In the beginning of 21st century many jobs have already been displaced by the automation and the artificial intellect. Many others are going to be displaced, due to the corporative plans for higher profits with less human resources. Variety of films about Detroit city describe the consequences from these on-going changes.
The only cell, which treats humans as people, is the family. The family is a unit between several people for mutual support. Therefore, the role of the family businesses become quite important in this new era, especially to keep the people with incomes and security.
The traditional families are exposed to some feudalistic features. Usually, the spouse with power (male or female) dominates and restricts the other family members. Therefore, in our research we give a priority to the attitude of the people towards the idea about a family business.
The purpose of this publication is to describe an international research under INTERGEN about some attitudes in the students to choose the idea of family business. This psychological background is upgraded with analyses of their business expectations.
The main tasks of this publication are:
• To present the point of view from each of the 12 participating university about the need to study the family businesses.
• To describe the methodology of the research.
• To present the general findings about: general trends and specific group differences; effects of sex; age effects; country; specialty; correlations.
• To introduce two models of predictors.
The expected outcomes of the book are to enrich the international researches about family businesses, especially in the field of the student attitude towards having business with their relatives. Thus we give a better understanding how the family businesses could be used as a stress management instrument for entrepreneurs.
This publication presents the general results from the survey. Other publications will be prepared for deeper analyses of the here described statistical findings.
We would like to thank all the students and academics who have participated this unique international research in Albania, Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Russia and Serbia! Their valuable answers have been the bottom for these analyses and also the trigger for next international researches on intergenerational family businesses with the INTERGEN network.
Also we want to give special thanks to all reviewers for their supportive comments and ideas for next scientific research in this field!
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... Krueger (1993) defines EI as a commitment to start a new activity and treats it as a predecessor (antecedent) of entrepreneurial behaviour, which according to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB, Ajzen 1991) is determined by experiences and attitudes, and which, in turn, are determined by other situational variables and features. Entrepreneurial intentions may be researched through questions about willingness to start an own business or working full-time for someone and tendency to take risks related to own business activity (Bakracheva at al. 2020 ...
The aim of this article was to analyse the level of entrepreneurship of Bulgarian and Polish students by using a construct examining entrepreneurial attitudes, namely: Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation (IEO) based on three dimensions: innovativeness, proactivity and risk-taking. The research involved 1,199 students, including 681 students from Bulgaria and 518 students from Poland. The crosscountry research was carried out using an on-line questionnaire (CAWI) based on a five-point Likert scale.
Streszczenie: Celem artykułu była analiza poziomu przedsiębiorczości bułgarskich i polskich studentów przy użyciu konstruktu badającego postawy przedsiębiorcze a mianowicie: Indywidualnej Orientacji Przedsiębiorczej (IEO) w oparciu o trzy wymiary: innowacyjność, proaktywność i podejmowanie ryzyka. W badaniach wzięło udział 1199 studentów, w tym 681 z Bułgarii i 518 z Polski. Międzynarodowe badania zrealizowane zostały w oparciu o kwestionariusz online (CAWI) oparty na pięciopunktowej skali Likerta. Słowa kluczowe indywidualna orientacja przedsiębiorcza, intencje przedsiębiorcze, przedsiębiorczość JEL Classification: D91
... For the INTERGEN project, the survey was distributed to 1,424 volunteers -students from six Eastern European countries with a mean age of 24 years. In general, students have a clear vision of where they want to work and live, nevertheless, they believe their countries put a lot of barriers to career development, and do not promote starting their own business, and that the opportunities abroad can be much better (Bakracheva et al., 2020). ...
This research note seeks to build upon academic work regarding the interactions and intersections of tourism and migration. The movement of people in a pattern easily transforms into another pattern, and these patterns are interconnected (Ohashi, 2019). In particular, the drivers and dynamics of migrant-related tourism are not well understood (Dwyer et al., 2014). This study aims to identify the impact of international tourism and travel on people’s desire to seek a better place to live abroad.
The aim of the article is to present the results of empirical research on the level of Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation (IEO) and Entrepreneurial Intention (EI) of students from two countries of Poland and Bulgaria, analyzed in terms of gender.
The study covered a group of 1,199 students, including 681 from Bulgaria and 518 from Poland. Data was col- lected using an online survey questionnaire (CAWI). Existing tools for measuring IEO and EI constructs were used in the quantitative study. The diagnosis of IEO was carried out using the Bolton and Lane questionnaire, which is based on three dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation: innovation, proactivity and risk-taking. EI, on the other hand, was measured using the one-step measure by Liñán and Chen. In both cases a 5-point Likert scale was used. The multivariate analysis of variance, the analysis of simple main effects, made it possible to check whether there is a statistically significant main effect of the country, as well as its interactions with gender re- garding the EI and IEO construct, as well as its individual dimensions: the propensity to take risk, innovation and proactivity, The results of empirical research indicated that women in Poland and Bulgaria are characterized by a lower level of both entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurial intentions than men in these coun- tries. The results of women in Bulgaria were higher than those of women from Poland in both IEO and EI. The research is a starting point for further recognition of the factors determining the level of IEO and IE.
The entrepreneurial activity can thrive in all spheres and sectors of the economy but tourism sector is of particular importance. Entrepreneurial activity in tourism is determined by the availability of suitable conditions for the development of the tourism business. Thus, the objective of the research is to study empirically the current state of entrepreneurship in the sector of tourism in Bulgaria; to outline the existing problems and the prospects for development of entrepreneurial tourism business, which facilitate the promotion of Bulgaria as a tourist destination with numerous natural and anthropogenic features that favour the development of different types of tourism. The main research thesis, which is being defended, is that the increase in the entrepreneurial activity in the field of tourism in Bulgaria is essential for the stability and the sustainable development of the tourism market. This offers long-term benefits to all interested parties (the entrepreneurs, the state, the tourists and the local communities). A survey questionnaire has been administered in order to collect data from hoteliers, restaurateurs and tour operators, located in the municipalities of Primorsko, Velingrad and V. Tarnovo, offering various tourism resources. All the research tasks have been achieved, namely: the specifics of entrepreneurship in the field of tourism have been highlighted, the main problems and prospects have been found, a profile of an entrepreneur in the tourism sector in the municipalities under review has been outlined.
With the ever-increasing adoption of technology and automation radically changing the nature of service delivery, the purpose of this paper is to explore the role of human touch, introducing hospitable service as an enhancement for value creation in service organizations.
Drawing on management, social sciences and hospitality literatures, a four-configuration model is presented to illustrate dimensions which arise from the confluence of different degrees of relationship orientation – shared mental models held by the host organization (self- or other-oriented), and guests’ service preferences (transactional or relational).
A theoretically grounded model of configurations resulting from variations on three key dimensions is offered. These are: employee organization relationships – social exchange processes governing the interactions between employees and their employers; HRM systems – internally consistent combinations of HR practices; and tech-touch trade-off – prioritization of technology vs employees to deliver services.
Embedding hospitable service as a construct to support the leveraging of human touch in service organizations opens up new research opportunities including avenues to further conceptualize the nature and dimensions of hospitable service. Future research that supports further understanding about the role of human touch and value creation in service organizations is proposed.
Through the value-enhancing capability of human in the service encounter, firms can be enabled to accurately position themselves in one of the four relational configurations on offer and then identify opportunities for managers to leverage human touch to combat the diminishing role of the human touch in a technology-ubiquitous service context.
This is among the first papers to explore the influence of technology on the degree of human touch in the interface between hospitality employee and customer, and to develop a configuration model through which researchers and practitioners can operate during this declining era of human to human service interactions.
Many universities provide education in Entrepreneurship as a separate discipline or as bachelor/master programs. In result of this education the students with major in the management and administration are expected to start their companies, but is it possible the academic communities to produce entrepreneurs from the business major? The aim of this paper is to present some ideas for discussion on the role of the universities when designing entrepreneurs, based on the experience of the Entrepreneurship Center at the University of Ruse (Bulgaria). KEY WORDS: education in entrepreneurship, academia, design of entrepreneurs JEL: А2
The article presents some theoretical elements of a new understanding about the role of the young people for the initiation of intergenerational family business. It is expected these new elements to be the mainstay of some further international scientific research on the development of small family business through intergenerational linkages and sets.
Entrepreneurship development in Serbia since its creation until today has been passing throughout a number of rises and downs. An analysis of the influencing factors of economic and entrepreneurship development will be divided into three phases. The first phase is covering the period from sixth to seventh centuries when the Serbs settled the Balkan Peninsula until getting independency from the Ottoman Empire in 1878. The second phase will cover the period until the end of World War Two while the third phase will cover the period during comunism regime in the former Yugoslavia and transition period to modern Serbia. Over the past two decades, since 2000, the increasing contribution to national competitiveness of Serbia has been provided by small and medium-sized enterprises and entrepreneurs (SMEs). The subject of this chapter is the analysis of the SME sector and the business environment in Serbia and the examination of the impact of the SME sector on national competitiveness. The aim of the research is to analyze the influencing factors of the development of entrepreneurship in Serbia through its history from the sixth century to the present day. The starting assumption of the study is that the SME sector has had a significant impact on national competitiveness of Serbia. In order to verify the validity of this assumption, the relationship between the total number of SMEs (based on the data of the Business Registers Agency) and the national competitiveness of Serbia (based on the Global Competitiveness Index) in the period from 2004 to 2015 was first examined. Then we analyzed the impact of individual segments of SMEs businesses on national competitiveness in order to identify the areas of business where the link with national competitiveness was the strongest. For the analysis descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis have been used. It has been proven that the SMEs sector had a significant impact on Serbia’s national competitiveness in the observed period and that the link between these variables was statistically significant, so that the conclusion could be generalized and same trends could be expected in the future. As the most important segments of SMEs’ operations affecting national competitiveness, productivity of labor and participation of SMEs in export have been highlighted.
The creation of new product development programmes in industrial organisations, as a process involves a system of activities for defining, planning and implementing projects, with a view to successful market realisation. The success of a programme and its associated projects is not unambiguous (depends to some extent on the participants' point of view) and can be related to the achievement of predetermined goals and constraints, customer satisfaction, organisational knowledge, etc. For the respective industrial company, the planning process is more important than the plan itself, because hypotheses are checked; comparable alternatives are analysed; the future consequences of one or another of today's decisions are investigated; the necessary changes to the prerequisites are made. The survey was conducted in 560 medium and large enterprises operating in the manufacturing industry of Bulgaria. The aim is to establish independent factor variables and their value impacts on the effective management of the process of developing new products related to the dependent variable "formalisation or use of officially documented procedures describing the new product development (NPD) process". In order to meet the target, a quantitative study was carried out by applying a correlation and regression analysis to search for relationships and dependences between the variables examined. A regression model is presented for the dependent variable studied. The results and recommendations obtained can be used to improve the management of the product innovation process.
This paper explores the current state and the potential adoption of service automation and robots by tourist, travel and hospitality companies. Despite the huge advancements in social robotics, the research on robots in tourism has been extremely limited-a gap that is partially filled by this paper. Specifically the paper looks at service automation in hotels, restaurants, events, theme and amusement parks, airports, car rental companies, travel agencies and tourist information centres, museums and art galleries. The paper elaborates on the challenges that companies will face when adopting service automation and robots to serve tourists.
Tourism is not only big business but also tourism should be seen and protected as perhaps one of the world’s premier export products. An export industry is one that sells a significant share of its goods or services outside of the country, thus bringing new money into the local economy. If we, then, assume that exports refer to money going from place X to place Y due to the sale of product Z, then tourism easily meets this standard. In this connection, consideration is given to the possibilities of developing the tourism industry as the most important direction of Russia’s non-commodity exports in the medium term in digital age, capable not only of bringing significant revenues to the budgets of various levels, developing domestic tourist infrastructure, but also characterized by inexhaustible resources and forming a favorable image of the country on world markets. The purpose of this article is to consider the problems of competitiveness and financial support of the tourism industry from the standpoint of increasing its export potential in digital age and ensuring a high level of attractiveness of tourist destinations.
This paper aims to investigate the competitive success factors for hotel companies and examine the link between business strategy and performance. Using a structured questionnaire, the researchers collected data from hotel managers in Spain. Study results suggest that a firm’s assets and strategies have a greater influence on performance than industry forces do. This lack of direct influence by industry forces is due to the sector’s specific characteristics, which cannot be overlooked during analysis. Based on these research findings, theoretical and managerial implications and future research are presented.