum Broun, 1886, A. praestans Broun, 1893, A. punctatum Broun, 1880, A. scutellare
Broun, 1893, A. sobrinum Broun, 1886, A. sternalis Broun, 1921.
Distribution. North Island, South Island. Most of the specimens in the NZAC are from the North Island; how-
ever, there is a small number of specimens of a new species from Fiordland.
Aphilon convexum Broun, 1893
Aphilon convexum Broun, 1893b:1310. Type locality: Howick.
Comment. Broun based the description of this species on a single specimen that we located in the BMNH.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): remounted on two acetate cards, one with beetle, one with right antenna
and female genitalia, “2302. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482.
// Howick // Aphilon convexum [in Broun’s hand] // Aphilon convexum Broun [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi
[printed] 1982 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Aphilon enigma Sharp, 1876
Aphilon enigma Sharp, 1876:100. Type locality: Auckland.
Comment. Sharp based the description of this species on a single specimen that we located in the BMNH.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): remounted on card with abdomen, left proleg, right antenna, female termi-
nalia, and mouthparts in window-mount, “Aphilon enigma Type M. S. New Zeald. [in Sharp’s hand; top of original
card trimmed] // Type H.T. [round label with red border] // Sharp Coll. 1905-313. // Aphilon enigma Sharp [hand-
written] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Aphilon latulum Broun, 1893
Aphilon latulum Broun, 1893b:1310. Type locality: Stratford, Taranaki.
Comment. Broun based the description on a single specimen that we located in the BMNH.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): re-mounted on two acetate cards, one with main body and partially de-
tached left antenna and detached right proleg, one with right antennae, right midleg and female terminalia, “2303.
[in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Stratford // [in Broun’s
hand] // Aphilon latulum [in Broun’s hand] // Aphilon latulum Broun [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987
[in Daccordi’s hand]”.
LESCHEN ET AL.
10 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
Aphilon minutum Broun, 1880
Aphilon minutum Broun, 1880: 631. Type locality: Whangarei Harbour.
Comment. Broun based this species on three specimens, one of which was in the BMNH that we designated as the
lectotype to stabilise the epithet.
Type examined. Lectotype (BMNH): re-mounted on two acetate cards, one with body and male genitalia, one
with left antenna [left meso- and metatarsi missing], “1107. [olive green label] // New Zealand. [red underline]
Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Manaia // Aphilon minutum [in Broun’s hand] // Aphilon minutum Broun [hand-
written] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Aphilon monstrosum Broun, 1886
Aphilon monstrosa Broun, 1886: 874. Type locality: Waitakarei Range.
Comments. Broun based this species on two specimens, one of which was in the BMNH that we designated as the
lectotype to stabilise the epithet. Another specimen in the Broun collection from Titirangi, was not considered a
syntype because it was collected at a much later date.
Type examined. Lectotype (BMNH): re-mounted dorsally on card with aedeagus extracted and mounted on
side of card, “1556. [olive green label] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Waita-
karei // Aphilon monstrosa [in Broun’s hand] // Aphilon monstrosa Broun [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi [printed]
1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Aphilon praestans Broun, 1893
Aphilon praestans Broun, 1893b: 1309. Type locality: unknown (Clevedon?)
Comments. Broun based the description on a single male specimen collected by Mr. George Munro without men-
tioning the locality. The holotype in the BMNH bears a collecting label from Clevedon.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): re-mounted on point with aedeagus extracted and mounted on point,
“2301. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Hunua Clevedon [in
Broun’s hand] // Aphilon praestans [in Broun’s hand] // Aphilon praestans Broun [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi
[printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Aphilon punctatum Broun, 1880
Aphilon punctatum Broun, 1880: 630. Type locality: Parua Forest (Whangarei Harbour).
Comment. Broun based this species on one specimen that we located in the BMNH.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): re-mounted on point with female terminalia mounted separately on ac-
etate card [left antenna missing antennomeres 2–11], “1106. [olive green label] // New Zealand. [red underline]
Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Parua // Aphilon punctatum [in Broun’s hand] // Aphilon punctatum Broun
[handwritten] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1982 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Aphilon scutellare Broun, 1893
Aphilon scutellare Broun, 1893b:1501. Type locality: Maketu (Hunua Range).
Comment. Broun based this species on one specimen that we located in the BMNH.
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 11
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): re-mounted on acetate cards, one with body, one with right antenna and
female terminalia, “2586. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. //
Hunua Maketu [in Broun’s hand] // Aphilon scutellare. [in Broun’s hand] // Aphilon scutellare Broun [handwritten]
det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1982 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Aphilon sobrinum Broun, 1886
Aphilon sobrina Broun, 1886:875. Type locality: Waitakere.
Comment. Broun based this species on one specimen that we located in the BMNH.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): re-mounted on point, cleared abdomen and female terminalia on acetate
card [left antennomeres 2–11, right mid-tarsal claw, and left tarsus missing], “1557. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zea-
land. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Waitakere // Aphilon sobrina. [in Broun’s hand] // Aphilon
sobrina Broun [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1982 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Aphilon sternalis Broun, 1921
Aphilon sternalis Broun, 1921b:664. Type locality: Titirangi (Auckland).
Comment. Broun based this species on two specimens, one of which was in the BMNH and designated as the lec-
totype to stabilise the epithet, the other, a female retained by A. E. Brookes, has not been located.
Type examined. Lectotype (BMNH): re-mounted on point with male genitalia extracted and glued to side,
“4253. ♂ [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Titirangi 3.6.1916.
[in Broun’s hand] // Aphilon sternalis. [in Broun’s hand] // Aphilon sternalis Broun [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi
[printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Caccomolpus Sharp, 1886
(Figs 1C, D, F, 13B)
Caccomolpus Sharp, 1886:447. Type species: Caccomolpus globosus Sharp, 1886, here designated.
Diagnosis. Body length 2.5–5.8 mm; rounded to elliptical, strongly convex; unicoloured and rarely metallic green.
Antennae very weakly clavate, filiform to subfiliform. Procoxal cavities externally open. Hindwings absent. Ante-
rior edge of metaventrite straight; metaventral lines distal, and not parallel and often extending to middle of ventrite.
First abdominal ventrite with well-developed convex subcoxal lines sometimes extending to middle of ventrite.
Description. Length 2.4–5.8 mm. Body rounded to elliptical, moderately to strongly convex; dorsal colouration
unicoloured dark to black, rarely with green metallic sheen.
Head not forming a short muzzle with genae extending a short distance beyond level of antennal and maxillary
insertions, visible from above with mouthparts directed ventrally or anteroventrally, wide vertex or frons, nearly
flat to feebly convex; postantennal calli weakly developed or absent, pale areas present or absent. Eyes relatively
well-developed and weakly or not protuberant, coarsely facetted and consisting of about 20–30 ommatidia; inner
margin of eye without a small seta. Antennae long, filiform, subfiliform or weakly clavate, antennomeres 5-, 6- or
7–11 forming a weak club, reaching beyond the hind margin of the pronotum; eye not contacting insertion in most
speciers, with distance between insertion and margin of eye at most the diameter of insertion, distance between in-
sertions about 4–6 times length of the scape. Clypeus transverse to somewhate trapezoidal, anterior margin straight;
frontoclypeal suture present or very weakly impressed; postclypeal lines present or absent. Labrum somewhat rect-
angular to quadrate, anterior margin weakly to moderately emarginated and sides rounded, surface with 3–4 elongate
setae per side, anterior margin at middle lacking distinct setal fringe, tormae long and thin, about 2–3 times longer
than labral plate. Mandible with terebral edge simple. Maxillary palpus relatively long, palpomere 1 longer than
wide, palpomere 2 transverse and shorter than wide, palpomere 3 about 2 times longer than wide, greater in length
LESCHEN ET AL.
12 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
than palpomere 2, conical to weakly acute with truncated apex. Labium with relatively narrow ligula, less or equal
to the width to the lengths of palpomeres 1 and 2 combined, apex not divided at apex, palpal insertions separated by
less than the width of the basal palpomere, palpi relatively short, palpomere 1 more or less quadrate, palpomeres 2
and 3 each two times longer than wide with palpomere 3 conical. Mentum rectangular and transverse 2 to 5 times
wider than long, width of mentum about equal to the length of labial palpomere 3. Intermaxillary process basically
absent and not extending anteriorly beyond maxillary insertions, delimited behind by a ridge or a bead.
Pronotum transverse and convex, with a bead along anterior and lateral margins; posterior edge as wide as
base of elytra; anterior margin weakly moderately emarginated, anterior angles weakly projecting and rounded
to subacute; sides distinctly converging anteriad and straight or curved, posterior margin weakly convex or sinu-
ate; posterior angles acute; disc moderately to strongly convex without sublateral groove, trichobothria absent,
coarse and dense punctures at middle of posterior margin absent; lateral carinae complete. Prosternum vaulted
at middle between prosternal lines, or not, without transverse notches in front of coxal cavities; prosternal lines
present and usually parallel (rarely convergent anteriorly, e.g., C. flectipes Broun), and extending forward almost
reaching anterior edge of sternite; prosternal process broad, short and extending a short distance behind procoxae,
expanded just slightly laterally behind coxae and not contacting the hypomeral process (hypomeral process acute
to rounded); posterior margin straight, weakly rounded or concave, procoxal cavities externally open. Notopleu-
ral suture distinct. Scutellary shield visible and relatively small, triangular with rounded, subacute or acute apex.
Elytra strongly to moderately convex, humeral calli and midbasal striae mainly absent (rarely present and poorly
developed); surface smooth, punctures weakly to deeply impressed and striate (rarely confused), epipleura wide and
well developed, visible in lateral view, apex without ctenidium. Hind wings absent. Mesoventrite mostly hidden in
ventral view, posterior portion between mesocoxae visible as a narrow strip; mesal part of mesoventrite with verti-
cal surface confluent with prepectus. Meso- and metacoxae widely separated. Metaventrite subequal to length of
abdominal ventrite 1 at midline, mesocoxal process very short and broad with a straight or rounded anterior margin,
metaventral lines distal and not parallel to coxal cavity, especially laterad, discrimen present and transverse meta-
ventral (metakatepisternal) suture present but does or does not cross the midline. Metendosternite lacking stalk and
laminae, widely spaced lateral arms with subapical anterior tendons. Legs with tibiae variable, flattened in cross
section or not; meso- and metatibiae clubbed or gradually expanded distally with outer edge evenly curved, apically
setose; tarsomeres 5-5-5, tarsomere 1 longer than wide and 2–3 times longer than T2 (up to 4 times more in males),
T2 transverse and wider than long and as long as T3, T3 about as wide as long or transverse and deeply to weakly
incised (bilobed), tarsomere 4 minute, T5 about 2–3 times long as T3, claws simple.
Abdominal ventrite 1 long, but shorter than ventrites 2–5 combined, with a broad metacoxal process that is
wider than long and with a straightt apical margin, ventrites 2–4 equal in length and much shorter than ventrite
1, ventrite 5 subequal or longer than ventrites 3 and 4 combined with rounded posterior margin; first abdominal
ventrite with subcoxal lines distal to coxal cavity and extending to middle of ventrite. Aedeagus curved to weakly
curved in lateral view and rounded in cross section; apex in dorsal view subacute or rounded; flagellum present or
absent. Ovipositor with coxite elongate, at least 4 times longer than wide, stylus absent. Spermatheca curved, U-
shaped, collum absent and present with spermathecal duct inserted onto base, spermathecal gland absent.
Comments. This endemic genus comprises 14 described species (including two species transferred here from
Aphilon and excluding four transferred to a new genus). The genus was described by Sharp (1886) who included
two very different species in his original paper. We designate C. globosus Sharp as the type species, the other, Cac-
comolpus plagiatus Sharp, is placed in a new genus below (Maurodus), together with Caccomolpus cinctiger Broun,
Caccomolpus maculatus Broun, 1893, and Caccomolpus ornatus Broun, 1910. Caccomolpus also includes the spe-
cies Aphilon laticollis and A. pretiosum, and apart from these two species transferred from Aphilon, the remaining
species were described from the South Island, mostly from the highlands. Smaller Caccomolpus species that are
similar to members of Aphilon can be distinguished from them by their small size, the head scarcely visible in dorsal
view, and subcoxal lines on abdominal ventrite 1 which are not parallel to the metacoxal cavity that have a wide
space and convex shape and often extend to the middle of the ventrite (Fig. 1F). The Aphilon-form of the subcoxal
lines also occurs in Caccomolpus cinctiger Broun, Caccomolpus maculatus Broun, 1893, Caccomolpus ornatus
Broun, 1910, and Caccomolpus plagiatus Sharp, and several additional species mainly from the South Island which
can be characterised by having subcoxal lines on first abdominal ventrite parallel and approximate to metacoxal
cavity: these we place in a new genus, Maurodus, below.
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 13
FIGURES 1A–F. Habitus and structures of Aphilon and Caccomolpus; A, Aphilon sp., dorsal view, length 2.2 mm; B, Aphilon
sp., lateral view; C, Caccomolpus sp., dorsal view, length 2.7 mm; C, Caccomolpus sp., dorsal view; D, Caccomolpus sp., lateral
view; E., Aphilon sp., front of head; F, Caccomolpus sp., abdominal ventrites.
LESCHEN ET AL.
14 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
All species live at ground level and can be sifted from leaf litter or moss, though some specimens have been
collected at night from foliage above ground.
We are unable to provide a key to the species as the validity of the described species is unknown and un-
checked.
Included species. Caccomolpus amplus Broun, 1921, C. flectipes Broun, 1914, C. fuscicornis Broun, 1917, C.
globosus Sharp, 1886, C. hallianus Broun, 1917, C. laticollis (Broun, 1893), comb. nov. (from Aphilon), C. monta-
nus Broun, 1921, C. nigristernis Broun, 1917, C. pretiosus (Broun, 1880), comb. nov. (from Aphilon), C. pullatus
Broun, 1893, C. subcupreus Broun, 1921, C. substriatus Broun, 1917, C. tibialis Broun, 1917, C. viridescens Broun,
1917.
Distribution. North Island, South Island, Stewart Island.
Caccomolpus amplus Broun, 1921
Caccomolpus amplus Broun, 1921a:590. Type locality: Glenhope.
Comment. Broun based this species on one specimen lacking a leg and some terminal antennomeres that we located
in the BMNH.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): re-mounted on point, female terminalia mounted separately on acetate
card [left and right terminal antennomeres and right mid-leg missing], “4151. ♀. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand.
[red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Glenhope. 3.3.1915. [in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus amplus.
♀. [in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus subcupreus (= amplus) nov. syn. [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi [printed]
1982 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Caccomolpus flectipes Broun, 1914
Caccomolpus flectipes Broun, 1914:259. Type locality: Mt Hutt, near Methven.
Comment. Broun based this species on one specimen that we located in the BMNH.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): re-mounted on card with aedeagus extracted and mounted at front edge
of card [tarsi of right mid-leg missing], “3667. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit.
Mus. 1922-482. // Mount Hutt. 30.3.1912. [in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus flectipes. [in Broun’s hand] // Cacco-
molpus flectipes Broun [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Caccomolpus fuscicornis Broun, 1917
Caccomolpus fuscicornis Broun, 1917:466. Type locality: Mount Dick.
Comment. Broun based this species on one female specimen that we located in the BMNH.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): re-mounted on point, female terminalia mounted separately on acetate
card [left (A2–11) and right antennomere (A8–11) missing], “2965. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red under-
line] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Mt Dick. 15.3.1914. [in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus fuscicornis. ♀. [in
Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus pullatus (= C. fuscicornis) nov. syn. [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987
[in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Caccomolpus globosus Sharp, 1886
Caccomolpus globosus Sharp, 1886:447. Type locality: Greymouth.
Comments. Sharp did not give the number of specimens he had available for this species. There were five speci-
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 15
mens in the main BMNH collection, three of which clearly bore the original thick card labels that Sharp had used
(one specimen was labelled as type). Two additional specimens with Edmund Reitter labels are assumed to be from
the same shipment that Sharp received from Reitter via Helms (Greymouth), named in Sharp’s 1886 paper. We have
restricted the syntypes to the three specimens with Sharp labels, one of which, labelled ‘type’ by a curator, is desig-
nated lectotype to stabilise the epithet.
Type material examined. Lectotype (BMNH): remounted on card with removed abdomen, with right maxilla
and female terminalia on acetate card, “Caccomolpus globusus Type M. S. Greymouth, N. Z. [in Sharp’s hand; top
of original card trimmed] // ♀ [in Sharp’s hand?; top of original card trimmed] // Type H.T. [round label with red
border] // Sharp Coll. 1905-313. // Caccomolpus globosus Sharp [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in
Daccordi’s hand]”. Paralectotypes (BMNH): 1, same, but remounted on point, with right maxilla and female termi-
nalia on acetate card, “Greymouth [in Sharp’s hand; original card trimmed]”; 1, same, but remounted on point with
aedeagus removed and mounted on side of label, “♂ Caccomolpus globusus M. S. Greymouth, Helms [in Sharp’s
hand; original card trimmed] // II 23 [in Reitter’s hand?]”.
Caccomolpus hallianus Broun, 1917
Caccomolpus hallianus Broun, 1917:466. Type locality: Mount Dick.
Comments. Broun based this species on four specimens collected from Mount Dick (Lake Wakatipu), one a female
collected on 29 January 1914, and “three others” collected on the same mountain for “two days” in March by T. Hall.
There were four specimens in the Broun collection (BMNH), two collected from 29 January 1914 and two collected
on 13 March 1914. There were two additional specimens in the NZAC on 13 March 1914 collected from Mt Dick
and labelled as syntypes by Robin Craw, and an additional four specimens labelled as “var. 3964” by Broun, two of
which lacked locality information, and two from Ben Lomond. Unfortunately, Broun may have confused dates and
localities, or there was mislabelling by Broun, or label switching in the Broun material because two male specimens
in the BMNH were labelled as “var. 3966” a number corresponding to C. substriatus described from Ben Lomond
(Dunedin) but had the Mt Dick locality labels and were collected in March. Note that these species, and others, are
considered synonymous by M. Daccordi (pers. obs.) with C. pullatus. We decided to treat two BMNH specimens
collected in January 1914 as syntypes, and designate the male as the lectotype and the female a paralectotype.
Type material examined. Lectotype (BMNH): re-mounted on card with removed aedeagus mounted at corner
[left antenna, right antennomeres A7–11, left protibia, left hindleg, right protarsomeres 4 and 5, most of the right
tibia, and hind tarsus missing], “3964. ♂. [in Broun’s hand] // Mount Dick. 29.1.1914. [in Broun’s hand] // Cac-
comolpus hallianus. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Cac-
comolpus pullatus (= C. hallianus) nov. syn. [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Paralectotype (BMNH): re-mounted on point, female terminalia and abdomen cleared and in window-mount [left
antennomers A2–11 missing], “3964. ♀. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus.
1922-482. // Mount Dick. 29.1.1914. [in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus pullatus (= C. hallianus) nov. syn. [hand-
written] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Caccomolpus laticollis (Broun, 1893), comb. nov.
Aphilon laticollis Broun, 1893a: 392. Type locality: Thames.
Comments. Broun based the description of this species on a single specimen which we located in the BMNH and
confirmed as the holotype. He did not mention the sex nor did he include his typical numbered species. This species
is transferred to Caccomolpus because of the form of the subcoxal lines on abdominal ventrite 1 which are convex
and form a broad axillary space. This species is considered a synyonym of Caccomolpus globosus by M. Daccordi
(pers. obs.), but a full revision of the species is needed before formal synonymy is actioned.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): re-pointed with cleared abdomen and female terminalia in media on
separate acetate card [right mid-tarsus and right hindleg missing], “3015. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red
underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Thames // ♀ [in Broun’s hand] // Aphilon laticollis [in Broun’s hand]
LESCHEN ET AL.
16 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
// Caccomolpus globosus (= Aphilon laticollis Broun) nov. syn. [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in
Daccordi’s hand]”.
Caccomolpus montanus Broun, 1921
Caccomolpus montanus Broun, 1921b:665. Type locality: Mount St Arnaud, Nelson.
Comments. Broun based this species on four specimens, two of each sex, of which three were in the BMNH and
one was in the NZAC. One of these was designated as the lectotype to stabilise the epithet, the remaining three were
designated as paralectotypes.
Type material examined. Lectotype (BMNH): remounted on card with removed aedeagus glued at corner,
“4254. ♂. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Mt Arnaud.
15.6.1916. [in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus montanus. ♂ [in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus subcupreus (= mon-
tanus) nov. syn. [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”. Paralectotypes: 1 (BMNH),
same, but re-mounted on point with egg (?), female terminalia and abdomen mounted separately on acetate la-
bel, “4254. ♀. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Mt Arnaud.
15.6.1916. [in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus montanus. [in Broun’s hand]”; 1(BMNH), same as lectotype but
remounted on card and aedeagus separately mounted on point; 1 (NZAC), body and one leg remounted on card and
female terminalia and one leg mounted on acetate label, “Mt Arnaud. 15.6.1916. // Caccomolpus montanus. ♀ [in
Broun’s hand] // A. E. Brookes Collection // T. Broun Collection // SYNTYPE [printed] Caccomolpus montanus
Broun, 1921 R. C. Craw det. 1983 [in Craw’s hand on acid green label]”.
Caccomolpus nigristernis Broun, 1917
Caccomolpus nigristernis Broun, 1917:465. Type locality: Hollyford.
Comments. Broun based this species on one specimen which was in the NZAC. There was one specimen in the
BMNH which matches the date and locality published by Broun, but was labelled as a variant and, moreover, Broun
made no mention of a variant in the original publication. We confirm that the NZAC specimen is the holotype.
Type examined. Holotype (NZAC): Hollyford. 19.2.1914. [in Broun’s hand] // 3936. // T. Broun Collection //
A. E. Brookes Collection // Caccomolpus nigristernis. ♂. [in Broun’s hand] // HOLOTYPE [printed] Caccomolpus
nigristernis Broun, 1917 R. Craw det. 1983 [in Craw’s hand on cosmic orange label]”.
Caccomolpus pretiosus (Broun, 1880), comb. nov.
Aphilon pretiosum Broun, 1880: 630. Type locality: Tairua.
Comments. Broun based this species on two specimens, one of which was in the BMNH and is designated as the
lectotype to stabilise the epithet. This species is transferred to Caccomolpus because of the form of the subcoxal
lines on abdominal ventrite 1 which are convex and form a broad axillary space. This species is considered a syn-
onym of Caccomolpus globosus by M. Daccordi (pers. obs.), but a full revision of the species is needed before
formal synonymy is actioned.
Type examined. Lectotype (BMNH): re-mounted on point with female terminalia mounted separately on ac-
etate card, “1105 [olive green label] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Tairua //
Aphilon pretiosum. [in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus globosus (= Aphilon pretiosum Broun) nov. syn. [handwrit-
ten] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Caccomolpus pullatus Broun, 1893
Caccomolpus pullatus Broun, 1893b:1309. Type locality: Forty-Mile Bush [Napier].
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 17
Comments. Broun did not mention the number of specimens he examined. We located two specimens in the BMNH,
one of which we designated as the lectotype to stabilise the epithet.
Type examined. Lectotype (BMNH): remounted on card with removed aedeagus glued at corner, “2299. [in
Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Napier // Caccomolpus pullatus.
[in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus pullatus Broun [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s
hand]”. Paralectotype (BMNH): 1, same, but re-mounted on point with abdomen and right mid-leg also on card and
female terminalia mounted separately on acetate label, Broun identification label lacking.
Caccomolpus subcupreus Broun, 1921
Caccomolpus subcupreus Broun, 1921a:589. Type locality: Glenhope.
Comment. Broun based this species on one specimen that we located in the BMNH.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): re-mounted on card, aedeagus mounted at corner, “4150. ♂. [in Broun’s
hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Glenhope. 8.6.1915. [in Broun’s hand] //
Caccomolpus subcupreus. ♂. [in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus subcupreus Broun [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi
[printed] 1982 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Caccomolpus substriatus Broun, 1917
Caccomolpus substriatus Broun, 1917:467. Type locality: Ben Lomond.
Comments. Broun based this species on three specimens collected from Mount Dick on 6 March 1914 by Mr. Hall,
one of which was a mutilated male mounted dorsally. We located four specimens with handwritten locality and
Broun numbers in the BMNH and NZAC, one of which was labelled as a variety, and three that were remounted and
redetermined as C. pullatus by M. Daccordi. There is some confusion about true specimen identities due to labelling
(see above, C. hallianus) and all could be regarded as syntypes. We decided to exclude the variant, and treat the three
remaining specimens as syntypical.
Type material examined. Lectotype (BMNH): remounted on point, aedeagus glued laterally and abdomen
cleared and in window-mount [right proleg missing], “3966. ♂. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline]
Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Lomond. 6.3.14. [in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus pullatus (= C. substriatus)
nov. syn. [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”. Paralectotypes (NZAC): 1, remount-
ed on a point, aedeagus glued laterally [right antenna and proleg missing], “Lomond. 6.3.14. [in Broun’s hand] //
3966. [in Broun’s hand] // T. Broun Collection // A. E. Brookes Collection // SYNTYPE [printed] Caccomolpus
substriatus Broun, 1917 R. Craw det. 1983 [in Craw’s hand on acid green label]”; 1, remounted with abdomen on a
point, female terminalia mounted on acetate card [left antennomeres 10 and 11 and left midle and hind legs missing],
“Lomond. 6.3.14. [in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus substriatus [in Broun’s hand] // T. Broun Collection // A. E.
Brookes Collection // Type series E. S. G. 1989 [in Gourley’s hand on red label] // SYNTYPE [printed] Caccomol-
pus substriatus Broun, 1917 R. Craw det. 1983 [in Craw’s hand on acid green label] // Caccomolpus pullatus (= C.
substriatus) nov. syn. [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Caccomolpus tibialis Broun, 1917
Caccomolpus tibialis Broun, 1917:467. Type locality: Mount Dick.
Comment. Broun based this species on one specimen collected from Mount Dick.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): re-mounted on card, aedeagus glued to corner, “3967. ♂. [in Broun’s
hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Mount Dick. 13.3.1914. [in Broun’s
hand] // Caccomolpus tibialis. ♂. [in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus pullatus (= C. tibialis) nov. syn. [handwritten]
det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
LESCHEN ET AL.
18 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
Caccomolpus viridescens Broun, 1917
Caccomolpus tibialis Broun, 1917:468. Type locality: Dyer’s Pass, Christchurch.
Comment. Broun based this species on one specimen collected from Dyer’s Pass.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): re-mounted on point, extracted female terminalia mounted on acetate
card [left antennomeres 5–11 and right antennomeres 3–11 missing], “3968. ♂. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand.
[red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Dyer’s Pass. 23.8.1914. [in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus
viridescens [in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus flectipes (= C. viridescens) nov. syn. [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi
[printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Chalcolampra Blanchard, 1853
(Figs 2, 3, 18D, E)
Chalcolampra Blanchard, 1853: 328. Type species: Chalcolampra convexa Blanchard, 1853, by monotypy.
Allocharis Sharp, 1882: 98. Type species: Allocharis marginata Sharp, 1882, by monotypy. Synonymy by Daccordi, 1994:77
[as a subgenus].
Cyrtonogetus Broun, 1915: 343. Type species: Cyrtonogetus crassus Broun, 1915, by monotypy. Syn. nov.
Eualema Broun, 1903: 86. Type species: Eualema walkeri Broun, 1903: 86, by monotypy. Synonymy by Broun 1910: 77 [nec
Daccordi, 1994:77; as a subgenus].
Diagnosis (NZ species only). Body length greater than 3.0 mm and up to about 8.0 mm; elongate and moderately
convex; colour uni- or bicoloured dark sometimes with a blue or green metallic luster. Antennae filiform. Procoxal
cavities externally closed to very narrowly open. Hindwings present, absent, or reduced. Anterior edge of meta-
ventrite curved to rounded or subrounded; metaventral lines parallel and not extending to middle of ventrite. First
abdominal ventrite with subcoxal bead parallel to metacoxal cavity and not extending to middle of ventrite.
Description. Length 3.7–8.1 mm. Body broad and elongate, moderately convex; colour variable, generally uni-
or bicoloured dark, sometimes with a blue or green metallic luster.
Head not forming a short muzzle, with genae extending a short distance beyond level of antennal and maxillary
insertions, visible in dorsal view and retracted into prothorax with mouthparts directed anteroventrally; wide vertex
or frons, nearly flat to feebly convex; postantennal calli present to weakly developed, but lacking pale areas. Eyes
relatively well-developed, weakly or not protuberant, finely facetted and consisting of over 50 ommatidia; inner
margin of eye without a small seta. Antennae long and filiform and reaching beyond hind margin of the pronotum,
scape long and about 2 times longer than antennomere 2, club not well-developed; eye not contacting insertion, with
distance between insertion and margin of eye less equal or less than diameter of insertion, distance between inser-
tions about 2–5 times length of the scape. Clypeus somewhat trapezoidal to semicircular, anterior margin straight;
frontoclypeal suture present; postclypeal lines present or absent. Labrum with curved sides and somewhat rectan-
gular and typically transverse to semicircular, anterior margin emarginated or not, surface with 2–3 elongate setae
per side, anterior margin at middle lacking distinct setal fringe, tormae long and thin, about 2–4 times longer than
labral plate. Mandible with terebral edge simple. Maxillary palpus relatively long, palpomere 1 longer than wide,
palpomere 2 not transverse and longer than wide, palpomere 3 about 2 times longer than wide or short to about
as long as wide, greater to less than the length of palpomere 2, conical to cylindrical and often truncate to weakly
acute (e.g., Chalcolampra speculifera). Labium with relatively wide ligula, subequal in width to the lengths of pal-
pomeres 1 and 2 combined, apex not divided at apex, palpal insertions separated by more than the width of the basal
palpomere, palpi relatively short, palpomere 1 as wide as long, palpomere 2 longer as wide, palpomere 3 2–3 times
longer than wide, conical to cylindrical. Mentum rectangular and transverse, width of mentum slightly longer or
equal the length of labial palpomere 3. Intermaxillary process short and not extending anteriorly far beyond maxil-
lary insertions, delimited behind by a ridge or a bead.
Pronotum transverse and convex to flattened, with a bead along all margins, or weakly indicated or absent
posteriorly; posterior edge narrower than base of elytra; anterior margin emarginate and evenly concave, anterior
angles weakly to strongly projecting, rounded to subacute; sides nearly parallel in basal half, curved, or sinuate,
not strongly convergent anteriorly; posterior margin weakly convex or sinuate; posterior angles acute to subacute;
disc moderately convex without sublateral groove, trichobothria present, coarse and dense punctures at middle of
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 19
posterior margin absent; lateral carinae complete. Prosternum not or weakly vaulted at middle, without transverse
notches in front of coxal cavities; prosternal lines absent (bead at inner margin of the procoxal cavities is present, but
does not extend forward much beyond edge of coxa); prosternal process broad, short and extending a short distance
behind procoxae, expanded laterally behind coxae and usually contacting an acute and elongate hypomeral process
(sometimes a small gap is present); posterior margin straight, weakly convex or emarginated; procoxal cavities
externally closed (or very narrowly opened). Notopleural suture distinct. Scutellary shield visible, triangular and
somewhat transverse with rounded or acute apex. Elytra moderately convex, humeral calli distinct or absent, mid-
basal striae present or absent; surface smooth and punctation striate, moderately coarse and dense to fine and sparse;
epipleura well developed, visible in lateral view, apex without ctenidium. Hind wings absent or brachypterous.
Mesoventrite mostly hidden in ventral view, posterior portion between mesocoxae visible as a narrow strip; mesal
part of mesoventrite with vertical surface confluent with prepectus. Meso- and metacoxae moderately to widely
separated. Metaventrite typically shorter than abdominal ventrite 1 at midline (rarely longer, e.g., C. speculifera),
mesocoxal process broad to somewhat narrow with a straight, curved, or subrounded anterior margin, metaventral
lines parallel and not extended to middle of ventrite, transverse metaventral (metakatepisternal) suture present but
typically does not cross the midline. Metendosternite without or with a broad stalk (present in C. speculifera) and
laminae absent, widely spaced lateral arms with subapical anterior tendons. Legs with tibiae flattened to subrounded
in cross section, meso- and metatibiae not clubbed with lateral edge curved and not irregular in outline, apically se-
tose; tarsomeres 5-5-5 and variable, tarsomere 1 typically longer than T2, 1.5 times longer than wide parallel-sided
or triangular, T2 triangular and may be wider than long and narrower and smaller than T3, T3 about as wide as long
or longer and not deeply incised (bilobed), tarsomere 4 minute, T5 about 2–2.5 times as long as T3, appendiculate,
weakly appendiculate, or simple; tarsomere 1 of male not greatly enlarged (but all tarsomeres may be, in general,
enlarged).
Abdominal ventrite 1 variable in length but typically longer than ventrite 2 and 3 combined and always shorter
than ventrites 2–5 combined, with a broad metacoxal process that is wider than long and with a weakly curved api-
cal margin, ventrites 2–4 equal in length and each shorter than ventrite 1, ventrite 5 subequal to ventrite 4 or longer
ventrites 3 and 4 combined with rounded or subrounded posterior margin; first abdominal ventrite with subcoxal
lines parallel to coxal cavity that do not extend to middle of ventrite. Aedeagus variable, curved to weakly curved
in lateral view and rounded, laterally or dorsoventrally compressed in cross section; apex in dorsal view acute to
rounded or square-edged, may be expaned towards apex; flagellum present or absent. Ovipositor with paraproct 2
times longer than wide and lacking distinct baculus, coxite about 3 times longer than wide, stylus apically inserted
and about 1.2 times the length of coxite. Spermatheca U-shaped, collum present spermathecal duct inserted onto
base, spermathecal gland absent or very weakly sclerotised.
Comments. The species of Chalcolampra are widely distributed in Southeast Asia, Australia and New Zealand
(Reid 1993, 2006). There are 13 described species in New Zealand, and there are up to an additional 20 undescribed
spp. from the South Island based on morphospecies sorted by Charles Watt contained in the NZAC. The first de-
scription of a New Zealand species was of Chalcolampra speculifera Sharp, 1882 (Fig. 2C), a species also described
by Broun (1903) and placed in his new genus Eualema, but subsequently synonymised with Chalcolampra (Broun
1910). Meanwhile, Sharp (1882) named a new monotypic genus, Allocharis, based on A. marginata that he thought
was closely related to the tribe Phyllocarites and was intermediate between Cyrtonus Latrielle and Gonioctena
(without mentioning similarities to Chalcolampra). Subsequently, Broun added 11 species to Allocharis and then
erected a new monotypic genus, Cyrtonogetus Broun, 1915 (Fig. 3B). Allocharis was treated as a valid genus and
the combination Chalcolampra speculifera presented in Withers et al (2015). Cyrtonogetus was retained as a sepa-
rate genus by Daccordi (1994, see also 1996), and indeed there are differences between this species and other mem-
bers of the group, as expressed by Broun (1915: 343): “The type of this genus is nearly related to Allocharis (Man.
N.Z. Coleopt., p. 1306), but the body is not at all elongate-oval, being robust and oblong. The metasternum has the
front margin distinctly elevated and truncate between the coxae, instead of being strongly, almost sharply rounded.
The basal ventral segment is hardly as long as the following three, and its frontal suture is nearly quite straight. The
posterior coxae are only a little farther apart than the intermediate. Tibiae gradually incrassate towards the extremity,
each with a broad external groove there. Tarsi stout, basal two joints cordiform, 3rd entire and densely setose un-
derneath, slightly emarginate, the claws of the terminal appendiculate at the base. In sternal structure it is similar to
Caccomolpus, which, however, is composed of small subrotundate species with differently formed legs.” Maddison
(2010) followed Daccordi’s classification, with Allocharis and Eualema listed as subgenera of Chalcolampra.
LESCHEN ET AL.
20 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
Reid & Smith (2004) treated the three New Zealand taxa Allocharis, Cyrtonogetus, and Eualema as valid and
possibly the sister group to the New Caledonian endemic genus Zira Reid & Smith 2004, but noted that the simi-
larities were likely to be plesiomorphies within a larger group of taxa. The New Zealand and New Caledonian taxa
share many similarities with Chalcolampra and are part of a larger taxonomic problem involving several genera. In
New Zealand, these species form a morphological grade of completely winged forms to apterous forms that make
up the bulk of species. A relatively robust and convex body with non-protuberant eyes characterises Cyrtonogetus
and some Allocharis (e.g., A. subsulcata Broun). The main difference between C. speculifera and most species of
Allocharis is the posteriorly expanded and abruptly truncate elytra (Fig. 2C), but this feature is present, to a lesser
degree, in some Allocharis species. The external closure of the procoxal cavities (Fig. 3E) varies from complete to
narrowly open (see also Reid 1993, 2006). We believe it prudent to place the three New Zealand genera in Chalco-
lampra, treating Cyrtogonetus as a synonym. We also advocate dispensing with subgenera altogether until a broader
study of the group is undertaken. Because of the difficulty in determining species we are unable to provide a key to
the species.
The problem with Chalcolampra is broader than the New Zealand issue, and the genus may not be monophylet-
ic. Reid (2006) suggested that Phyllocharis Dalman and Chalcolampra might be placed in synonymy, though larval
characters may support their separation (Reid 1991): this may be true in New Zealand when comparing larval forms
(C. Wardhaugh, pers. obs); one form with a well sclerotised circular plate at the apex of the abdomen and others
lacking this structure. Meanwhile, no adult synapomorphies have been recognised for Chalcolampra, and the genus
appears twice in a key to Australian chrysomelines by Reid (2006) based on differences of the tarsal claw (Reid
1993). Furthermore, unpublished genetic data support non-monophyly of the genus (J. Jurado, pers. com., 2009).
The likelihood that the New Zealand species of Chalcolampra are paraphyletic, or of multiple origins, is indicated
by two distinct larval morphologies. Clearly a complete overhaul of the genera of this group is required.
All New Zealand forms have a more or less parallel-sided body form, are relatively large (over 4 mm), have
eyes that are well-developed (though they may or may not be protruding), and the antennae on the larger forms are
filiform to subfiliform, lacking a club or have broadened apical antennomeres, which distinguishes the genus from
other native New Zealand taxa. Host records are few for New Zealand Chalcolampra. Species in Australia feed on
Senecio (Asteraceae), Prostanthera (Lamiaceae) and Veronica (Scrophulariaceae) (Reid 1991, 2006; Holtkamp &
Hosking 1993). Members of Australian Chalcolampra s. str. feed mainly on Asteraceae and Pittosporaceae (Jurado-
Rivera et al. 2009) and the New Zealand species C. speculifera has been collected from Pseudopanax (Araliaceae),
which is also the host for species of Promechus Boisduval, the only other chrysomeline known to feed on Araliaceae
(Jolivet & Hawkeswood 1995), a rare host for any chrysomelid (Reid & Beatson 2018). The larva of one species of
Chalcolampra, similar to C. speculifera, has been observed feeding on the composite Olearia colensoi (Wardle et
al. 1971) and was illustrated by Reid (1995). It blocks its daytime retreats with an anal plate formed by terga VII–IX.
Other New Zealand Chalcolampra feed on Veronica (Scrophulariaceae). A species like C. tarsalis Broun has been
collected from the subalpine species V. albicans in Northwest Nelson, where the larva feeds on leaves day and night,
though adults are nocturnal (C. Wardhaugh, pers. com., 2018). Larvae of this group lack the anal plate and have been
recorded previously from Veronica (Purdie 1884; as Allocharis marginata Sharp) and were illustrated and briefly
described by Hudson (1934; as Allocharis robusta Broun). Lastly, two species similar to C. crassus have been col-
lected from Celmisia brevifolia, C. haasti and under Celmisia leaves (Asteraceae).
Distribution. South Island.
Included species. Chalcolampra crassa (Broun, 1915), comb. nov. (from Cyrtonogetus), C. fuscipes (Broun,
1917), C. limbata (Broun, 1893), C. marginata (Sharp, 1882), C. media (Broun, 1917), C. morosa (Broun, 1893),
C. nigricollis (Broun, 1917), C. picticornis (Broun, 1917), C. praestans (Broun, 1917), C. robusta (Broun, 1917),
C. speculifera Sharp, 1882 (=Eualema walkeri Broun, 1903, syn. nov.), C. subsulcata (Broun, 1917), C. tarsalis
(Broun, 1917).
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 21
FIGURES 2A–M. Dorsal habitus of Chalcolampra spp.; A, Chalcolampra sp.; B, Chalcolampra sp., length 4.8 mm; C, Chal-
colampra speculifera Sharp, length 8.7 mm; D, Chalcolampra sp.
LESCHEN ET AL.
22 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
FIGURES 3A–F. Habits and structures of Chalcolampra spp.; A, Chalcolampra sp., dorsal habitus; B, Chalcolampra crassa
(Broun), dorsal habitus of holotype; C, Chalcolampra sp., lateral view, length; D, Chalcolampra speculifera Sharp, detail of
head; E Chalcolampra sp., detail of head; F, Chalcolampra sp., ventral view of anterior portion of body.
Chalcolampra crassa (Broun, 1915), comb. nov.
(Fig. 3B)
Cyrtonogetus crassus Broun, 1915:343. Type locality: The Remarkables.
Comment. Broun based this species on one specimen that we located in BMNH in poor condition.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): re-mounted on point with left antenna and right proleg, original three
labels mounted on top of newer cardstock, cleared abdomen in genitalia vial [left antennomeres 6–11, left protar-
someres 4 and 5, left mid and hindtarsi, and genitalia missing], “3778. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red un-
derline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Remarkables. 28.12.1912. [in Broun’s hand] // Holo-type [round label
with red border] // Holotypus [red label] // Cyrtonogetus crassus. [in Broun’s hand] // Cyrtonogetus crassus Broun
Daccordi—Shute rev. 1988 [in Shute’s hand]”.
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 23
Chalcolampra fuscipes (Broun, 1917)
Allocharis fuscipes Broun, 1917: 464. Type locality: Moa Basin.
Chalcolampra fuscipes: Implied combination based on Allocharis as an objective synonym of Chalcolampra in Daccordi, 1994:
77.
Comment. Broun based the description on a single specimen.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): card-mounted, “3960. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline]
Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Moa Basin. 20.10.1913. [in Broun’s hand] // Allocharis fuscipes [in Broun’s
hand]”.
Chalcolampra limbata (Broun, 1893)
Allocharis limbata Broun, 1893b: 1307. Type locality: Flagstaff Hill and Mount Maungatua, Dunedin.
Chalcolampra limbata: Implied combination based on Allocharis as an objective synonym of Chalcolampra in Daccordi, 1994:
77.
Comments. Broun indicated that one specimen was from Flagstaff Hill and “the others” were from Mount Maun-
gatua. In the Broun collection (BMNH) we found one from Flagstaff Hill and three others collected from Taieri
where Mount Maungatu is located. One of these we designated as the lectotype to stabilise the epithet, and the
remainder were designated as paralectotypes.
Type material examined. Lectotype (BMNH): card-mounted, “2296. [in Broun’s hand] // ♂ [in Broun’s hand]
// Taieri // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Gordon’s. 15.11.1914 [in Broun’s hand]
// Allocharis limbata [in Broun’s hand]”. Paralectotypes (BMNH): 2, same as lectotype (one labelled as “♂”); 1,
same, but “Flagstaff Hill. [in Broun’s hand] // Dunedin” [lacking identification label].
Chalcolampra marginata (Sharp, 1882)
Allocharis marginata Sharp, 1882:99. Type locality: Craigieburn.
Chalcolampra marginata: Implied combination based on Allocharis as an objective synonym of Chalcolampra in Daccordi,
1994: 77.
Comment. Sharp based the description of this species on a single specimen.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): pointed on abdomen with antennae removed and glued on card and
cleared abdomen and the female terminalia in window-mount [some antennal segments and right protarsi missing],
“Allocharis marginata Type M. S. Craigieburn, NZd. [in Sharp’s hand; top of original card trimmed] // Type H.T.
[round label with red border] // Sharp Coll. 1905-313. // Chalcolampra (Allocharis) marginata Sharp [handwritten]
Daccordi det. [printed] 1997 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Chalcolampra media (Broun, 1917)
Allocharis media Broun, 1917:463. Type locality: Ben Lomond.
Chalcolampra media: Implied combination based on Allocharis as an objective synonym of Chalcolampra in Daccordi, 1994:
77.
Comment. Broun based the description on a single specimen.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): card-mounted, “3959. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline]
Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Lomond. 5.3.1914. [in Broun’s hand] // Allocharis media. [in Broun’s hand]”.
LESCHEN ET AL.
24 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
Chalcolampra morosa (Broun, 1893)
Allocharis morosa Broun, 1893b:1307. Type locality: Castle Hill.
Chalcolampra morosa: Implied combination based on Allocharis as an objective synonym of Chalcolampra in Daccordi, 1994:
77.
Comment. Broun based the description on a single specimen.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): pointed, “2295. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun
Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Castle Hill // CANTERB // Allocharis morosa. [in Broun’s hand]”.
Chalcolampra nigricollis (Broun, 1917)
Allocharis nigricollis Broun, 1917:463. Type locality: Ben Lomond and Mount Dick.
Chalcolampra nigricollis: Implied combination based on Allocharis as an objective synonym of Chalcolampra in Daccordi,
1994: 77.
Comments. Broun based this name on three specimens from Ben Lomond and one from Mount Dick, three of
which were in the BMNH and one located in the NZAC. The specimen from Mount Dick was designated as the
lectotype to stabilise the epithet, and the remaining specimens were designated as paralectotypes.
Type material examined. Lectotype (BMNH): pointed on abdomen with cleared abdomen and aedeagus
mounted at base and antenna and mouthparts in window-mount, “3957 [in Broun’s hand] // Mount Dick. 24.1.1914.
[in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482.” Paralectotypes: 2 (BMNH),
same but 1 mounted dorsally on card and 1 pointed on abdomen with cleared abdomen and female terminalia in win-
dow-mount, “3957. [in Broun’s hand] // Lomond. 5.3.1914. [in Broun’s hand] // Allocharis nigricollis. [in Broun’s
hand]”; 1 (NZAC), Lomond. 5.3.1914. [in Broun’s hand] // // Allocharis nigricollis. [in Broun’s hand] // 3957.
[in Broun’s hand] // A. E. Brookes Collection // T. Broun Collection // SYNTYPE [printed] Allocharis nigricollis
Broun, 1917 R. C. Craw det. 1983 [in Craw’s hand on acid green label]”.
Chalcolampra picticornis Broun, 1917
Allocharis picticornis Broun, 1917:463. Type locality: Ben Lomond. Type depository: BMNH HT.
Chalcolampra picticornis: Implied combination based on Allocharis as an objective synonym of Chalcolampra in Daccordi,
1994: 77.
Comment. Broun based the description on a single specimen.
Type material examined. Holotype (BMNH): card-mounted, “3958. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red
underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Lomond. 5.3.1914. [in Broun’s hand] // Allocharis picticornis. [in
Broun’s hand]”.
Chalcolampra praestans (Broun, 1917)
Allocharis praestans Broun, 1917:462. Type locality: Moa Basin.
Chalcolampra praestans: Implied combination based on Allocharis as an objective synonym of Chalcolampra in Daccordi,
1994: 77.
Comments. Broun based this name on three specimens from Moa Basin collected on 20 October 1913, and men-
tioned a single specimen as a variety from Mistake Basin. We located one specimen in the NZAC that was desig-
nated as the lectotype to stabilise the epithet, another NZAC specimen collected on the same date from Scarcliff, and
two specimens from Mistake Basin (BMNH), all of which are located in the same area surrounding Lake Coleridge:
all of these we consider as syntypes.
Type material examined. Lectotype (NZAC): carded, “3955 [in Broun’s hand] // Moa Basin 20.10.1913. [in
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 25
Broun’s hand] // Allocharis praestans. Broun [in Broun’s hand] // SYNTYPE [printed] Allocharis praestans Broun,
1917 R. C. Craw det. 1983 [in Craw’s hand on acid green label]”. Paralectotypes: 1 (BMNH), pointed on abdomen
with cleared abdomen and female terminalia in window-mount, “3955 [in Broun’s hand] // Mistake. 9.10.1913. [in
Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Allocharis prestans Broun [hand-
written] M. Daccordi det. [printed] 1988 [in Daccordi’s hand]”; 1 (BMNH), same but “3955. [in Broun’s hand] //
Allocharis praestans. [in Broun’s hand]”; 1 (NZAC), Scarcliff. 20.10.1913. [in Broun’s hand] // T. Broun Collection
// A. E. Brookes Collection”.
Chalcolampra robusta (Broun, 1917)
Allocharis robusta Broun, 1917:464. Type locality: Wakatipu.
Chalcolampra robusta: Implied combination based on Allocharis as an objective synonym of Chalcolampra in Daccordi, 1994:
77.
Comments. Broun based this name on two specimens, which were in the BMNH. One of these was designated as
the lectotype to stabilise the epithet, and the other designated as a paralectotype.
Type material examined. Lectotype (BMNH): card-mounted, “3691 [in Broun’s hand] // Wakatipu.—Purdie—
[in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Allocharis robusta- [in
Broun’s hand]”. Paralectotype (BMNH): 1, same.
Chalcolampra speculifera Sharp, 1882
(Fig. 2C)
Chalcolampra speculifera Sharp, 1882:98. Type locality: Greymouth.
Eualema walkeri Broun, 1903:86. Synonymy by Broun 1910: 77. Type locality: Westport.
Comments. Sharp did not provide the number of specimens he examined for his species C. speculifera. Four speci-
mens were in the main BMNH collection, and we decided that two of them, with original hard card used by Sharp,
were syntypic. We designated one of these as the lectotype to stabilise the epithet, and the other was designated as a
paralectotype. One specimen from Reitter’s collection and another pointed were excluded from the syntype series.
Broun did not record the number of specimens he examined for his species E. walkeri named after J.J. Walker from
the H.M.S. “Ringarooma”. One specimen in the BMNH was designated as the lectotype to stabilise the epithet.
Type material examined. Chalcolampra speculifera Sharp. Lectotype (BMNH): mounted on card, “Chalcola-
mpra speculifera Type M. S. Greymouth, 1881 [in Sharp’s hand] // Type H.T. [round label with red border] // Sharp
Coll. 1905-313.”. Paralectotype (BMNH): same, but, “Chalcolampra speculifera Ind. Typ. M. S. Greymouth, N.Zd.
Helms [in Sharp’s hand]”. Eualema walkeri Broun. Lectotype (BMNH): card-mounted [left protarsomeres 2–5
missing], “3014. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Westport
1902—[in Broun’s hand] // Eualema walkeri. [in Broun’s hand]”.
Chalcolampra subsulcata (Broun, 1917)
Allocharis subsulcata Broun, 1917:462. Type locality: Old Man Range, Otago.
Chalcolampra subsulcata: Implied combination based on Allocharis as an objective synonym of Chalcolampra in Daccordi,
1994: 77.
Comments. Broun based this name on two specimens, which were located in the BMNH. One of these was desig-
nated as the lectotype to stabilise the epithet, and the other designated as a paralectotype.
Type material examined. Lectotype (BMNH): card-mounted, “3656. [in Broun’s hand] // Old Man Range.
Otago. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Allocharis subsulcata.
[in Broun’s hand]”. Paralectotype (BMNH): 1 same but mounted dorsally, “3656 [in Broun’s hand] // Old Man.
Otago. [in Broun’s hand]”.
LESCHEN ET AL.
26 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
Chalcolampra tarsalis Broun, 1917
Allocharis tarsalis Broun, 1917: 465. Type locality: Gordon’s Knob near Belgrove.
Chalcolampra tarsalis: Implied combination based on Allocharis as an objective synonym of Chalcolampra in Daccordi, 1994:
77.
Comments. Broun based the description on a single specimen he noted was a male, though two specimens were
located in the BMNH: the specimen with the date label and male symbol we confirmed as the holotype. This species
was not included in the New Zealand list by Maddison (2010).
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): card-mounted on new card, “3962. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red
underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Gordon’s Knob. 15.11.1914. [in Broun’s hand] // Allocharis tarsalis.
♂ [in Broun’s hand]”.
Maurodus, gen. nov.
(Figs 4–9)
Type species: Caccomolpus ornatus Broun, 1910
Diagnosis. Body length greater than 3.0 mm and less than 8.0 mm; elliptical and moderately convex; colour uniform
to tricoloured, metallic sheen absent. Antennae weakly clavate or subfilliform. Procoxal cavities externally open.
Hindwings absent. Anterior edge of metaventrite straight; metaventral lines parallel and not extending to middle of
ventrite. First abdominal ventrite with subcoxal lines parallel to coxal cavity and not extending to middle of ven-
trite.
Description. Length 3.2–5.1 mm. Body elliptical and moderately convex. Colour of body typically bicoloured
to tricoloured, red, orange, black or white, rarely uiform, lacking metallic sheen.
Head not forming a short muzzle with genae extending a short distance beyond level of antennal and maxillary
insertions, scarcely visible from above with mouthparts directed anteriorly, wide vertex or frons, nearly flat to feebly
convex; postantennal calli weakly developed, but lacking pale areas; antennal groove present or absent. Eyes rela-
tively well-developed, not protuberant, coarsely facetted and consisting of over 30 ommatidia; inner margin of eye
without a small seta. Antennae long and weakly clavate, scape short and somewhat elliptic, shorter than the A2+3
combined, last four antennomeres forming a weak club, reaching beyond the hind margin of the pronotum; eye not
contacting insertion, with distance between insertion and margin of eye less than diameter of insertion, distance
between insertions about 6 times length of the scape. Clypeus transverse to trapezoidal, anterior margin usually
straight; frontoclypeal suture usually present; lateral and medial postclypeal lines present or absent and deeply to
weakly impressed. Labrum somewhat rectangular and distinctly transverse, anterior margin weakly emarginated
and sides rounded, surface with 3 elongate setae per side, anterior margin at middle lacking distinct setal fringe, tor-
mae long and thin, about 2 times longer than labral plate. Mandible with terebral edge simple. Maxillary palpus rela-
tively short, palpomere 1 about as long as wide, palpomere 2 transverse and shorter than wide, palpomere 3 about
2 times longer than wide, greater in length than palpomere 2, conical to weakly acute. Labium with relatively wide
ligula, greater or equal in width to the lengths of palpomeres 1 and 2 combined, apex not or very weakly divided
at apex, palpal insertions separated by at least the width of the basal palpomere, palpi relatively short, palpomere 1
shorter than long, palpomere 2 as long as wide, palpomere 3 twice longer than wide with narrowed and truncated
apex. Mentum rectangular and transverse, width of mentum equal to or shorter than the length of labial palpomere
3. Intermaxillary process short and not extending anteriorly far beyond maxillary insertions, delimited behind by a
ridge or a bead.
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 27
FIGURES 4A–F. Habitus of Maurodus spp.; A, Maurodus arcus, dorsal; B, Maurodus arcus, lateral; C, Maurodus cinctiger,
dorsal, length 4.1 mm; D, Maurodus cinctiger, lateral, length 4.2 mm; E, Maurodus cinctiger, dorsal; F, Maurodus cinctiger,
ventral.
LESCHEN ET AL.
28 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
FIGURES 5A–H. Habiti and structures of Maurodus spp.; A, Maurodus impressus, dorsal view of holotype, length 3.1 mm;
B, Maurodus cinctiger, frontal view of head; C, Maurodus cinctiger, dorsal view of head and pronotum; D, Maurodus lepidus,
dorsal; E, Maurodus lepidus, dorsal; F, Maurodus maculatus, dorsal; G, Maurodus maculatus, lateral; H, Maurodus maculatus,
oblique lateral.
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 29
FIGURES 6A–F. Habitus and structures of Maurodus spp.; A, Maurodus nunni, dorsal; B, Maurodus nunni, dorsal; C, Mauro-
dus nunni, lateral; D, Maurodus ornatus, anterior view of head; E, Maurodus occiduus, dorsal; F, Maurodus occiduus, lateral.
LESCHEN ET AL.
30 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
FIGURES 7A–I. Habitus and structures of Maurodus spp.; A, Maurodus ornatus, dorsal; B, Maurodus ornatus, lateral, length
3.8 mm; C, Maurodus ornatus, dorsal, length 3.9 mm; D, Maurodus ornatus, lateral; E, Maurodus ornatus, dorsal view of head
and pronotum; F, Maurodus cinctiger, dorsal view of adeagus; G, Maurodus cinctiger, lateral view of adeagus; H, Maurodus
ornatus, dorsal view of adeagus; I, Maurodus ornatus, lateral view of adeagus.
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 31
FIGURES 8A–F. Habitus of Maurodus spp.; A, Maurodus owenensis, dorsal; B, Maurodus owenensis, ventral; C, Maurodus
plagiatus, dorsal; D, Maurodus plagiatus, ventral; E, Maurodus plagiatus, lateral; F, Maurodus plagiatus, dorsal holotype.
LESCHEN ET AL.
32 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
FIGURES 9A–D. Habitus of Maurodus supernus; A, dorsal; B, ventral; C, lateral; D, ventral.
Pronotum transverse and convex, with a bead along anterior and lateral margins; posterior edge as wide as or
slightly narrower than base of elytra; anterior margin weakly emarginated, anterior angles weakly projecting and
rounded; sides distinctly converging anteriad and straight or curved, posterior margin weakly convex, sinuate or
straight; posterior angles acute; disc moderately convex without sublateral groove, trichobothria absent, punction
not uniform and generally coarse and more dense at middle of posterior margin; lateral carinae complete. Proster-
num not vaulted at middle, without transverse notches in front of coxal cavities; prosternal lines present and usually
parallel, convergent anteriorly in some species or rarely polymorphic and extending forward almost reaching ante-
rior edge of sternite; prosternal process broad, short and extending a short distance behind procoxae, expanded lat-
erally behind coxae but not contacting the hypomeral process; posterior margin straight, procoxal cavities partially
externally closed. Notopleural suture distinct. Scutellary shield visible and relatively small, triangular with rounded
or subacute apex. Elytra strongly convex, well-developed humeral calli absent but a weak humeral impression may
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 33
be present; midbasal stria or impression present; surface smooth, punctures weakly impressed and striate, epipleura
wide and well developed, visible in lateral view, apex without ctenidium. Hind wings absent. Mesoventrite mostly
hidden in ventral view, posterior portion between mesocoxae visible as a narrow strip; mesal part of mesoventrite
with vertical surface confluent with prepectus. Meso- and metacoxae widely separated. Metaventrite shorter than
abdominal ventrite 1 at midline, mesocoxal process very short and broad with a straight anterior margin, metaventral
lines parallel, discrimen present but weakly impressed, transverse metaventral (metakatepisternal) suture present
does not cross the midline or weakly impressed. Metendosternite lacking stalk and laminae, widely spaced lateral
arms with subapical anterior tendons. Legs with tibiae flattened in cross section, meso- and metatibiae clubbed with
abrupt constriction at basal 1/3 or approximately at midlength with lateral edge sinuate (sometimes the protibiae,
and weakly sinuate in M. impressus and M. maculatus), apically setose; tarsomeres 5-5-5 and variable, tarsomere 1
nearly as long as T2 or longer (lengthened or enlarged or not in males), 1.5 times longer than wide or equilateral, T2
transverse and wider than long and wider or narrower than T3, T3 about as wide as long or slightly transverse and
deeply incised (bilobed), tarsomere 4 minute, T5 about twice as long as T3, claws simple.
Abdominal ventrite 1 long, but shorter than ventrites 2–5 combined, with a broad metacoxal process that is
wider than long and with a curved apical margin, ventrites 2–4 equal in length and much shorter than ventrite 1, ven-
trite 5 longer than ventrites 3 and 4 combined with rounded posterior margin; first abdominal ventrite with subcoxal
lines parallel to coxal cavity that do not extend to middle of ventrite. Aedeagus variable, curved to weakly curved
or straight in lateral view and rounded to weakly laterally compressed in cross section; apex in dorsal view acute to
rounded or apiculate; flagellum present or absent. Ovipositor with coxite 2 times longer than wide, stylus apically
inserted and about 1/6 the length of coxite. Spermatheca curved, C- or V- shaped, collum absent with spermathecal
duct inserted onto base, spermathecal gland absent or very weakly sclerotised.
Comments. This endemic genus has 11 species, including one transferred here from Aphilon (A. impressus
Broun) and four transferred here from Caccomolpus (C. cinctiger Broun, C. maculatus Broun, C. ornatus Broun,
and C. plagiatus Sharp). All are ground-dwelling, collected mostly by sifting leaf litter, and are flightless with rela-
tively short metaventrites. Species are similar to Caccomolpus but can be distinguished by by their less rounded
shape, parallel-sided metacoxal lines, and gaudy colouration. Many species are rare, some decribed only from
singletons (M. arcus, M. lepidus, M. nunni, and M. owenensis).
Etymology. Patrynomic for Mauro Daccordi for his lifelong commitment to the study of Chrysomelinae (mas-
culine).
Included species. Maurodus arcus sp. nov., M. cinctiger Broun, comb nov. (from Caccomolpus), M. impressus
Broun, comb nov. (from Aphilon), M. lepidus sp. nov., M. maculatus Broun, comb nov. (from Caccomolpus), M.
nunni sp. nov., M. occiduus sp. nov., M. ornatus (Broun), comb nov. (from Caccomolpus), M. owenensis sp. nov.,
M. plagiatus Sharp, comb nov. (from Caccomolpus), M. supernus sp. nov.
Distribution. North Island, South Island.
Key to species of Maurodus
1. Body, exclusive of mouthparts and appendages, unicoloured (Fig. 5A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .M. impressus
- Body bi- or mulicoloured ...............................................................................2
2. Elytra unicoloured (Fig. 6A) ......................................................................M. nunni
- Elytra bi- or multicoloured ..............................................................................3
3. Pronotum completely unicoloured yellow, pale or orange (Figs 8C, 9A) ..........................................6
- Pronotum bicoloured (Figs 6E, 7D) .......................................................................4
4. Epipleuron bicoloured and black at base (Fig. 7D) ................................................... M. ornatus
- Epipleuron unicoloured (Fig. 5H) ........................................................................5
5. Legs entirely black (Fig. 8B) ...........................................................................10
- Legs yellow or bicoloured (Fig. 5H) ......................................................................7
6. Elytral maculae extending laterally toward apical ½ (Fig. 9A); male tarsomere 1 not greatly enlarged (Fig. 9C) ...........
..........................................................................................M. supernus
- Elytral maculae not extending laterally to apex (Fig. 8C); male tarsomere 1 greatly enlarged (Fig. 8D) .........M. plagiatus
7. Body form more broadly-oval (Figs 4C, E); lateral edge of elytral macula usually more even and not strongly sinuate (Fig.
4E) ....................................................................................... M. cinctiger
- Body form more elongate-oval (Figs 4A, 5F, 6E); lateral edge of elytral macula always irregular and strongly sinuate (Fig.
5G) ................................................................................................8
8. Pale or yellow area of pronotal disc not reaching level of posterior angle (Figs 4A,B) .........................M. arcus
LESCHEN ET AL.
34 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
- Pale or yellow area of pronotal disc reaching level of posterior angle (Figs 5F,H, 6E,F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
9. Body form spherical with pronotal sides divergent towards base and elytra widest at basal third with sides more convex in
outline (Fig. 5F); male abdominal ventrite 5 vaulted at middle (Fig. 4B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. maculatus
- Body form broader with pronotal sides subparallel towards base and elytra widest at middle with sides weakly convex in outline
(Fig. 6E); male abdominal ventrite 5 not vaulted at middle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. occiduus
10. Prosternal carinae convergent (Fig. 9D); body more curved rounded with sides of pronotum evenly convex (Fig. 5D) ......
............................................................................................M. lepidus
- Prosternal carinae parallel-sided (Fig. 8B); body broadly oval and sides of pronotum not evenly convex (Fig. 8A) .........
.........................................................................................M. owenensis
Maurodus arcus, sp. nov.
(Figs 4A,B; map Fig. 19A)
Diagnosis. Body broadly ovate and bicoloured; pronotum bicoloured. Antennal groove not demarked by ridges.
Prosternal lines in front of procoxae parallel. Elytra with midbasal stria present; maculae broad with outer edges
sinuate and contacting broadly at midline; microsculpture strongly impressed. Ventrites dark-coloured and infus-
cate, with anterior portion of hypomera and entire epipleura pale-coloured; male ventrite 5 vaulted at middle. Legs
bicoloured with femora and tibiae infuscate; tarsomere 1 of male greatly enlarged.
Description. Length 3.8 mm (greatest depth 1.6 mm). Body broadly oval and bicoloured with most of the head,
most of the pronotum, elytral macula, and middle portions of the ventral surfaces black; extreme anterior margin
of clypeus, margins of pronotum and elytra, mouthparts, antennae, anterior portion of the hypomera and epipleura,
yellow-coloured; elytral maculae sinuate along lateral edge. Microsculpture distinct, present on pronotum and ely-
tra. Clypeus finely punctate, semicircular, anterior margin nearly straight; frontoclypeal suture present with lateral
postclypeal lines present and very weakly impressed and medial line indicated by a very faint glabrous area; vertex
moderately punctate, slightly more coarse than clypeal punctures. Ratio of antennomere lengths: 1.5/0.9/1.3/1.0/1
.0/1.2/1.2/1.0/1.2/1.3/1.9. Antennal groove not well demarked by ridges. Pronotum transverse (2.75 x wider than
long), lateral margins at base not subparallel-sided and sides converging anteriorly, not strongly convex; punctures
coarse at base and progressively shallower anteriorly, and somewhat uniform anteriorly, those at base stronger than
elsewhere on the dorsum, apart from the latero-apical striae of the elytra. Prosternal lines or carinae in front of pro-
coxae parallel; intercarinal space flat. Elytra widest at basal 1/3 and broad (1.07x the greatest elytral width), 3.75x
longer than pronotal length; punctation weakly striate, not impressed towards midline; midbasal stria present. Male
ventrite 5 vaulted at middle. Tarsomere 1 of male greatly enlarged.
Comments. This species is represented by a single male specimen collected by sifting tussock litter at Rainbow
Ski Field where access is granted with permission. Maurodus arcus can be distinguished from most species of the
genus by the presence of a process or vaulted abdominal ventrite 5 in the male, which is shared with M. maculatus
and can be distinguished from it based on the shape of the body where the elytra are widest at the basal 1/3, the
elytral macula broadly contacts the anterior margin of the elytra, and the hypomeron is bicoloured. Maurodus arcus
can be further differentiated from M. maculatus by the head which is not infuscate with only the anteriormost edge
of the clypeus yellow-coloured and the vaulted medial process of the male is more strongly produced.
Distribution. South Island: NN.
Etymology. The specific epithet is derived from the Latin word arcus one meaning of which is “rainbow”,
referring to the type locality of this new species.
Type examined. Holotype (NZAC): “NEW ZEALAND MB Rainbow Ski Field Rd below ski field St Arn-
aud Ra 26 Feb 2010 TR Buckley R Leschen L Dunning // TB339 sifting tussock litter 41 52.790 S, 172 51.572 E,
1456m”.
Maurodus cinctiger (Broun, 1921), comb. nov.
(Figs 4C–F, 5B,C, 7F,G, 13D, 18A; map Fig. 19B)
Caccomolpus cinctiger Broun, 1921a:590. Type locality: Glenhope.
Diagnosis. Body broadly oval and tricoloured; pronotum bicoloured. Antennal groove delimited by an inner ridge;
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 35
internal surface glabrous. Prosternal lines in front of procoxae parallel to anteriorly convergent. Elytra with mid-
basal stria present; maculae broad with outer edges even and contacting broadly at midline; microsculpture weakly
impressed (strong in one specimen from Saddle Hill). Ventrites dark-coloured, with hypomera bicoloured and epi-
pleura uniformly pale-coloured; male ventrite 5 not vaulted at middle. Legs bicoloured with femora pale-coloured
and dark-coloured tibiae; tarsomere 1 of male not greatly enlarged.
Description. Length 3.3–5.1 mm (greatest depth 1.50–2.80 mm). Body broadly oval and tricoloured with most
of the head, most of the pronotum and part of the elytral macula and ventral surfaces and tibiae, dark to black;
anterior portion of the clypeus, margins of the pronotum and elytra, mouthparts, antennae, anterior portion of hy-
pomera, and epipleura, yellow to pale-coloured; central portions of elytral maculae chestnut to uniform black and
even along lateral edge. Microsculpture distinct, present and weakly impressed on elytra (strongly impressed in a
specimen from Saddle Hill). Clypeus coarsely to finley punctate, trapezoidal, nearly as long as wide, anterior margin
straight; frontoclypeal suture present with medial and lateral postclypeal lines present that may be weakly impressed
or absent; vertex weakly or apunctate, usually less coarse than clypeal punctures. Ratio of antennomere lengths:
1.5/1.0/1.2/1.0/1.1/.9/1.1/1.2/1.4/1.5/1.9. Antennal groove delimited by an inner ridge, internal surface glabrous.
Pronotum transverse (2.45–2.62 x wider than long), lateral margins at base not subparallel-sided and converging
anteriorly; punctures not uniform, coarse at base and usually progressively diffuse anteriorly, those at base stronger
than elsewhere on the dorsum. Prosternal lines or carinae in front of procoxae parallel or anteriorly convergent with
the anterior width 0.68x narrower than procoxal width; intercarinal space weakly convex. Elytra widest at basal 1/3
and broad (1.21–1.34x the greatest elytral width), 3.37–3.64x longer than pronotal length; punctation very weakly
striate, not impressed towards midline; midbasal stria present. Tarsomere 1 of male not greatly enlarged. Male ven-
trite 5 not vaulted at middle. Spermatheca annulate, open and u-shaped and narrowed basally with a distinct duct
and small basal gland; collum absent. Median lobe of aedeagus in lateral view gradually narrowed from basal ¼ to
apex and acute; in dorsal view wide, slender at sides with a subacute apex; flagellum present.
Comments. Maurodus cinctiger is distinguished from all other species by having a broad chestnut to black
elytral macula and unicoloured epipleura. Its broad outline distinguishes it from most species, including M. ornatus
and other tricoloured species.
Broun described this species based on two specimens, one of which was “badly crushed and somewhat imma-
ture” and labelled it as a variant, but is considered here as part of the syntype series (note that Mt. Hope is just west
of Glenhope). Both were in the BMNH and one we designated as the lectotype to stabilise the epithet, the other was
designated as a paralectotype. Pinned to the undamaged specimen, was an identification label by M. Daccordi (pers.
obs.) indicating the species belongs to a separate genus and there were three additional specimens adjacent to the
species label in the Broun collection that were not syntypes.
Distribution. South Island: BR, NN.
Types material examined. Lectotype (BMNH): re-mounted on card with terminalia and ovipositor extracted
[left (A6–11) and right (A2–11) antennomeres and tarsomeres from left hindleg and right midleg missing], “4152.
♀. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Glenhope. 20.12.1914. [in
Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus cinctiger. ♀. [in Broun’s hand] // Aotearoanus cinctiger (Broun) [handwritten] det.
M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”. Paralectotype (BMNH): 1 card-mounted, “4152. ♀. [in Broun’s
hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Mt Hope. 14. 2.15. [in Broun’s hand] //
var. C. cinctiger. [in Broun’s hand] // Aotearoanus cinctiger (Broun) [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987
[in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Additional material examined. NN: Saddle Hill, 3000’, 41.275403S, 173.431698E, 12.01.1981, E.S.
Gourlay (1, NZAC); Mt Arthur Tk, nr carpark, 41.189998S, 172.746243E, beating at night RL938, 22.01.2005,
R. Leschen, T. Buckley, R. Hoare (4, NZAC); Mt Arthur Tk Ridge, above Mt Arthur Hut, 1347m, 41.197843S,
172.711686E, sifting tussock litter TB362, 01.03.2010, T. Buckley, R. Leschen, L. Dunning (1, NZAC); Mt Arthur
Hut, 23 Jan 2012, R. Leschen, L. Dunning, H. Lindsay, 41.197893S,172.713534E, sifting Olearia litter, RL1628
(2, NZAC); Mt Arthur Hut, 23 Jan 2012, R. Leschen, L. Dunning, H. Lindsay, 41.197893S,172.713534E, sifting
litter (mainly Poa and Phormium), RL1629 (1, NZAC); Lyell Walkway, FIT RL339, 8–19/2/1999, R. Leschen, R.
Hoare (1, NZAC); Flora Saddle Carpark, 41.189863S, 172.746362E, on filmy fern Nertera astelia, 04.05.1997,
J.S. Dugdale (1, NZAC); Mt Owen, 41.552011S, 172.541345E, 13.03.1938, C.E. Clarke, C.E. Clarke Collection,
(1, AMNZ); Mt Glasgow, 41.588294S, 172.052547E, 23.02.1938, C.E. Clarke Collection (1, AMNZ; 1 BMNH);
Waikaiha R, N Karamea, 41.588983S, 172.054276E, 02.03.1935, C.E. Clarke Collection (1, AMNZ); Mt Hope,
LESCHEN ET AL.
36 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
41.664986S, 172.514238E, 14.02.1915, 4152 Broun Collection (1, BMNH); Mt Arthur Tableland, Balloon Hut,
41.168895S, 172.622347E, 21.01.1943, C.E. Clarke, C.E. Clarke Collection (1, AMNZ; 1, BMNH); Mt Arthur,
Flora Hut, 41.182574S, 172.729877E, 14.01.1943, C.E. Clarke, C.E. Clarke Collection (1, BMNH); Maggie Creek,
41.784618S, 172.723333E, 23.12.1915, 4152 Broun Collection (1, BMNH); Riwaka Resurgence, Abel Tasman
National Park, mixed beech/punga/broadleaf forest, 15 Dec 2007, K. Marske, J. Allwood, sifted leaf and wood
litter, S 41.01.978’, E 172.54.031’, KM144, 98m (3, NZAC). BR: Punakaiki, Pororari River mouth, 42.100033S,
171.337626E, in flood debris, 29.12.2010 [J.Nunn] (2, NZAC); Punakaiki, Truman Tk, 4.iv.1994, J.W.M. Marris (1,
LUNZ); Mt Faraday, 14 Jan 2014, M. Gimmel, R. Leschen, T. Buckley, sifting tussock and leaf litter, RL1723, 1280
m, 42°01.972’S, 171°34.638’E (1 + 1 associated larva, NZAC); Sewell Peak, 27 Jan 2012, R. Leschen, L. Dunning,
sifting litter and rotten wood, 42.406342S, 171.342016E, RL1635 (1, NZAC); Mawhera SF, 19km SE of Nga-
here, litter 72/81, 25.01.1972, J.M. McBurney (1, NZAC); Mt Robert, 41.831676S, 172.810804E, 17.01.1984, G.
Kuschel (1, NZAC); L Rotoiti, 600–700m, 41.811721S, 172.836988E, in sphagnum, 23–27/12/1983 (3, BMNH);
Rotoiti, 41.849466S, 172.841229E, 16.06.1916, 4152 Broun Collection (1, BMNH); same except 26.07.1916 (1,
BMNH); L. Rotoiti, 615m, 19–25.xii, J.W. Early, Swept in Nothofagus forest at night (2, LUNZ); Nelson Lakes NP,
E. Matakitaki R, Mt Una Tk, 1050m, R.M. Emberson & P. Syrett, under logs Nothofagus forest (1, LUNZ).
Maurodus impressus (Broun, 1914), comb. nov.
(Fig. 5A, 13C; map Fig. 19A)
Aphilon impressa Broun, 1914:258. Type locality: McClennan’s Bush, near Methven.
Diagnosis. Body oval and unicoloured. Antennal groove not demarked by ridges. Prosternal lines in front of procox-
ae parallel. Elytra with midbasal puncture weakly indicated; microsculpture present. Ventral portions dark-coloured;
male ventrite 5 not vaulted at middle. Legs unicoloured.
Description. Length 3.0–3.2 mm (greatest depth 1.60 mm). Body oval and almost entirely black; antennae,
mouthparts, and legs yellow to pale-coloured. Microsculpture distinct, present and strongly impressed on elytra.
Clypeus finely punctate, semicircular, nearly as long as wide, anterior margin weakly curved; frontoclypeal suture
present with lateral postclypeal lines present, medial line absent; vertex weakly punctate, less coarse than clypeal
punctures. Ratio of antennomere lengths: 1.1/0.7/0.8/0.8/0.7/0.7/0.8/0.9/0.9/0.9/1.5. Antennal groove not demar-
cated by ridges. Pronotum transverse (2.00–2.43 x wider than long), lateral margins at base not subparallel-sided
and sides converging anteriorly; punctures not uniform, coarse at base and progressively diffuse anteriorly and
weak, those at base stronger than elsewhere on the dorsum. Prosternal lines or carinae in front of procoxae parallel;
intercarinal space convex. Elytra widest at middle and moderately convex (0.90–1.00 x the greatest elytral width),
2.55–3.28 x longer than pronotal length and broad; punctation very weakly striate, not impressed towards midline;
midbasal puncture weakly indicated. Male ventrite 5 not vaulted at middle. Spermatheca annulate, open and L-
shaped and weakly narrowed basally without a distinct basal gland; collum absent.
Comments. Broun based the description on a single specimen which we located in the BMNH and confirmed
as the holotype. Under direct light this specimen is red brown in colour with a darker border, a discolouration that
may have been the result from dissection or it being slightly teneral; a variant pinned next to it in the Broun collec-
tion and from Mt Hutt is female and unicoloured. Broun mentioned that “it is the first of this genus that has been
secured in the South Island” and differs “from all the species of about equal bulk this is distinguishable by the
thoracic impressions and apparently smooth elytra.” This species is transferred from Aphilon to Maurodus because
the abdominal ventrite has the subcoxal lines parallel to coxal cavity forming a narrow bead. It can be distinguished
from all other members of Maurodus from its unicoloured body.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): re-pointed with cleared abdomen and female terminalia in media on
separate acetate card, “3666 [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. //
McClellans. 25.3.1912. [in Broun’s hand] // Aphilon impressa [in Broun’s hand] // Aphilon impressum Broun [hand-
written] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Additional material examined: South Island. MC: Mt Hutt, 43.586446S, 171.524205E, 05.01.1913, 3666
Broun Collection (1, BMNH).
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 37
FIGURES 10A–F. Habitus of Nanomela spp.; A, Nanomela sp., dorsal, length 1.5 mm; B, Nanomela sp., ventral, length 1.5
mm; C, Nanomela tiniheke, dorsal, length 2.2 mm; D, Nanomela tiniheke, ventral, length 2.2 mm; E, Nanomela sp., lateral,
length 1.5 mm; F, Nanomela tiniheke, ventral, length 2.2 mm.
LESCHEN ET AL.
38 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
FIGURES 11A–G. Habitus of Zeaphilon spp.; A, Zeaphilon marskeae, dorsal; B, Zeaphilon marskeae, lateral; C, Zeaphilon
marskeae, oblique lateral; D, Zeaphilon mirandum, dorsal; E, Zeaphilon mirandum, ventral; F, Zeaphilon mirandum, lateral; F,
Zeaphilon mirandum, oblique lateral.
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 39
Maurodus lepidus, sp. nov.
(Figs 5D,E, 18B; map Fig. 20A)
Diagnosis. Body nearly spherical and tricoloured; pronotum bicoloured. Antennal groove deep and well delimited
by an inner ridge; internal surface not glabrous. Prosternal lines in front of procoxae convergent. Elytra with mid-
basal stria present; maculae broad with outer edges sinuate and contacting broadly at midline; microsculpture im-
pressed. Ventrites dark-coloured, with hypomera bicoloured and epipleura uniformly white-coloured; male ventrite
5 not vaulted at middle. Legs unicoloured black; tarsomere 1 of male greatly enlarged.
Description. Length 5.1 mm (greatest depth 2.0 mm). Body nearly spherical and tricoloured with head, much of
the pronotum, midbasal striae, ventral surfaces, antennae, mouthparts, and legs black; anterior portion of pronotum
and hypomera, epipleura and ventrite 5 white or pale; elytral maculae chestnut with slightly darker lateral margin
and sinuate along lateral edge. Microsculpture distinct and present on the pronotum and absent on elytra. Clypeus
finely punctate, semicircular with anterior margin straight; frontoclypeal suture present with lateral postclypeal lines
deeply impressed, medial line absent; vertex finely punctate and similar to clypeus. Ratio of antennomere lengths:
1.5/.8/1.2/1.1/1.0/.8/1.0/1.1/1.2/1.3/2.0. Antennal groove deep and well delimited by an inner ridge; internal surface
not glabrous. Pronotum transverse (2.3 x wider than long), lateral margins, strongly converging anteriorly; punc-
tures not uniform, coarse at base and progressively diffuse anteriorly, those at base as strong as those contained in
the elytral striae. Prosternal lines or carinae in front of procoxae convergent with the anterior width 0.17x narrower
than procoxal width; intercarinal space flat. Elytra widest at basal 1/3 and broad (0.96x the greatest elytral width),
2.8x longer than pronotal length; punctation moderately to coarsely striate, more impressed at the apical 1/3 and
towards the midline; midbasal stria relatively deep. Male ventrite 5 not vaulted at middle. Tarsomere 1 of male
greatly enlarged.
Comments. This new species is distinctive and can be distinguished from all other Maurodus species by the
nearly spherical shape of the body. It most closely resembles M. owenensis but can be distinguished from it by the
colouration and the shape of the prothorax which is highly convex and strongly convergent anteriorly. It also is
like M. cinctiger, but differs from it by having a deep antennal groove and by its colouration, most notably having
unicoloured black legs. The single specimen is a male and was not dissected. The locality, Karamea Bluff, is easily
accessible and additional attempts should be made to collect more material.
Distribution. South Island: NN.
Etymology. The specific epithet is derived from the Latin word lepidus meaning attractive.
Type Examined. Holotype (NZAC): male, “NEW ZEALAND NN, Karamea Bluff, 9 Feb 1999, R. Leschen, R.
Hoare berlesate // RL275 41º31’S 172º 01’E [41.50692; 172.01681]”.
Maurodus maculatus (Broun, 1893), comb. nov.
(Figs 5F–H, 12C,D, 18C; map Fig. 19A)
Caccomolpus maculatus Broun, 1893b:1309. Type locality: Mount Arthur.
Diagnosis. Body spherical and bicoloured; pronotum bicoloured. Antennal grooved not delimited by ridges. Pros-
ternal lines in front of procoxae parallel to anteriorly convergent. Elytra with midbasal stria or puncture present;
maculae broad with outer edges sinuate and contacting broadly at midline; microsculpture strongly impressed. Ven-
trites dark-coloured and infuscate, with hypomera and epipleura uniformly pale-coloured; male ventrite 5 vaulted at
middle. Legs bicoloured with femora and tibiae infuscate or yellow; tarsomere 1 of male greatly enlarged.
Description. Length 3.3–3.9 mm (greatest depth 1.80–2.00 mm). Body spherical and bicoloured with most
of the head, most of the pronotum, elytral macula, and middle portions of the ventral surfaces black; anterior por-
tion of the clypeus, margins of the pronotum and elytra, mouthparts, antennae, hypomera, and epipleura yellow to
pale-coloured; elytral maculae sinuate along lateral edge. Microsculpture distinct, present on pronotum and elytra.
Clypeus finley punctate, semicircular, anterior margin straight; frontoclypeal suture present with medial and lateral
postclypeal lines weakly impressed or absent; vertex weakly punctate but may be slightly stronger than those on
clypeus. Ratio of antennomere lengths: 1.4/.9/1.4/1.2/1.0/1.0/1.0/1.2/1.2/1.4/1.9. Antennal groove not delimited by
ridges. Pronotum transverse (2.18–2.75 x wider than long), lateral margins at base not subparallel-sided and sides
LESCHEN ET AL.
40 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
converging anteriorly, not strongly convex; punctures tend to be non-uniform, sometimes more coarse or well-
impressed at base and not usually progressively diffuse anteriorly, stronger than much of the dorsum, apart from
the latero-apical striae of the elytra. Prosternal lines or carinae in front of procoxae parallel or convergent with the
anterior width 0.66x narrower than procoxal width; intercarinal space flat. Elytra widest at basal 1/4 with a nearly
convex outline (1.11–1.50x the greatest elytral width), 3.82–3.87x longer than pronotal length and broad; punctation
striate, not strongly impressed; midbasal stria present and weakly developed and shallow. Male ventrite 5 vaulted at
middle. Median lobe of aedeagus in lateral view narrowing from basal 1/3 to apex and acute; in dorsal view, paral-
lel-sided with a ligulate apex; flagellum present. Tarsomere 1 of male greatly enlarged.
Comments. Broun described Caccomolpus maculatus from a single specimen that we located in the BMNH.
This species is transferred from Caccomolpus to Maurodus because the subcoxal lines on abdominal venrite 1 are
parallel to coxal cavities forming a narrow bead. Maurodus maculatus can be distinguished from most species of the
genus by the presence of a process or vaulted abdominal ventrite 5 in the male, which is shared with M. arcus and
can be distinguished from it based on the shape of the body where the elytra are widest at the basal ¼, the elytral
macula is narrowed towards the base, and the hypomeron is pale or yellow.
Distribution. South Island: NN, MB.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): re-mounted on point with aedeagus glued to margin of card, “2965. [in
Broun’s hand] // Mount Arthur // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Caccomolpus
maculatus. [in Broun’s hand] // Aotearoanus maculatus (Broun) [handwritten] det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in
Daccordi’s hand]”.
Additional material examined. South Island. NN: Mt Arthur Tk Ridge, above Mt Arthur Hut, 1347m,
41.197843S, 172.711686E, sifting tussock litter TB362, 01.03.2010, T. Buckley, R. Leschen, L. Dunning (1,
NZAC); L. Peel, on moss at night, 1340m, 19.iv.1987, R.M. Emberson (2, LUNZ); L. Sylvester, 10.ii.1985, RM.
Emberson, tussock and subalpine scrub, LCNZ 85/1 (1, LUNZ); Mt Arthur Tableland, Balloon Hut, 41.168895S,
172.622347E, 21.01.1943, C.E. Clarke, C.E. Clarke Collection (4, AMNZ; 3 BMNH). MB: Mt Stokes, 41.088012S,
174.104473E, under rocks in tussock, 12.10.1967, J.I. Townsend (1, NZAC). WD: Arthurs Pass NP, Kellys Creek,
460m, 11.xi.1985, R.M. Emberson & P. Syrett, mossy rocks and trees at night (1, LUNZ).
Maurodus nunni, sp. nov.
(Figs 6A–C, 12G,H; map Fig. 20A)
Diagnosis. Body oval and tricoloured; pronotum bicoloured. Antennal groove delimited by an inner ridge; internal
surface glabrous. Prosternal lines in front of procoxae parallel. Elytra with midbasal puncture present; colour uni-
form lacking maculae; microsculpture weakly impressed to absent. Ventrites dark-coloured, with hypomera darker
posteriorly and epipleura uniformly pale-coloured; male ventrite 5 not vaulted at middle. Legs mostly black-co-
loured; tarsomere 1 of male not greatly enlarged.
Description. Length 2.7– 4.1 mm (greatest depth 1.50–1.70 mm). Body oval and tricoloured with head poste-
rior and middle portions of the pronotum, most of the ventral surfaces and most of the legs black; margins and an-
terior portions of the pronotum, elytra, mouthparts, antennae, hypomera, epipleura, and yellow to orange-coloured;
elytra maculae absent. Microsculpture distinct on head, weakly developed on pronotum, and absent from elytra.
Clypeus more or less apunctate, trapezoidal, anterior margin straight; frontoclypeal suture present but not meeting
at midline with lateral postclypeal lines present and well developed and medial line absent; vertex very weakly
or apunctate. Ratio of antennomere lengths: 1.2/1.0/1.2/.9/.8/.7/.7/1.0/1.0/1.0/1.5. Antennal groove well-delimited
by an inner ridge and deep; internal surface glabrous. Pronotum transverse (2.57–2.62 x wider than long), lateral
margins at base not subparallel-sided and converging anteriorly; punctures non-uniform, coarse at base and may
or may not be dense, and progressively diffuse anteriorly, those at base stronger than elsewhere on the body, apart
from some contained in the apicalmost portions of the elytral striae. Prosternal lines or carinae in front of procoxae
parallel; intercarinal space weakly convex. Elytra widest at basal 1/3 and broad (1.07–1.08 x the greatest elytral
width), 2.80–3.00x longer than pronotal length; punctation very weakly striate, not impressed towards midline,
well developed posterolaterially; midbasal puncture present. Male ventrite 5 not vaulted at middle. Median lobe of
aedeagus in lateral view narrow with an acute apex; in dorsal view narrow and parallel-sided with a subacute apex;
flagellum present. Tarsomere 1 of male not greatly enlarged.
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 41
FIGURES 12A–N. Habitus and genitalia; A, Nanomela sp., dorsal, scale = 1 mm; B, Nanomela tiniheke, dorsal, scale = 1
mm; C, Maurodus maculatus, aedeagus, dorsal view; D, Maurodus maculatus, aedeagus, lateral view; E, Maurodus occiduus,
aedeagus, dorsal view; F, Maurodus occiduus, aedeagus, lateral view; G, Maurodus nunni, aedeagus, dorsal view; H, Maurodus
nunni, aedeagus, lateral view; I, Maurodus supernus, aedeagus, dorsal view; J, Maurodus supernus, aedeagus, lateral view; K,
Zeaphilon marskeae, aedeagus, dorsal view; L, Zeaphilon marskeae, aedeagus, lateral view; M, Zeaphilon mirandum, aedeagus,
dorsal view; N, Zeaphilon mirandum, aedeagus, lateral view.
LESCHEN ET AL.
42 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
Comments. Maurodus nunni is known from only two specimens, including one male from Dun Mt. we dis-
sected. The species is distinguished from all other species by having unicoloured orange or yellowish elytra.
Distribution. South Island: NN.
Etymology. This epithet honours collector John Nunn for his valued and ongoing contributions to the study of
New Zealand Coleoptera.
Type examined. Holotype (NZAC): not sexed, “New Zealand NN Flora saddle car park 26-Nov-05 // in
wet ground moss” [41.189863S, 172.746362E, J. Nunn]. Paratype (NZAC): Dunn [sic] Mt, 2000’ [41.342298S,
173.376741E 25.02.1949] E.S. Gourlay.
Maurodus occiduus, sp. nov.
(Figs 6E,F, 12E,F; map Fig. 20A)
Diagnosis. Body broadly oval and bicoloured; pronotum bicoloured with a distinct spot in the anterolateral por-
tion of the disc. Antennal groove weakly indicated; inner ridge weak or absent and glabrous area present or absent.
Prosternal lines in front of procoxae parallel. Elytra with midbasal stria or puncture present; maculae broad with
outer edges sinuate and contacting broadly at midline; microsculpture predent or absent. Ventrites dark-coloured
and infuscate, with hypomera and epipleura uniformly pale-coloured; male ventrite 5 not vaulted at middle. Legs
unicoloured yellow to weakly infuscate; tarsomere 1 of male greatly enlarged.
Description. Length 3.5–4.4 mm (greatest depth 1.70–2.10 mm). Body broadly oval and bicoloured with head,
most of the pronotum, elytral macula, and middle portions of the ventral surfaces black; anterior portion of clypeus,
margins of pronotum and elytra, mouthparts, antennae, hypomera, and epipleura yellow to pale-coloured; a distinct
spot is present in the anterolateral portion of the pronotal disc; elytral maculae sinuate along lateral edge; femora
and tibiae unicoloured yellow to weakly infuscate with femora dark at base. Microsculpture distinct to absent on
pronotum and elytra. Clypeus moderately to very finely punctate, more or less trapezoidal, anterior margin straight;
frontoclypeal suture absent or present but not strongly impressed and not meeting at midline; lateral postclypeal
lines present medial line absent; vertex moderately to very finely punctate. Ratio of antennomere lengths: 1.3/1.0/1
.4/1.2/1.2/1.0/1.2/1.2/1.4/1.4/1.9. Antennal groove weakly indicated; inner ridge weak or absent and glabrous area
present or absent. Pronotum transverse (2.10–2.17 x wider than long), lateral margins at base subparallel-sided and
sides weakly converging anteriorly, not strongly convex; punctures non-uniform, more or less coarse at base and
progressively diffuse anteriorly, those at base usually stronger than elsewhere on the dorsum, or about as impressed
on some specimens with the posterolateral striae punctate. Prosternal lines or carinae in front of procoxae parallel;
intercarinal space weakly convex. Elytra widest at middle with a weakly convex outline (1.03–1.04x the greatest
elytral width), 2.50–2.67 x longer than pronotal length and broad; punctation very weakly striate, not impressed
towards midline, but sometimes forming punctate striae postero-apically or forming distinct grooves; midbasal stria
or puncture present and may be weakly developed, broad and shallow. Male ventrite 5 not vaulted at middle. Median
lobe of aedeagus in lateral view narrowing at posterior ¼ to apex and acute; in dorsal view, weakly parallel-sided
and broad subrounded apex; flagellum present. Tarsomere 1 of male greatly enlarged.
Comments. Maurodus occiduus can be distinguished from most species of the genus by the bicoloured pro-
notum with a distinct spot in the anterolateral portion of the disc. The lack of a vaulted abdominal ventrite 5 in the
male differentiates this species from the similar-looking M. maculatus. There is some variation on the punctuation
and development of the antennal groove, but the groove is not as well developed as other members of the genus,
and generally does not have a well-developed inner carina or ridge: this variation is present among specimens in
the Haast area.
Distribution. South Island: WD, OL, FD.
Etymology. The specific epithet is derived from the Latin word occiduus meaning west, referring to its distribu-
tion in the South Island.
Type material examined. Holotype (AMNZ): male [mounted on card], “Waiho Gorge S Westland 15-1-25
[hand written on bottom card by ?C.E. Clarke] // C.E. Clarke Collection”. Paratypes (25): South Island. WD/OL:
Haast Pass, 44.078195S, 169.386185E, 10.04.1979 [J. Nunn] (1, NZAC). WD: NC, Arthurs Pass, 860m, 14–23.
iv. 1984, J.W. Early, Yellow pan trap in moss in Nothofagus solandri forest (1, LUNZ); 4 km N of Haast Pass,
Fantail Falls 450m, 44.078195S, 169.386185E, leaf litter, 04.01.1984, P.M. Hammond (1, BMNH); 6 km SW Ma-
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 43
hitahi, 43.662571S, 169.577551E, swamp forest, 05.02.1984, P.M. Hammond (1, BMNH); S Westland, Waiho R,
43.422503S, 170.170088E, 12.01.1925, C.E. Clarke Collection (1, AMNZ); same except 13.01.1925 (1, BMNH);
same except 14.01.1925 (2, BMNH); same except C.E. Clarke, G.V. Hudson (1, BMNH); same except 16.01.1925
C.E. Clarke (1, BMNH); S Westland, Waiho Gorge, 43.422503S, 170.170088E, 12.01.1925, C.E. Clarke Collection
(1, AMNZ); same except 14.01.1925 (8, AMNZ); same except 16.01.1925 (1, AMNZ); Waiho R. V, 42.953168S,
170.829454E, forest litter, 06.02.1984, P.M. Hammond (1, BMNH); Mt Greenland, 42.953168S, 170.829454E,
08.01.1943, C.E. Clarke, C.E. Clarke Collection (1, BMNH; 1, AMNZ); same except 09.01.1943 (1, BMNH; 2,
AMNZ).
Maurodus ornatus (Broun, 1910), comb. nov.
(Figs 6D, 7A–E, H,I, 13E; map Fig. 21)
Caccomolpus ornatus Broun, 1910:77. Type locality: Waimarino.
Diagnosis. Body broadly oval and tricoloured; pronotum mostly black. Antennal groove well-developed with or
without inner ridge; internal surface glabrous. Prosternal lines in front of procoxae parallel. Elytra with midbasal
stria or puncture present; three maculae present with the anterior one and lighter and broader posterior one contact-
ing at midline; microsculpture absent. Ventrites dark-coloured, with hypomera and epipleura bicoloured; male ven-
trite 5 not vaulted at middle. Legs light coloured to infuscate or black; tarsomere 1 of male not greatly enlarged.
Description. Length 3.2–3.8 mm (greatest depth 1.60–2.00 mm). Body broadly oval and tricoloured with head,
most of the pronotum and part of the elytral macula and ventral surfaces light red to black; anterior edge of prono-
tum and hypomeron, most of the elytra and epipleura, mouthparts, antennae, hypomera, and abdominal ventrite 5
yellow, red to pale-coloured; elytra with three maculae, two darker ones anteriorly and laterally that may be solid
black, and a larger lighter and broader one occupying the apical 2/3rds. Microsculpture absent. Clypeus finely
or apunctate, trapezoidal, anterior margin nearly straight; frontoclypeal suture present, sometimes not meeting at
midline, or absent, with lateral postclypeal lines present and well developed, medial weakly impressed or absent;
vertex weakly or apunctate, sometimes stronger than clypeal punctures. Ratio of antennomere lengths: 1.1/.9/.9/1.0
/0.8/0.7/1.0/1.0/1.0/1.0/1.6. Antennal groove well-developed with or without inner ridge; internal surface glabrous.
Pronotum transverse (2.00–2.20x wider than long), lateral margins at base not subparallel-sided and converging
anteriorly; punctures non-uniform, coarse at base and progressively diffuse anteriorly, sometimes very weak to
glabrous anteriorly and those at base stronger than elsewhere on the body. Prosternal lines or carinae in front of
procoxae parallel; intercarinal space weakly convex. Elytra widest at basal 1/4 and broad (1.04–1.04x the greatest
elytral width), 2.55–2.80 x longer than pronotal length; punctation absent to sparse and not striate and not impressed
towards midline; midbasal stria or puncture present and often shallow. Male ventrite 5 not vaulted at middle. Sper-
matheca annulate, u-shaped and narrowed basally with a distinct duct and small basal gland; collum absent. Median
lobe of aedeagus in lateral view gradually widening from basal ¼ to apex and broadly acute; in dorsal view, wider at
base and subparallel-sided with a subacute apex; flagellum present. Tarsomere 1 of male not greatly enlarged.
Comments. Broun described Caccomolpus ornatus from a single specimen that we located in the BMNH.
Despite his “exertions”, Broun collected two additional specimens that were also in the BMNH collected during
January 1910. This species is transferred from Caccomolpus to Maurodus because the metaventrite has the subcoxal
lines parallel to coxal cavity forming a narrow bead. Maurodus ornatus can be distinguished from most species of
the genus by the presence of three distinctive-looking maculae on the elytra. It is also the only member of the genus
present in the North Island and there are two collections from the South Island. The collections from the Ahuroa
Forest Reserve north of Auckland and from Mt Te Aroha in the Bay of Plenty indicates that species may be more
widely distributed.
Distribution. North Island: AK, WO, BP, TK, TO, RI, WA, WN. South Island: NN, SD.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): re-mounted on card with extracted aedeagus glued to front edge of card,
“3154. [in Broun’s hand] // New Zealand. [red underline] Broun Coll. Brit. Mus. 1922-482. // Waimarino. Jany.
1909. [in Broun’s hand] // Caccomolpus ornatus—[in Broun’s hand] // Aotearoanus ornatus (Broun) det. M. Dac-
cordi [printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Additional material examined. North Island: AK: Ahuroa Forest Reserve, 36.480157S, 174.601948E,
15.11.1983 (2, BMNH). WO: Whareorino Forest, Mangatoa Tk, 4 March 2012, M. Gimmel, R. Leschen, sifting lit-
LESCHEN ET AL.
44 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
ter and rotten wood, 38.24.985S, 174.43,312E, RL1673 (1, NZAC). BP: Mt Te Aroha, below summit, 37.534585S,
175.741289E, Nothofagus menziesii, 24.11.1991, R.C. Henderson (1, NZAC); Mt Te Aroha, summit, 37.533479S,
175.742380E, Litter 92/6, 27.02.1992, J.S. Dugdale (1, NZAC); Mt Te Aroha, 600–800m, 37.533479S, 175.742380E,
leaf litter, 12–13/11/1983 (2, BMNH); Mt Te Aroha, smt, 950m, 37.533479S, 175.742380E, 20.03.2002, S.E. Thor-
pe (1, AMNZ). TO: Turangi, Ponanga Sdle, 39.004993S, 175.746596E, in forest litter, 13.07.1996 J. Nunn (2,
NZAC); Waituhi Saddle, 38.863625S, 175.546509E, leaf litter moss and rotten wood 83/112, 16.11.1983, C.F.
Butcher (1, NZAC). TK: Egmont NP, Dawson Falls, 950m, 39.322609S, 174.105127E, forest litter, 06.12.1983
(1, BMNH); Mt Taranaki, 710m, 39.322609S, 174.105127E, pitfall trap, 14 Jan–11 Feb 2004, I.A.N. Stringer
(1, AMNZ); same except Dawson Falls 760m (1, AMNZ); Egmont NP, Stratford Mountain House, 850m, 25.xii,
1994, R.M. Emberson & P. Syrett, on mossy logs and trees at night, kamahi/totara forest (2, LUNZ). RI: Mataroa,
Paengaroa SR, 540m, 39.647239S, 175.721338E, RL1106, 30.03.2006, T.R. Buckley, M. Seldon, R. Hoare (1,
NZAC); Waimarino, 39.438167S, 175.128888E, 00/1/1910, 3154 Broun Collection, (2, BMNH). WA: Aorangi Ra,
Sutherland Vehicle Tk, 41.411346S, 175.362242E, secondary forest on former grazing land KM245, sifted wood
and leaf litter, 24.01.2008, K. Marske, R. Leschen, T. Buckley (1, NZAC); S.E. Puketoi Ra, Castlehill, Huanui
area, 40.720401S, 175.960162E, 01.03.2010, J. Nunn (1, NZAC). WN: Tararua Ra, Dundas Hut Ridge, 1010m,
40.714403S, 175.464441E, Litter and moss 84/80, 29.11.1984, J.S. Dugdale (1, NZAC); Tararua Ra, Logan, 1490,
40.720329S, 175.456846E, swards, moss plants, 84/91 02.12.1984, J.S. Dugdale (1, NZAC); Tararua Ra, E. Basin
Logan, 1300m, 40.720329S, 175.456846E, turf plants 84/96, 06.12.1984, R.C. Craw (2, NZAC); Tararua Ra, Mt
Dundas, 1500m, 40.716396S,175.465994E, Litter and mixed swards 85/8, 09.02.1985, G.W. Ramsay (3, NZAC);
Tararua Ra, Mt Dome, 40.712526S, 175.474256E, Moss liverworts and mixed plants 85/10, 10.02.1985, G.W. Ram-
say (6, NZAC); Tararua Ra, Dundas Ridge, 1430m, 40.714403S, 175.464441E, mixed swards 85/23, 13.02.1985,
C.F. Butcher (5, NZAC); Tararua Ra, Mt Pukemoremore, 1474m, 40.710552S, 175.467613E, mixed swards 85/30,
12.02.1985, C.F. Butcher (1, NZAC); Tararua FP, Waiotauru, 40.938835S, 175.184549E, 02.06.2000 E. Spurr (1,
NZAC); same except 08.08.2000 (1, NZAC); Tararua FP, Akatarawa Sdle, 40.948363S, 175.108237E, 9/84 Litter,
17.01.1984, H.P. McColl (1, NZAC); Karori Wildlife Sanctuary, 41.306153S, 174.740593E, KR09, 26 Nov–13 Dec
1998, C.H. Watts (2, NZAC); same except 1–27 Mar 2007 (1, NZAC); same except 14 Dec 2004–20 Jan 2005 (1,
NZAC); same except KR10, 1–27 Mar 2007 (2, NZAC); Karori Reservoir, 41.305419S, 174.750368E, 30.06.1997,
[J.Nunn] (3, NZAC); same except 30.03.1997 (3, NZAC); Karori Reservoir, 41.305419S, 174.750368E, in thick
moss on fallen pine, 17.10.1994 [J.Nunn] (1, NZAC); same except 10.04.1997 (2, NZAC); same except in wet for-
est litter, 13.04.1997 (1, NZAC); same except 14.04.1997 (2, NZAC); same except Base of sedge, 31.03.1997 (1,
NZAC); same except in sedge litter, 06.04.1997 (1, NZAC); same except in hinau litter, 07.04.1997 (1, NZAC); same
except in moss and humus on tree trunk, 30.03.1997 (2, NZAC); Khandallah Domain, 41.246147S, 174.794493E,
Leaf litter, 05.04.1994, [J.Nunn] (1, NZAC); same except in streamside gravel, 06.09.1994 (1, NZAC); same except
in woodmould base of kohekohe, 25.04.1995 (1, NZAC); Tararua FP, Field Hut, 40.907866S, 175.256189E, leaf
litter, 01.01.1993 [J.Nunn] (1, NZAC); Tararua FP, Kakanui, 40.964517S, 175.135904E, 21.08.1978 [J.Nunn] (1,
NZAC); Kaitoke Regional Park, Pakuratahi Forks, 41.056386S, 175.191350E, leaf litter RL985, 15.04.2005, R. Le-
schen, C. McGuiness (1, NZAC); same except 24.07.1993 [J.Nunn] (1, NZAC); Tararua FP, 4km along Waiotauru
Rd, 40.885396S, 175.214182E, 16.11.1991 [J.Nunn] (1, NZAC); Akatarawa Rd, Smt, 40.948319S, 175.108176E,
leaf litter, 27.03.1983 [J.Nunn] (1, NZAC); same except 12.05.1995 (1, NZAC); Tararua FP, Waitewaewae Tk,
40.874474S, 175.240992E, in moss at Otaki River Bridge, 29.11.2005 [J.Nunn] (1, NZAC); Featherston, 41.107568S,
175.321306E, 19.09.1916, 3154 Broun Collection (1, BMNH); Wadestown 41.262907S, 174.773763E, 21.03.1916
(1, BMNH); Rona Bay, 41.288245S, 174.904495E, 20.04.1937, G.V. Hudson (1, BMNH). No locality: Sharp Col-
lection 1905, 313 (1, BMNH). South Island: NN: Kaituna Tk, 4 Dec 2018, 40 42.807S, 172 34.434E, sifting moss,
R Leschen, V. Sykora, RL2060 (1, NZAC). SD: Mt Stokes Track, podocarp-beech (large-leafed) forest, 11 Dec
2007, K. Marske, J. Allwood, sifted leaf litter, S 41.05.215’, E 174.08.130’, 587m, KM106 (2, NZAC).
Maurodus owenensis, sp. nov.
(Figs 8A,B; map Fig. 19B)
Diagnosis. Body broadly oval and tricoloured; pronotum bicoloured. Antennal groove well-developed with inner
ridge; internal surface glabrous. Prosternal lines in front of procoxae parallel. Elytra with midbasal puncture present;
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 45
maculae broad with outer edges sinuate and contacting broadly at midline; microsculpture absent or weakly im-
pressed. Ventrites dark-coloured, with hypomera bicoloured and epipleura uniformly white-coloured. Legs unico-
loured black.
Description. Length 3.7 mm (greatest depth 1.8 mm). Body broadly oval and tricoloured with head, most of the
pronotum, midbasal puncture, ventral surfaces, mouthparts, and legs black; antennae, anterior portion of pronotum
and hypomera, epipleura, abdominal ventrie 5 yellow-orange; elytral maculae deep to yellow orange with darker
margins and sinuate along lateral edge. Microsculpture indistinct. Clypeus very weakly punctate, trapezoidal, an-
terior margin straight; frontoclypeal suture present with weak medial line and well-developed lateral postclypeal
lines; vertex very weakly punctate. Ratio of antennomere lengths: 1.1/0.8/0.9/0.7/0.6/0.6/0.7/0.8/0.9/0.9/1.1. Anten-
nal groove well-developed with inner ridge; internal surface glabrous. Pronotum transverse (2.75 x wider than long),
lateral margins, converging anteriorly; punctures non-uniform, coarse at base and progressively diffuse anteriorly,
those at base as strong as those contained in the elytra striae. Prosternal lines or carinae in front of procoxae parallel;
intercarinal space flat. Elytra widest at basal 1/3 and broad (1.11x the greatest elytral width), 3.62x longer than pro-
notal length; punctation moderately striate, more impressed at center of elytral disc; midbasal puncture shallow.
Comments. This new species most closely resembles M. lepidus but can be distinguished from it by the co-
louration and the shape of the prothorax which is less convex at the sides and less convergent anteriorly. The type
locality, Mt. Owen, is accessible by walking, and additional attempts should be made to collect more material. The
single specimen was not dissected.
Distribution. South Island: NN.
Etymology. The specific epithet is derived from the place name, Mt Owen.
Type examined. Holotype (AMNZ); not sexed [originally card mounted but removed and pointed], “Mt Owen
Nelson 13-3-38 C.E. Clarke // C.E.Clarke Collection” [41.552011S, 172.541345E].
Maurodus plagiatus (Sharp, 1886), comb. nov.
(Figs 8C–F; map Fig. 19B)
Caccomolpus plagiatus Sharp, 1886:448. Type locality: Greymouth.
Diagnosis. Body oval and bicoloured; pronotum unicoloured. Antennal groove weakly developed with inner ridge
scarcely indicated; inner surface weakly glabrous. Prosternal lines in front of procoxae parallel. Elytra with midbas-
al stria present; maculae present in basal 2/3 with outer edges sinuate and contacting at midline and not extending to
tip of elytra; microsculpture strongly impressed. Ventrites mostly light coloured and weakly infuscate, with anterior
portion of hypomera and entire epipleura pale-coloured; male ventrite 5 not vaulted at middle. Legs bicoloured with
femora and tibiae infuscate; tarsomere 1 of male greatly enlarged.
Description. Length 3.3–3.5 mm (greatest depth 1.70 mm). Body oval and bicoloured with head, elytral mac-
ula, and middle portions of the prosternal process, meso-, and metaventrite black or dark-coloured the rest of the
body orange, yellow or pale-coloured; elytral maculae sinuate along lateral edge. Microsculpture distinct, present
on pronotum and elytra. Clypeus very weakly punctate or apunctate, more or less trapezoidal, anterior margin
straight; frontoclypeal suture present and not meeting at midline or absent, lateral postclypeal lines present and well
developed, medial line absent; vertex apunctate. Ratio of antennomere lengths: 0.8/0.4/0.6/0.7/0.6/0.5/0.6/0.5/1.
0/0.8/1.1. Antennal groove weakly developed with inner ridge scarcely indicated; inner surface weakly glabrous.
Pronotum transverse (2.22–2.50 x wider than long), lateral margins at base not parallel-sided and sides converging
anteriorly, not strongly convex; punctures non-uniform, coarse at base and progressively diffuse anteriorly, those
at base stronger than elsewhere on the body or about as course as they are at the posterolateral disc of the elytron.
Prosternal lines or carinae in front of procoxae parallel; intercarinal space flat. Elytra widest at basal 1/3 and broad
(1.08x the greatest elytral width), 2.89–3.12 x longer than pronotal length; punctation very weakly striate and not
impressed towards midline or moderately striate; midbasal stria present and shallow. Tarsomere 1 of male greatly
enlarged. Male ventrite 5 not vaulted at middle.
Comments. Sharp received one specimen of this species from Reitter, which we located in the BMNH and con-
firmed its status as the holotype (Fig. 8F). This species is transferred from Caccomolpus to Maurodus because the
subcoxal lines on abdominal ventrite 1 are parallel to coxal cavities. Maurodus plagiatus can be distinguished from
LESCHEN ET AL.
46 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
most species of the genus by the unicoloured pronotum and epipleura and the presence of elytyral maculae that are
present in the basal 2/3 of the elytra that distinguishes this species from M. supernus.
Type examined. Holotype (BMNH): remounted on point with removed abdomen and female terminalia on
acetate card, “Caccomolpus plagiatus Type D. S. Greymouth, N. Zd [in Sharp’s hand; top of original card trimmed]
// Type H.T. [round label with red border] // Sharp Coll. 1905-313. // Aotearoanus plagiatus (Sharp) [handwritten]
det. M. Daccordi [printed] 1987 [in Daccordi’s hand]”.
Additional material examined. South Island. NN: Oparara Basin, Oparara Arches Track, mixed Nothofagus
and podocarp forest, 30 Jan 2012, R. Leschen, sifted rotten wood, 41.149821S,172.189917E, RL1642 (1, NZAC).
BR: Fletcher Creek, 6 km SW Rotokohu, 41.982710S, 171.846460E, litter 71/125, 09.11.1971, J.S. Dugdale (1,
NZAC); Nile River valley, moss berlesate, 1.ix.1971, R.M. Emberson (1, LUNZ).
Maurodus supernus, sp. nov.
(Fig. 9, 12I,J, 13F; map Fig. 19B)
Diagnosis. Body broadly oval and bicoloured; pronotum unicoloured. Antennal groove not well demarked by ridges.
Prosternal lines in front of procoxae convergent. Elytra with midbasal stria or puncture present; maculae broad with
outer edges sinuate and contacting broadly at midline and extending to tip of elytra; microsculpture absent. Ventrites
dark-coloured and infuscate, with hypomera and epipleura uniformly pale-coloured; male ventrite 5 not vaulted at
middle. Legs unicoloured yellow to weakly infuscate and bicoloured; tarsomere 1 of male not greatly enlarged.
Description. Length 3.5–4.4 mm (greatest depth 1.80–1.90 mm). Body broadly oval and bicoloured with head,
elytral macula, and middle portions of the ventral surfaces black or dark-coloured; elsewhere orange, yellow to pale-
coloured; elytral maculae sinuate along lateral edge and extending to tip of elytra; femora and tibiae unicoloured
yellow to weakly infuscate. Microsculpture present on head, weakly to well-developed on prontum and absent on
elytra. Clypeus weakly or apunctate, nearly trapezoidal, anterior margin straight; frontoclypeal suture present some-
times weakly-impressed, lateral postclypeal lines present and well-developed and medial line absent; vertex weakly
or apunctate. Ratio of antennomere lengths: 1.0/.9/.8/.7/.7/.5/.7/.7/.7/.6/1.1. Antennal groove not well demarked
by ridges. Pronotum transverse (2.30–2.33x wider than long), lateral margins at base not parallel-sided and sides
weakly converging anteriorly, not strongly convex; punctures non-uniform, moderately or very coarse at base and
progressively diffuse anteriorly, those at base usually more strongly impressed than elsewhere on the body, apart
from the posterolateral margins of the elytra in some specimens. Prosternal lines or carinae in front of procoxae
anteriorly convergent with the anterior width about 0.5x narrower than procoxal width; intercarinal space weakly
convex. Elytra widest at middle with a weakly convex outline (1.03–1.04x the greatest elytral width), 2.50–2.67
x longer than pronotal length and broad; punctation generally very weakly striate, not impressed towards midline,
sometimes more strongly impressed at posterolateral disc; midbasal stria present. Tarsomere 1 of male not greatly
enlarged. Male ventrite 5 not vaulted at middle. Median lobe of aedeagus in lateral view with somewhat subparal-
lel sides with apex subacute; in dorsal view, weakly parallel-sided, broader at base and rounded at apex; flagellum
present.
Comments. Maurodus supernus can be distinguished from most species of the genus by the unicoloured pro-
notum, glabrous dorsal surfaces, and lack of a well-developed antennal groove. It is most like M. plagiatus, but the
elytral maculae do not extend posteriorly to near the tip of the elytra. Most specimens were collected early last cen-
tury by C. E. Clarke (Fig. 9F), and we obtained one recently collected specimen from Takahe Valley we designated
as the holotype.
Distribution. South Island: WD, FD.
Etymology. The specific epithet is derived from the Latin word supernus meaning on the top, referring to some
specimens that were collected in the Southern Alps.
Type examined. Holotype (NZAC): “Takahe Valley, Chionochloa teretifolia, 30 Nov–8 Mar 2016, pitfall
trap #, 45.2735475, 167.672021E, 1220 m, K. Paler.“ Paratypes (17): South Island: WD: S Westland, Waiho R,
43.422503S, 170.170088E, 16.01.1925, C.E. Clarke Collection (1, AMNZ). FD: Upper Routeburn, 44.725249S,
168.215426E, 25.01.1926, C.E. Clarke Collection (1, AMNZ); same except 26.01.1926 (1, AMNZ; 2, BMNH);
same except no date (1, BMNH); Routeburn R, 44.711028S, 168.258576E, 14.01.1926, C.E. Clarke, C.E. Clarke
Collection (2, AMNZ); Routeburn R, 44.711028S, 168.258576E, 15.01.1926, C.E. Clarke Collection (2, AMNZ);
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 47
FIGURES 13A–G. Spermathecae of New Zealand Chrysomelinae; A, Aphilon sp.; B, Caccomolpus sp.; C, Maurodus impres-
sus; D, Maurodus cinctiger; E, Maurodus ornatus; F, Maurodus supernus, aedeagus, lateral view; G, Zeaphilon mirandum.
same except 16.01.1926 (2, BMNH; 3 AMNZ); same except C.E. Clarke (1, AMNZ); 24.01.1926 C.E. Clarke
(1, AMNZ); Upper Takahe Valley, 12 Mar 2013, sifting Clemisia, tussocks, etc. litter, 45 16.356S,167 37.250E,
1181.8m, R. Leschen RL1692 (1, NZAC); Fiordland NP, Murchison Mts, E. McKenzie Burn, 1140m, 7.xii. 1980,
R.M. Emberson, C.A. Muir, Litter under Hebe scrub and ferns (1, LUNZ).
Nanomela, gen. nov.
(Figs 10, 12A,B, 14–16)
Type species: Nanomela tiniheke, sp. nov.
Diagnosis. Body length less than 2.5 mm; oval and moderately convex; colour generally uniform pale-yellow to
dark brown, without metallic reflection. Antennae clavate. Procoxal cavities externally closed. Hindwings absent.
Anterior edge of metaventrite curved or rounded; metaventral lines parallel and not extending to middle of ventrite.
First abdominal ventrite with subcoxal lines parallel to coxal cavity and not extending to middle of ventrite.
LESCHEN ET AL.
48 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
Description. Length 1.3–2.3 mm. Body oval and moderately convex. Colour pale-yellow to dark brown,
lacking metallic lustre.
Head forming a short muzzle with genae extending a short distance beyond level of antennal and maxillary
insertions, scarcely visible from above with mouthparts directed anteroventrally, wide vertex or frons, nearly flat
to feebly convex; postantennal calli absent, pale areas present or absent. Eyes reduced to 1 or 2 (mainland species)
or 15 (Snares species) facets, not protuberant, though resting on a small hump in some species; inner margin of
eye without a small seta. Antennae long and clavate, antennomeres relatively short, most about as long as wide,
weakly thickened apically, scape short and somewhat elliptic, shorter than the A2+3 combined, last 2, 3 or 5 an-
tennomeres forming a club, reaching just beyond the hind margin of the pronotum; eye not contacting antennal
insertion, with distance between insertion and margin of eye equal to or less than diameter of insertion, distance
between insertions about 2 times length of the scape. Clypeus trapezoidal and weakly to moderately transverse,
anterior margin straight; frontoclypeal suture present; postclypeal lines absent. Labrum rectangular to squared,
anterior margin weakly or not emarginated and sides rounded, surface with 1 elongate seta per side, anterior mar-
gin at middle lacking distinct setal fringe, tormae long and thin, about 2.5 times longer than labral plate. Mandible
with terebral edge serrate. Maxillary palpus relatively short, palpomere 1 not strongly flattened about as long as
wide, palpomere 2 shorter than wide, palpomere 3 about 2 times longer than wide or less, greater in length than
palpomere 2, conical. Labium with wide ligula, almost equal in width to the lengths of palpomeres 1 and 2 com-
bined, apex very weakly divided at apex, palpal insertions separated by less than the width of the basal palpomere,
palpi relatively short, palpomere 1 shorter than long, palpomere as long as wide, palpomere 3 conical, twice lon-
ger than wide with truncated apex. Mentum rectangular and transverse, width of mentum equal to or shorter than
the length of labial palpomere 3. Intermaxillary process short and extending a short distance anteriorly beyond
maxillary insertions, anterior edge concave to straight, delimited behind by a ridge or a bead.
Pronotum transverse and convex, with a bead along anterior and lateral margins; posterior edge as wide as
the base of elytra; anterior margin not emarginated, anterior angles weakly projecting and rounded to acute; sides
distinctly converging anteriad and straight or weakly curved, posterior margin weakly convex or sinuate; poste-
rior angles rounded and not produced; disc convex without sublateral groove, trichobothria absent, coarse and
dense punctures at middle of posterior margin absent (punctation uniform); lateral carinae complete. Prosternum
not vaulted at middle, without transverse notches in front of coxal cavities; prosternal lines present and parallel
and extending a short distance forward and not reaching anterior edge of sternite; prosternal process broad, short
and extending a short distance behind procoxae, expanded laterally behind coxae and contacting the hypomeral
process; posterior margin emarginated, procoxal cavities externally closed. Notopleural suture distinct. Scutellary
shield visible and small, triangular with acute apex. Elytra moderately convex, humeral calli and mid-basal striae
absent; surface smooth, punctures weakly impressed and striate, epipleura narrow and well developed, visible in
lateral view, apex without ctenidium. Hind wings absent. Mesoventrite mostly hidden in ventral view, posterior
portion between mesocoxae visible as a narrow strip; mesal part of mesoventrite with vertical surface confluent
with prepectus. Meso- and metacoxae widely separated. Metaventrite shorter than abdominal ventrite 1 at mid-
line, mesocoxal process broad with a curved anterior margin, metaventral lines parallel, discrimen and transverse
metaventral (metakatepisternal) suture absent. Metendosternite lacking stalk and laminae, widely spaced lateral
arms lacking subapical anterior tendons. Legs with tibiae flattened in cross section, meso- and metatibiae not
clubbed, gradually widened towards apex with evenly vurved lateral margin, apically setose; tarsomeres 4-4-4
with tarsomeres 1–3 of equal or subequal lengths, T1 slightly longer than T2 or longer, about 1.1–1.3 times longer
than wide (not greatly enlarged in male, but may be slightly more elongate than female), T2, T3 not deeply incised
(bilobed), tarsomere 4 minute and fused to 5, T5 about 2–2.5 times as long as T3, claws simple.
Abdominal ventrite 1 long, longer than ventrites 2–5 combined, with a broad metacoxal process that is wider
than long and with a straight apical margin, ventrites 2–4 equal in length and much shorter than ventrite 1, ventrite
5 longer than ventrites 3 and 4 combined with rounded posterior margin; first abdominal ventrite with subcoxal
lines parallel to coxal cavity that do not extend to middle of ventrite. Aedeagus variable, weakly curved in lat-
eral view and dorsoventrally compressed in cross section; apex in dorsal view acute to arrow-shaped; flagellum.
Ovipositer with coxite over 2 times longer than wide, stylus absent. Spermatheca U- shaped, collum present with
spermathecal duct inserted onto base, spermathecal gland absent.
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 49
FIGURES 14A–D. Ventral SEMs of Nanomela spp.; A, Nanomela sp., body; B, Nanomela sp., prothorax; C, Nanomela sp.,
meso-, meta-, and abdominal ventrites; D; Nanomela tiniheke, meso- and metaventrite.
Comments. Nanomela is restricted to the South Island, Stewart Island, and subantarctic Snares Islands. Here
we describe one species from the Snares, but the genus will require more detailed work because specimens tend to
be rarely collected and morphologically similar, often with very subtle differences between localities. For example,
sorting based on general colour (light tan to dark-brown and black) and general body shape (elytra that are broadly
rounded to somewhat tapered, Figs. 12A,B) has revealed at least 4 species that may be sympatric in the southern
portion of the South Island (Fiordland (FD), Central Otago (CO), Stewart Island (SI), and Southland (SL)) and al-
lopatric populations from Mt. Robert (NN), Mt. Arthur (NN), Karamea (NN), Mt. Faraday (BR), and Arthurs Pass
(NC). The male genitalia among these taxa are very similar with subtle differences in the apex and specimens from
several South Island localities are probably conspecific, but these require genetic sequencing, dissection, and further
sampling. We decided to include a description of these referred to as the “mainland group”.
LESCHEN ET AL.
50 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
FIGURES 15A–H. SEMs of Nanomela structures; A, Nanomela tiniheke, head, dorsal view; B, Nanomela sp., head, frontal
view; C, Nanomela sp., head, frontal view; D, Nanomela sp., metatarsus, ventral view; E, Nanomela sp., male mesotarsus, dor-
solateral view; F, Nanomela sp., left elyton, ventral view; G, Nanomela sp., male middle leg, anterior view; H, Nanomela sp.,
male middle leg, anterolateral view. Photo B by Sue Lindsay, Australian Museum.
Most specimens have been collected from leaf litter or moss, apart from one series from Karamea that were
collected via soil washing (J. Nunn, pers. comm., 2017). Those from the Snares Islands have been collected from
a variety of habitats. Two species have been collected in reasonable numbers from pitfall traps set in Takahe Val-
ley, Fiordland during a period of 4 years indicating that species are habitat specialists, with one species at lower
altitudes associated red tussock (Chionochloa rubra) and another at higher altitudes associated with snow tussock
(C. teretifolia) (Poaceae).
The reduced eyes, head elongated anterior to antennae forming a short muzzle, simple unexpanded 3rd tarso-
mere and distinct body form of Nanomela will distinguish this genus from all other Chrysomelinae and renders it
difficult to recognise as a member of this subfamily, for example it fails to identify from the key to subfamilies in
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 51
Reid (2000). However the mouthparts, ventral thoracic, modifed male tarsal setae and genitalic characters are typi-
cal of Chrysomelinae. Nanomela may be most closely related to Aphilon which also has clavate or clubbed antennae,
but Nanomela differs from it by the elliptical body form and reduced eyes. Nanomela and Aphilon have the head
scarcely visible in dorsal view, subcoxal lines parallel to the coxal cavity on abdominal ventrite 1, and relatively flat-
tened tibiae, characters which are also present to some degree in Maurodus, Zeaphilon, and most Caccomolpus.
Etymology. The genus name is derived from “nanos” (ancient Greek—dwarf, midget) and “-mela”, body, a
common ending in the names of Chrysomelinae genera. The new genus contains some of the smallest members of
the subfamily worldwide.
Distribution. South Island, Stewart Island, Snares Islands.
Nanomela tiniheke, sp. nov.
(Figs 10C, D, F, 12B, 14D, 15A, 16B, D; map Fig. 20B)
Diagnosis. Head relatively short and broad. Eye coarsely facetted and consisting of about 15 ommatidia. Antennae
with antennomere 8 as large as 7th, distance between insertion and margin of eye less than diameter of insertion.
Posterior margin of the pronotum trapezoidal. Elytra with 9 distinct, but weakly impressed striae. Aedeagus with
median lobe acute and arrow-shaped.
Description. Length 2.0–2.3 mm. Body elongate-elliptic slightly dorsoventrally flattend (greatest depth 0.80–
1.00 mm); entirely dark brown. Vertex wide, nearly flat, inner margin of eye without a small seta. Head relatively
short and broad. Eyes small, short-elliptic, coarsely facetted and consisting of about 15 ommatidia. Frons short-
trapezoidal, wider than long, anterior margin straight. Antennae with antennomere 8 as large as 7th (ratio of anten-
nomere lengths: 0.9/0.6/0.5/0.4/0.5/0.4/0.4/0.5/0.5./0.5/1.0), distance between insertion and margin of eye less than
diameter of insertion. Pronotum transverse (1.50–1.80 x wider than long), posterior margin of pronotum trapezoidal,
lateral sides of posterior margin nearly straight, not strongly rounded medially. Elytra elongate (4.40–4.50 x longer
than pronotal length) and broad (4.40–4.50 x the greatest elytral width); punctation striate, punctures arranged in 9
striae, epipleura moderately wide, flat, distinctly inclined, visible in lateral view. Spermatheca with short and thick
collum and receptacle, strongly curved, collum with acute apex, duct very short. Median lobe of aedeagus with large
and rounded basal opening, medial third gradually and gently widened towards apex, apex distinctly arrow-shaped
(triangular and acute), median lobe inside with long and thin flagellum that straight in apical third and curved in
basal two thirds.
Comments. Differs from mainland Nanomela spp. by the shorter and wider head, larger eyes with more facets,
the posterior margin of pronotum is not evenly rounded with lateral sides of posterior margin nearly straight and
medially not strongly rounded, the elytral apices are narrower and more elongate, and the spermatheca has an acute
collum and a short duct.
Distribution. The Snares Islands.
Etymology. The species name derives from Tini Heke, the Mâori name for the Snares Islands (feminine).
Type material examined. Holotype (AMNZ): sex not determined, “NZ: THE SNARES Broughton I,
30.xi.1976, JW Early, litter of Stilbocarpa robusta L7996”. Paratypes (36). SN: Snares Is, Broughton I, 48.043056S,
166.620833E, in litter of Stilbocarpa robusta, 04.11.1972, D.S. Horning (1, AMS; 1, NZAC); Snares Is, E end Sink-
hole Flat, Penguin Colony, 48.016667S, 166.533333E, in peat of Stilbocarpa robusta at colony edge, 04.12.1974,
D.S. Horning (2, NZAC); same except 03.12.1974 (1, NZAC); Snares Is, Sinkhole area, 48.01894S, 166.60230E,
Olearia lyalli litter, 27.01.1971 D.S. Horning (1, NZAC); same except Stilbocarpa robusta foliage, 24.01.1971,
D.S. Horning (3, AMS; 2, NZAC); same except 25.01.1971, Olearia lyalli, Tullgren [funnel] from leaf litter (1,
AMS; 1, ANIC); Snares Is, nr Station Pt, 48.02290S, 166.60959E, Olearia lyalli forest logs, 9.1.67 P.M. Johns (2
AMS; 1, ANIC; 1; LUNZ; 3, NZAC); Penguin Ck, 26.10.1972 DS Horning, in wet litter Olearia lyalli (1, ANIC);
Snares Is, S. Side Goat Harbour, 48.016667S, 166.533333E, litter of Senecio stewartiae, 26.03.1972, C.J. Horn-
ing (1, NZAC); Snares Is, Broughton I, 48.043056S, 166.620833E, JW Early litter of Stilbocarpa robusta L7996,
30.xi.1976 (12, AMNZ); same except litter of Stilbocarpa robusta L8913, 14.i.1977 (1, AMNZ).
LESCHEN ET AL.
52 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
Nanomela mainland group
(Figs 10A,B,E, 12A, 14A-C, 15B,C, 16A,C,E)
Diagnosis. Head relatively long and narrow. Eye consisting of a one to two ommatidia. Antennae with antennomere
8 smaller than 7th, distance between antennal socket and margin of eye is equal to diameter of socket. Posterior
margin of the pronotum evenly rounded. Elytra with 7 distinct, but weakly impressed striae. Aedeagus with median
lobe subrounded to weakly arrow-shaped.
Description. Length 1.30–1.55 mm. Body widely-elliptic to somewhat narrowed, slightly dorsoventrally flat-
tened (greatest depth 0.60–0.80 mm); entirely reddish-brown. Vertex very wide, feebly convex, inner margin of eye
without a small seta. Head relatively long and narrow. Eyes very small, round, consisting of 1 large ommatidium.
Frons large and elongate-trapezoidal, nearly as long as wide, anterior margin straight. Antennae with antennomere
8 smaller than 7th (ratio of antennomere lengths variable but generally: 0.6/0.3/0.3/0.3/0.3/0.2/0.3/0.3/0.4/0.5/0.8),
distance between insertion and margin of eye is equal to diameter of insertion. Pronotum transverse (1.50–1.80 x
wider than long), posterior margin of pronotum evenly rounded. Elytra elongate (2.87–3.33 x longer than pronotal
length) and narrow (1.36–1.64 x the greatest elytral width); punctation striate, punctures arranged in 7 striae, epi-
pleura narrow to moderately wide, flat, weakly inclined, feebly visible in lateral view. Spermatheca with rather short
and thick collum and nodulus, strongly curved, collum with obtuse apex, duct comparatively long. Median lobe of
aedeagus in ventral view straight, basal opening narrower than apical opening, the lobe gradually narrowed from
apex to base, apical fourth widened, apex subrounded, median lobe inside with long, straight, and thin flagellum
that curved in basal third.
Comments. These species differ from Nanomela tiniheke by the head which is longer and narrower, with an
elongated frons, the eyes smaller with fewer facets, the pronotal posterior margin evenly rounded, the elytral apices
wider and not elongate, and the spermatheca with an obtuse collum and long duct.
Distribution. South Island and Stewart Island.
Zeaphilon, nov. gen.
(Figs. 11, 12K,M, 13G)
Type species: Z. mirandum, sp. nov.
Diagnosis. Body length greater than 2.5 mm; elliptical and moderately convex; colour uniform black to dar reddish
brown, some specimens with a violet metallic reflection. Antennae clavate or subfiliform. Procoxal cavities exter-
nally open. Hindwings present but reduced (brachypterous). Anterior edge of metaventrite curved; metaventral lines
parallel and not extending to middle of ventrite. First abdominal ventrite with subcoxal lines parallel to coxal cavity
and not extending to middle of ventrite.
Description. Length 2.6–3.8 mm. Body elliptical and moderately convex. Colour uniform black to dark reddish
brown, rarely with metallic sheen.
Head not forming a short muzzle with genae extending a short distance beyond level of antennal and maxillary
insertions, scarcely visible from above with mouthparts directed anteriorly, wide vertex or frons, nearly flat to feebly
convex; postantennal calli present but developed, pale areas present or absent; antennal grooves absent. Eyes rela-
tively well-developed, somewhat protuberant, coarsely facetted and consisting of over 30 ommatidia; inner margin
of eye without a small seta. Antennae long and clavate or subfiliform, scape elliptical or barrel-shaped, shorter than
A2+3 combined, last five antennomeres forming a weak or a distinct club, reaching beyond the hind margin of the
pronotum; eye almost contacting insertion, with distance between insertion and margin of eye about length of two
ommatidia, distance between insertions about 3–5 times length of the scape. Clypeus trapezoidal, anterior margin
straight; frontoclypeal suture present; postclypeal lines present, medial postclypeal line absent. Labrum somewhat
rectangular and distinctly transverse, anterior margin weakly emarginated and sides rounded, surface with 3 setae
per side, anterior margin at middle lacking distinct setal fringe, tormae long and thin, about 2 times longer than
labral plate. Mandible with terebral edge simple. Maxillary palpus relatively short, palpomere 1 about as long as
wide, palpomere 2 transverse and shorter than wide, palpomere 3 about 2 times longer than wide, greater in length
than palpomere 2, subacute. Labium with relatively wide ligula, about equal in width to the lengths of palpomeres 1
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 53
and 2 combined, apex not divided at apex, palpal insertions separated by at least the width of the basal paplomere,
palpi relatively short, palpomere 1 quadrate, palpomeres 2 and 3 slightly longer than wide, palpomere 3 subacute.
Mentum rectangular and transverse, width of mentum shorter than the length of labial palpomere 3. Intermaxillary
process short and not extending anteriorly far beyond maxillary insertions, delimited behind by a sulcus.
Pronotum transverse and convex, with a bead along anterior and lateral margins; posterior edge as wide as the
base of elytra; anterior margin emarginated, anterior angles projecting and rounded; sides distinctly converging
anteriad and straight or curved, posterior margin weakly convex; posterior angles acute; disc moderately convex
without sublateral groove, trichobothria absent, punctation not uniform with coarse and dense punctures at base
and nearer to posterior margin; lateral carinae complete. Prosternum vaulted at middle, without transverse notches
in front of coxal cavities; prosternal lines present and convergent anteriorly, extending forward almost reaching
anterior edge of sternite; prosternal process broad, short and extending a short distance behind procoxae, expanded
slightly behind coxae but not contacting the hypomeral process, posterior margin curved; procoxal cavities exter-
nally open. Notopleural suture distinct. Scutellary shield visible and relatively small, semicircular with a rounded
apex. Elytra strongly convex, humeral calli absent or weakly demarcated by a shallow impression; midbasal stria
present or absent; surface smooth, punctures weakly impressed and weakly striate, epipleura wide and well devel-
oped, visible in lateral view, apex without ctenidium. Hindwings present but reduced (brachypterous). Mesoventrite
mostly hidden in ventral view, posterior portion between mesocoxae visible as a narrow strip; mesal part of meso-
ventrite with vertical surface confluent with prepectus. Meso- and metacoxae widely separated. Metaventrite equal
in length to abdominal ventrite 1 at midline, mesocoxal process very short and broad with a curved anterior margin,
metaventral lines parallel and not extending to middle of ventrite; discrimen absent and transverse metaventral
(metakatepisternal) suture present, crossing the midline as a weakly impressed line. Metendosternite lacking stalk
and laminae, widely spaced lateral arms with subapical anterior tendons. Legs with tibiae flattened in cross section,
meso- and metatibiae not clubbed and gradually expanded before apex and flattened with evenly curved lateral
outline, apically setose; tarsomeres 5-5-5 with tarsomere 1 about 2 times longer than T2 (enlarged in male), 1.5–2.0
times longer than wide, T2 slightly wider than long and as wide as T1, T3 slightly longer than wide and incised
(bilobed), tarsomere 4 minute, T5 about twice as long as T3, claws appendiculate or weakly so.
Abdominal ventrite 1 long, but shorter than ventrites 2–5 combined, with a broad metacoxal process that is
wider than long and with a straight apical margin, ventrites 2–4 equal in length and shorter than or equal to ventrite
1, ventrite 5 longer than ventrites 3 and 4 combined with rounded posterior margin; first abdominal ventrite with
subcoxal lines parallel to coxal cavity that do not extend to middle of ventrite. Aedeagus weakly curved in lateral
view and dorsoventrally compressed in cross section; apex in dorsal view square-edged and may be notched; flagel-
lum present. Ovipositor with coxite 2 times longer than wide, stylus absent. Spermatheca curved, C-shaped, collum
present with spermathecal duct inserted onto base, accessary and spermathecal glands present and sclerotized.
Comments. This endemic genus contains two species, both living at ground level and collected by sifting leaf
litter or rotten wood. Recent field collecting focussing on sifting forest-dwelling mosses indicates that these species
may be moss specialists. They are easily separated from other endemic genera by having a vaulted prosternum and
brachyptery. In some respects species of Zeaphilon are similar to Maurodus, but having the coarse basal pronotal
punctures similar to those present in Aphilon and having parallel metaventral lines as in Nanomela which can
also seperate the genus from the similar looking Australian genera Canobolas Reid, Jurado-Rivera & Beatson and
Geomela Lea.
Etymology. A neuter name that combines the first two letters of “Zealand” with the name “Aphilon”.
Included species. Zeaphilon marskeae, sp. nov.; Z. mirandum, sp. nov.
Distribution. North Island, South Island.
Zeaphilon marskeae, sp. nov.
(Figs 11A–C, 12K,L; map Fig. 20B)
Diagnosis. Body broadly oval with abdomen narrowing posteriorly at apical 1/3. Pronotal margins at base more
or less straight-sided. Elytron with midbasal stria present and well-impressed. Lateral margin of metaventrite with
well-developed bead.
LESCHEN ET AL.
54 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
FIGURES 16A–E. Nanomela structures; A, Nanomela sp., aedeagus, dorsal view; B, Nanomela tiniheke, aedeagus, dorsal
view; C, Nanomela sp., spermatheca; D, Nanomela tiniheke, abdomen showing spermatheca, ventral view; E, Nanomela sp.,
hindleg, posterior view.
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 55
FIGURES 17A–K. Dorsal habitus of introduced chryomelines and their structures; A, Chrysolina hyperici, length 5.5 mm; B,
Dicranosterna semipunctata, length 9.9 mm; C, Gonioctena olivacea, length 3.4 mm; D, Paropsis charybdis, length 10.3 mm;
E, Peltoschema mansueta, length 3.2 mm; F, Trachymela sloanei, length 8.0 mm; G, Dicranosterna semipunctata, lateral view
of maxillary palpus; H, Paropsis charybdis, ventral view of maxillary palpus; I, Trachymela sloanei, ventral view of palpus; J,
Paropsis charybdis, ventral view of prosternum; K, Paropsis charybdis, left lateral view of pronotum.
LESCHEN ET AL.
56 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
FIGURES 18A–E. Subantennal grooves (ventral view of heads, A–C) and prothoracic glandular ducts. A, Maurodus cinctiger;
B, Maurodus lepidus; C, Maurodus maculatus; D, Chalcolampra sp., dorsal view through cleared prothorax; E, same, detail.
Description. Length 2.6–2.9 mm (greatest depth 1.20–1.40 mm). Body broadly oval and unicoloured black
without metallic sheen; antennae, mouthparts, legs and ventral surfaces dark brown. Microsculpture absent dorsally,
present ventrally; abdominal ventrites with scattered punctures. Clypeus finely punctate, anterior margin more or
less straight; frontoclypeal suture present with medial and lateral postclypeal lines present; vertex finely punctate.
Ratio of antennomere lengths: 1.1/0.6/0.6/0.7/0.7/0.6/0.7/0.9/0.8/0.8/1.2. Pronotum transverse (2.0x wider than
long), lateral margins at base more or less straight-sided and sides weakly converging anteriorly, not strongly con-
vex in outline; punctures coarse at base and progressively diffuse anteriorly, those at base stronger than elsewhere
on the body. Prosternal lines or carinae in front of procoxae anteriorly convergent with the anterior width about 0.5x
narrower than procoxal width; intercarinal space not convex. Elytra widest at middle, narrowing posteriorly at api-
cal 1/3 with a weakly convex outline (1.00–1.21x the greatest elytral width), 2.25–2.40x longer than pronotal length;
punctation very faint and very weakly striate, not strongly impressed; midbasal stria present and well-impressed;
epipleuron about 2.2x wider than metanepisternum. Lateral margin of metaventrite with well-developed bead. Me-
dian lobe of aedeagus in lateral view evenly convex dorsally, somewhat broad with an acute apex; in dorsal view
anteriorly notched and gradually widened towards the truncated apex.
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 57
Comments. Zeaphilon marskeae can be distinguished from Z. mirandum by its shape and the presence of a
distinct midbasal stria.
Distribution. South Island: NN.
Etymology. The specific epithet is honorific for Katherine Marske, one of the collectors of this species.
Type material examined. Holotype (NZAC): sex not determined, “NEW ZEALAND MB Pelorus Bridge Sce-
nic Reserve Totara Walkway 12 Dec 2007 K. Marske J. Atwood // Beech forest 17m Sifted beech litter & wood de-
bris KM118 S 41.17.927 E 173 34.380. Paratypes (6) NN: Washbourne SR, SH60, 22m, 40.767689S, 172.707392E,
mixed beech/ponga/exotica sifted wood and leaf litter KM166, 19.12.2007, K. Marske, J. Atwood (1 male on slide,
NZAC); Pupu Hydro Walkway, 2 Dec 2018, sifting moss and litter, 40 51.338S, 172 44.300E, R Leschen, V. Sykora,
RL2048 (1, NZAC); Canaan, 30km NW, Motueka, Tasman NP, 22–28 May 1982, 800m, 82-17, S. & J. Peck, for.
stump litter (2, ANIC). MB: Mt Richmond Forest Park, Brown River, beech forest along SH6, KM130, 13 Dec
2007, K. Marske, J. Allwood, hand-collected ex dead wood with fungus, S 41.12.614’, E 173.34.757’, 53m (1,
NZAC); Pelorus Bridge, 9 Dec 2018, sifting moss, litter, and flood debris, 41 18.234S, 173 34.102E, R Leschen, V.
Sykora, RL2079 (1, NZAC).
Zeaphilon mirandum, sp. nov.
(Figs 11D–E, 12M,N, 13G; map Fig. 21)
Diagnosis. Body spherical with abdomen apically rounded. Pronotal margins curved, straight at extreme base.
Elytron without midbasal stria. Lateral margin of metaventrite with poorly-developed bead, if present, indicated in
anterior half.
Description. Length 2.9–3.8 mm (greatest depth 1.50–1.90 mm). Body broadly oval and unicoloured dark-
brown to black, some specimens with a slight metallic sheen; antennae, mouthparts and legs dark brown to black.
Microsculpture absent dorsally, present ventrally; abdominal ventrites with scattered punctures that may be weakly
indicated. Clypeus moderately to finely punctate, anterior margin straight; frontoclypeal suture present with medial
and lateral postclypeal lines present; vertex moderately to finely punctate. Ratio of antennomere lengths: 1.1/0.7/0.9
/0.8/0.9/0.8/1.0/1.1/1.1/1.2/1.5. Pronotum transverse (2.20–2.50 x wider than long), lateral margins curved, straight
at extreme base and strongly convex in outline; punctures coarse at base and progressively diffuse anteriorly, those
at base stronger than elsewhere on the body, deeper than those on abdominal ventrites, if these are present. Pros-
ternal lines or carinae in front of procoxae anteriorly convergent with the anterior width about 0.3x narrower than
procoxal width; intercarinal space not convex. Elytra widest at middle, strongly convex outline with apex rounded
(1.03–1.24x the greatest elytral width), 3.20x longer than pronotal length; punctation very weak striate, not im-
pressed and faint striae present in some specimens; midbasal stria absent; epipleuron about 3x wider than metanepi-
sternum. Lateral margin of metaventrite with poorly-developed bead, if present, indicated in anterior half. Median
lobe of aedeagus in lateral view narrow and flattened, somewhat broad with an acute apex; in dorsal view weakly
notched anteriorly, more or less parallel-sided, and not gradually widened towards the rounded apex.
Comments. Zeaphilon mirandum can be distinguished from R. marskeae by its shape and the absence of a
distinct midbasal stria.
Distribution. North Island: ND, AK.
Etymology. Derived from the Latin word mirandus meaning “wonderful”.
Types examined. Holotype (AMNZ): sex not determined, “NEW ZEALAND, ND North Cape area, NW of
Mt Te Paki, 267m, 8.iii.1967, K.A.J. Wise // Tairaire, kohekohe ect leaf litter in forest remnant. P/S 262 L9300”.
Paratypes (12). ND: 2, same as holotype [34.503192S, 172.825599E] (AMNZ); Whakaangi SR, 222m, 34.948469S,
173.546768E, sifting TB408, 18.01.2008, T.R. Buckley, D. Seldon, R. Hoare (1, LUNZ; 4, NZAC); North Cape, Ko-
huronaki, 34.488684S, 172.833634E, bush litter, 28.04.2000, S.E. Thorpe (1, AMNZ). AK: Warkworth, Dome For-
est, 260m, 36.360838S, 174.613151E, 08.05.1999, S.E. Thorpe (1, AMNZ); Warkworth, Pohuehue SR, 36.461391S,
174.646255E, stream bed under stones, 05.01.2003 S.E. Thorpe (1, AMNZ); Atuanui, Mt Auckland, 36.446639S,
174.460284E, pitfall F15, 01.01.2002, A. Warren (1, AMNZ).
LESCHEN ET AL.
58 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
FIGURES 19A–B. A and B, South Island.
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 59
FIGURES 20A–B. South Island with subantarctic Snares Island (insert).
LESCHEN ET AL.
60 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 21. North Island.
Introduced Chrysomelinae in New Zealand
While surprisingly little is known about the native New Zealand fauna, much is known about the exotic species.
Several species of chrysomelids listed by Maddison et al. (2010) have been introduced deliberately for bio-control
purposes, including three chrysomelines (Withers et al. 2015). Chrysolina hyperici (Förster) (Fig. 17A) and Chrys-
olina quadrigemina (Suffrian), originally from Eurasia, were introduced as biocontrol agents of St Johns Wort,
Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae), during the 1940s (C. hyperici in 1943) and 1960s (C. quadrigemina in
1963) and are established (Groenteman et al. 2011). Chrysolina quadrigemina is also found on tutsan, Hypericum
androsaemum L. (Hypericaceae) (Spiller & Wise 1982), and to control for this weed, Chrysolina abchasica (Weise)
has been released recently (Paynter et al. 2018). Gonioctena olivacea (Förster) (Fig. 17C) was introduced in 2007
from Europe for control of Cytisus scoparius and is now established (Hayes et al. 2013).
All of the self or accidentally introduced species of chrysomelines are paropsines, originating from Australia,
and feeding on introduced Acacia or Eucalyptus. Dicranosterna semipunctata (Chapuis, 1877) (Fig. 17B) feeds on
the leaves of Tasmanian Blackwood Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. (Fabaceae) (Murray & Withers 2011), and other
species of Acacia in Australia. The three members of the genus Peltoschema Reitter (Fig. 17E) recorded from New
Zealand also feed on Acacia. Peltoschema species (officially recorded as P. suturalis (Germar 1848), but not this
species) was eradicated from its only reported locality in Wellington (Hataitai Park) in 2001 (Bejakovich 2004).
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 61
Peltoschema mansueta (Weise, 1901) was collected by Kuschel (1990, listed as Pyrgoides sp.) from Acacia mearn-
sii De Wild, in Auckland. This beetle is abundant in southeast Australia, feeding on Acacia flowers, but its status in
New Zealand remains unknown. A third species, Peltoschema species near orphana (Erichson, 1843) has recently
been discovered in Auckland on Acacia longifolia (Ben Boyd, pers. com. 2018) and is similar to an undescribed
species from the Sydney area.
Five accidentally introduced species of paropsine feed on Eucalyptus. Paropsis charybdis Stål, 1860 (Fig.
17D), first recorded in New Zealand in 1916 (White 1973, Kuschel 1990), is currently one of the major pests in eu-
calypt plantations (White 1973, Spiller & Wise 1982); Withers et al. 2015). Two species of Trachymela (T. catenata
(Chapuis 1877) and T. sloanei (Blackburn 1896); Fig. 17F) are established (Steven & Mulvey 1977) and have been
the focus of biocontrol studies (Murray et al 2010). Paropsisterna beata (Newman, 1842) was first recorded on
North Island in 2012 and was thought to be successfully eradicated (Withers 2016, Yamoah et al. 2016) but a single
specimen of P. beata was reportedly observed in July 2016 some distance from the eradication site. There have been
no other reported observations since that time. Pending further validated observations the establishment status of
P. beata in New Zealand remains unresolved (A. Flynn, pers. com. 2019). Paropsisterna cloelia (Stål, 1860), was
discovered in 2016 in the Hawkes Bay area and identified as P. variicollis (Chapuis, 1877) (Lin et al. 2017). This
name is a junior synonym of P. cloelia (syn. nov.). Both Paropsisterna species are currently under study for control
measures (Lin et al. 2017; A. Pugh, pers. com. 2017).
Acknowledgements
We thank Joana Pequito, Birgit Rhode, Rudi Schnitzler, Svetlana Malysheva for imaging Grace Hall for databasing,
Des Helmore for habitus illustrations, and Lech Borowiec for the image of Gonioctena olivacea; Alan Flynn (and
his team at MPI), Lynley Hayes, Quentin Paynter, Andrew Pugh, and Carl Wardhaugh for comments mainly on
non-native species; and curators John Early (AMNZ) and John Marris (LUNZ) for loan of material, as well as John
Nunn, whose collection now resides in the NZAC. Richard Leschen thanks Michael Geiser and colleagues at the
BMNH for access to type material, and his work was funded in part by core funding for Crown Research Institute
from the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment’s Science and Innovation Group and a visitors fellow-
ship from the University of Hokkaido, Sapporo, Japan. Rich also thanks Thomas Buckley, Matt Gimmel, Robert
Hoare, Katie Marske, Dave Seldon, and Vit Sykora for assistance in the field. Chris Reid thanks ABRS and the
Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australia, for funding his research on Chrysomelidae. Lastly, we
thank Mauro Daccordi for encouraging our work on New Zealand chrysomelines.
Literature cited
Baly, J.S. (1855) Monograph of the Australian species of Chrysomela, Phyllocharis and allied genera. Transactions of the ento-
mological Society of London, 3 (5), 170–186.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1855.tb02669.x
Bejakovich, D. (2004) The last Peltoschema. Biosecurity [A publication of MAF Biosecurity Authority], 50, 17.
Blanchard, C.E. (1853) Description des Insectes. Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l’Océanie sur les corvettes l’Astrolabe et la Zélée;
exécuté par ordre du Roi pendant les Années 18371840 sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville—Zoologie, 4,
1–422.
Broun, T. (1880) Manual of the New Zealand Coleoptera. Colonial Museum and Geological Survey Department, Wellington,
xix + 651 pp.
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.32505
Broun, T. (1886) Manual of the New Zealand Coleoptera. Parts III & IV. Colonial Museum and Geological Survey Department,
Wellington, viii + 229 pp. [pp. i–viii + 745–973]
Broun, T. (1893a) Descriptions of new Coleoptera from New Zealand. Annals and Magazine of natural History, Series 6, 12,
374–392.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222939308677637
Broun, T. (1893b) Manual of the New Zealand Coleoptera. Parts V, VI & VII. New Zealand Institute, Wellington, xvii + 975
pp.
Broun, T. (1903) Descriptions of new genera and species of New Zealand Coleoptera. The Annals and Magazine of natural His-
tory, Series 7, 11 & 12, 450–458 + 602–618 & 69–86.
LESCHEN ET AL.
62 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222930308678830
Broun, T. (1909) Descriptions of new genera and species of New Zealand Coleoptera. Annals and Magazine of natural History,
Series 8, 4, 275–291.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222930908692670
Broun, T. (1910) Descriptions of new genera and species of Coleoptera. New Zealand Institute Bulletin, 1, 3–78.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222930908692601
Broun, T. (1913) Descriptions of new genera and species of Coleoptera. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, 45, 97–
163.
Broun, T. (1914) Descriptions of new genera and species of Coleoptera. (Part II). New Zealand Institute Bulletin, 1, 79–142.
Broun, T. (1915) Descriptions of new genera and species of Coleoptera. Part IV. New Zealand Institute Bulletin, 1 (4), 267–
346.
Broun, T. (1917) Descriptions of new genera and species of Coleoptera. Part V. New Zealand Institute Bulletin, 1 (5), 347–
474.
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.17491
Broun, T. (1921a) Descriptions of new genera and species of Coleoptera. Part VI. New Zealand Institute Bulletin, 1 (6), 475–
590.
Broun, T. (1921b) Descriptions of new genera and species of Coleoptera. Part VII. New Zealand Institute Bulletin, 1 (7),
591–665.
Bouchard, P., Bousquet, Y., Davies, A.E., Alonso-Zarazaga, M.A., Lawrence, J.F., Lyal, C.H.C., Newton, A.F., Reid, C.A.M.,
Schmitt, M., Ślipiński, S.A. & Smith, A.B.T. (2011) Family group names in Coleoptera (Insecta). Zookeys, 88, 1−972.
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.88.807
Chevrolat, L.A.A. (1836) [new taxa] In: Dejean, P.F.M.A. (Ed.), Catalogue des coléoptères de la collection de M. le comte De-
jean. Deuxième Édition [Livraison 5]. Méquignon-Marvis Père et Fils, Paris, pp. 361–443.
Crosby, T.K., Dugdale, J.S. & Watt, J.C. (1998) Area codes for recording specimen localities in the New Zealand subregion. New
Zealand Journal of Zoology, 25 (2), 175–183.
https://doi.org/10.1080/03014223.1998.9518148
Daccordi, M. (1994) Notes for phylogenetic study of Chrysomelinae, with descriptions of new taxa and a list of all the known
genera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Chrysomelinae). In: Furth, D.G. (Ed.), Proceedings of the third International Sympo-
sium on the Chrysomelidae, Beijing, 1992. Backhuys, Leiden, pp. 60–84.
Daccordi, M. (1996) Notes on the distribution of the Chrysomelinae and their possible origin. In: Jolivet, P.H.A. & Cox, M.L.
(Eds.), Chrysomelidae biology. Vol. 1. The classification, phylogeny and genetics. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam,
pp. 399–412.
Groenteman, R., Fowler, S.V. & Sullivan, J.J. (2011) St. John’s wort beetles would not have been introduced to New Zealand
now: a retrospective host range test of New Zealand’s most successful weed biocontrol agents. Biological Control, 57,
50–58.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2011.01.005
Hayes, L., Fowler, S.V., Paynter, Q., Groenteman, R., Peterson, P., Dodd, S. & Bellgard, S., (2013) Biocontrol of weeds:
achievements to date and future outlook. In: Dymond, J.R. (Ed.), Ecosystem services in New Zealand–conditions and
trends. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln, pp. 375–385.
Holtkamp, R.H. & Hosking, J.R. (1993) Insects and diseases of fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis, and the closely related
Senecio lautus complex. In: Proceedings of the 10th Australian Weeds Conference and 14th Asian Pacific Weed Science
Society Conference, Brisbane, Australia, 6–10 September, 1993. Weed Society of Australia, Brisbane, pp. 104–106.
Hudson, G.V. (1934) New Zealand beetles and their larvae: an elementary introduction to the study of our native Coleoptera,
with seventeeen coloured plates. Ferguson & Osborn, Wellington, 236 pp., 17 pls.
Jolivet, P. & Hawkeswood, T.J. (1995) Host-plants of Chrysomelidae of the world. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, xiii + 281
pp.
Jurado-Rivera, J.A., Vogler, A.P., Reid, C.A.M., Petitpierre, E. & Gómez-Zurita, J. (2009) DNA barcoding insect-host plant as-
sociations. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 276 (1657), 639–648.
https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.1264
Konstantinov, A.S. & Vandenberg, N.J. (1996) Handbook of Palearctic flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae).
Contributions on Entomology International, 1 (3), 1–439.
Kuschel, G. (1990) Beetles in a suburban environment: a New Zealand case study. The identity and status of Coleoptera in the
natural and modified habitats of Lynfield, Auckland (1974–1989). DSIR Plant Protection Report, 3, 1–118.
Lawrence, J.F., Beutel, R.G., Leschen, R.A.B. & Ślipiński, S.A. (2010) Glossary of morphological terms. In: Leschen, R.A.B.,
Beutel, R.G. & Lawrence, J.F. (Eds.), Handbook of Zoology. Coleoptera, Beetles Volume II. Morphology and systematics
(Elateroidea, Bosytrichiformia, Cucjiformia partim). De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 9–20.
https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110911213.9
Lawrence, J.F., & Ślipiński, S.A. (2013) Australian beetles. Vol. 1. morphology, classification and keys. CSIRO Publishing,
Collingwood, vii + 561 pp.
https://doi.org/10.1071/9780643097292
Lin, H., Murray, T. & Mason, E. (2017) Incidence of and defoliation by a newly introduced pest, Paropsisterna variicollis
GENERIC REVIEW OF NEW ZEALAND CHRYSOMELINAE Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press · 63
(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), on eleven durable Eucalyptus species in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand. New Zealand Plant
Protection, 70, 45–51.
https://doi.org/10.30843/nzpp.2017.70.26
Lord, N.P. & Leschen, R.A.B. (2014) Illustrated catalogue and type designations of the New Zealand Zopheridae (Coleoptera:
Tenebrionoidea). Zootaxa, 3809 (1), 1–127.
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3809.1.1
Leschen, R.A. & Newton, A.F. (2015) Checklist and type designations of New Zealand Aleocharinae (Coleoptera: Staphylini-
dae). Zootaxa, 4028 (3), 301–353.
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4028.3.1
Maddison, P.M. (2010) Checklist of New Zealand Hexapoda. Order Coleoptera. [Chapter] NINE: Phylum Arthropoda: Sub-
phylum Hexapoda: Protura, springtails, Diplura, and insects. In: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.), New Zealand Inventory of Biodiver-
sity. Vol. 2. Kingdom Animalia. Chaetognatha, Ecdysozoa, ichnofossils. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, pp.
233–467.
Motschulsky, V. (1860) Coléoptères de la Siberie orientale et un particulier des rîves de l’Amour. In: Schrenk, L. (Ed.), Reisen
und Forschungen im Amurlande. Vol. 2. Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, St. Petersburg, pp. 77–257.
Murray, T.J., Withers, T.M. & Mansfield, S. (2010) Choice versus no-choice test interpretation and the role of biology and be-
havior in parasitoid host specificity tests. Biological Control, 52 (2), 153–159.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.10.003
Murray, T.J. & Withers, T.M. (2011) Spread of Dicranosterna semipunctata (Col.: Chrysomelidae) in New Zealand and poten-
tial for control by intentionally introduced and invasive parasitoids. Biological Control, 59 (2), 234–238.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2011.07.006
Neave, S.A. (1939) Nomenclator Zoologicus. A list of the names of genera and subgenera in zoology from the tenth edition of
Linnaeus 1758 to the end of 1935. Vols. 1–2. Zoological Society of London, London, xiv + 957 + 1025 pp.
Pasteels, J.M., Braekman, J.-C. & Daloze, D. (1988) Chemical defense in the Chrysomelidae. In: Jolivet, P., Petitpierre, E. &
Hsiao, T.H. (Eds.), Biology of Chrysomelidae. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 233–252.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3105-3_14
Paynter, Q., Fowler, S.V., & Groenteman, R. (2018) Making weed biological control predictable, safer and more effective: per-
spectives from New Zealand. BioControl, 63 (3), 427–436.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10526-017-9837-5
Purdie, A. (1884) General notes. New Zealand Journal of Science, Dunedin, 2 (3), 166.
Reid, C.A.M. (1991) Immature stages of the genera Johannica Blackburn, Lamprolina Baly and Chalcolampra Blanchard (Co-
leoptera, Chrysomelidae, Chrysomelinae). Journal of natural History, 25, 341–357.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00222939100770251
Reid, C.A.M. (1993) Description of the constricta species-group of the genus Chalcolampra Blanchard (Coleoptera: Chrysome-
lidae: Chrysomelinae). Journal of the Australian entomological Society, 32, 253–263.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-6055.1993.tb00583.x
Reid, C. A. M. (1995) A cladistic analysis of subfamilial relationships in the Chrysomelidae sensu lato (Chrysomeloidea). In:
Pakaluk, J. & Ślipiński, S.A. (Eds.), Biology, phylogeny and classification of Coleoptera: papers celebrating the 80th
birthday of Roy A. Crowson. Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, Warszawa, pp. 559–631.
Reid, C.A.M. (2006) A taxonomic revision of the Australian Chrysomelinae, with a key to the genera (Coleoptera:
Chrysomelidae). Zootaxa, 1292 (1), 1–119.
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1292.1.1
Reid, C.A.M. & Beatson, M. (2018) Revision of the leaf beetle genus Cheiloxena Baly, 1860 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Spi-
lopyrinae). Zootaxa, 4497 (4), 501–534.
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4497.4.3
Reid, C.A.M., Jurado-Rivera, J.A. & Beatson, M. (2009) A new genus of Chrysomelinae from Australia (Coleoptera: Chryso-
melidae). Zootaxa, 2207 (1), 53–66.
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2207.1.2
Reid, C.A.M. (2014) 2.7.7 Chrysomelinae Latreille, 1802. In: Leschen, R.A.B. & Beutel, R.G. (Eds.), Coleoptera, beetles. Vol.
3. Morphology and systematics (Phytophaga). De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 243–251.
Reid, C.A.M. (2017) Australopapuan leaf beetle diversity: the contributions of hosts plants and geography. Austral Entomology,
56 (2), 123–137.
https://doi.org/10.1111/aen.12251
Reid, C. &Leschen, R. (2003) Mystery object. What is it? Chrysomela newsletter, 42, 5 + 10.
Reitter, E. (1880) Neun neue Clavicornier (Coleoptera). Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn, 18 (1879),
1–6.
Seeno, T.N. & Wilcox, J.A. (1982) Leaf beetle genera (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Entomography, 1, 1–121.
Sharp, D. (1876) Descriptions of some new genera and species of New Zealand Coleoptera. Entomologist‘s monthly Magazine,
13, 97–102.
https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.22816
Sharp, D. (1882) On some New Zealand Coleoptera. Transactions of the entomological Society of London, 1882, 73–99.
LESCHEN ET AL.
64 · Zootaxa 4740 (1) © 2020 Magnolia Press
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1882.tb01570.x
Sharp, D. (1886) On New Zealand Coleoptera, with descriptions of new genera and species. Scientific Transactions of the Royal
Dublin Society, Series 2, 3, 351–454.
Spiller, D. M. & Wise, K.A. (1982) A Catalogue (1860–1960) of New Zealand Insects and their Host Plants. D.S.I.R. Bulletin
231. Science Information Division, D.S.I.R., Wellington, 260 pp.
Švácha, P. & Lawrence, J.F. (2014) 2.4. Cerambycidae Latreille, 1802. In: Leschen R.A.B. & Beutel, R.G. (Eds.), Coleoptera,
beetles. Vol. 3. Morphology and systematics (Phytophaga). De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 77–177.
Steven, D. & Mulvey, R.J. (1977) Trachymela sloanei—an Australian eucalyptus tortoise beetle newly established in New Zea-
land. Unpublished internal report, Entomology Division, DSIR, Auckland. [unkown pagination]
Wardle, P., Field, T.R.O. & Spain, A.V. (1971) Biological flora of New Zealand 5. Olearia colensoi Hook. f. (Compositae)
Leatherwood, Tupari. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 9 (1), 186–214.
https://doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.1971.10430175
Weise, J. (1915) Übersichte der Chrysomelini. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1915, 434–436.
https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnd.48019150410
Weise, J. (1916) Chrysomelidae: 12. Chrysomelinae. Coleopterorum Catalogus, 68, 1–255.
White, T.C.R. (1973) The establishment, spread and host range of Paropsis charybdis Stål (Chrysomelidae) in New Zealand.
Pacific Insects, 15 (1), 59–66.
Withers, T.M. (2016) Eradication of Paropsisterna beata. Forest Health News, 264, 1.
Withers, T.M., Allen, G.R. & Reid, C.A.M. (2015) Selecting potential non-target species for host range testing of Eadya parop-
sidis. New Zealand Plant Protection, 68, 179–186.
https://doi.org/10.30843/nzpp.2015.68.5803
Yamoah, E., Voice, D. Gunawardana, D. Chandler, B. & Hammond, D. (2016) Eradication of Paropsisterna beata (Newman)
(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in a semi-rural suburb in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 46 (5),
1–6.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s40490-016-0061-3
APPENDIX 1. Checklist of endemic New Zealand Chrysomelinae
Aphilon Sharp 1876: 100; Sharp 1886: 447; Broun 1880: 629 (Apilon [sic]); Broun 1893: 1309, 1311; Weise 1915: 436 (Pha-
edonini); Neave 1939: 247; Seeno & Wilcox 1982: 84; Daccordi 1994: 80
Type species: Aphilon enigma Sharp, by monotypy
convexum Broun 1893b: 1310 (Howick)
enigma Sharp 1876: 100 (Auckland); Broun 1880: 629–630; Broun 1893: 1502
latulum Broun 1893: 1310 (Stratford)
minutum Broun 1880: 631 (Whangarei Harbour)
monstrosum Broun 1886: 874 (Waitakarei Range); Broun 1893: 1311
praestans Broun 1893: 1309 (no locality; Clevedon?)
punctatum Broun 1880: 630 (Parua Forest); Broun 1893: 1311
scutellare Broun 1893: 1501 (Maketu)
sobrinum Broun 1886: 875 (Waitakere); Broun 1893: 1311
sternalis Broun 1921b: 664 (Titirangi)
Caccomolpus Sharp 1886: 447; Broun 1893: 1308; Broun 1915: 343; Weise 1915: 434, 436 (Phaedonini); Neave 1939: 510;
Seeno & Wilcox 1982: 84 (Caccomolphus [sic]); Daccordi 1994: 80
Type species: Caccomolpus globosus Sharp, this designation.
amplus Broun 1921a: 590 (Glenhope)
flectipes Broun 1914: 295 (Mt Hutt)
fuscicornis Broun 1917: 466 (Mount Dick)
globosus Sharp 1886: 447 (Greymouth); Broun 1893: 1308; Broun 1917: 466
hallianus Broun 1917: 466 (Mount Dick, Lake Wakatipu); Broun 1921a: 590
laticollis (Broun 1893: 392), comb. nov. (Thames)
montanus Broun 1921b: 665 (Mount St Arnaud)
nigristernis Broun 1917: 465 (Hollyford)