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Addition of roselle and mango peel powder in tortilla chips: a strategy for increasing their functionality

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The effect of addition of mango peel (MP) and decocted roselle calyces (DRC) powder to tortilla chips was studied to analyze the supplementation potential of these underexploited plant residues possessing attractive nutraceutical properties. Supplementation of either MP or DRC at two different levels (5.0 and 10%) increased total phenols and ABTS radical scavenging and modified the color and morphology of the tortilla chips. The addition of MP or DRC to nixtamalized maize flour increased the insoluble and soluble dietary fiber contents in the tortilla chips (1.30 and 4.90 times, MP; 1.47 and 4.15 times, DRC). Partial dehydration of the tortilla prior to frying produces a low-fat tortilla chip. In this context, tortilla chips enriched with MP and DRC exhibited a lower in vivo Glycemic Index (GI) compared to the control. Acceptable tortilla chips were obtained by incorporating 5 and 10% MP. The results suggest that the use of MP or DRC may be an interesting way to both increase dietary fiber content to control the glycemic index and to improve the functional properties of tortilla chips.
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Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization (2020) 14:1511–1519
Addition ofroselle andmango peel powder intortilla chips: astrategy
forincreasing their functionality
GuadalupeMayo‑Mayo1· AbrilNavarrete‑García1· YanikI.Maldonado‑Astudillo1· JavierJiménez‑Hernández1·
DavidSantiago‑Ramos2· GerónimoArámbula‑Villa3· PatriciaÁlvarez‑Fitz4· MónicaRamirez4· RicardoSalazar4
Received: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2020 / Published online: 15 February 2020
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020
The effect of addition of mango peel (MP) and decocted roselle calyces (DRC) powder to tortilla chips was studied to
analyze the supplementation potential of these underexploited plant residues possessing attractive nutraceutical proper-
ties. Supplementation of either MP or DRC at two different levels (5.0 and 10%) increased total phenols and ABTS radical
scavenging and modified the color and morphology of the tortilla chips. The addition of MP or DRC to nixtamalized maize
flour increased the insoluble and soluble dietary fiber contents in the tortilla chips (1.30 and 4.90 times, MP; 1.47 and 4.15
times, DRC). Partial dehydration of the tortilla prior to frying produces a low-fat tortilla chip. In this context, tortilla chips
enriched with MP and DRC exhibited a lower invivo Glycemic Index (GI) compared to the control. Acceptable tortilla chips
were obtained by incorporating 5 and 10% MP. The results suggest that the use of MP or DRC may be an interesting way to
both increase dietary fiber content to control the glycemic index and to improve the functional properties of tortilla chips.
Keywords Tortilla chips· Glycemic index· Mango peel· Roselle calyx· Dietary fiber
Tortilla chips have gained importance and acceptability
worldwide in recent years. In Mexican cuisine, they are
prepared from stale tortillas that are reheated until toasted
on a hot iron plate or are partially fried or baked [1]. Tortilla
chips have gained second place in the consumption of salty
snacks, behind only potato products. In 2015, the market for
tortilla chips, in the U. S., represented a value of US$ 5.2
billion in sales [2].
Tortilla chip consumption is linked with dense calorie
snacks consisting of high carbohydrate and fat content.
According to the Glycemic Index (GI) classification by
Foster-Powell etal. [3], tortilla chips were found to be a
food with high GI (> 70). Within this context, the GI is a
measurement invivo of the impact of food products with a
high amount of carbohydrates on blood glucose after their
consumption [4] and can reproduce the complexity of the
physiological phenomena that have occurred in the human
body [5].
The great economic value of the snack industry and
the current consumer trends toward health and wellness is
pushing technologists to incorporate nutrients directly into
formulations to produce more nutritive snacks in order to
ensure that consumers have healthy diet choices [6]. The
scientific literature documents several favorable effects of
dietary fiber on glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and
caloric intake [7]. Based on the maintenance of original
sensory attributes, potato peel powder, citrus and grape-
fruit seeds and the common bean have been tested for their
* Ricardo Salazar
1 Facultad de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas, Universidad
Autónoma de Guerrero, Av. Lázaro Cárdenas s/n, Ciudad
Universitaria Sur, Col. La Haciendita, 39090Chilpancingo,
Guerrero, Mexico
2 Programa de Posgrado de Alimentos del Centro de
La República (PROPAC), Universidad Autónoma de
Querétaro, Cerro de las Campanas S/N, Col. Las Campanas,
76010Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico
3 Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del
Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV IPN),
Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente # 2000,
Fraccionamiento Real de Juriquilla, 76230Querétaro,
Querétaro, Mexico
4 CONACyT, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero,
Av. Javier Méndez Aponte No. 1, Fracc. Servidor Agrario,
39070Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... Afterward, a baking dynamic was applied to a version of the snack with 50% coconut flour (if more quantity was incorporated, the dough turned with poor ease of handling) to establish the bake times, using a temperature of 180°C and taking samples every 2 min to measure water activity (data not shown). For this experiment, the temperature was considered because in other works, fried tortilla chips with the incorporation of byproducts were cooked in oil at this temperature [30]. According to the results, the values of aw were reduced to 0:289 ± 0:027 at 18 min, but the snack acquired a darker color (low L * and positive a * and b * values). ...
... Other byproducts, such as a mixture of mango peel and roselle, were used to elaborate a corn-baked chip, but in this case, only 10% of the nixtamalized corn flour could be substituted with these byproducts. In addition, the highest amount used generated a bitter taste and poor machinability [30]. ...
... Although the participants did not select color as a principal factor for choosing a snack, in other reports, yellow or orange shades favored the scores in the sensorial color analysis of snacks [30,55]. ...
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Snack consumption contributes to the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases because snacks contain high quantities of fat, sodium, and sugar. It is possible to reformulate these foods to improve their nutritional composition by incorporating coconut byproducts. This study aims to improve the nutritional profile of a snack by adding coconut flour to it. A Box–Behnken design was used to study the effects of coconut flour (40-60%), baking time (15-20 min), and temperature (140-160°C) on the physicochemical properties of the snack. There were considered response variables color aspects (L ∗ , a ∗ , b ∗ , C ∗ , and h ∗ ), aw, moisture, BI, and hardness. The R 2 was over 0.73 for aw, moisture, a ∗ , and b ∗ ; meanwhile, as for the rest of the variables, it was lower to 0.71, except for the hardness, for which the model was not significant. For that, the variables considered for the optimization were aw, moisture, a ∗ , and b ∗ . It was found that the moisture content and a ∗ and b ∗ values decreased as the amount of coconut flour increased. Time and temperature reduced the moisture content and the aw and b ∗ values. The optimum conditions of coconut flour amount, time, and temperature were 55.3%, 20 min, and 159°C, respectively. The result was a snack with appropriate physicochemical properties and an increase in the content of protein, fat, and ash compared to the nixtamalized corn flour; also, the principal fatty acid of the snack was the lauric acid, characteristic of the coconut. This study validates the production of a snack made with a virgin coconut oil byproduct.
... Rights reserved. [71] capacity, brightness, whiteness, resistance to salt, and tension strength. These dietary fibre components extracted from pineapple waste have been shown to have a variety of uses as prebiotics, food additives, and bio-preservatives. ...
... The use of fruit peel flour in food products serves two primary objectives: improving texture and providing health benefits, such as reducing the glycemic index and preventing obesity. Several studies have examined the antioxidant potential, phenolic content, and other phytochemical profiles of agro-waste flour [70,71,78]. Mango peel flour (MPF) can serve as a viable substitute for ordinary flour. ...
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Pineapple is indeed a non-climacteric tropical fruit that is known for its juiciness, pleasant aroma, flavour, and various health-beneficial compounds. The pineapple industry has experienced rapid expansion worldwide due to its nutritional potential, valuable qualities, and the abundance of phytochemicals it contains. During pineapple processing, a significant amount of waste is generated, ranging from 650 to 800 kg per tonne of pineapple. However, this waste can be utilized effectively due to its rich content of residual sugars, pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose, and essential oils. The utilization of pineapple waste presents both prospects and challenges for the industry. Prospects and challenges are critically discussed concerning the future uses of pineapple. The review also highlights the current challenges faced by the bioprocessing sector for the utilization of pineapple nutritional aspects and waste utilization. The nutritional qualities, physicochemical composition, volatile compounds, and health advantages of pineapples are covered in this review. Graphical Abstract
... In our investigation, we used eggs and powdered milk, accounting for the higher protein content. It is no surprise that most proximal analyses remained the same since the roselle calyx powder has been reported to have similar values [28] to wheat flour. ...
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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of powder made out of Roselle Calyx Wastes (RCP) in developing a biscuit formulation with acceptable sensory value. Roselle calyxes were infused in water in a 1:10 ratio. The residual infused calyxes were dried at 50 °C for 16 h, grounded, sieved through a 50 mesh, and stored in plastic bags until used. The biscuit formulations were enriched with RCP at 0% (BC), 5% (BRCP5), 10% (BRCP10), and 15% (BRCP15). The amount of RCP added to the biscuit formulation did not change the protein content. However, the addition of RCP significantly affected the biscuit’s color; the lightness parameter (L*) decreased as the RP content increased from 69.66 to 49.04. The sensory evaluation showed that the control biscuit and the biscuit enriched with 5% of RP were the best accepted. As for the antiradical activity, the formulation with the highest activity was presented by the BRCP15 (587.43 µmol Trolox/100 g dwb). On the other hand, BRCP5 presented 189.96 µmol Trolox/100 g dwb. Therefore, the biscuit formulation with RCP at a 15% enrichment could be used to commercialize a functional product.
... Recent studies also shows its anti-diabetic properties of the extracts gotten from the calyces [10,11]. The extracts are used as food additives for pastries, ice-cream, [12][13][14]. ...
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An 8-litre capacity roselle calyx extractor was developed with Arduino based temperature controls ranging from 30 to 100⁰C. Performance evaluation conducted on the extractor showed that efficiency of the extractor increased as the weight of the calyces decreased at constant mass of water which ranged from 55% to 89%. The effect of extraction time (5, 10 and 15 minutes), process temperature (30, 50, 75 and 100⁰C) and calyx-water mass ratio (1:50, 1:20 and 1:10) on the pH, density and colour of the extract was determined. The pH ranged from 2.4 to 2.9 and density was from 1.02 to 1.05gcm-3. Statistical analysis conducted showed that temperature and calyx-water mass ratio has a linear significant effect (p<0.001) on all the responses while time had a linear significant effect (p<0.001) on all responses except density. Time and temperature had interaction significant effect (p<0.01) on pH, while temperature and calyx-water ratio had interaction significant effect (p<0.01) on the density of the extract. Calyx-water ratio had a quadratic significant effect (p<0.001) on the pH and colour of the extract. The contour plots presented the interactions between the factors and their responses. This study demonstrated that roselle calyces extract can be produced more efficiently than practices currently available and also that processing conditions are very important in the quality of extracts produced.
... Others have also considered the formulation of healthier corn chips with the addition of agro-industrial fruit byproducts because these snacks are commonly high in carbohydrates, fats, and glycemic index. Mayo-Mayo, Navarrete-Garcia, Maldonado-Astudillo, Jimenez-Hernandez, Santiago-Ramos, Arambula-Villa, Alvarez-Fitz, Ramirez, and Salazar [49] developed corn chips supplemented with mango peel or roselle byproducts (separately), both of which have been recognized for their high content of fiber and antioxidant compounds. They produced four samples; two supplemented with mango peel (5 and 10%) and two more with roselle byproducts (5 and 10%). ...
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One of the biggest problems faced by food industries is the generation of large amounts of agro-industrial byproducts, such as those derived from fruit processing, as well as the negative effects of their inadequate management. Approximately 1/3 of the food produced worldwide is unused or is otherwise wasted along the chain, which represents a burden on the environment and an inefficiency of the system. Thus, there is growing interest in reintroducing agro-industrial byproducts (both from fruits and other sources) into the processing chain, either by adding them as such or utilizing them as sources of health-promoting bioactive compounds. The present work discusses recent scientific studies on the nutritional and bioactive composition of some agro-industrial byproducts derived from fruit processing, their applications as ingredients to supplement baked foods, and their main biological activities on the consumer’s health. Research shows that agro-industrial fruit byproducts can be incorporated into various baked foods, increasing their fiber content, bioactive profile, and antioxidant capacity, in addition to other positive effects such as reducing their glycemic impact and inducing satiety, all while maintaining good sensory acceptance. Using agro-industrial fruit byproducts as food ingredients avoids discarding them; it can promote some bioactivities and maintain or even improve sensory acceptance. This contributes to incorporating edible material back into the processing chain as part of a circular bioeconomy, which can significantly benefit primary producers, processing industries (particularly smaller ones), and the final consumer.
Mango peel is an important agro-industrial waste that has high levels of polyphenols and dietary fiber. There isan obvious shortage of product variety in the food sector, making research into new product creation even moreimportant. Nowadays, only mango pulp is utilized in commercial items, resulting in the loss of the fruit’s othercomponents, which contain important chemicals. Numerous investigations on the extraction of bioactive com-ponents from mango peel have been undertaken, covering both classic techniques (direct boiling, solventmacerating, distillation, and compression) and green extraction technology (ultrasound-assisted, enzyme-assisted, and ultrasound-assisted enzyme technique). Several approaches may be used to extract carotenoids,dietary fiber, and phenolic compounds. Dietary fiber and polyphenol intake have been linked to improved guthealth. Polyphenol bioactivity and the risk of metabolic disorders may be affected by gut microbiota. The gutmicrobiota is vital for human health because it affects many host defensive mechanisms by enhancing antioxi-dant activity, tripling lactic acid bacteria, and assisting in the production of a superior prebiotic product. Thisreview provides an overview of the high-quality extraction of dietary fiber and polyphenols from mango peel andalso the interactions of these dietary compounds with gut microflora and associated health benefits and un-derlying mechanisms.
Mango fruit and its by-product contain an abundant source of beneficial compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids, dietary fiber and vitamin E. About 15–20% of the total weight of fresh mango represents by its peel. Likewise, peel wastes from the fruit may contain beneficial properties similar to that generally found in fruit. As one of the signifcant by-products of mango fruit, the peels rich in health-enhancing constituents, particularly phenolic compounds, can be incorporated into nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and functional food products. mango peel contains mangiferin, pectin, anthocyanins, β-carotene, gallic acid, galloyl glucose, and lutein. Comparative studies on mango peel indicate that higher total polyphenol content is found in the ripened than the unripe peel.
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Large quantities of mango peel and seed are generated worldwide, representing up to 60% of the total weight of the fruit. However, despite being undervalued, these by-products have a high nutritional and bioactive potential of interest for multiple applications. This paper evaluated for the first time the trend on research approaches for the use of mango peel and seed. For this purpose, a mixed methodology based on a literature review and bibliometric analysis with VOSviewer was used. Most of the studies on this topic are carried out by researchers from institutions in India, Mexico and Brazil, due to the high level of mango production in these countries. In addition, due to the importance of the subject, these studies are published in journals with high impact. According to the keyword co-occurrence analysis, the studies focus on the bioactive compounds of mango peel and seed, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, in addition to their antioxidant activity, suitable for combating various diseases. Taking advantage of these properties, it was determined that these by-products (as powder or extract) are generally used as an ingredient in the elaboration of functional foods, showing promising results. Finally, this review also detailed some current challenges and future trends in the topic, which are of crucial importance to give the deserved valorization to mango peel and seed.
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Los subproductos de la industrialización de las frutas tropicales han ido ganando terreno en la industria alimentaria ya que se ha demostrado que contienen concentraciones de fibra dietaria similares o mayores a los de los cereales y han demostrado ser adecuados para la elaboración de productos alimenticios por sus propiedades tecnológicas, así como sus excelentes propiedades funcionales las cuales se encuentran fuertemente relacionadas con la composición de la fibra dietaria. Estudios recientes han reportado la incorporación de fibra dietaria de frutas tropicales y sus subproductos a la dieta a través de productos alimenticios consumidos cotidianamente como panes, galletas, tortillas, y pasteles y sus beneficios a la salud. Esta revisión se centra en el conocimiento de los últimos 5 años de la literatura sobre las fuentes de fibra dietaria de frutas tropicales y sus subproductos, además de sus aplicaciones potenciales como ingredientes funcionales en productos de panadería, tortilla y pastas.
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With the steadily growing world population, effective methods are needed to alleviate food shortages. One possible strategy could be to utilize agro-waste materials that accumulate in large quantities at every stage of the economic chain during harvesting, food production, and consumption. Peel-based agro-waste consists of promising materials that can be utilized to potentially substitute commonly used raw materials in products traditionally made from wheat, tapioca, and rice flours. In this systematic review, we aim at establishing prospective proximate components as basic nutrients and their valorization potential as substitutes in traditional flour products (bread, biscuits, etc.). Generally, the peel contains high levels of fiber and relatively low digestible carbohydrates, providing a healthier food ingredient. In terms of protein, it should be pointed out that seeds such as wheat utilize insoluble gluten as their major storage protein, while proteins in peel were found in quite high percentage although they were not yet well characterized. However, the general effect of using peel to substitute wheat in food products are the reduction of dough elasticity, increased hardness of the end-products, faster water absorption rate of the products, and in some cases, bitter taste and darker colors. The latter two could have been contributed by the secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds. On the other hand, substitution of peel into food products can have valuable health benefits, e.g., retention of antioxidant activity due to the phenolic compounds or simply adding fiber. In this review, literature on the composition of promising agro-waste raw materials is being discussed in the relationship with physical properties and appearance of potential end-products. Antinutritional compounds and pretreatment processes are also being considered. It is hoped that a critical discussion will lead to a better understanding and higher acceptance of the incorporation of peel into food products.
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The aim of this research was to investigate changes in flour characteristics, bread quality, in vitro and in vivo starch digestibility and glycemic index (GI) values of breads with 10%, 20% and 30% of a mixture of highly enzyme-resisted cassava starch (HRCS) and vital gluten (9:1, w/w) substitution for wheat flour. The composite flours had higher gelatinization temperatures and lower maximum, trough, final, breakdown and setback viscosities than did the wheat flour. The composite flours also had higher water holding capacity and lower swelling index as compared to the wheat flour. The specific volumes of loaves with HRCS substitution reduced substantially, while hardness and gumminess values of loaves escalated remarkably. Resistant starch (RS) contents of substituted breads remarkably enhanced, whereas blood glucose response in mice and GI values of the substituted breads significantly reduced along with raising amounts of HRCS substitution. Moreover, increase in the percentage of HRCS and vital gluten supplementation up to 20% did not significantly impact on the sensorial profile of breadcrumbs including color, appearance, odor and flavor, texture and overall acceptability. As a result, HRCS can be substituted for wheat flour up to 20% in breadmaking to improve human health benefits with satisfied bread quality.
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To boost the nutritional and functional quality of cookies, wheat flour was replaced with Calocybe indica powder (CIP) at different proportions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%). Formulated CIP cookies were characterized for nutritional, functional and sensorial properties, and compared with conventional cookies to evaluate the stated purpose. The study revealed that CIP incorporation significantly (p < 0.05) increased protein, fibre, minerals (Fe, Zn and K), and β-glucan contents in dose dependent manner as compared to the control. Further, total contents of phenolic, flavonoids and antioxidants (DPPH and FRAP) properties were found toincrease from 6.26 to 17.53 mg GAE/g, 0.14 to 0.42 mg Quercetin/g, 5.36 to 15.19% RSA and 7.58 to 35.01 mg BHA/g respectively, with increasing levels of CIP. Moreover, In vitro starch digestion study revealed a significant decrease in starch hydrolysis index with incorporation of CIP, concomitantly reducing glycemic index of cookies from 94.57 to 54.54. Sensory profile of the samples was analysed using fuzzy logic, executed that 10% CIP cookies scored 57.72 defuzzified sensory score falling under medium category and hence, found to be acceptable and palatable. The study concluded that inclusion of CIP at 10% could output a sensorial acceptable, nutritionally rich functional cookie.
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Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a good source of dietary fiber, anthocyanins and phenolic acids with high antioxidant capacity. The objective of this research was to study the effects of Roselle powder (RP) addition (3, 6, or 9%) in the features and composition of yeast-leavened breads in terms of chemical composition, dietary fiber, color parameters, phenolic acids, total anthocyanin content, antioxidant capacity, physical and sensory properties. The total dietary fiber in the breads increased 1.51 folds with the RP-9% addition respect to control bread. Breads prepared with RP-9% presented an increase in red color and in the content of anthocyanin (71 folds). Ferulic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid identified; ferulic acid was in bound form (97–98%). The antioxidant capacity of the RP-9% supplemented bread was 2.7 times higher compared to the control bread. However, RP-9% supplemented breads had higher hardness (4.79 times) and lower sensory attributes compared to the control. The strategy of adding the RP to the wheat flour was essential to increase dietary fiber, phytochemicals and antioxidant activity.
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Food industry is in the search of new functional ingredients, so this study was focused on evaluating the effect of thermal processing used to produce roselle beverages, and the effect of particle size reduction, on the retention of bioactive constituents, and physicochemical, functional, and structural properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces. After decoction process (DP), by-products retained up to 56% of polyphenolic compounds, 54% of flavonoids and 44% of anthocyanins; mainly delphinidin 3,5-O-diglucoside (74.1%); besides presenting an increased content of total dietary fiber (DF) as compared to roselle calyces (26%). Viscosity and hydration properties were improved by the DP, which may be related to an increased porosity as observed in the SEM micrographs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum, reflected the differences in the chemical composition of BP and calyx, whereas the X-ray diffraction analysis showed no effect of DP. Interestingly, samples with a large particle size (250–177 µm) presented increased viscosity, which was the most important change for particle size. Therefore, roselle beverage by-product could be a functional ingredient since is an excellent source of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber with improved functional and physicochemical properties as compared to calyces.
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Tamales were prepared with 3 nixtamalization processes (traditional, ecological, and classic) and evaluated for chemical composition, starch properties, and glycemic index. Resistant starch (RS) in tamales increased 1.6 to 3.7 times compared to raw maize. This increment was due to the starch retrogradation (RS3) and amylose–lipid complexes (RS5) formation. Tamales elaborated with classic and ecological nixtamalization processes exhibited the highest total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber content, and the highest RS content and lower in vivo glycemic index compared to tamales elaborated with traditional nixtamalization process. Thermal properties of tamales showed 3 endotherms: amylopectin retrogradation (42.7 to 66.6 °C), melting of amylose lipid complex type I (78.8 to 105.4), and melting of amylose–lipid complex type II (110.7 to 129.7). Raw maize exhibited X-ray diffraction pattern type A, after nixtamalization and cooking of tamales it changed to V-type polymorph structure, due to amylose–lipid complexes formation. Tamales from ecological nixtamalization processes could represent potential health benefits associated with the reduction on blood glucose response after consumption.
This study investigated effects of mango peel powder on starch digestion properties and quality characteristics of bread, and discussed underneath mechanisms. Starch digestion rate and extent of bread were evaluated in vitro, and bread quality characteristics, including moisture content, volume, color and texture, were evaluated. The results showed that adding mango peel powder could significantly reduce starch digestion rate and digestion extent in bread, and the reduction degree was positively related to the amount of mango peel powder applied. Bread moisture content was improved by mango peel powder, while bread volume was reduced. Bread color was also impacted, showing increased L*, a* and b* values. And incorporation of mango peel powder apparently affected bread texture, resulting in increased hardness and chewiness, as well as decreased cohesiveness. These influences were generally proportional to the amount of mango peel powder applied. When <5% of mango peel powder was incorporated, bread quality was not dramatically changed, although starch digestibility was significantly inhibited. More mango peel powder could further reduce starch digestion; however, bread quality might be deteriorated. These results would provide guidelines for the development of low glycemic index foods, and be beneficial in facilitating comprehensive application of mango peel.
In this study, some dietary fiber (DF) sources were investigated as fortifiers of wheat bread: oat (OB), flax (FB), and apple (AB). Adding oat and flax fibers to bread significantly changed the fatty acid profiles. OB was highest in oleic acid (33.83% of lipids) and linoleic acid (24.31% of lipids). Only in FB, γ-linolenic fatty acid was present in a significant amount—18.32%. The bioaccessibility trails revealed that the DF slow down the intake of saturated fatty acids. PUFA were least bioaccessible from all fatty acids groups in the range of (72% in OB to 87% in FB). The control bread had the greatest value (80.5) and was significantly higher than values for OB, FB, and AB in terms of glycemic index. OB, FB and AB addition led to obtain low glycemic index. AB had a significant highest value of total phenolic (897.2 mg/kg) with the lowest values in FB (541.2 mg/kg). The only significant lowering of caloric values in this study was observed in AB. The study could address the gap in the area of research about taking into consideration glycemic index, fatty acid profile and phenolic content in parallel in terms of DF application in breads.
Phenolic compounds as agro-industrial by-products have been associated with health benefits since they exhibit high antioxidant activity and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, polyphenol-rich extract from pistachio green hull (PGH) was evaluated for antioxidant activity and its ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity in vitro. The effect of PGH extract powder on in vitro starch digestibility was also evaluated. The results showed that PGH had stronger antioxidant activity than Trolox. The inhibitory effect of PGH extract against α-amylase from porcine pancreas was dose dependent and the IC50 value was ~ 174 μg GAE/mL. The crude PGH extract was eight times more potent on baker yeast α-glucosidase activity (IC50 ~ 6 μg GAE/mL) when compared to acarbose, whereas the IC50 value of PGH extract against rat intestinal maltase activity obtained ~ 2.6 mg GAE/mL. The non-tannin fraction of PGH extract was more effective against α-glucosidase than tannin fraction whereas the α-amylase inhibitor was concentrated in the tannin fraction. In vitro starch digestibility and glycemic index (GI) of pasta sample supplemented with PGH extract powder (1.5%) was significantly lower than the control pasta. The IC50 value of PGH extract obtained from cooked pasta against α-amylase and α-glucosidase was increased. These results have important implications for the processing of PGH for food industry application and therefore could comply with glucose control diets.
Dietary fibers extracted from defatted press meals of orange and grapefruit seeds were used in the production of crackers and the crackers were evaluated for physicochemical, textural, sensory properties, and bioactive compounds. The unexplored fibers (grapes seeds and orange seeds) and wheat fiber were added at 2.9% levels. The effects of incorporation of different fibers on composition and consumer acceptability were evaluated. The textural stability during storage was also monitored. Although there were no significant differences for proximate compositions; fiber contents, antioxidant capacities, and phenolics compositions were significantly higher in the crackers containing orange seeds fiber. Sensory analysis showed that taste/flavor attribute scores were low, while appearance scores were equal to the control sample. The fracturability, hardness and water activity values remain constant up to 90 days storage at room temperature. The crackers containing orange seed and grapes seed fiber could provide some health benefits to consumers due to their high fiber and flavonoid contents.
Common beans have been used to fortify maize tortillas increasing nutritional properties but affecting sensorial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and nutraceutical composition; and acceptability of tortillas formulated with maize and common bean. The physicochemical characterization showed no significant differences between common bean‐fortified (CBMF) and maize (CMF) tortillas regarding texture, rolability and puffing. Nutritionally, CBMF had higher protein (10.89%) and dietary fiber (12.76%) levels than CMF tortilla (9.47 and 5.78%, respectively). Compared with CMF tortilla, CBMF had higher content of bound phenolics (2.13 and 1.84 mg eq. gallic acid/g, respectively). CBMF tortillas contained higher flavonoids concentration (62.59 mg eq. rutin/g) than CMF tortilla (33.73 mg eq. rutin/g). According to the sensory evaluation, there were no differences of general acceptance. The results suggest that the addition of bean to maize flour increased the nutraceutical value in tortillas without modifying their sensory attributes. Practical Applications Tortillas are widely consumed in Latin American countries. Tortilla flour industry is well positioned in the market; however, looking for a healthier lifestyle, the consumption of tortillas is starting to decrease. The fortification of maize tortillas with common bean in the formulation proposed in this work represents an alternative of nutritional improvement for this product maintaining its sensory and technological properties.