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We propose an installation that explores Hybrid Immersive Models (HIM), the conjunction of digital VR panoramas with physical, handmade spherical perspectives and anamorphoses, as a new hybrid art medium that connects traditional drawing with digital, immersive art, creating a dialogue between material and immaterial forms of visual expression.
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
... The connection between spherical perspective drawings, their immersive anamorphoses, and the digital realization of these, leads to a notion of Hybrid Immersive Model (HIM), as a novel artistic medium  that connects the act of drawing by traditional processes with the new possibilities of digital visualizations. ...
... This discourages the beginner and limits advanced artists from using equirectangular perspectives in live presentations, as the untrained audience certainly cannot easily decode the perspective picture in their minds. Indeed, in some exhibitions already held [25,, visitors experimented many difficulties understanding the relation between the plane spherical perspective drawing and its correlated 3D rendering. For simple occasional enthusiastic visitors, the explanation might result too theoretical. ...
We discuss the design requirements of a software platform for constructing immersive environments through handmade spherical perspective drawings in a performative setting, with concurrent interactive live feed of the spherical drawing’s VR visualization. We investigate current best practices and available software in order to extract functionalities, requirements, improvements, possible integrations and future developments.
We map the base requirements of the software from three sources: the state of the art of drawing techniques for spherical perspectives (equirectangular, azimuthal equidistant and cubical), the available software for their practice and the experimentation with novel hybrid artefacts. For the latter, we use a node-based program that allows us to prototype the workflow before entering a pure coding stage.
The desired software platform should integrate well within digital art practices, stimulate and facilitate the practice of anamorphic handmade spherical drawings, and expand spherical perspectives’ applications through the emerging media of Hybrid Immersive Models (HIMs).
... The technical relation between these spherical perspectives and the source data for VR panoramas creates a link between handmade spherical perspectives, drawn with traditional tools, and digital immersive visualizations, opening the way to hybrid models, that is, artworks that have both a physical and a digital realization, and an artistic process that is similarly a mix between physical and digital. A recent exhibition displayed such hybrid models , shown in triple form; as flat perspective drawings hand-drawn in cubical or equirectangular perspectives; as physical models (painted spheres or cubes) in the tradition of Dick Termes' spherical paintings , , and as immersive visualizations, to be seen from within. These hybrid models have applications to several fields, from art to entertainment, to architectural design . ...
Spherical perspective provides a connection between traditional handmade drawings and virtual reality environments, which can be exploited to create new forms of hybrid immersive artworks. We discuss the use of GeoGebra tools as auxiliary software for the creation of immersive designs in azimuthal equidistant (360-degree fisheye) spherical perspective.
Book of Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Digital Creation in Arts, Media and Technology – Emerging Extended Realities (ARTeFACTo 2022 Macao), held on 24, 25 Nov. 2022 at Ilha Verde campus, University of Saint Joseph, Macau.
Book editors: Gerald Estadieu, Filipa Martins de Abreu, Carlos Sena Caires & Adérito Fernandes-Marcos.
“2000 eyes” is an artwork made for the Gran Teatro La Fenice di Venezia. It is a handmade spherical perspective drawn from observation in equirectangular projection, on the occasion of the special setup “Chiglia” (keel) designed during the Covid-19 Pandemic. This experimental project aims at testing practices and techniques to create gigapixel hand-drawn panoramic views of complex environments from observation and showing how the use of 360° drawings may enhance the perception of artworks and spaces, adding value to the visitor’s experience. The original panoramic drawing and its interactive 360° version are currently exhibited in one of the halls of the Theater. The permanent installation presents one possible way to experience an artwork focusing on the intersection of digital and physical worlds.Keywordsspherical illustrationequirectangular drawingVR illustrationartwork digitizationart installation
The paper introduces a hand-drawn 360º illustration designed for commercial purposes in the framework of the project titled Venice Original. It focuses on different aspects of the creation of the artwork: the commissioning, the drawing technique, the connection to the e-commerce platform, and the several modalities of interaction. Subsequently, it gives an overview of the reception of the 360º interactive illustration on the e-commerce platform by different audiences, thanks to web statistics and user comments on the social networks. Finally, it presents the installation shown at the “Contingency” exhibition in the framework of the congress ARTECH 2021 in Aveiro, Portugal. The physical modality of the installation consisted of the original equirectangular drawing and physical paper spheres; the virtual one offered a VR tour of the illustrated space. The opinions gathered from conference attendants shed new light on the artwork, suggesting possible improvements and further developments.
There are currently very few options for executing live spherical drawings for an audience. This work presents an artefact which demonstrates one possible way to achieve such drawings in a performative setting with concurrent interactive live feed of the spherical drawing's VR visualization. The authors aim at stimulating the under-explored form of expression that spherical perspectives represent by facilitating, demonstrating, opening, and extending their use both with general applications and in particular with digital art live presentations.
To highlight the artefact's utility, we consider the state of art of drawing techniques for different spherical perspectives (equirectangular, azimuthal equidistant, cubical) and the software available for their practice. The artefact processes various inputs into one mixed output. The inputs are a drawing generated either with traditional or digital techniques, and OSC data taken from an external device. The output is a classical perspective projected onto a screen (optionally also on a mobile device).
The software has been made with node-based programming: the free non-commercial version of TouchDesigner, which allowed us to evaluate the workflow with great versatility and a good integration with Python before entering a coding stage.
The artefact is tested within the exhibition “I'm watching you/me” (IMWYM), which is part of Lufo Art project. The live presentation explores and explodes Hybrid Immersive Models (HIMs) within digital art and uses the artefact as a way of expanding spherical perspectives’ applications.
Soft skills training is considered important for employees to be successful at work. Several companies are offering immersive virtual soft skills training with head-mounted displays. The main contribution of this paper is to provide an overview of the research literature within the field of using immersive virtual soft skills learning and training of employees. The results of this preliminary scoping review show that there is a lack of research literature and empirical studies within this topic.
Cubical perspective is maybe the youngest alternative
among the options for immersive drawing. Its theoretical
definition, as every immersive perspective, has its pros
and cons. Furthermore, its utility has not been fully explored,
e.g. for early conceptual design. In fact, while its theory
is on its way to being solved with different methods, there
is still a doubtful judgement about the practice: is cubical
perspective a way to think? A tool? Can we do something
different with it, or are we just playing with technology? Let
us try to give some answers to these questions by presenting
some experiences held in university classrooms. We are
presenting the experience of architecture, engineering and
product design students that have applied cubical perspective
to the creation of immersive panoramas subsequently
assembled into a virtual tour. This article, more than closing
a discussion, aims at opening the debate about the real
applications and utility of cubical perspective and push for
Cubic perspective is an attractive option for drawing vr panoramas, as it carries with it the familiarity of classical perspective and its ease of drawing line segments. Its simplicity is however only apparent as the transition of line images between the various planes of the cube can be baffling to the draughtsman. We argue that the best way to systematize this perspective is to see it fully as a spherical perspective and start by classifying and rendering its geodesics.
vr, cubical perspective, spherical projection, immersion
Los resultados de esta investigación están destinados al estudio del complejo sistema de representación generado a través de imágenes inmersivas. El objetivo general es transferir las técnicas que caracterizan los modelos inmersivos generados con imágenes raster a modelos inmersivos generados a partir de dibujos vectoriales, sin limitarnos a una mera sustitución del ente geométrico elemental punto (o píxel) con la línea. Para ello, se codifican las transformaciones desde las vistas bidimensionales a la panorámica inmersiva. Se propone un avance del estado del arte, reconduciendo los estudios al ámbito de la geometría descriptiva, ampliando el cono de visión a los 360º del espacio que rodean al observador. El trabajo se vale de estudios anteriores sobre modelos híbridos inmersivos, la proyección equirectangular y la cúbica. El estado del arte que se asume como base de partida se caracteriza de una bibliografía completa para la equirectangular, sea con propuestas de métodos intuitivos como con métodos matemáticos mientras que para la proyección cúbica los procedimientos usados hasta hoy son solamente aproximados y desprovistos del necesario marco teórico completo. El método puesto en juego prevé, como pasaje obligado, el desarrollo formulaciones geométricas que servirán de base a formulaciones matemáticas. Anunciando pasos futuros, el contenido presentado en términos gráficos, buscará ser sintetizado en un algoritmo de gráfica digital escrito ad-hoc, para sentar las fundaciones de una nueva técnica avanzada de representación.
Analogical sketch is recovering an own centrality inside teaching of the base courses in civil engineering and architecture, opening the limitation to the drawing fields from last times. In effect, today we are seeing a deep integration between different ways of representation, leaving behind finally, the useless debate between analogical and digital representation. In this direction, the work aims to approach new research paths, experimenting into infographic models’ potentiality, like immersion, but made from analogical handmade sketches, generating then a hybrid language of representation.
In this workshop we will learn how to draw a 360-degree view of our environment using spherical perspective, and how to visualize these drawings as immersive panoramas by uploading them to virtual reality platforms that provide an interactive visualization of a 3D reconstruction of the original scene. We shall show how to construct these drawing in a simple way, using ruler and compass constructions, facilitated by adequate gridding that takes advantage of the symmetry groups of these spherical perspectives. We will consider two spherical perspectives: equirectangular and azimuthal equidistant, with a focus on the former due to its seamless integration with visualization software readily available on social networks. We will stress the relationship between these panoramas and the notion of spherical anamorphosis.
We describe a construction of a total spherical perspective using a ruler, compass, and nail. This is a generalization of the spherical perspective of Barre and Flocon to a 360-degree field of view. Since the 1960s, several generalizations of this perspective have been proposed, but they were either works of a computational nature, inadequate for drawing with simple instruments, or lacked a general method for solving all vanishing points. We establish a general setup for anamorphosis and central perspective, define total spherical perspective within this framework, study its topology, and show how to solve it with simple instruments. We consider its uses both in freehand drawing and in computer visualization, and its relation to the problem of reflection on a sphere.
This work presents a method for drawing Virtual Reality panoramas by ruler and compass operations. VR panoramas are immersive anamorphoses rendered from equirectangular spherical perspective data. This data is usually photographic, but some artists are creating hand-drawn equirectangular perspectives to be visualized in VR. This practice, that lies interestingly at the interface between analog and digital drawing, is hindered by a lack of method, as these drawings are usually done by trial-and-error, with ad-hoc measurements and interpolation of pre-computed grids, a process with considerable artistic limitations. I develop here the analytic tools for plotting all great circles, line images and their vanishing points, and then show how to achieve these constructions through descriptive geometry diagrams that can be executed using only ruler, compass, and protractor. Approximations of line images by circular arcs and sinusoids are shown to have acceptable errors for low values of angular elevation. The symmetries of the perspective are studied and their uses for improving gridding methods are discussed.
The author describes a method for constructing a five-point perspective, outlines a procedure for establishing depth within such a drawing, develops a proof of his method, and then places his work within the context of recent literature.
In this paper a new system of visual representation, Flat-Sphere Perspective, is developed. With Flat-Sphere Perspective, an image of the entire visual space around an observer can be represented on a flat surface. The system integrates in a coherent and continuous image the many instantaneous views a human observer perceives as he turns his head. This new perspective system furnishes the contemporary artist with a new representational format that corresponds more closely to the geometrical and perceptual principles governing visual perception than any other system hitherto devised.
Various techniques have been developed that employ projections of the world as seen from a particular viewpoint. Blinn and Newell introduced reflection mapping for simulating mirror reflections on curved surfaces. Miller and Hoffman have presented a general illumination model based on environment mapping. World projections have also been used to model distant objects and to produce pictures with the fish-eye distortion required for Omnimax frames. This article proposes a uniform framework for representing and using world projections and argues that the best general-purpose representation is the is projection onto a cube. Surface shading and texture filtering are discussed in the context of environment mapping, and methods are presented for obtaining diffuse and specular surface illumination from prefiltered environment maps. Comparisons are made with ray tracing, noting that two problems with ray tracingÂ¿obtaining diffuse reflection and antialiasing specular reflectionÂ¿can be handled effectively by environment mapping.
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La Perspective curviligne: de l'espace visuel à l'image construite
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A codification of cubical projection for the generation of immersive models
Adriana Lucas Fabian Olivero
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David Hernández Falagán Ferran Signes Orovay and Alfredo Berdié Soriano
David Hernández Falagán Ferran
Alfredo Berdié Soriano
La Perspective curviligne: de l'espace visuel à l'image construite . Flammarion , Paris . André Barre, Albert Flocon, and Georges Bouligand
Tecniche di image editing: un possibile 'work flow' per le architetture prospettiche