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Abstract

Two major educational strengths that MOOCs provide are informal learning and harnessing the collective intelligence of the students and the interactions among other users like former students, future students, business professionals, other universities, etc. These features may lead to the emergence of new sustainable in time educational elements wherein knowledge and learning continue enriching once the course finished. At present, one of the main limitations of the MOOC platforms is the lack of social open tools to enhance and take advantage of the collective intelligence generated in the course. This article proposes a new model to allocate informal learning and collective intelligence in MOOCs using external virtual learning communities through social networks, based on Google +. The main aim of this article is to assess the virtual learning community performance and analyze the interactions and the kinds of learning that take place inside the community and over time. A case of study of a MOOC course with Google + community is presented.

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... True as it may seem, this study points out that while research studies have been able to analyze the immense contributions of social media platforms, online device and tool to the pedagogy of education, it may seem that the different levels of their achievements with regards to their effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction derived by users are too general to apply in emergency situations like the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. It is well documented in previous as well as present studies that GM has contributed immensely to teaching and learning, which many researchers deem effective and efficient for online distant education (Martinez-Nuñez et al., 2016;Wu and Sung, 2014;Papadakis et al., 2018). Yet, it would suffice to state that little is known with regards to the effectiveness, efficiency and optimum satisfaction derived by users of GM as a synchronous language learning tool for online distant education during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
... Yet, it would suffice to state that little is known with regards to the effectiveness, efficiency and optimum satisfaction derived by users of GM as a synchronous language learning tool for online distant education during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous studies posit that teachers were of the opinion that the use of online platforms/resources like Instagram, GM and others have paved way for learners to experience optimum learning satisfaction while studying (Martinez-Nuñez et al., 2016;Wu and Sung, 2014;Al-Maroof et al., 2020;Kang et al., 2015), yet as far as we know, no previous research has investigated the usability perceptions of both teachers and learners with regard to effectiveness, efficiency and satisfactory levels of GM for teaching in an emergency remote online teaching scenario as there has been less previous evidence for this in the literature. This leaves a gap in the literature, and this study suggests that one possible way to bridge this gap is to investigate this issue in order to elicit information from both instructors and preservice teachers on their perceptions while using GM as a learning tool during an emergency remote online learning situation. ...
... A few studies unveil that some language instructors are employed on a part-time basis and having to work in other places could make them adopt the synchronous use of GM in remote delivering lessons while they attend to other job needs (Sarah, 2020;Chronicle Forum, 2019). Previous studies have shown that with GM, instructors can deliver lectures and record them for future use, assignments and questions and answers (Q&A) sessions can be organized online for the students (Townsend, 2017;Martinez-Nuñez et al., 2016). Also, a number of authors have recognized that lessons and teaching materials can be made available to the student through the same medium as most students would have GM accounts already created for this purpose (Afrianto, 2016). ...
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Purpose There are currently no studies concerning the use of Google Hangout in North Cyprus. Thus, this study examines the perceptions of preservice teacher and language instructors on the use of Google Meet (GM) as a synchronous language learning tool for a distant online program in Cyprus. Design/methodology/approach To elicit information on the perception of preservice teachers and language instructors on this issue, a quantitative research design was used for this study. Findings Though the language instructors deemed GM effective and efficient as a language learning tool, the preservice teachers thought otherwise. Research limitations/implications It was difficult to collect data during this pandemic outbreak. Obtaining ethical consent from the participants was difficult as well and so the sample size was small. Practical implications The study was able to demonstrate that the use of GM was somewhat effective as a language learning tool for the online distant program, though the level of efficiency and effectiveness varies from preservice teachers to the language instructors. Also, the study was able to highlight the use of GM could be very effective if it is well managed by the teachers to stimulate student engagement during lessons. The study showcased that the unavailability of Internet data, poor Internet connection are possible constraints to the efficiency of GM. Recently, a university in Northern Cyprus has decided to partner with a telecommunication network (Turkcell) toward providing free Internet access for all registered students within a particular period of learning. This is a welcomed approach that can be emulated by other educational facilities in bridging the gap created by poor Internet connection in a remote online learning setting. Originality/value There are no studies within the context of North Cyprus on the use of GM as a synchronous language learning tool for online distant programs. Though the use of GM is adjured effective and efficient, this contextual overview of GM is a new insight into academia.
... MOOCs offer new opportunities for learning because of their intrinsic characteristics: the massiveness of participants, peer-to-peer interactions, free-of-charge, openness and scalability that lead to a large heterogeneity of participants. (Martínez-Núñez et al, 2016) The incorporation of virtual learning communities (VLC) may provide greater interaction between participants, support and guidance to people with difficulties and may increase collaborative processes between participants (García-Peñalvo, Cruz-Benito, Borrás-Gené and . Enhancing interactions in MOOCs could mean more knowledge generated and shared Knowledge management processes must be able to support the transfer of knowledge (García-Holgado et al, 2015) that occurs in MOOCs. ...
... The identifica-tion of those most active and expert participants that will be defined as group leaders and may become facilitators of the VLC is one of the key factors for the MOOC success. (Martínez-Núñez et al, 2016) This chapter presents the incorporation of VLC in a MOOC and its sustainability over time as a new element to study, which leads to new possibilities for improving success rate indicators. Some new elements from the VLCs as open contents generation or the analysis of the types of non-formal and informal learning can be obtained to take into account when understanding the development of MOOC courses from a knowledge management perspective. ...
... The main pedagogical principle behind a MOOC proposal should be that participants would be able to create new knowledge in a social and collaborative way, allowing that knowledge may be openly used both to improve the MOOC itself and to give continuity to the MOOC learning community. . (Martínez-Núñez et al, 2016) ...
Chapter
The confluence of thousands of students in a MOOC is an opportunity to manage all the knowledge generated through the creation of open educational resources (OER), especially when a connectivist approach is applied and the MOOC makes use of virtual learning communities. The challenge is transferring the flow of knowledge, activity, and interactions of the course to the community and making that transference sustainable and ongoing over time. For this purpose, the use of elements of gamification to train and retain the knowledge creators of the community along with the use of social networking platforms is proposed. This chapter analyses several editions of a MOOC and the opportunity offered by the use of different types of learning (formal, non-formal, and informal) that occur in them, thus characterizing patterns to train the open content and knowledge generation through gamification. From the results, indicators for managing successful and sustainable knowledge communities are proposed along with indicators for persistence and interaction between participants.
... In this sense, from a market perspective, Porter (2015) argues that a freemium and possible new business models for MOOCs to inform decision-making by managers at universities can be relevant. While the main concerns in this cluster are around scalability and robustness of these business models (e.g., OOE, Business models for Sustainability (Täuscher and Abdelkafi 2018)), the main argument is that MOOCs as a marketing platform remain promising (Tobias Martinez et al. 2016) as they raise, e.g., the profile of the universities (e.g., Northampton Business School, Gateway MOOC) (Anderson et al. 2014). It is also argued that while MOOCs act as part of the information marketing strategy for the universities, they enable the dissemination of various knowledge discourses (e.g., OCL theory) and thematic contents to society (Gallagher 2018) (e.g., sustainability, SDGs, circular economy). ...
... It is also argued that while MOOCs act as part of the information marketing strategy for the universities, they enable the dissemination of various knowledge discourses (e.g., OCL theory) and thematic contents to society (Gallagher 2018) (e.g., sustainability, SDGs, circular economy). In this financial view, benefitting from outsourcing effects, integration and/or interoperability with external virtual learning communities through social networks also opens up a possibility space for cost sharing and cost reductions (Martinez-Nuñez et al. 2016). To reduce costs at micro level, the removal of tutor nodes becomes enabled by different modes of learning driven by participants and within MOOC communities (Mishra et al. 2017). ...
Article
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In this article, we highlight the pressing need for integrating the windows of opportunities that digital transformation of education opens up with circular economy education to accelerate the achievements of sustainability outcomes. Circular economy transition, as a multi-scalar process, relates to several contexts, e.g., product, firm, industry-level transformations ranging from designing local socio-technical solutions to greening global value chains, with multi-level policy and business implications for finance, production, distribution, consumption that are fundamentally consequential to everyday life, work and learning. Drawing on theories of neo-capital, multi-level perspective and structuration, and as methodology, using content analysis and qualitative meta-synthesis of scientific publications in digital education for sustainability, we blended our findings into multi-level, multi-domain structuration blueprints, which capture the complexity of value emanating from the interactions among external structures, internal structures of agents, active agencies and outcomes, for circular economy open online education and massive open online course instructional designs. We conclude that learning and creating multiple values to increase social–ecological value, complementarily to economic value, necessitate activating the complexity of value embedded in digital education and circular economy transitions with cu2005mizable niches of learning preferences and journeys of individuals and groups, within broader (and evolving) technological, organizational and institutional structures.
... Hay otro tipo de MOOC que aprovecha las ventajas de los tipo "X" y "C" y se denomina hMOOC (hybrid MOOC) [14], (Stephen Downes reviewing [15] in https://bit.ly/2kkrHI9). Estos MOOC tienen una planificación didáctica previa donde se hacen actividades formativas académicas, pero también tienen redes sociales [16], blogs y sistemas de gestión de conocimiento [17]. Todo encaminado para que los participantes realicen actividades formativas informales. ...
Technical Report
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En este informe se presenta el modelo denominado D-OCW (Dymamics-OCW) que aporta un método para realizar cursos OCW a partir de cursos masivos. A partir de la impartición del curso OCW se obtiene información, recursos y servicios que se utilizan para diseñar el curso OCW. Esto proceso origina que un curso OCW tradicional, estático y diseñado para alumnado de una asignatura concreta, se transforme en un curso OCW dinámico, adaptado a un sector concreto y con interacción social
... The paper "Virtual Learning Communities in Google Plus, implications and sustainability in MOOCs" (Martínez-Núñez, Borrás-Gene, & Fidalgo-Blanco, 2016) proposes a new model to allocate informal learning and collective intelligence in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) (García-Peñalvo, 2015) using external virtual learning communities through social networks, based on Google +. The main aim of this article is to assess the virtual learning community performance and analyze the interactions and the kinds of learning that take place inside the community and over time. ...
Thesis
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Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have existed as a disruptive educational phenomenon for nine years. Grounded in the roots of distance education, open education, Open Educational Resources, and OpenCourseWare, MOOCs have now survived various critics and have continued growing globally. Reports about MOOCs in both the press and scholarly publications began to grow significantly in 2013 (Sánchez-Vera, Leon Urrutia, & Davis, 2015; Zancanaro & Domingues, 2017) and, since then, more and more researchers have joined the discussions, developing them to explore various new topics. To contribute to the literature of MOOC studies, this doctoral thesis begins with an in-depth analysis of the background, history, growth, and vision, and proposes a tentative definition of MOOCs. Meanwhile, by conducting bibliometric research to review MOOC studies conducted between 2015 and 2017, this thesis fills in the gap that has existed due to a lack of systematic reviews of MOOC literature since 2015. The results of the bibliometric research summarised the relevant MOOC research into nine categories, including learner focused, commentary and concepts, case reports or evaluations, pedagogy, curriculum and design, course object focused, provider focused, technology, systematic review of literature, and learning analytics and big data. They also suggested a limited amount of provider focused research, which became the research interest and focus of this thesis. In the centre of the Europe, Swiss universities have marched forward in the MOOC movement, together with other over 550 universities (Shah, 2016) around the world. Università della Svizzera italiana (USI; Lugano, Switzerland), a Swiss public university, became a MOOC provider in 2015 and offered the first MOOC in the topic of eTourism: eTourism: Communication Perspectives. This doctoral thesis is closely related to this university-level initiative, which was dedicated to producing the first pilot MOOC at USI. Therefore, the cases chosen by this thesis are positioned in the discipline of tourism and hospitality. The first MOOC with a large audience taught artificial intelligence in 2011 (Zancanaro & Domingues, 2017). Nowadays, MOOCs have broken the barrier of space and time to educate the masses in a wide range of subjects. However, the provision of MOOCs in the subject of tourism and hospitality did not appear until 2013, when two MOOCs from two American universities became available. In the past four years since these MOOCs were launched, the number of tourism and hospitality MOOCs available in the market has remained limited (Tracey, Murphy, & Horton-Tognazzini, 2016). This scarcity contradicts the fact that tourism and hospitality is the field that contributes the most to the employment of the global workforce. Pressing problems, such as high turnover, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have existed as a disruptive educational phenomenon for nine years. Grounded in the roots of distance education, open education, Open Educational Resources, and OpenCourseWare, MOOCs have now survived various critics and have continued growing globally. Reports about MOOCs in both the press and scholarly publications began to grow significantly in 2013 (Sánchez-Vera, Leon Urrutia, & Davis, 2015; Zancanaro & Domingues, 2017) and, since then, more and more researchers have joined the discussions, developing them to explore various new topics. To contribute to the literature of MOOC studies, this doctoral thesis begins with an in-depth analysis of the background, history, growth, and vision, and proposes a tentative definition of MOOCs. Meanwhile, by conducting bibliometric research to review MOOC studies conducted between 2015 and 2017, this thesis fills in the gap that has existed due to a lack of systematic reviews of MOOC literature since 2015. The results of the bibliometric research summarised the relevant MOOC research into nine categories, including learner focused, commentary and concepts, case reports or evaluations, pedagogy, curriculum and design, course object focused, provider focused, technology, systematic review of literature, and learning analytics and big data. They also suggested a limited amount of provider focused research, which became the research interest and focus of this thesis. In the centre of the Europe, Swiss universities have marched forward in the MOOC movement, together with other over 550 universities (Shah, 2016) around the world. Università della Svizzera italiana (USI; Lugano, Switzerland), a Swiss public university, became a MOOC provider in 2015 and offered the first MOOC in the topic of eTourism: eTourism: Communication Perspectives. This doctoral thesis is closely related to this university-level initiative, which was dedicated to producing the first pilot MOOC at USI. Therefore, the cases chosen by this thesis are positioned in the discipline of tourism and hospitality. The first MOOC with a large audience taught artificial intelligence in 2011 (Zancanaro & Domingues, 2017). Nowadays, MOOCs have broken the barrier of space and time to educate the masses in a wide range of subjects. However, the provision of MOOCs in the subject of tourism and hospitality did not appear until 2013, when two MOOCs from two American universities became available. In the past four years since these MOOCs were launched, the number of tourism and hospitality MOOCs available in the market has remained limited (Tracey, Murphy, & Horton-Tognazzini, 2016). This scarcity contradicts the fact that tourism and hospitality is the field that contributes the most to the employment of the global workforce. Pressing problems, such as high turnover, seasonality, and new global challenges have urged for solutions to quickly training people working in this area to become available (Cantoni, Kalbaska, & Inversini, 2009). A call for more studies about tourism and hospitality MOOCs has emerged. The combined reality of the lack of studies regarding MOOC providers, opportunities for first-hand experience of producing a tourism MOOC in a university, and the deficiency in both the research and practises of tourism and hospitality MOOCs has inspired the direction of this thesis in regard to exploring MOOC instructors’ experiences, using cases in the field of tourism and hospitality. It cumulates six studies, using a mixed methods approach, to tackle the two main research objectives:  To investigate at large the tourism and hospitality MOOC provisions between 2008 and 2015;  To report the experiences of Università della Svizzera italiana (USI) when producing the eTourism MOOC. In order, the first two studies in Chapter 3 of this thesis focus on tourism and hospitality MOOCs in general and produce a big picture context for the other four studies in Chapter 4. The first study proposes a conceptual framework through which to describe and analyse the course design of a MOOC and applies it to 18 tourism and hospitality MOOCs produced between 2008 and 2015. The second study then continues to interview six tourism and hospitality MOOC instructors, to describe their experiences and perspectives of teaching MOOCs. After exploring a holistic view of the overall development of MOOCs in tourism and hospitality and gaining a deep understanding of the instructors behind these offerings, this thesis introduces the experiences of one single MOOC provider: Università della Svizzera italiana (USI) in Chapter 4. It first introduces its overall implementation process (Study 3), and further elaborates three phases of this process: how it selected a suitable MOOC platform at the beginning (Study 4); how it assessed learner engagement in the MOOC (Study 5); and, eventually, how it evaluated the performance of the MOOC (Study 6). This thesis was written mainly from the perspective of eLearning, with the intention of benefiting its community of scholars and practitioners. It has contributed to the literature by developing a framework with which to review MOOCs (in Study 1), the implementation process of producing MOOCs (in Study 2), practical review schema of MOOC platforms (in Study 4), the MOOC Learner Engagement Online Survey (in Study 5), and how to use the Kirkpatrick model to evaluate MOOCs (in Study 6). These conceptual frameworks and experiential tools can benefit future researchers and practitioners. Meanwhile, due to its intimate connection with the field of tourism and hospitality, by directly using its cases, the research outputs of the six studies can also benefit the tourism and hospitality education and training sector as a reference for further action.
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This paper presents a real case of tracking conversations and participation in social networks like Twitter and Google+ from students enrolled in a MOOC course. This real case presented is related to a MOOC course developed between January 12 and February 8, 2015, in the iMOOC platform, created as result of the collaboration by Technical University of Madrid, University of Zaragoza and University of Salamanca. The course had more than 400 students and more than 700 interactions (publications, replies, likes, reshares, etc.) retrieved from the social both social networks (about 200 interactions in Twitter and 500 in Google+). This tracking process of students’ conversations and students’ participation in the social networks allows the MOOC managers and teachers to understand the students’ knowledge sharing and knowledge acquisition within the social networks, allowing them to unlock the possibility of use this knowledge in order to enhance the MOOC contents and results, or even close the loop between the students’ participation in a MOOC course and the parallel students' usage of social networks to learn, by the combination of both tools using adaptive layers (and other layers like the cooperation or gamification like in the iMOOC platform) in the eLearning platforms, that could lead the students to achieve better results in the Learning process.
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Establish partnerships." "Make learning more active." "Use technology effectively." These phrases are repeated like mantras in the literature on technology and learning in higher education. However, the practical elements that can effectively link all three principles into a force that transforms learning have seldom been described. At the University of Delaware (UD), a grassroots, faculty-led initiative to transform education through active learning has developed in collaboration with the university's teaching, learning, and technology center to create a sustainable model for educational reform. This collaboration between a group of faculty members, energized by a vision for improving learning, and information technology (IT) staff members has been critical to the successful infusion of educational technology on our campus. Some elements of our faculty development efforts, and the lessons we learned in the process, may be relevant to similar efforts on other campuses. One key to a strong, successful development program is a core group of energized faculty members committed to transforming learning, regardless of which organization on campus brings them together (Watson, in press). The other key is a faculty technology support unit that shares a similar vision of how learning can be transformed. The technology unit helps faculty members make the connection between their learning goals and the actual technology-enhanced lessons. In the following description of these two groups and their multifaceted activities, we illustrate how the persons responsible for enhancing the curriculum through technology can identify potential campus partners and formulate strategic activities at their institutions.
Article
This literature review examines recent research in the area of learner attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs about language learning and about themselves as language learners, together with the consequences of these perceptions on learning outcomes. After an overview of relevant definitions of these complex concepts, the review categorizes this research into three orientations: studies that have focused on how learner attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs relate to their traits and characteristics; studies that have examined how these notions relate to the learning environment; and studies that have looked at how these notions play out in the interaction between the learner and the environment. The review concludes with suggestions related to research design and research questions that would address current lacunae in the field.
Article
Using an explanatory sequential mixed methods design, the study investigated high school students’ affordances for social media, their attitudes and beliefs about these new technologies, and related obstacles and issues. The affordance findings indicate that students depend on social media in their daily lives for leisure and social connections. Educational uses by teachers for classroom teaching and learning are sporadic, while uses by students on their own for learning purposes seem to be abundant but also incidental and informal. Quantitative results suggest that in general, students show positive attitudes and beliefs about social media use in education. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three components that explained a total of 65.4% of the variance: (a) benefits of social media use, (b) disadvantages of social media use, and (c) current social media use in education. Three issues emerged from the interview data: Conceptual understanding of social media for learning; close-minded, acquired uses versus open-minded, innate uses of social media; and changed concepts of learning. The study results suggest that for social media to be used as effective learning tools and to adjust students’ prior affordances with these tools, complicated efforts in designing, scaffolding, and interacting with students during the process are necessary.
Article
IN THE LAST decade, the Creative Commons philosophy of freely sharing information and the pervasiveness of the Internet have created many new opportunities for teaching and learning. MIT OpenCourseWare spearheaded the sharing of high-quality, university-level courses. While these materials were not originally designed for individuals engaged in self-study, approximately half of OCW's traffic is from these users. 6 Recently the use of learning management systems (LMSs), such as the proprietary Blackboard or open-source Moodle software, has become ubiquitous.
Article
This essay provides an introduction to prosumption, the topic of this special double issue of American Behavioral Scientist. The term prosumption was coined by Alvin Toffler in 1980 and refers to a combination of production and consumption. In this introduction, the authors first argue that prosumption is not new but is actually primordial. Many scholars have dealt with the issue, at least implicitly, but only recently have they begun to deal with it explicitly as prosumption. Prosumption has always existed, but various social changes (e.g., the rise of the Internet and of social networking on it) have greatly expanded both the practice of prosumption and scholarly attention to it. Prosumption has its most obvious and direct relevance to the economy. As a result, the authors also frame it in terms of contemporary capitalism. Finally, they offer a brief overview of the articles in the double issue, included under the headings Theoretical Contributions to the Concept of Prosumption, The Role of Prosumption in Politics, and Meaning Making Within Prosumption.
Article
The purpose of this chapter is to outline some of the thinking behind new e-learning technology, including e-portfolios and personal learning environments. Part of this thinking is centered around the theory of connectivism, which asserts that knowledge - and therefore the learning of knowledge - is distributive, that is, not located in any given place (and therefore not 'transferred' or 'transacted' per se) but rather consists of the network of connections formed from experience and interactions with a knowing community. And another part of this thinking is centered around the new, and the newly empowered, learner, the member of the net generation, who is thinking and interacting in new ways. These trends combine to form what is sometimes called 'e-learning 2.0' - an approach to learning that is based on conversation and interaction, on sharing, creation and participation, on learning not as a separate activity, but rather, as embedded in meaningful activities such as games or workflows.
Article
The aim of this study is to empirically investigate the relationships between communication styles, social networks, and learning performance in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) community. Using social network analysis (SNA) and longitudinal survey data, we analyzed how 31 distributed learners developed collaborative learning social networks, when they had work together on the design of aerospace systems using online collaboration tools. The results showed that both individual and structural factors (i.e., communication styles and a pre-existing friendship network) significantly affected the way the learners developed collaborative learning social networks. More specifically, learners who possessed high willingness to communicate (WTC) or occupied initially peripheral network positions were more likely to explore new network linkages. We also found that the resultant social network properties significantly influenced learners’ performance to the extent that central actors in the emergent collaborative social network tended to get higher final grades. The study suggests that communication and social networks should be central elements in a distributed learning environment. We also propose that the addition of personality theory (operationalized here as communication styles) to structural analysis (SNA) contributes to an enhanced picture of how distributed learners build their social and intellectual capital in the context of CSCL.
Article
Adolescents often pursue learning opportunities both in and outside school once they become interested in a topic. In this paper, a learning ecology framework and an associated empirical research agenda are described. This framework highlights the need to better understand how learning outside school relates to learning within schools or other formal organizations, and how learning in school can lead to learning activities outside school. Three portraits of adolescent learners are shared to illustrate different pathways to interest development. Five types of self-initiated learning processes are identified across these case portraits. These include the seeking out of text-based informational sources, the creation of new interactive activity contexts such as projects, the pursuit of structured learning opportunities such as courses, the exploration of media, and the development of mentoring or knowledge-sharing relationships. Implications for theories of human development and ideas for research are discussed. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article
This paper was the first initiative to try to define Web2.0 and understand its implications for the next generation of software, looking at both design patterns and business modes. Web 2.0 is the network as platform, spanning all connected devices; Web 2.0 applications are those that make the most of the intrinsic advantages of that platform: delivering software as a continually-updated service that gets better the more people use it, consuming and remixing data from multiple sources, including individual users, while providing their own data and services in a form that allows remixing by others, creating network effects through an "architecture of participation," and going beyond the page metaphor of Web 1.0 to deliver rich user experiences.
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