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What we should have learned from Cybersyn: An epistemological view on the socialist approach of Cybersyn in respective of Industry 4.0.



Currently, a major topic is what changes will digitalization and the fourth industrial revolution bring to our society. It is clear that digital transformation of society and the introduction of new technologies will make many jobs obsolete. This process logically leads to the idea of a universal basic income (UBI). In this respect, the socialist project, Cybersyn, is of great interest because it constituted a prototype of a data- and people-related idea to solve this problem. The aim was to increase the country's production, while counteracting rising unemployment through a socialist paradigm, which is obviously pertinent to the development of Industry 4.0. Although Cybersyn can be considered as an early prototype and catalyst, today's exponentially greater computational power has made such systems real, and humans are often excluded from them. Human beings are also positively affected by digital transformation. Herein, the current work contributes to the ethical debate concerning the digital transformation of society.
Responsible AI and Ethical
Issues for Businesses and
Bistra Vassileva
University of Economics, Varna, Bulgaria
Moti Zwilling
Ariel University, Israel
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Title: Responsible AI and ethical issues for businesses and governments /
Bistra Vassileva and Moti Zwilling, editors.
Other titles: Responsible artificial intelligence and ethical issues for
businesses and governments
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Chapter 5
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4285-9.ch005
Currently, a major topic is what changes will digitalization and the fourth industrial
revolution bring to our society. It is clear that digital transformation of society and
the introduction of new technologies will make many jobs obsolete. This process
logically leads to the idea of a universal basic income (UBI). In this respect, the
socialist project, Cybersyn, is of great interest because it constituted a prototype
of a data- and people-related idea to solve this problem. The aim was to increase
the country’s production, while counteracting rising unemployment through a
socialist paradigm, which is obviously pertinent to the development of Industry 4.0.
Although Cybersyn can be considered as an early prototype and catalyst, today’s
exponentially greater computational power has made such systems real, and humans
are often excluded from them. Human beings are also positively affected by digital
transformation. Herein, the current work contributes to the ethical debate concerning
the digital transformation of society.
What We Should Have
Learned From Cybersyn:
An Epistemological View on the
Socialist Approach of Cybersyn
in Respective of Industry 4.0
Dietmar Koering
Arphenotype, Germany
Copyright © 2021, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.
What We Should Have Learned From Cybersyn
We live in a time where the digital transformation is causing a massive transformation
of life as we know it (Stowasser, 2019). Technology has converted mankind into a
real-time sensor that can measure almost everything and collect large amounts of
data (Tegmark, 2017, pp. 23-31). This leads to a new evolutionary step, as promoted
by Max Tegmark in Life 3.0 (Tegmark, 2017). In fact, this would mean that data
and humans would form a new symbiosis, in which the distinction between man and
machine would be removed. In addition Yuval Harari declares in his book Homo
Deus, that Homo Sapiens will be replaced by a new entity (Harari, 2017). If this
constitutes a desirable future is not yet clear and is ultimately up to each individual
to decide. However, this symbiosis, which has not yet occurred, is based on human-
machine relations and its evolutionary process. This addresses the ethical problem
of the relation of man and machine in the 20th Century.
An interesting difference in approaches of understanding the relation between
humans and machines has been identified by Thomas Lamarre (Lamarre, 2012).
Lamarre perceives two different types of relations of man to machine, one which
refers to Martin Heidegger and the other to Norbert Wiener. Heidegger promotes
a deconstructionist understanding of an “essence of technology” from a linguistic
perspective, which considers everything through the lens of law (as a moral view)
and being. Andreas Luckner writes that technical thinking and acting are therefore
already contradictory forms of work, to the extent that they concern making use
of available means to transcend labor (Luckner, 2008, p. 45). On the other hand,
historically, the development of more efficient machines has aimed to increase
commodification in order to make existing work more effective. Only the development
of an Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) would finally succeed in the goal set
by Andreas Luckner, i.e., to overcome the labors of work. Whether or not human
beings would then achieve happiness constitutes a different question. Especially, the
definition of happiness presents challenges, as different cultures probably possess
different understandings of happiness, which leads to a general ethics problem in
developing the goals for an AGI. For further exploration of Heidegger and his ideas
about human-technical relations, please see Luckner (2008).
Norbert Wiener, however, employs a different approach. With his cybernetic
model, Wiener explores the distinction between animal and machine. This, in
the view of the French philosopher Gilbert Simondon, is dangerous as it reduces
human beings and society to a machine (Lamarre, 2012). Simondon’s contention is
probably related to a tactical mistake (Glanville, 2012) made by Norbert Wiener, who
published the book Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and
the Machine (Wiener, 1948) prior to his publication of The Human Use of Human
Beings (Wiener, 1954). Ranulph Glanville assumes that if Norbert Wiener had
What We Should Have Learned From Cybersyn
published his two books in reverse chronological order, cybernetics would be more
appropriately valued as an ethical discipline (Fischer, 2019, p. 297). On the other
hand, it is also possible that Wiener deliberately chose this order, as it was just at
the end of the 2nd World War, and people may have had no time or will to engage in
an ethical discussion of the man-machine relation. Today, we understand, however,
that ethical implications are requisite, even in war time. Nevertheless, both views are
currently important, and the boundaries between the differentiation are becoming
blurred. Indeed, both views support understanding the relation of man and machine.
It is questionable, if this is a future for human beings, we should aim for. From
the point of view of a digital utopist (Boguslaw, 1968), this enables a positive
optimization of society and industry, if a consciousness about this transition exists to
the human being. Norbert Wiener wrote in Human Use of Human beings, that “We
have modified our environment so radically that we must now modify ourselves in
order to exist in this new environment. We can no longer live in the old one. (Wiener,
1954, p. 46). Of course, we might even ask why we have to modify ourselves? In
today’s context it is not about the optimization of the body, far more it’s about the
optimization of mind, our consciousness. Adaption itself, of course, is a central
human ability, and also occurs in our interactions with software. According to Max
Tegmark, human adaption can only take place by developing knowledge, which is
expressed in the theory of Life 3.0 (Tegmark, 2017). Thomas Fischer expresses the
process in another way, stating: “In our efforts to maintain our well-being, we adapt
to given circumstances and adapt our circumstances to our needs.” (Fischer, 2019,
p. 281). Fischer also writes that, from the perspective of cybernetics, human beings
as a whole form a closed loop. Specifically, our environments, and specifically our
living conditions, make adjustments within us and we make adjustments to our
environments. We need to be aware about the changes and possibilities enabled by
the digital transformation. Hence we focus on new jobs, which won’t be replaced by
the digitalization or assists this process, to have a certain job guarantee. To master
the complexity of new data, interactive and responsive environments, as well as
new academic courses, to create knowledge for this complexity especially in urban
environments are required (Koering, 2019). The remaining questions are: Who
will steer this environment? Will it be a human or artificial general intelligence
(AGI)? Is fair participation with AGI even possible? This addresses quite clear the
ethical problem, why we as humans have to adapt to our modified environments.
Stephan Kaufmann very critically assumes in his text “Digitization, class struggle,
revolution” that digitization and Industry 4.0 are not unproblematic constraints,
but a project of those who refer to themselves. It depends on these interests, what
becomes reality and what remains only reverie. On the contrary, the workers and
wage earners in the Industry 4.0 scenarios are scheduled as dependent variables.
What We Should Have Learned From Cybersyn
They have to adapt to the “change”. They live in the passive: their leisure time and
their work are digitized (Kaufmann, 2016, p. 2).
One early interactive and responsive environment was Cybersyn and/ with
Cyberfolk in the 1970’s, with the Opsroom (Figure 1). Even if the project could not
predict its political end and thus went under, due to the military coup, which resulted
in the dead of Allende and Cybersyn, the basic ideas from today’s perspective are
of enormous interest. Long before Industry 4.0, Cybersyn was an attempt to obtain
information directly from the production front using state-of-the-art communication
methods (Borchers, 2018, p. 77). However important is, that the decisions were
still made by human beings. The operation room had seven chairs in total, which
relates to a paper by George A. Miller with the title “The Magical Number Seven”
(Miller, 1955). Essentially, it asserts that humans are in the position to remember
seven plus or minus two “chunks” of information in short-term working memory.
Thus, Stafford Beer chose seven seats to manage the incoming data and to make
decisions in a participative way (Bonsiepe, personal communication, 2016). Things
are different nowadays and the question is, where is the human being? In an interesting
interview, Andreas Syska points out, that Industry 4.0 has been bypassed by human
beings (Syska, 2015). Quite often decision are made by algorithms, which were
of coursed programmed by human beings, but do not reflect human beings in the
decision process, which is very effective, but on the other side creates a huge ethical
problem. It leads to the fear that drives the digital transformation of the economy to
job losses is real, especially as the debate over the universal basic income (UBI) is
pursued. There is a risk that the UBI will become an industrial donation degenerating
to combat poverty (Schwartz, 2010, p. 93). If there are no real opportunities offered,
what human beings can acquire with an UBI, it won’t help the society. Far more we
can assume that also an UBI will result in higher rents, living costs, and so forth.
Hence a political action is required. Eden Medina asserts about Cybersyn that “It
was a system designed to help the state regulate the nationalized economy and raise
production without unemployment.” (Medina, 2011, p. 211). This is indeed a very
interesting quote, and is probably linked to the socialist ideas Allende, as it would
be premature to talk about the effectiveness of Cybersyn in reducing unemployment,
since the system has hardly been used (Bonsiepe, personal communication, 2019).
Unemployment was a socialist thought desired by the project but not related to
any specific policy (Espejo, personal communication, 2019). However, raising
awareness in a timely manner can eliminate the risk of unemployment by making
a career choice in advance and seeing what is needed in the future. Nevertheless,
Industry 4.0 will also offer new jobs, perhaps even jobs that we have not previously
considered. Other jobs will disappear in the near future. Additional details can be
found in an interesting study: “The Future of Employment: How susceptible are jobs
What We Should Have Learned From Cybersyn
to computerisation?” (Frey & Osborne, 2013). This is due to the fact that robotics,
new ways of production, and AI will replace workers.
Industry 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution (Schwaab, 2017) is becoming a
common term. It is interesting that the term revolution is used, as a revolution is an
uprising of the masses, which results in a regime change. As the fourth industrial
revolution is led by big global players, we can state, that this was not initiated by
the masses. This is again in line with that, what Stephan Kaufmann, also with a
socialist attitude, expressed. Maybe “Coup” would be an appropriate term, as it is
a regime change, without considering the masses, the human beings. Nevertheless
“coup” has a negative association. Quite interesting to this is, that Google initiated
an AI ethics board in 2019, which was the dissolved just one week after forming
it (Levin, 2019). But it has to be said, that the ethics board was dissolved as the
employees called for the removal due to the composition of the advisory board.
Stafford Beer has shown this already in an interesting graphic (Figure 2). Figure
2 illustrates the homeostatic relationship of data and their exploited sources. It is
critical to understand that exploitation in computer science simply means gathering
information. Indeed: “Exploitation is often negatively termed…meaning in computer
science: Gathering Information.” (Christian & Griffiths, 2016, p. 32). Hence it is
about the exploitation of the masses by the well organized global players, which
results in a class war.
Essentially for a well-organized Industry 4.0 is, that all becomes connected in
real-time; everything can be optimized and traced. Clearly, commodification also
constituted an integral part of the industrial revolution, in which the steam engine
largely replaced human labor (Brynjolfsson & McAfee, 2014, pp. 6-7). Brynjolfsson
and McAfee extend this, however, to claim that it is even more important to have
machines that can complete cognitive tasks, and not solely physical ones (Brynjolfsson
& McAfee, 2014, p. 91). This can be observed in the current development of Smart
Cities and Industry 4.0, which are enabled by sensors that deliver massive real-time
data from their environments to augment productivity. We might then ask, when
the steam engine was replacing the muscle power, and later the computers the brain
power, what is then replaced by the Industry 4.0?
The increases of the productivity with ideally fewer resources is only possible
with Industry 4.0, which links to the concept of the IoT and Industry 4.0 (Nascimento
Marques Junior, 2018) or the “Industrial Internet” (Evans & Annunziata, 2012),
which has its roots in computerized manufacturing processes, or maybe even in
Cybersyn (Clancey, 2017). It describes conscious production methods enabled
What We Should Have Learned From Cybersyn
through networks, e.g., the “smart” factory. But while we talk about ethics, we need
to admit that ethics is something, which needs a brain, a brain has intelligence and
therewith consciousness. But we do not know, how consciousness is generated or can
be expressed in an algorithm, or when AGI or Singularity will happen. Hence how is
it possible then to speak about conscious production methods, if we not link human
beings as main driver to this, something what has been already done in Cybersyn?
The nine pillars for the fourth industrial revolution are Big Data, Autonomous
Robots, Simulation, System Integration, Internet of things, Cloud Computing,
Additive Manufacturing, Augmented Reality and Cyber Security (Erboz, 2017).
These pillars create a new complexity, which need to be managed in control-rooms, as
these control-rooms somehow offer the possibilities of control and steering processes
by human beings, as humans should be the most important part to these systems;
maybe the human being presents the architrave, which is resting on theses pillars.
The Project Cybersyn (Figure 3) was one of the first, if not the first, digital decision
support system. Furthermore, it was a rare project that combined social responsibility,
novel technologies, and design (Bonsiepe, 2009, pp. 35-62) realized in 1970 to 1973.
Theoretically, the project was far more advanced than the resources of a peripheral
country allowed at that time, especially in a period of political confrontation, when
the government’s political project was directed against geopolitical hegemonic
interests, which then regained their upper hand as part of a military coup. Also
important in the debate over the theoretical background of Cybersyn was the thesis
of the physician and neurologist Ross Ashby about the requisite variety, which states
that a system to survive must produce a larger variety than the environment from
which disturbances emanate (Bonsiepe, personal communication, 2016). It can be
seen as a version of a “proto-internet”, an interactive and responsive environment.
The common English name was Cybersyn, while the Spanish title of the project
was SYNCO, as Cybersyn was not euphonic in the Spanish language. Actually,
Cybersyn referred to a computer system that was connected to a network of telex
and radio connections, termed “Cybernet” (Pias, 2007). Cybernet, was supposed to
transmit daily the production figures from the nationalized companies in the six main
sectors of Chile (energy, steel, copper, petrochemical, fishing and transport) to the
headquarters. The data should be fed to the Cyberstride software and calculated in
simulations to detect delivery bottlenecks and other issues early on. Another module
called Cyberfolk was planned (Espejo, 2017, p. 43), where the Chileans, workers
and employees report on terminals with their own happiness in real-time with the
government (Medina, 2011, p. 89), production and distribution ideas (Borchers, 2018,
What We Should Have Learned From Cybersyn
p. 77). Cyberfolk ideas were tested as part of INTEC’s (the Institute for Scientific
and Technological Development) contribution to the Project Cybersyn. Stafford’s
son, Simon Beer, designed the electronics of the Algedonometer. A group of the
Cybersyn team had a weekly meeting to discuss longer term developments of the
Cyberfolk project. Raul Espejo asserts, that: “These electronics were tested in a
couple of these meetings, one I remember well with Heinz von Foerster, in which
us, the participants had a small device with a knob in our laps which we could
individually move in a positive or negative direction, to express our views about
the progress with the speaker’s talk.” (Espejo, personal communication, 2019).
The idea was, that the speaker could see the integration of the individual ‘votes
(positions) in a device in the front of the room, which naturally was seen by the
team, the observer and by the speaker at the same time. This was the most concrete
design the team had at that time of an Algedonometer. Nevertheless, the idea of
Cyberfolk to include peoples insights in real-time, shows again, that the people are
bypassed in the fourth industrial revolution; human being became an accessories.
This shows, how advanced the idea of an democratic governance already was. If
we compare this to the latest judgment by the European Court that companies must
systematically record working hours (Feldforth, 2019), it is obvious, that we need an
ethical discourse about the inclusion of the people. However, this judgement links
directly to Frederick Winsor Taylor, the founder of ergonomics. The aim of Taylor
was to identify the “best way” of performing a work step in order to make the work
measurable and to ensure machine-like, error-free, and efficient execution (Hessler,
2014). Human labor became, though Taylor’s work, measurable and therewith
humans could be “optimized” and perhaps even replaced by the usage of machines.
Martina Hessler further notes that knowledge was transcribed and thus made into
an objectified form of the individual body, whereby the workers were, to a certain
extent, living machines. Hence, the idea was born already with Cyberfolk, but with
a human friendly attitude, as it was about the democratic inclusion of the people,
which was in addition also important for Allende (Espejo, 2017, p. 42).
The project Cybersyn was initiated under the Chilean President, Salvador
Allende, with an socialist ideology1. It was managed by Fernando Flores, who was
the political director, Raul Espejo as technical director and the British cybernetician
Stafford Beer, who was the scientific director. The main discussion between Beer
and Allende was about how such a cybernetic system would enable control. For
Beer it was about the possibility which would enable Allende to take decisions,
while for Allende this higher “stage” of the system was clearly for the people, as
it was implicit to the socialist ideology of Allende. Having Stafford Beer as a lead
scientist on the project probably relates to his book “Decision and Control – The
meaning of Operational Research and Management Cybernetics” published in
1966 (Beer, 1966). In this book, Beer describes cybernetic systems to analyze
What We Should Have Learned From Cybersyn
inventory systems in order to reach optimal decisions and to handle large complex
and hazardous situations that might arise in industry, government, and business
environments. Hence the idea was, to manage and steer the production, somehow
close to the idea of Industry 4.0, but decades earlier. These keywords for a project
in 1973 demonstrates further the actual link to today’s Big Data debate and IoT. It
is obvious that the digital transformation will change the environment - and there is
a well-founded fear of high unemployment. Industry 4.0 does not contradict this, it
is more about creating a basic income to overcome this problem. Hence we need to
discuss the role of human being in this environment. The role of being in interactive
and responsive environments alongside algorithms.
Cybersyn ended after three years on 11 September 1973, as Allende’s regime was
overthrown. The new installed dictator Pinochet did not need real-time centralized
planning or to monitor the moods of citizens. However, Beer had already noted the
importance of this project, stating that: “…information is a national resource” (Beer
in Morozov, 2014). With this estimation, Beer was ahead of his time, examining the
actual context and ownership of data, as well as the open data policies of certain
cities. Here, we have to agree with Morozov regarding his question about the means
of data production that cannot be reduced to its technological dimensions.2 Georg
Jochum frames it quite nicely, by asserting that “In view of the further development of
cybernetic technologies, his (Stafford Beer) project of emancipatory cybernetics could
not only be feasible, but even made necessary to prevent the triumph of cybernetic
capitalism which comes along with the digital despotism.” (Jochum, 2017, p. 543).
While Cybersyn was designed to regulate the economy and raise production in
accordance with socialist ideology, Industry 4.0 increases production in accordance
with a capitalist ideology. The key aim of Industry 4.0 is to free human beings from
processes in which computers can make faster and better decisions in production
and elsewhere. Of course, this new situation automatically results in massive
unemployment. Interestingly, Cybersyn held quite the opposite ideology, in which
human beings constituted the central part of Cybersyn. Specifically, decisions were
made by people in a participative manner, and not by algorithms. The problem of
rising unemployment cannot be effectively addressed by Cybersyn, as the project
ended relatively quickly. In addition, in the socialist approach, a core goal is the
prevention of unemployment. Currently, the issue of widespread unemployment
due to digitalization is addressed with UBI. Consequently, Cybersyn, Cyberfolk,
and the democratic inclusion of people is instructive, since a basic income does
not solve the problem, but only constitutes a transitionary state. In fact, interactive
What We Should Have Learned From Cybersyn
and responsive environments are requisite, which are steered by human beings, to
understand the complexity of today’s manufacturing practices under the conditions
of Industry 4.0 in terms of the impact on our environments and the way that we,
as human beings, participate in an artificial intelligence (AI)-driven transition.
A fear recently exists that human beings are bypassed by this transition, and we
live along-side algorithms. In other words, human beings have lost control over
their lives and critical societal processes. The issue of what kind of control can be
enabled by Cybersyn forms the primary discussion between Allende and Beer. This
also constitutes an ethically significant debate, as digital transformation will affect
our everyday lives and environments. Interactive and responsive environments are
certainly necessary in order to receive qualitative benefits from digitization, but
humans must be the objects of focus, and not only what AI enables humans to
accomplish. Especially, scientists are tasked to develop and implement a universal
code of ethics. Although this issue presents a wicked problem, a great need exists
to begin a fruitful debate.
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Tegmark, M. (2017). Life 3.0 - Being human in the age of Artificial Intelligence.
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What We Should Have Learned From Cybersyn
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1 Which of course contradicts the ideology of Industry 4.0, and maybe it might
not be even fair, to compare Cybersyn to Industry 4.0, as they have different
2 Information regarding SYNCO and its theoretical foundations relates to personal
communication with the interface designer, Gui Bonsiepe, in March 2016 and
onwards. Also relevant is the essay by Gui Bonsiepe, “Der Opsroom – zum
Eigensinn der Peripherie.”
... Through this stigmergic coordination, 31,32 the Blockchain becomes both the infrastructure but also the neural system for the architectural design process providing a robust system for governing the design, construction and operation of buildings. 33 It further allows the development and implementation of new business models for architectural and computational designers. ...
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The paper introduces a framework for decentralised architectural design in the context of the fourth industrial revolution. We examine first the constraints of building information modelling in regard to collaboration and trust. We then introduce Blockchain infrastructure as a means for creating new operational and business models for architectural design, through project governance, scaling collaboration nominally to thousands of agents, and shifting trust to the infrastructure rather than the architectural design team. Through a wider consideration of Blockchains in construction projects we focus on the design process and validate our framework with a prototype of BIM design optimisation integrated with a Blockchain mechanism. The paper concludes by outlining the contributions our framework can enhance in the building information modelling processes, within the context of the fourth industrial revolution.
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Questo elaborato nasce dalla volontà di raccontare quanto avvenuto in Cile tra il 1971 e il 1973, nell’ambito di un progetto sviluppato dal neoeletto governo Allende e conosciuto ai più come Progetto Cybersyn. Questo progetto, nell’intenzione dei suoi creatori, avrebbe dovuto facilitare la comunicazione fra i vari siti produttivi del paese e con il governo, permettendo così di applicare su larga scala e in maniera altamente efficiente il programma di nazionalizzazioni e pianificazione economica fortemente voluto dalla coalizione di Allende. Il primo capitolo inizia descrivendo il contesto che ha permesso la nascita del progetto Cybersyn, ovvero la salita al potere di Allende e la sua visione per il futuro del paese. Continua poi illustrando l’incontro tra il presidente cileno e Stafford Beer, accademico britannico specializzato nello studio della cibernetica e chiamato come consulente da un membro del governo. Verranno infine descritte in maniera sintetica le diverse fasi di sviluppo del progetto, fino al suo momento di massima operatività nel 1972 e la sua prematura fine con il golpe di Pinochet nel 1973. Il secondo capitolo si occupa invece di descrivere più nel dettaglio il funzionamento del progetto, le sue diverse componenti e i differenti gradi di sviluppo raggiunti da queste ultime. Si cercherà così di comprendere quanto effettivamente le visioni teoriche di Beer e Allende siano riuscite a coniugarsi nella pratica dello sviluppo di Cybersyn. Il terzo capitolo, per concludere, cercherà di analizzare il lascito del Progetto Cybersyn, sia dal punto di vista degli spunti teorici che da quello delle applicazioni pratiche. Ai tre capitoli fa infine seguito un’intervista al dottor Raul Espejo, una delle figure chiave all’interno del team che realizzò il Progetto Cybersyn. Ciò permetterà di approfondire alcuni nodi chiave della storia del progetto e del suo lascito, dal punto di vista unico di chi a quel progetto ha potuto partecipare in prima persona.
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The paper presents a model for decentralizing building information modelling, through implementing its infrastructure using the decentralized web. We discuss the shortcomings of BIM in terms of its infrastructure, with a focus on tracing identities of design authorship in this collective design tool. In parallel we examine the issues with BIM in the cloud and propose a decentralized infrastructure based on the Ethereum blockchain and the Interplanetary filesystem (IPFS). A series of computing nodes, that act as nodes on the Ethereum Blockchain, host disk storage with which they participate in a larger storage pool on the Interplanetary Filesystem. This storage is made available through an API is used by architects and designers creating and editing a building information model that resides on the IPFS decentralised storage. Through this infrastructure central servers are eliminated, and BIM libraries and models can be shared with others in an immutable and transparent manner. As such Architecture practices are able to exploit their intellectual property in novel ways, by making it public on the internet. The infrastructure also allows the decentralised creation of a resilient global pool of data that allows the participation of computation agents in the creation and simulation of BIM models. INTRODUCTION Scope The paper describes a conceptual mechanism through which Building Information Modelling (BIM) applications can be developed in a decentralised environment , both in terms of the stakeholders participation and the infrastructure the software executes on. Further we implement a decentralised BIM prototype , running as smart contracts on the Ethereum Blockchain and IPFS, as validation to the concepts described. Our premise for developing the concepts and prototypes within, lie within the potential of the blockchain mechanism for identity and authorship management, immutability and resilience of data, and decoupling of the data from "cloud" infrastruc-Draft-eCAADe 38 | 1 tures that might be used for work and dissemination. While computing "clouds" have appeared as a solution to collaboration between different design agents, the provision of centralised servers and clouds controlled by the companies that provide it, undermine data integrity and ownership Context BIM has been praised as an end-all solution for various architectural design processes however the idealistic view of an all-encompassing tool differs to views of BIM from practice. [Holzer], echoing [Maver] and the seven deadly sins of CAAD, analyses the seven deadly sins of BIM, after critically reflecting on the uptake of computational design in practise. These are techno-centricity, where technology focus takes precedence over design process and culture, ambiguity of what the BIM spectrum might mean, eli-sion of the information and responsibility of agents for it , hypocrisy of requiring IPD-Integrated Project Delivery as a silent twin project organisation to BIM, the delusion of asking for 2d information while requiring 3d work , diffidence-i.e. denying the need for process change where BIM is presented as an already good fit and monodisciplinary, where design exploration and design validation happen in professional silos. Need Against this analysis the paper puts forward dBIM-decentralised BIM as a paragon of virtues that can counterbalance some of BIM's seven deadly sins. Through decentralisation , we are thus targeting the fragmented nature of the AEC industry, while providing the infrastructure for creating and adopting new business innovation and design innovation models.
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In recent years, novel information, communication technologies, and man-machine-interfaces have advanced at a prolific pace. Certain technologies, such as Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things, have been intensely developed as spatial conditions for growing cities. Data, robotics, and digital prefabrication constitute the conglomerates that are leading us to novel possibilities for how we, as humans, interact with technology within our environments. The present research aims to evaluate case studies of historical architectural visions and today's Smart City movement in the context of AI, ethics and human-machine relations in the 20th century, and to discuss the transition occurring in the architectural profession. To achieve this, some core questions are addressed. For example, can humans adapt to this transition by developing a new consciousness? What does human participation mean in the age of AI? In the near future, architects and urban planners will face an enormous challenge of adaption and integrating human and non-human real-time data for decision-making processes. To answer these questions, a physical prototype of a Conscious City Laboratory has been built and iterated according to surveys and feedback over three years. This Conscious City Laboratory optimizes this process through adaptive real-time modelling and dynamic negotiation as a novel urban planning methodology. Historic and actual precedents demonstrate the urgent need for such laboratories as participatory locations within cities to generate requisite knowledge. The dissertation is written from a theoretical perspective that prioritizes the radical constructivism and second-order cybernetics, which were advocated by Heinz von Foerster and Ranulph Glanville. It also refers to the critical social view of technologies described by Robert Boguslaw. The thesis concludes that the concept of "consciousness" within architecture and urban planning has to be redeveloped, and that cities can be understood as “devices” to reduce their complexity, which is consistent with the views of Michael Batty and Jay W. Forrester. A new consciousness, which implicit ethical goals, needs to be discussed and taught in terms of seen and invisible networks. Indeed, it will be a novel consciousness that designates technology as an extension of our human body.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to put forward a way that ethics may be applied recursively to itself, in the sense that how we speak and reason about ethics is an activity to which ethical considerations and questions apply. Design/methodology/approach The paper is built on parallels between design and cybernetics, integrating elements of ethical discourse in each field. The way that cybernetics and design can each act as their own meta-disciplines, in the design of design and the cybernetics of cybernetics, is used as a pattern for a similarly recursive approach to ethics. This is explored further by drawing parallels between Heinz von Foersters’ criticism of moral codes and concerns about paternalism in designing architecture. Findings Designers incorporate implicit ethical questioning as part of the recursive process through which they design their design activity, moving between conversations that pursue the goals of a project and meta-conversations in which they question which goals to pursue and the methods they employ in doing so. Given parallels between designing architecture and setting out an ethics (both of which put forward ways in which others are to live), a similar approach may be taken within ethical discourse, folding ethics within itself as its own meta-discipline. Originality/value The paper provides a framework in which to address ethical considerations within ethical discourse itself. Recursive ethical questioning of this sort offers a way of coping with the incommensurability of values and goals that is commonplace given the fragmented state of contemporary ethics.
Conference Paper
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Evolving customer trends have given rise to a myriad of technological improvements. The evolution of Industry 4.0 has emerged as a German project that describes the strategic approach to digitalization in manufacturing. One of the key features of Industry 4.0 is the creation of highly automated industries through human-machine interaction. In this context, Industry 4.0 will inform future business models driven by the advanced technologies. In this paper, the definition of Industry 4.0 is described based on reviewed literature. In addition, the main drivers of technological advances through Industry 4.0 are analyzed, leading to greater integration, optimal business solutions, organizational communication and other efficiencies. In light of reviewed literature, the best description of the future vision of Industry 4.0 is that put forth by Boston Consulting Group (BCG). This research strives to inform future insights concerning the basic concepts of Industry 4.0 and the path of technology, as well as a basic understanding of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) and Internet of Things (IoT).
We examine how susceptible jobs are to computerisation. To assess this, we begin by implementing a novel methodology to estimate the probability of computerisation for 702 detailed occupations, using a Gaussian process classifier. Based on these estimates, we examine expected impacts of future computerisation on US labour market outcomes, with the primary objective of analysing the number of jobs at risk and the relationship between an occupations probability of computerisation, wages and educational attainment.
Contenido: El carácter de la investigación operacional; La actividad de la investigación operacional; La conveniencia de la cibernética; Resultados.
(This partially reprinted article originally appeared in Psychological Review, 1956, Vol 63, 81–97. The following abstract of the original article appeared in PA, Vol 31:2914.) A variety of researches are examined from the standpoint of information theory. It is shown that the unaided observer is severely limited in terms of the amount of information he can receive, process, and remember. However, it is shown that by the use of various techniques, e.g., use of several stimulus dimensions, recoding, and various mnemonic devices, this informational bottleneck can be broken. 20 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Cybernetic Argument for Democratic Governance: Cybersyn and Cyberfolk
  • R Espejo
Espejo, R. 2017, 'Cybernetic Argument for Democratic Governance: Cybersyn and Cyberfolk', in Werner, L. C. (eds) 2017, Con-Versations Vol.1 cybernetics: state of the art, Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin., Berlin, pp. 34-57
The Industrial Internet' , Feldforth
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Evans, P. C. and Annunziata, M. 2012, 'The Industrial Internet', Feldforth, O. 2019, 'Arbeitszeit klar erfassen -aber wie?',,