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Abstract

Current transport policy objectives aiming to increase active mobility can solely be achieved by changing people's mobility behavior. To arouse interest and influence the decision process of the people, adequate information sources and services as well as appropriate incentives and motivation have to be used, but they have to be target-group specific to reach people more effectively. Influencing factors such as mobility habits, attitudes towards transport modes, shared social norms and values must be considered. Since people resemble in some characteristics, methods from social sciences are applied to identify homogeneous groups of shared mobilityrelated information needs and to extract appropriate group-related arguments to promote active mobility (e.g. health, environment, costs, image, or adventure). The paper describes the methodological approach and the results in form of six comprehensively defined homogeneous target groups derived from 12 qualitative focus groups. Moreover, a survey among a representative sample of 1000 persons in Austria is presented. Based on the outcomes, customized concepts for each specific target group (arguments, information needs, and preferred information channels) have been developed. The concept provides a solid basis for implementing measures to promote active mobility as prerequisite for reaching transport policy objectives.
... Fewer young people have a driver's license, cars are losing their status symbol image, and when driving and flying seem unavoidable, various platforms offer the possibility of financially compensating for the CO 2 produced. However, social science research and experiences from comparable civil society movements show that the group of people who are freely willing to make changes (such as the social milieu of the postmaterialists) make up little more than about 10 to 15% of the entire population (Markvica et al., 2020). Other social milieus are much more firmly integrated into their social environment and habits (Linz, 2015). ...
... However, carbon reduction goals are far too vast and unspecific and too distant in the future for the average citizen's perceived context to stir a sense of personal responsibility, even though the climate crisis is equally urgent (CED, 2020). So, despite an increasing general awareness of climate protection needs and a wide range of literature regarding mobility behaviour and potential nudges to motivate behaviour changes (Millonig and Mitgutsch, 2014;Markvica et al., 2020), there is a high discrepancy between reported environmental awareness and actual mobility practices. A stronger focus should be put on the individual contributions through behaviour change, which is indispensable for complementing efforts on the service side (e.g. ...
Article
Transport justice has two essential dimensions: (1) compensating for inequalities in access to mobility, and (2) mitigating the disproportionately burdensome negative consequences of transport. In light of the urgently needed action regarding climate change especially in the transport sector, measures reducing carbon emissions to mitigate the impact are inevitable. However, policy measures for reaching climate targets should avoid increasing unequal mobility chances. Therefore, there is a need for concepts striving to mitigate both climate impacts and transport injustice. The paper addresses the potential of introducing individual mobility budgets to achieve transport-related climate goals while reducing inequalities in mobility. The concept proposed in this contribution is based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative impact assessment methods including a stakeholder involvement process and transport modelling based on different data sources. The results provide policy recommendations as well as further research requirements, which are already partly addressed iin follow-up projects.
... Diverse segmentation approaches have been elaborated, aiming to form homogenous groups according to different variables such as household composition or employment status, in order to enable more targeted research (Chng et al., 2016;Chakrabarti and Joh, 2019). Classes of variables in mobility research mainly focus on travel behavior, spatial variables, socio-demographic and socio-economic variables as well as attitude-based variables (Markvica et al., 2020). As the segmentation approach is generally quantitative, being based on collected data sets of actual travel behaviour patterns (Haustein and Hunecke, 2013), it can be used as input data to model transport behavior in a certain region. ...
... According to Markvica et al. (2020), a modern individual's behavior can no longer be explained using only social class and stratification concepts or socio-economic variables, as personal value patterns, cultural attitudes or socio-cultural variables now tend to play a more important role in their choices. Therefore, elements such as personal income may not be essential in their modal choice or mobility patterns and were omitted in the persona profile construct. ...
Preprint
Work routes are part of our everyday life and are therefore of particular importance for the realistic study and improvement of passenger transport systems. As the attitudes and needs of employees can vary significantly, it is challenging to include behaviour information in such studies. Therefore, it is necessary to illustrate the reaction patterns of transport users in order to depict, in a more realistic way, the effects of mobility measures on their travel mode choice. Until now, selected socio-demographic variables have mainly been used for this purpose, only allowing for an isolated view. Research shows that attitudes and behaviors influence the mobility patterns of transport users. Within this paper, we propose to use personas as fictional characters representing different kinds of employees and their travel behavior and attitudes in relation to choosing different transport modes for their daily commute to identify the challenges and needs that have to be met by public transport providers. Personas have proven to bring an added value to studies in the field of software design and market research, but have only recently begun to establish themselves in the mobility domain. Personas have the capacity to combine a variety of socio-demographic and behavioural variables, thus enabling more nuanced simulation models for transportation. In this paper, we present an approach to design personas for travel behavior research purposes based on a case study for the region of Agder in Norway. Working with data from the Norwegian National Travel Survey (N= 2 495), a regional travel behavior survey (N= 1 861) and a number of 32 interviews, the study aims to define a set of personas that can represent the most common groups of employees in Agder. It furthermore serves as a guideline for the persona design process itself and proposes a methodology replicable in other urban networks.
... Given the public and environmental health benefits of active transport there is widespread interest from sustainable transport planners in behavioral interventions that encourage participation in cycling (Markvica et al., 2020;Zahran et al., 2008), including the recognition and enabling of positive feedback relationships between consumer green perceptions and green innovation in biking (De Vos et al., 2019;Flores & Jansson, 2021). Although Nello-Deakin (2020) argues that enough is already known about what needs to be done in order to encourage cycling in the majority of urban contexts, there nevertheless remains significant gaps with respect to understanding cycling behaviors and practices in Asian cultures as well as the impact of the recent growth of specialized smart application usage on cycling practices. ...
Article
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Bicycling is an important form of active transport that contributes to sustainability mobility as a result of its role in personal and public health and emissions reduction. The significance of which has grown since the COVID‐19 pandemic outbreak. However, biking studies have neglected, in theoretical terms, developing an understanding of why consumers bike. Therefore, this research designs and verifies an extended theory of planned behavior adding personal and public health and a moderator of perceived smart application usage to help explain such consumer behavior. This study is based on a digital survey of South Koreans who biked for leisure, tourism, and/or work, utilizing partial least squares‐structural equation modeling with multi‐group analysis and Fuzzy‐set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Results revealed that personal health is most important to cyclists, followed by public health, attitude, and subjective norm. Interestingly, people with perceived high usage of smart applications for biking show stronger relationships between public health and attitude and perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention than low users. In contrast, individuals with perceived low usage of smart applications for biking reveal a stronger relationship between attitude and behavioral intention than high users. The high and low user groups of smart applications also distinctively differ in levels of cycling behavior. Consequently, this work offers several theoretical and managerial implications for research and practice.
... There are numerous studies and approaches aiming at behaviour change towards more sustainable lifestyles and mobility patterns [22,23]. However, there is a high discrepancy between reported environmental awareness and actual mobility practices, indicating that past approaches and strategies have failed to succeed, although behaviour change in mobility has long been declared as the highest goal in transport policy. ...
... Similarly, Frade and Ribeiro (2015), Li et al. (2020), Caggiani et al. (2018) proposed an optimization methodology to define the stations and the number of means available at each station. Another aspect to consider in network design is linked with customer preferences (He et al., 2020;Ge et al., 2020;Markvica et al., 2020;Buning and Lulla, 2021). As an example, Chen and Sun (2015) proposed a model to minimize the total travel time considering active mobility users' preference regarding the pick-up and drop off stations. ...
Article
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The global trends in urban planning and policy have seen more efforts directed toward the development of sustainable urban mobility plans (SUMPs) and more livable cities. Then, the main objective of the paper is to propose a methodology to design the supply network for a micro-mobility system exploiting the opportunity offered by floating car data (FCD). A two level methodology is proposed: the first level is related to the estimation of the potential demand to serve, obtained by means of FCD analysis (by crossing type of trip, trip length, trip travel time and stopping time at destination), the second level allows us to design the network by considering the potential demand, the points of interest in the area and considering some constraints (e.g., road characteristics).The proposed methodology was applied in the SUMP of Trani (a medium city with about 55,000 inhabitants in the Apulia Region, southern Italy). In such case study, through the analysis of the FCD, emerges that the 22.2% of current trips by cars could be switched from car to micro-mobility. Subsequently, a possible layout of the micro-mobility network that accomplish the potential trips is proposed.
... The attractiveness of railway sidings could be increased by information campaigns or subsidies to make the investment cheaper. At the same time, it has to be taken into account that information campaigns in transport often reach persons which are open to change and not necessarily everyone [83]. Furthermore, companies are often close to each other, e.g., in industrial sites, and they could therefore share a railway siding and split the costs. ...
Article
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A basic assumption of many scientific theories on the topic of decision making is rational behaviour. However, previous authors assume the existence of behavioural biases in freight transport which impede rational decision making. Hardly any research exists on behavioural biases in freight transport. To address this gap, we carry out a systematic literature review on the influencing factors of freight mode choice and provide empirical evidence for the occurrence of behavioural biases in the logistics sector. Fifteen logistics service providers and six shippers are involved in interviews and a focus group to understand their mode choice process and derive information on the existence of behavioural biases. Several biases showed to exist in the practical decision-making process. For example, decision makers tend to avoid complex options (principle of least effort), they stick to already tried and tested options (status quo bias, zero-risk bias) and they tend to make decisions based on immediate and easily accessible information (availability bias). These biases distort the demand for sustainable freight transport. We therefore conclude with several motivational, cognitive and technological debiasing strategies to reduce the negative impact of behavioural biases in freight transport.
... Active mobility (non-motorised modes) has alleviated the aforementioned disadvantages of motorised vehicles, and in turn, contributed to the mission of sustainable societies. Active mobility provides extensive sets of benefits, such as increasing the physical activity of users (health benefits), cost-effectiveness and enabling space-saving for infrastructure compared to other modes of transport (Markvica, Millonig, Haufe, & Leodolter, 2020). In addition, active mobility reduces greenhouse gas emissions and contributes to congestion management (Hung & Lim, 2020). ...
Thesis
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The fast-growing market of electric bikes (e-bikes) has introduced a paradigm shift in mobility with a promise to enhance the sustainability agenda. An in-depth understanding of transport quality of service (QOS) from the e-bike rider’s perspective is a promising approach to sustain the role of the e-bike in mobility. Level of service (LOS) is a method by which to quantify QOS for different transport modes. However, to date, the knowledge on e-bike LOS (ELOS) lags far behind that on other transport modes. Therefore, the central aim of this thesis is to provide fundamental knowledge related to the development of ELOS. To address the main aim of the thesis, the travel behaviour and riding characteristics associated with e-bikes were scrutinised. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to provide knowledge on the travel behaviour (strategical level) and riding characteristics (tactical level) related to e-bikes. From a strategic perspective, an extensive review of the literature was conducted to explore which transport mode LOS is applicable for developing ELOS. Based on the findings from the state of the art and the reviewed literature, bike LOS (BLOS) was deemed substantial for the development of ELOS. Thus, to move towards the development of ELOS, a set of studies was conducted to understand the comfort concerns of e-bike riders via the literature review, interviews and a field experiment. Based on the reviewed literature, it appears evident that research related to the travel behaviour of e-bike users is sparse and that the scale of e-bike substitution for other modes of transport is unclear. The findings of the aforementioned study led to the proposition of a preliminary theoretical framework for the development of ELOS and served as a roadmap for conducting the studies that followed. To provide a deeper understanding of the travel behaviour related to e-bikes, a qualitative study was conducted to explore e-bike users’ (riders) and nonusers’ comfort concerns. This study was extended to include the comfort and health concerns of e-bike users and nonusers in the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic situation. The findings of this study provided a set of e-bike riding comfort variables, such as infrastructure facilities and e-bike performance in both pre- and peri-pandemic situations. This study also documented the potential effect of e-bike substitution for other transport modes such as public transport and cars. From a tactical level of analysis, there was a lack of studies to facilitate understanding the riding characteristics associated with e-bikes, specifically where vulnerable road users are involved. To address this knowledge gap, the interaction between e-bike users and pedestrians was studied in an off-road facility experiment. The study was designed to evaluate whether the traffic characteristics of passing (same-direction) and meeting (opposite-direction) encounters impose different difficulties for the navigation of the e-bike rider in pedestrian crowds. The results suggested that passing events cause the e-bike rider more hindrance compared to meeting events. This study was further extended to investigate the sociodemographic characteristics of e-bike riders along with their characteristics of riding in traffic and eventually model e-bike riders’ comfort in pedestrian crowds. In sum, this thesis addresses the knowledge gaps related to e-bike comfort concerns based on different study setups, which can be used substantially for developing ELOS. Along with exploring e-bike riders’ comfort concerns, the thesis puts forward information related to e-bike nonusers in both pre- and peri-pandemic situations. The findings of the thesis are applicable for planners and policy-makers when integrating the role of e-bikes in mobility policies. At a general level, the findings of the studies presented in this thesis pave the way for developing future ELOS and highlight the dire need to develop the concept of ELOS based on different contexts. All in all, the thesis opens new avenues into the field of e-bike comfort modelling by rendering the importance of the subject as an independent mode of transport.
... Users in the public transit market were not homogenous, which means they consisted of different groups in the light of various characteristics. In this context, four basic classes of variables were typically used to identify the user segmentation [33], including socioeconomic and sociodemographic variables, spatial variables, behaviour-based variables, and attitudinal variables. ...
Article
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Exclusive bus lanes have been widely regarded as an effective way to promote bus priority and improve the service quality, while they have not attracted more passengers to travel by bus in China. Also, more attention is usually paid to the infrastructure and facilities of exclusive bus lanes, but not much attention is paid to the passenger satisfaction of public transit with them. Therefore, this paper studies how to improve the service quality of public transit with exclusive bus lanes from a perspective of passenger satisfaction. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) was developed to investigate the mechanism of relationships between passenger satisfaction and the factors influencing the service quality of public transit with exclusive bus lanes. A total of 2087 respondents from Shanghai, China, participated in this study. Also, a comparison model of different groups using public transit including captive riders, choice riders, and captive by choice riders was established. Results show that passengers were dissatisfied with the current service of public transit with bus lanes, while they would prefer to take buses in the near future. In addition, travel environment, facilities, and convenience, rather than operational efficiency, had significant effects on passenger satisfaction. Through the comparison model, it was found that choice and captive by choice users might prefer public transit with bus lanes and captive users might be unable to bear the financial burden of private motorized travel. “Crowdedness in the buses on bus lanes during peak hours” especially for choice riders and “driving stability” especially for captive riders were the improvement direction for attracting more passengers to travel by bus. The results and the proposed policies of this study can benefit for the planning and operations of exclusive bus lanes in Shanghai and other similar cities around the world.
... This indicates that socio-demographic variables are mostly not the best variables to find behaviourally homogeneous groups regarding traffic behaviour, which confirms the results of e.g. Markvica et al. [26]. ...
Article
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When introducing new mobility offers or measures to influence traffic, stated preference (SP) surveys are often used to assess their impact. In SP surveys, respondents do not answer questions about their actual behaviour, but about hypothetical settings. Therefore, answers are often biased. To minimise this hypothetical bias, so-called stated preference-off-revealed preference (SP-off-RP) surveys were developed. They base SP questions on respondents’ revealed behaviour and place unknown scenarios in a familiar context. Until now, this method was applied mostly to scenarios investigating the willingness to pay. The application to more complex mode or route choice problems, which require the calculation of routes, has not yet been done. In this paper, the MyTrips survey tool for the collection of SP-off-RP data based on respondents’ actual mobility behaviour is presented. SP questions are based on alternatives to typical routes of respondents, which are calculated on the fly with an intermodal router. MyTrips includes a larger survey and collects mobility diaries for one day representing respondents’ daily routine, calculates alternative routes and creates SP questions based on a Bayesian optimal design. Results from two case studies investigating behaviour changes are presented. The first case study investigated the extension of a subway line in Vienna, Austria. The second case study focused on the introduction of micro transit vehicles in a rural setting, replacing infrequent bus services. Results of the two case studies show a difference in response behaviour between SP and RP settings and suggest a reduction of hypothetical bias. For the latter study, a Latent Class SP-off-RP model was estimated. It shows that availability and accessibility of public transport are the main influences on the willingness to use it, independent of other household characteristics.
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Long-distance travel represents a small share of trips but a growing and disproportionately high share of carbon emissions. While the tourism and high-speed rail literature provides some insights characterising demand on various existing long-distance transport links, new app-based methods for collecting travel data offer the potential to analyse trips on a wider geographical scale and to uncover the factors influencing travel demand from the traveller perspective. This research presents the results of such analysis based on a multimodal dataset consisting of 733 long-distance trips in 8 European countries. It confirms that car travel still represents a high share of long-distance trips, which typically consist of fewer legs than by other modes such as the train, bus or plane. However, it also shows that long-distance car or plane travellers are less likely to evaluate trips as worthwhile than train or bus travellers. The research brings new insights in terms of the top factors affecting the quality of travel and the preferred activities by travellers while on-the-move, which provides actionable policy pathways to make more sustainable long-distance modes more attractive. The train offers promising possibilities for higher quality travel time in long-distance door-to-door trips, but more research is needed to understand better the role of transfers and first- and last-mile in the overall perceived value of travel time. The paper suggests a renewed focus on the experience of travel time in transport assessment and policy to nurture a shift towards low-carbon transport for long-distance travel.
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Living labs have emerged on the crossroads of the open innovation and user innovation frameworks. As open innovation systems, living labs consist of various actors with each playing their specific role. Within this article, we will take an open innovation perspective by analyzing the knowledge spill-overs between living lab actors through three in-depth in- novation case studies taking place within the LeYLab living lab in Kortrijk, Belgium. The results illustrate how living labs foster the three open innovation processes of exploration, exploitation, and retention. From our analysis, we conclude that living labs are particularly useful for exploration and, to a lesser extent, exploitation. In terms of retention, living labs seem to hold a large potential; however, the success and the nature of the innovation processes depend on the sustainability of living labs, the number of innovation cases, and the alignment of these cases with the living lab infrastructure. Based on these findings, a concrete set of guidelines is proposed for innovating in living labs and for setting up a liv- ing lab constellation
Conference Paper
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European cities and regions strive for energy efficiency to meet the Europe 2020 goals on climate change and energy sustainability. At present, the transport sector is one of the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to the dependence on fossil fuels. The switch to renewable energies together with improvements in energy efficiency often cause rebound effects (e.g. increased use as a result of the environmentally friendly image) and therefore only partially serves the objectives sought. Hence, making the current mobility behavior more sustainable is of major importance to tackle environmental challenges and secure a high standard of living in European cities and regions. Many cities already offer a well-developed and efficient transport network for public and individual transport. Previous efforts concentrated on a shift from car to public transport to improve transport performance within the city, avoid congestion and reduce air pollution. Taking into account progressive urbanization, it is obvious that public transport will reach its limits without major improvements (new lines, decreases in intervals) which are slow and very expensive and hence cannot be the sole solution. Together with the increasing individualization of society, more flexibility is needed. Therefore, an additional pool of mobility options targeting these user requirements and needs has to be provided. In the EU project "Smarter Together" CO 2 savings are targeted by implementing projects in the fields of energy, renovation and mobility in Lyon, Munich and Vienna. An essential part of the project is the introduction of additional low emission mobility options in the Viennese project area in the northwest of the 11th Viennese district covering 1.5 km 2. The area is well linked to public transport and the general transportation network. Our research focusses on the potential of mobility behavior changes in such a wellconnected area in terms of the individual and public transport network, and on opportunities provided by additional services (e.g. sharing offers) and challenges in the implementation of theses new services. To develop successfull new concepts, residents' requirements and needs have to be taken into account. Hence, a survey was conducted to capture information on mobility behavior and available vehicles, attitudes of the residents towards certain transport modes and willingness to use active modes, e-mobility and sharing services. The survey, including roughly 1% of the area population (N=21,300; n=241), was conducted partially online and partially face-to-face to ensure participation among different groups. Based on the collected data, the potential for alternative low emission mobility options was captured in a multi-level survey analysis. The results disclosed challenges and opportunities related to current options concerning user friendliness and communication strategies of existing services along with crucial points for the implementation of additional options. One of the results showed that sharing services are hardly known to the residents. The participants revealed that e-bikes are not yet considered as an appropriate form of transportation since their features and advantages are not known. Offering car-or e-bike sharing services therefore does not only require a location with certain characteristics but also campaigns targeting the lack of knowledge. Active mobility has a good standing, particularly cycling. Many residents want to cycle more, but the surrounding structure does not encourage them, e.g. due to missing public bike parking at shopping facilities, transport stations and transportation hubs. Public transport is already heavily used, but could be stronger linked to other types of transportation. This should be achieved by implementing a "mobility point" offering locally bundled mobility options and information. The "mobility point" links different (multimodal) mobility services and acts as a major component of ICT solutions. This relatively new concept leaves ample room for additional low emission mobility options within the area leading to greater support, services and satisfaction to the travelers and users.
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Focus groups are rapidly gaining popularity as a field research tool. This technique can be particularly effective in survey item development, as illustrated here via development of the Volunteer Work Behaviors Questionnaire. The steps involved in this process, ranging from item generation to finalizing logistics, are outlined. Implications for further research are proposed.
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Promoting active mobility, i.e. walking and cycling, does not only require providing the adequate infrastructure. It is necessary to identify efficient ways to inform people and to arouse interest to actually change mobility behaviour. The challenge is to identify homogeneous (target) groups of shared mobility-related information needs and to extract appropriate group-related arguments. To develop encouragement strategies for different social groups, a milieu-based segmentation approach is applied in this paper in order to identify homogeneous groups of shared mobility-related information needs and to extract appropriate group-related arguments to promote active mobility.
Conference Paper
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Promoting the usage of low energy modes like walking and cycling requires devising both adequate information services and offers, but also appropriate incentives and motivations to arouse interest and actually change mobility behaviour. To develop persuasion strategies for different social groups, a milieu-based segmentation approach from market research (Sinus Milieus) is applied in this study in order to identify homogeneous groups of shared mobility-related information needs and to extract appropriate group-related arguments to promote active mobility (e.g. health, environment, costs, image, or adventure). This contribution describes the methodological approach combining qualitative-interpretative (12 focus groups; n=96) and quantitative-statistical methods (online and telephone survey; n=1,000 individuals representative for the Austrian population over 14 years) and the results in form of six comprehensively defined homogeneous target groups for Austria. Based on the outcomes, tailor-made concepts for specifically addressing each target group (arguments, information needs, and preferred information channels) are developed, thus providing a solid basis for implementing measures for promoting low energy modes.
Chapter
Pre-print available at https://tud.link/q7l6 || Active mobility is related to various positive effects and is promoted in urban planning, transport planning, and in public health. The goals of these three disciplines differ in many respects but have a strong overlap in the ambition to foster active mobility. Until now, efforts for strengthening active mobility have typically not been combined, but rather promoted separately within each discipline. This paper presents a review of research on determinants and impacts of active mobility and of policy measures for supporting active mobility, including the three disciplines of transport planning, urban planning, and public health. The paper further shows the different perspectives and ambitions of the three disciplines and, simultaneously, the substantial synergies that can be gained from an interdisciplinary collaboration in research and practice.
Chapter
In the previous decade, the European Commission, among its policies to increase sustainability and the quality of life in European cities, has introduced the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP). The concepts brought forward in this novel planning approach further focus on sustainable transport modes, such as cycling and pedestrian mobility, which are two of the main issues included in SUMP. The European challenge is to integrate long-term planning perspectives and short-term actions. In this context, the aim of this paper is to analyze and classify the objectives and actions proposed in the SUMP adopted by European cities, focusing on the policies for improving cycling and pedestrian mobility. Therefore a review methodology is proposed in order to verify their coherence with the European guidelines, classifying objectives and actions for the promotion of cycling and pedestrian mobility. The research required that each of a set of SUMPs, adopted by various European cities, be analyzed and classified in order to identify the objectives and the planned actions and to verify the presence of qualitative and quantitative indicators, therefore presenting a first application of the proposed methodology. The results show how the cities follow the European policies relative to urban mobility in terms of objectives and actions and, in particular, in relation to cycling and pedestrian mobility. All cities in the sample set goals to improve safety for pedestrians and cyclists by means of: the modernization and adaptation of the existing cycling paths and pedestrian walkways; and the construction of new long-distance cycle paths and of new pedestrian walkways and public areas that are comfortable for pedestrians. This work can be useful in order to verify the implementation of the sustainable urban planning process, establishing a benchmark process useful for other cities to follow.
Chapter
The notion of rebound effects commonly suggests that an efficiency strategy is found to be insufficient to address an absolute reduction of raw material consumption. Advocates of eco-sufficiency claim that renouncing affluent consumption could limit resource consumption appropriately. Still, the literature on sufficiency fails to empirically corroborate their strategy. In this respect, the question is, to what extent sufficiency is prone to rebound effects. This chapter strives to empirically investigate indirect rebound effects arising from sufficiency behaviour. It shows estimates of income elasticities from national surveys on income and expenditures in Germany. Re-spending of savings is analyzed for abatement actions in the fields of housing, mobility and food. The chapter discusses findings concerning rebound effects from sufficiency with respect to policy implications and methodological issues.
Chapter
In den vorstehenden Kapiteln wurde gezeigt, daß sich in der Sozialstruktur der Bundesrepublik, speziell im Hinblick auf Strukturen sozialer Ungleichheit, ganz erhebliche Veränderungen vollzogen haben, daß wir aber kein konzeptionelles Rüstzeug besitzen, um uns ein Gesamtbild vom jetzigen Zustand zu machen. Im folgenden Kapitel soll versucht werden, dieses Instrumentarium zu erarbeiten. Die eben dargestellten erfolgversprechenden Ansätze der Sozialstrukturanalyse werden zu einer Konzeption ausgebaut werden, die das theoretische Fundament, den begrifflichen Rahmen und das modellhafte Raster1 enthält, um die Stellung der Bevölkerungsmitglieder innerhalb des Gesamtgefüges sozialer Ungleichheit darstellen zu können.